18th Dynasty: Amarna Timeline  


~ A M A R N A  *  T I M E L I N E ~
Last Updated 12/01/02: Richard Grosser: cadre@xtra.co.nz

Fig 1. Amenmose and Depet, Saqqara, tomb of Amenemonet
Late Dynasty 18, about 1332 - 1292 B.C. Limestone;
[Department of Egyptian Antiquities. Louvre Museum, Paris.]

|18th Dynasty|Akhenaten's  Timeline|


"The minute you begin to write about those people you write fiction."
-Barry Kemp, (Cambridge University) in PHARAOHS OF THE SUN,
National Geographic, National Geographic Society, US [April 2001] pp. 38- 39.

18th Dynasty
from attributed sources

1375BC Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) became concerned about abuses in the Osiris cult. He posited a new monotheistic religion
dedicated to the worship of the sun. He moved the capital from Thebes to El-Amarna.
 (eawc, p.4)

1360BC Tutankhamen was ten when his father, Akhenaten, died. Akhenaten's advisor, Aye, became regent while Tut was growing up and effectively ruled the country.
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

1353-1336 The 18th Dynasty Amarna Period of Egypt. It was the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten, and moved his capital to Akhetaten (later Amarna).  The city of Armana later vanished.
 (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A20)(NG, 9/98, p.17)(USAT, 11/12/99, p.7D)(WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A33)

Fig 2. Akhenaten.  It is believed to be a late image of Akhenaten.
Reign of Akhenaten, 1353 - 1336 B.C.; Yellow stone;
[Department of Egyptian Antiquities. Louvre Museum, Paris]

1352  King Tut, the boy king, who died in 1352B.C.
 (Smith., 4/95, p.30)

1350BC Amenophis IV, Pharaoh of Egypt. He changed his name to Akhenaten, for the One God that he wished all his subjects to worship. He moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna. His wife was Nefertiti, daughter-in-law of Amenophis III and Queen Tiye.  After his death the capital was moved back to Thebes, and his successor, a young boy named Smenkhkare reigned for three years.
[see 1360BC]

1350  "One undisputed fact is that Tut died at about age 20 in 1350B.C."
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

1350-1334 Akhenaten ruled in the 18th Dynasty.

1347-1338BC Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt, ruled for nine years. He was followed by King Ay, and then a soldier named Horemhab, whom some regard as the last Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty  while others think he was the founder of the Nineteenth.  Horemhab is thought to have prevented the dynastic marriage of Ankhesnamun, the widow of Tutankhamun, to prince Zananza, son of the Hittite king, Suppilliliumas. Documents discovered at the Hittite capital of Boghaz-Koy in Turkey prove beyond doubt that the young queen was writing to Suppililiumas imploring him to send her one of his sons so that she might make him King of Egypt. It is suspected that the young prince was killed on his was to Egypt under the orders of Ay or Horemhab. Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.107-110)(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.598)(SFC, 8/5/96, p.A10)
  In 1931 a ring was found by Percy Newberry in a Cairo antiquities shop the bore an inscription indicating that Aye and
Ankhesenaten were married.
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)
  Aye died after three years on the throne and the walls of his tomb showed another woman, Tiy, as his wife.
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

Fig 3. Tutankhamen wearing a nemes headdress
Reign of Tutankhamen, 1332 - 1322 B.C.; Sandstone;
                                                   Gift of Miss Mary S. Ames.
[Museum of Fine Arts, Boston]

c1340BC A bust of Nefertiti was made that was later part of the Egyptian exhibit at the Museum of Berlin.
 (SFC, 7/7/96, T5)

1339  King Tut died. [see 1347-1338, 1323]
 (SFEC, 5/17/98, Z1 p.8)

1336-1334 Smenkhare ruled in the 18th Dynasty.

1334-1333 The period of the 18th Dynasty under Smenkhkare.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1334-1325 Tutankhamun ruled in the 18th Dynasty. [see 1339]

1333BC Battle of Kadesh. Certain little known tribes in league with the Hittites against Rameses II, when he set out to recover the ground lost to Egypt during the futile reign of Ikhnaton.

