Shield-The Lion of Poitou and a border of Cornwall as earl of Cornwall.
Double Headed Eagle as King of the Romans.
Son-Edmund Earl of Cornwall.
Cornish tin production by1214 had risen to 600 tons not sure of the date but Henry III of England confirmed his fathers charter to the tinners and for the remainder of the 13th Century the Stannaries were under the Earls of Cornwall. (As Richard was not made Earl of Cornwall until 1227 it is possible that Henry did not confirm the charter until after that date).
1209-January 6th Richard younger brother to Henry later Henry III born at Winchester Hampshire. Son of King John of Magna Carta fame and Isabel of Angouleme.
1216-On the 28th October Richard (Later Earl of Cornwall's) nine-year old brother (Henry III) crowned king of England. Being only two years older than Richard.
1225-February Richard made count of Poitou. Also this year he received the Castle of Berkhamstead and was granted Cornwall and all its tin works.
1227- Richard loses Poitou. May 30th Richard, created Earl of Cornwall. His headquarters in Cornwall were at Launceston, where he added to the old castle of Robert de Mortain. He was probably responsible for the first stone defences.
1227--1238 Richard Earl of Cornwall frequently opposed his brother, King Henry III, joining the barons in several crises, but, never proceeding to rebellion and always making Henry pay heavily for reconciliation. This improved later after his second marriage to Sanchia of France the Queens sister in 1243.
1231 Richard acquired the castle of Wallingford (both with Berkhamstead a centre of a Great Honour , or group of dependent manors ) March His position as a leading baron was confirmed by his marriage to Isabel Countess of Gloucester daughter of old William the Marshal widow of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Hertford and Gloucester who died 1230 in Brittany he was the head of the house of Clare. (Isabel had already given Gilbert a son and heir Richard de Clare who was eight when his father died making him born 1222).
1233-6 The manor of Tintagel, originally the manor of Bossiney - the name of a hamlet just east of Tintagel village - was acquired by Richard.
1236 Richard secured possession of Tintagel castle, which his father, King John had previously granted to Gervase de Hornicote. Richard therefore offered his heir a number of manors in exchange, and such an offer from the Kings brother being little short of a command or even a threat the offer had to be accepted. Richard added the curtain wall and great ward on the mainland, which was linked to the island by a bridge.
1238 February In London a coup by Richard Earl of Cornwall, rival of Simon de Montfort, fails.
1240- Richard was in Cornwall when his first wife Isabel died giving birth to his eldest son Henry of Almain.(Half brother of Richard de Clare).
11th October Richard of Cornwall sailed into Acre taking a small English force to the Holy Land to join the Crusades.
1241-As the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II's brother-in-law, Richard Earl of Cornwall's sympathies lay with the policy of negotiation with Egypt and by early this year had reach an agreement with Aiyub which included the release of Frankish prisoners. He was supported by the Knight Hospitallers who apparently reconciled to Frederick II and inclined to take a pro- imperial line.
May Richard left the east.
1242-On the way back from the Holy Land in October of this year Richard was in grave danger at sea. He vowed that if he lived he would found a religious house.
During Henry IIIs disastrous Poitevin campaign in France, Richard Earl of Cornwall's prompt retreat at Saintes and his persuasive diplomacy at Taillebourg saved Henry from capture.
1243-December Richard married Sanchia of Provence in London. Sanchia was the Queen of England's Sister and also that of the Queen of France after this he became one of Henry III's firmest though not altogether uncritical adherents.
1245-Richard's brother King Henry III gave him the manor of Hailes in Gloucestershire it was here he fulfilled his pledge to found a religious house.
1246-Richard, Earl of Cornwall, made the living of Breage with the chapels of Cury, Gunwalloe and Germoe, to the Abbey of Hailes in Gloucestershire .
1247 According to Matthew Paris Richard was oppressed and at deaths door by a secret illness. He confidently invoked the aid of St Edmund Archbishop of Canterbury (whos remains had been translated at Pontigny) Richard was happily cured of his disease and, in gratitude to God and the Saint agreed to provide a quarter that is the front gable of the shrine most sumptuously worked.
Also at this time on the authority of the Pope being Innocent IV whose demands he had secretly and astutely satisfied, collected endless sums of money from those who had taken up the cross.
28th October Richard returned according to Matthew Paris from abroad on SS Simon and Jude having taken his son Henry with him. It is said he had intimate and prolonged talks with the King of the French who had firmly proposed to set out on his pilgrimage next Easter He was ready and willing to make amends to the King of England, Richard earnestly demanded the restoration of the rights of the King of England. The king of France would willingly have granted Richard's request but for the objections raised by his councillors namely certain French Nobles in whom pride was innate.
1248-9th February Earl Richard joined the other nobles at London for a thorough and careful discussion as to the affairs of the kingdom which at this time were in a bad way.
1249-At Easter April 11th the magnates of England as had been previously agreed among themselves assembled in London namely to appoint a chancellor, justicar and treasurer at their advice. But just as they believed themselves certainly on the point of achieving everything, the absence of Earl Richard, who appeared to be their leader entirely prevented any progress in this matter. He had gone to Cornwall some time before as on business. So the deluded magnates returned home.
