The United Empire Loyalist Ancestors of
Elizabeth Maria Bradt
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Welcome to the Bradt family page of my family history website. This page presents the ancestors of John Wesley Bridgman's mother, Elizabeth Maria Bradt. The Bridgman family story can be found on the Bridgman Family Page.
The Bradts were United Empire Loyalists whose ancestors were in North America from the early 1600s. The Bradt family originates in Norway in the mid-1500s. Other maternal ancestral lines for Elizabeth Maria Bradt come from from other northern European countries including Holland, France, and Germany. One of her ancestors even sailed with the famous French explorer Samuel de Champlain. The various ancestors presented on this page represent some of the oldest European families in North America. Members of this family are also cousins to Hollywood actors Henry, Peter, Jane, and Bridget Fonda.
If you are just arriving here for the first time then you may wish to start here.
As this family hails from Norway in the early 1500s, it is safe to conclude that the name Bradt is Norwegian in origin. The following etymology comes from http://www.bradtfamily.org
We can only guess how the Bradt name originated. Hereditary family names were not used by the Dutch and Norwegians. When England took over New Netherland and it became New York, that all began to change. In those days it was common for Norwegians to use the name of their ancestral farm as their family name. "Bratt" can mean "steep" in Norwegian. Another possibility is the Bratt family of Norway. This family name originates in the middle ages, but no one has ever discovered any documents that tie the two families together. To the best of our knowledge, Albert himself never used the name Bradt; after the English took over, he signed his family name Brat or Bratt. "Bradt" became more common because the Dutch customarily insert a silent "d."
Click here to learn more about surnames.
|The ancestry of Elizabeth Maria Bradt is based largely on the research of Lorine McGinnis Shulze of www.olivetree.com.|
Elizabeth Maria Bradt was born 1817 in Upper Canada Colony, British North America and died 9 MAR 1888 in Nelson Township, Halton County, Ontario. She married on 29 JUL 1836 probably in Nelson Twp, Halton Co., Ont. to John Bridgman. The story of their life and his ancestors is told on the Bridgman Family Page.
Elizabeth Maria Bradt was the daughter of Albert BRADT (b: 17 APR 1791 in Niagara, Upper Canada Colony, British North America) and Mary VOLLICK (b: 1 AUG 1801 in Louth Township, Upper Canada Colony, British North America).
The known ancestry of Elizabeth Bradt is so vast that it is published in no less than three books. Elizabeth was descended from several different United Empire Loyalist families who came from New York to settle in the Niagara Peninsula in the late 1700s after the American Revolution. Two of her great grandfathers, Jonas Larroway, UE, and Sgt. Isaac Vollick, UE, actually fought for the British in the war, serving with Butler's Rangers. After the defeat of the British they probably had to flee to Canada for their lives.
A 6-generation pedigree chart is shown below -- outlining the first six generations of E. Maria Bradt's ancestors. Where a line ends in a " =>" it means that there are still further ancestors known. These earlier ancestors are can be found in the accompanying Personal Data Pages.