1333-1323 The period of the 18th Dynasty under Tutankhamun.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1330BC A memorial to the servant who suckled Tutankhamen was reported found by French archeologists in 1997 at the Saqqara
necropolis 13 miles south of Cairo. Hieroglyphics and a relief that showed a woman with breast and nipple exposed pay tribute to Maya, "who fed the body of a god."
 (SFC,12/897, p.A18)

Fig 4. General Horemheb as a scribe. Possibly from Memphis
                                            Reign of Tutankhamen, 133 - 1322 B.C.; Gray granite;
                                            Gift of Mr. and Mrs. V. Everit Macy, 1923.
[The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York]


1325-1321 Ay ruled in the 18th Dynasty.

1323  King Tut died at age 18. [see 1339]
 (SSFC, 2/4/01, Par p.11)

1323-1319 The period of the 18th Dynasty under Ay.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

Fig 5. The tomb of Ptahhemwia, Dashur, 2001. [Waseda University]

1321-1293 Horemheb ruled in the 18th Dynasty.

1319-1292 The period of the 18th Dynasty under Horemheb.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

  Fig 6. Maya and Meryt, Saqqara. Dynasty 18, reign of Horemheb,
1310 - 1292 B.C.  [Limestone, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden].

the above extracted from Timelines:

@ algis.com

Fig 7. Amarna-style necklet found in the tomb of Ptahhemwia, Dashur, 2001. [Waseda University]

Online References:
Christy's TL: http://www.smokylake.com/Christy/egypt.htm
CIA Factbook: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/eg.html
HTA: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/9061/africa/egypt.html
MFA POTS TL: http://www.mfa.org/egypt/amarna/learn_time/learn_time.html
USDS: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/bgnotes/nea/egypt9503.html
USDS: http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/1999/nea/99egypt.html
USLC: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/egtoc.html


Akhenaten's Timeline
from attributed sources

There are still several facts about Akhenaten's reign which are unclear, in particular the possibility of coregency with his father at the start of his reign or the possibility of a coregency with Smenkhkare at the end of his reign.

There is also uncertainty about the relationship between Akhenaten and his successors, Smenkhkare and Tutankhamun. It is accepted that Nefertiti had 6 daughters, but no son was ever shown in reliefs.  It is possible that both successors were Akhenaten's sons by another wife, possibly Kiya who was 'much loved' of the Pharaoh.

The final mystery of Akhenaten was what became of his sarcophagus.  Fragments of sculpture and carving from the Royal Tomb at Akhetaten shows that his body was originally put there, but no sign of the mummy remains.  It is possible that followers of the Aten feared for the destruction of Akhenaten's body, which would deny him eternal life.  These followers may have moved the body to a place of safety, possibly at Thebes. 

Year B.C. Year Of Reign Principal Events
1353 0  Amenhotep III dies
1352* 1 Amenhotep IV continues work on pylons of the Gempaaten started by his father at Karnak

Birth of Meritaten

1351 2
Work started on 4 temples to the Aten at Thebes
1350 3  A new city at Akhetaten is originally conceived
1349 4 Work starts at Akhetaten

Amenhotep IV changes name to Akhenaten

Writes the 'Hymn to the Aten'

Birth of Meketaten and Ankhenspaaten 

Celebration of first Jubilee (although determined Yr 4 = 1352)

1348 5 Work at Karnak completed

The complete city of Akhetaten 'revealed' to Akhenaten

1347 6 Central section of Akhetaten completed

Work begins on Royal tomb 

1346 7 Akhetaten supports a population of 20,000
1345* 8 Seat of government transferred to Akhetaten
1344 9 All Amun temples closed and the name and image removed from tombs and monuments

Akhenaten's sarcophagus carved 

1343 10 Birth of Neferneferuaten
1342 11 Birth of Neferneferure and Setepenre
1341 12 Official family, with all six of Nefertiti's daughters shown for last time

Akhenaten's mother, Queen Tiye, visits Akhetaten

Kiya disappears, Meritaten's name inscribed over Kiya's at the North Palace 

1340 13 Death of Meketaten
1339 14 Death of Nefertiti, and Queen Tiye

Meritaten becomes Queen 

1338* 15 Meritaten marries Smenkhkare

Coregency between Akhenaten and Smenkhkare 

1337 16  Nefertete remains as reigning power behind the throne
1336 17 Death of Akhenaten

Rule of Nefernefruaten (Smenkhkare?)

1. Events of the regnal years according to Kemp1 : Hornung2: Ibrahem3:
2. Solar Eclipses matched to the Julian Years (ie. 1338*)
[Table based on Timeline of Akhenaten ]