/Albert Andriesz BRADT b: ABT 1607 d: 7 JUN 1686 => /Jan Albertson BRADT b: 1648 d: 1698 | \Annetje Barents VAN ROTTMER b: 1608 d: 3 JUN 1662 => /Storm BRADT b: ABT 12 JAN 1689/90 d: UNKNOWN | | /Adriaen Crijnen POST b: 1620 d: 1675 | \Maria Mookers POST b: ABT 6 JUN 1649 d: UNKNOWN | \Claartje MOOKERS b: ABT 1630 d: FEB 1675/76 /Albert BRADT b: 1725 d: 1799 | | /David UZILLÉ b: 1635 d: AFT 1662 => | | /Pierre UZILLÉ b: 1660 d: AFT 1714 | | | \Marie Magdalina CASIER b: ABT 1635 d: AFT 1662 => | \Sophia UZILLÉ b: MAY 1691 d: UNKNOWN | | /Jan Corneliszen DAMEN b: ABT 1638 d: 20 JUN 1707 => | \Cornelia DAMEN b: ABT 1666 d: AFT JUL 1724 | \Sophia MARTENSE b: ABT 1640 d: AFT 1710 /Adrian Arent BRADT , U.E. b: 14 AUG 1765 d: BET 1835 AND 1851 | \Magdelena LANG b: 3 APR 1738 d: 1774 /Albert BRADT b: 17 APR 1791 d: 15 APR 1878 | | /Jochem Lambertse VAN VALKENBURG b: 4 NOV 1646 d: ABT 1720 => | | /Isaac Jochemse VAN VALKENBURG b: 1686 d: UNKNOWN | | | \Eva Hendrickse VROOMAN b: ABT 1651 d: 1706 => | | /Isaac VAN VALKENBURG b: 12 FEB 1711/12 d: 1785 | | | | /Jacques Corneliese VAN SLYKE b: ABT 1640 d: AFT 11 MAY 1690 => | | | \Lydia VAN SLYKE b: 1685 d: UNKNOWN | | | \Margarita RYCKMAN b: ABT 1640 d: 1695 => | | /Isaac VOLLICK , U.E. b: 17 DEC 1732 d: ABT 1807 | | | | | | | | /Storm BRADT b: ABT 12 JAN 1689/90 d: UNKNOWN (*SEE ABOVE) | | | | | | | | \Maria BRADT b: 1712 d: 1785 | | | | | | | \Sophia UZILLÉ b: MAY 1691 d: UNKNOWN (*SEE ABOVE) | | | | \Sophia VOLLICK b: 11 APR 1766 d: AFT 1804 | | /Andreas WERNER b: UNKNOWN d: UNKNOWN | | /Christoffel WARNER b: 3 NOV 1685 d: UNKNOWN | | | \Maria JAEKEL b: UNKNOWN d: UNKNOWN => | | /Johann Mattheus WARNER b: 11 FEB 1706/07 d: AFT 1737 | | | \Maria Magdalena DEWES b: 1687 d: 29 FEB 1743/44 | \Anna Maria WARNER b: 22 OCT 1735 d: UNKNOWN | | /Nicholas BELLINGER b: ABT 1660 d: AFT 1717 => | | /Marcus BELLINGER b: 1682 d: BEF 1746 | | | \Anna KUHN b: ABT 1658 d: BEF 1716 => | \Anna Barbara BELLINGER b: ABT 1710 d: ABT 1737 | | /Johann Conradt DECKMAN b: 27 NOV 1642 d: 20 JUN 1708 => | \Anna DECKMAN b: ABT 1671 d: BEF 11 OCT 1737 | \Juliana STROH b: DEC 1636 d: 1674 => Elizabeth Maria BRADT b: 1817 d: 9 MAR 1888 | /Isaac VOLLICK , U.E. b: 17 DEC 1732 d: ABT 1807 (*SEE ABOVE) | | | /Cornelius VOLLICK , U.E. b: 16 AUG 1761 d: 1814 | | | | | \Anna Maria WARNER b: 22 OCT 1735 d: UNKNOWN (*SEE ABOVE) | | \Mary VOLLICK b: 1 AUG 1801 d: 13 DEC 1856 | /Simeon LE ROY-DIT-AUDY b: 1 OCT 1637 d: 1711 => | /Leonard Treigny LE ROY b: 15 SEP 1674 d: 1760 | | \Claude DES CHALETS b: 1651 d: FEB 1707/08 => | /Petrus LE ROY b: 3 SEP 1704 d: UNKNOWN | | | /Pierre UZILLÉ b: 1660 d: AFT 1714 => | | \Maria UZILLÉ b: ABT 1686 d: UNKNOWN | | \Cornelia DAMEN b: ABT 1666 d: AFT JUL 1724 => | /Jonas LARRAWAY , U.E. b: 1731 d: UNKNOWN | | | /Jan Martense VAN ALSTYNE b: ABT 1625 d: 1698 => | | | /Isaac Janse VAN ALSTYNE b: 16 JUL 1657 d: 1746 | | | | \Dirkje Harmensdr BOERTGENS b: ABT 1630 d: ABT 1682 | | \Maria VAN ALSTEYN b: 31 OCT 1708 d: UNKNOWN | | | /Jochem Lambertse VAN VALKENBURG b: 4 NOV 1646 d: ABT 1720 => | | \Jannetje Jochemse VAN VALKENBURG b: ABT 1680 d: UNKNOWN | | \Eva Hendrickse VROOMAN b: ABT 1651 d: 1706 => \Eve LARROWAY b: SEP 1776 d: UNKNOWN | /Johannes Nicholas MULLER b: ABT 1705 d: UNKNOWN \Elizabeth MULLER b: MAY 1735 d: UNKNOWN \Maria Dorothea WUEST b: ABT 1705 d: UNKNOWN
|" => " means this line has further known ancestors who can be found on the accompanying Personal Data Pages.|
A Loyalist's Journey to Canada
The following section is adapted from Hamilton A People's History, by Bill Freeman, James Lorimer & Co. Publishing, Toronto, Ontario, © 2001 by Bill Freeman, pp. 11-12.
When the war broke out in 1775, it pitted the Rebels (according to the British), or the Patriots (according to the Americans) against the British. A substantial number of people who lived in what is now the eastern United States remained loyal to the British Crown. As the war drew to a close in 1783, and it became clear that the British had lost, many of those people chose to leave their homes rather than live under American rule. In all, about 60,000 Loyalists came north to live in the colonies that were still under British rule - the colonies that today make up Canada. Most went to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but approximately 10,000 came to Upper Canada (present-day Ontario). Of that group, about 2,000 came to the Niagara Peninsula.
Some of the Loyalists came willingly, others fled for their lives. As with most wars in history, after the battles are over, the victors are rarely kind to the defeated. In the newly formed United States anyone who had supported the British during the war became subjected to persecution and many were lynched. Some were simply harassed while others had their houses burned and were chased away at gunpoint, taking with them only what they could grab, steal, or sneak back for after dark. We don't know the whole story of Elizabeth's ancestors' journeys to Canada, though some of it is known, but here is how one Loyalist described the hardships of a typical journey
On foot, on horseback and by homemade boat portaged laboriously from stream to stream, by oxcart and by wagon…through the dense unfriendly wilderness, strife-worn, hungry, and frequently destitute men, woman, and children followed the trails north. Reaching the Niagara River, the refugees crossed the river on rudely constructed rafts, or they dismantled their wagons and caulked the seams with clay, then paddled their household goods across the river while they swam their farm animals alongside.
When the refugees reached the other side of the powerful Niagara River they were not greeted by a casino and a sprawling urban development. There were a couple of military forts located at present-day Fort Erie and Niagara-on-the-Lake, with perhaps the bare bones of a village growing up around the two forts. Beyond that there was nothing but wilderness. Even the present-day city of Toronto was nothing more than a military fort. The present-day cities of Niagara Falls, St. Catharines, Grimsby, Hamilton, Burlington, and Oakville did not yet exist, not even as primitive villages. There was literally nothing but uncleared wilderness, no QEW, no road at all, not even a trail.
For their loyalty the refugees were given free grants of land and a cash settlement for any losses they incurred, although there was no place to spend the cash. Those who had served in the army were given more substantial grants of land. But the Loyalists had to clear their land themselves. They had to build their own houses and had only themselves and their neighbours to rely on for survival. There was no store for supplies, no doctors for medical care, no magistrate for justice, and no fire brigade in case of disaster, just the resources of hearty pioneer settlers. The settlers had one year in which to clear enough of their land to live on, build some form of house, and begin to cultivate the land. If they failed to meet these obligations then they forfeited their land.
The Loyalist ancestors of Elizabeth Bradt are too broad to fully narrate here. Instead I will present a brief outline sketch and then focus on a few of the more interesting highlights. If you want more detail, please refer to the individual family pages.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the race was on to claim and settle the lands North America. Of course our First Nations peoples had claimed and settled the lands of North America for a few thousand years by the time the first European explorers arrived, but the various governments of Europe did not recognize these native claims; they wanted the land for themselves. The English were rushing to settle the area we know as New England and parts of Nova Scotia (Acadia) and Newfoundland, as well as the Hudson Bay Company's claims to all of the land whose rivers drained into Hudson's Bay. The French had all of the land whose rivers drained into the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. Of course some of these claims overlapped which was cause for more than one battle. The Spanish were busy laying claim to Central and South America.
Among the earliest French settlers in the colony of New France were the Le Roi and Des Chalets families. The Le Roi family can trace their roots to the mid-1500s in Normandy, France. The Des Chalets family can trace their roots to the mid-1500s in Vendee, France. The child of Simeon Le Roy-dit-Audy and Claude Des Chalets was Leonard Treigny Le Roy who married into the Uziellé family described later in this section. Leonard Le Roy was actually born in New France in the town of Québec (later Québec City, Québec) while it was still under French rule, not English. The name Le Roy later became corrupted to Larua and finally Larroway.
The English and French were not the only European countries racing to lay claim to land in the Americas. The Dutch established a colony under the banner of the West India Company on the eastern coast of North America at the mouth of the Hudson River. The West India Company was an exploration and trading company just like the British Hudson Bay Company. They were trying to establish a western trading route to India.
Just below is an article about the New Netherlands Colony which mentions a "boatload of settlers". Lambert Van Valkenburg, the 5xs-great grandfather of Elizabeth Bradt, came to North America in that "boatload of settlers" mentioned below. He was sergeant of the burgher guard in the Fort Orange settlement described in the article. The Van Valkenburgs were among the very first European settlers in North America. The surname Van Valkenburg means "from the city of the falcons". It later became corrupted to just Valkenburg, then Valken, then Valk, into which an extra vowel sound was inserted in the middle to become Vollick, and finally Follick.
The New Amsterdam Settlement
The following section is excerpted from "New York", Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2001, © 1993-2000, Microsoft Corporation, all rights reserved, edited.
The first settlements in New York were made in 1624, when the Dutch West India Company sent out a boatload of colonists. Most of the settlers established themselves in the northern Hudson Valley, near the future site of Albany, at Fort Orange. Soon more colonists arrived and made their home on the lower tip of Manhattan, at a site that came to be known as New Amsterdam.
In 1626 the governor of the colony, Peter Minuit, purchased Manhattan from the local Native Americans for trinkets valued at about $24. The Dutch colony, called New Netherlands, grew slowly at first, because the Dutch West India Company neglected the northern outposts in favour of its holdings in the rich West Indies. A handful of traders supplied the Native Americans who brought in furs, the region's prime resource. In 1629, however, the company offered its members large estates, called patroonships, if they would send settlers to New Netherlands. Most of these ventures did not succeed, because few Dutch wanted to leave their homeland.
In 1637 the company appointed Willem Kieft director-general of New Netherlands. A dictatorial leader, Kieft drove the colony into war in 1641 with the Algonquian tribes of the area. After a series of disputes arose between settlers and natives over land ownership, Kieft tried to impose a tax on the Native Americans to help pay for fortification of the settlements. When the tribes refused, Kieft caused the massacre of more than 100 native inhabitants. Four years of raids and reprisals by both sides followed, in which more than 1,000 Native Americans and settlers were killed.
Kieft was replaced in 1647 by Peter Stuyvesant. Although honest and efficient, Stuyvesant also used dictatorial methods in governing the colonists, who opposed high taxes on imports and demanded a voice in the government.
Meanwhile, English colonists had expelled Dutch settlers from the Connecticut Valley and founded settlements on present-day Long Island. In 1650 Stuyvesant was forced to cede all of Long Island east of Oyster Bay to Connecticut, an English colony.
In 1664 King Charles II of England decided to take over the entire region, basing his claim on the explorations made for England by explorer John Cabot in 1497 and 1498. Charles granted to his brother James, Duke of York and Albany, all the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. To enforce the English claim, Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into New York Harbour with four ships and 400 soldiers. Stuyvesant wanted to fight, but the citizens of New Amsterdam were unwilling to resist. New Netherlands and New Amsterdam were renamed New York. Beverwyck, the settlement that grew up around Fort Orange, became known as Albany.
In addition to the Van Valkenburgs, other ancestors of Elizabeth Maria Bradt were also among these early New Netherlands settlers, and therefore were also among the earliest European families to settle in North America, including the following families Bradt, Damen, Mookers, Post, Van Alstyne, Van Rottmer, Van Slyke, and Vrooman. All of these families were living in North America by the mid-1600s.
The Bradt family, Elizabeth's direct paternal line, originally came from Norway, where their ancestry can be traced back to the mid-1500s. They were tobacco farmers and mill operators in the New Netherlands settlement.
The Damens, who can trace their roots to the mid-1500s in Holland, were among the first settlers of the village of Breuckelen, New Netherlands. When the English conquered in 1664 their village was renamed Brooklyn, New York.
The Post family came to New Netherlands by way of Brazil, which at the time was also under Dutch rule before later being conquered by the Portuguese.
The Van Rottmer family originated in the Germanic Palatinate province of Hanover which, at the time, was still part of the late mediaeval Holy Roman Empire. (See Barent Rottman below.)
The Van Valkenburgs and the Vroomans can also trace their ancestral roots to the mid-1500s in Holland.
A special mention needs to be made here of the family of Cornelis Antonissen Van Slyke (see VanSlicht below). Cornelis Van Slyke's story is of a Dutchman who came to the New World as a carpenter at the age of 30, who became an interpreter for the Mohawk nation, was adopted into the tribe, and who met and married a French-Mohawk woman, Ots-Toch, who never left her native village. Their children, who were all raised at the Mohawk village of Canajoharie became well-known and respected in the Dutch community. All except one left the village and married Dutch settlers.
Ots-Toch was the daughter of an unknown Mohawk woman and a French explorer named Jacques Hertel. Jacques Hertel sailed with Samuel de Champlain and worked as his Mohawk interpreter. Hertel remained in the new world and married a Mohawk woman in Canajoharie. At the time Canajoharie, though now part of central New York State, was probably part of New France.
Samuel de Champlain (1567? - 1635)
Champlain was a French explorer, known as the father of New France, the French colonial empire in North America. He established a trading post, which eventually became the city of Québec, in 1608 at the first narrows of the St. Lawrence River and governed it until his death.
The Uzillé and Casier families were originally from Calais, France. Their earliest ancestors can be traced back to the early 1600s, not too long after the events detailed below. The Uzillés and the Casiers were protestant Huguenots. They fled France for the Netherlands to avoid religious persecution, and thus came to the New Netherlands Colony in the company of Dutch Protestant immigrants, not with their French Roman Catholic country folk. They settled in the New Harlem settlement where Phillippe Casier was elected as the first magistrate. There were about thirty households of settlers with them.
Just to emphasize the point: Phillipe Casier was made the first magistrate of what is now Harlem, New York, when there were only 30 families living there - quite a difference from today. Later their settlement was attacked by Iroquois and most of the inhabitants were killed. The Uzillés and the Casiers survived.
So who were the Huguenots?
The following comes from the article "Huguenots," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2002, http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Huguenots is the name given to the Protestants of France from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and its principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group enjoyed royal protection, notably from Queen Margaret of Navarre and her brother, King Francis I of France. Toward the end of his reign, however, Francis persecuted the Protestants; his successor, Henry II, followed his example. Nevertheless, the French Protestants increased in number. The rise in the number of French Protestants excited the alarm and hatred of the French Roman Catholics.
The religious hatred was intensified by political rivalry between the house of Valois, then in possession of the French throne, and the house of Guise. Catherine de Médicis, widow of Henry II, who governed in the name of her son, King Charles IX, at times allied herself with the Huguenots for political reasons, but generally sided against them. The Huguenots were persecuted severely in Charles's reign, and they in turn made reprisals upon the Roman Catholics. Finally, open civil war broke out. Between 1562 and 1598 eight bitter wars were fought between French Roman Catholics and Protestants.
The Huguenots obtained troops from England, Germany, and Switzerland; the Roman Catholics, from Spain. The treaties that concluded the wars usually granted the Huguenots some measure of tolerance, but the government's subsequent ignoring or outright repudiation of the terms of the treaties led to a renewal of hostilities. The greatest act of treachery of the period took place in 1572.
Two years previously, in 1570, Catherine and Charles IX had signed a treaty with the Huguenots granting them freedom of worship. Having lulled the Huguenots into a feeling of security, on August 24, 1572, St. Bartholomew's Day, the queen mother and the king caused thousands of them to be massacred in Paris and elsewhere in France.
Finding life in France intolerable under the ensuing persecutions and evaporation of religious liberty, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to England, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the English colonies in North America, including Massachusetts, New York, and South Carolina.
This may sound hard to believe, but the Hollywood Fonda family are descended from the same Bradt family that we are. Henry, Jane, Peter, and Bridget Fonda all share a common ancestor with Elizabeth Maria Bradt in the person of Albert Andriesz Bradt. That makes us cousins with the Fondas.
|Bradt Research Forum||http://www.greencity.org/bradt.html|
|Bradt Family Society||http://www.bradtfamilysociety.org/|
|Butler's Rangers (including Bradts and others)||http://www.iaw.on.ca/~awoolley/brang/brang.html|
|Family of Jacques Hertel||http://genepoulin.com/d0019/f0000017.html|
|Holland Society of New York||http://www.hollandsociety.com/|
|Olive Tree Genealogy (excellent resources for New Netherlands researchers||http://olivetreegenealogy.com/index.shtml|
|Famous people related to the New Netherlands
(You thought I researched the Fondas on my own???)
|Encarta article on New Amsterdam||Encarta|
People researching this family include the following. If you wish your name added to the fellow researchers' list, please contact me.
|Hamilton, Ontario||ancestral branches only|
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This page was last updated on December 09, 2009