Also this year Richard was at Beaulieu for its dedication it was from here that twenty picked monks and thirty brethren were sent to inhabit the new Cistercian house which earl Richard had founded at Hailes.
Richard was at Wallingford to celebrate Christmas.
1251-Richard of Cornwall attends the consecration of the new Cistercian abbey that he has built at Hailes in Gloucestershire.
1252-Henry III granted Richard permission to build a castle on the hill above his manor of Mere near Amesbury Wiltshire. Two hundred oak trees from the Forest of Blackmore were used in the building. The castle, constructed of Chilmark stone, covered an area 390ft long by 102ft wide, and had six towers, a hall, a inner and outer gate and chapel.
1254-Richard earl of Cornwall acted as regent of England during Henrys Gascon visit in this capacity he his used his powers to summon the knights of the English shires to a "parliament" at Westminster to vote taxes. Each shire court would elect two knights who would join the barons at council to raise money for the defence of Gascony. This is the first time that such a parliament- the term derives from the French word for "discussion"- had been called to win consent for taxation, though knights of the shires attended similar assemblies during King Johns reign for this purpose. Usually the king consults only his royal councillors and powerful members of the clergy. It was Richard's decision to involve shire representatives on this occasion. the new assembly meet for the first time during Easter.
1252-Richard reputedly the richest magnate in England refused his friend Pope Innocent IVs offer of the Crown of Sicily.
1256-Richard Earl of Cornwall accepted imperial candidature, he purchased four of the seven electoral votes, and was elected King of the Romans.(A Historical title by which the ruler of Germany was known)
Richard spent Christmas of this year at Launceston Cornwall.
1257 -May 17,Richard as the Emperor's intended successor crowned "King of the Romans" with the silver crown of Germany at Aachen (Aix-la- Chapelle) Aachen was the ancient capital of the Holy Roman Empire. As such he was recognised in the Rhineland and was regarded as one of the great princes of western Christendom, a honour that was to be a considerable drain on his purse, although he had one of the biggest fortunes in Europe. Despite this he remained loyal to his elder brother king Henry.
1259-4th January Richard Earl of Cornwall. King of the Romans returned to England. He helped Henry III to overthrow the Provisions of Oxford (which can be regarded as the first written constitution in English history).
1260-June to October Richard visited Germany with hope of the Imperial Crown.
1262 Richard made a further visit to Germany hope by now seemed absurd of ever obtaining the Imperial Crown.
1263 Richard supported Simon de Montfort against the violators of the "Provisions of Oxford " but a threat of violence drove him back to Henry III's side.
1264-Mediation regarding the "Provisions of Oxford "having failed Richard collected troops that he lead at the left wing of the royalist army to defeat at the Battle of Lewes from Launceston Cornwall. May 14th Richard was captured in a windmill on the downs to the delight of popular song writers making the earliest surviving political verses written in English. He was imprisoned first at Wallingford and then at Kenilworth. He lost not only the battle but also his estates.
1265-August 4th After Simon de Montforts death at the Battle of Evesham, Richard was released from imprisonment at Kenilworth Castle his lands and estates were given back to him, and he agreed to be the loyal friend of his sister Eleanor, whose marriage to Simon de Montfort he had hated. He resumed his hobby of collecting Cornish castles.
Richard gave support to Walter Bronescombe bishop of Exeter who founded Glasney College Penryn Cornwall. Walter upon returning from Germany on a state vistit on behalf of Richard had seen a vision of Thomas a Becket instructing him to form a colliagate church at Glasney. The move no doubt had economic and political overtones for several of Richards officials comprised of the first officers of the college.
1266- ctober 31st Richard worked ceaselessly to obtain the relatively moderate settlement of the Dictum of Kenilworth.
1269-Richard of Cornwall made his last visit to Germany still hoping to obtain the Imperial Crown but for no avail.
Owing to the ill health of Henry III his brother Richard returned from Germany to assist as regent.
December Roger de Valletort granted to Bishop Bronescombe and his successors the manor of Cargaul with the advowsons of St Allen and Newlyn in Cornwall. This arrangement Earl Richard of Cornwall took exception and despite his previous collabaration over the founding of Glasney Abbey.
Master Jordan Archdeacon of Cornwall and other ecclesiastics were assaulted at St Alan and in the park at Cargul, their habits were torn and their horses ill-treated. The earls steward, John Beaupre, subsequently acknowledged his part in the attacks, the damage done to the park and also the seizure and gaoling of master John de Esse, chancellor of the diocese and official- principal.
1270-Isolda de Cardinham was persuaded by Richard Earl of Cornwall to part with her castle of Restormel to her "most serene prince and Lord" together with her demesne lying on the east side of the highway from Bodmin to Lostwithiel, its freemen and villeins (feudal serf), park and wood, three mills, the town of Lostwithiel, the waters of Fowey and the fishing therein. Of the big Castles only Trematon, now two centuries old and still in the hands of its original Norman owners Richard rounded of his collection by buying it from Roger de Valletort.
1271-March 13th Viterbo Italy Henry of Almain, son of earl Richard of Cornwall and nephew of Henry III, was murdered by his cousins Guy and Simon de Montfort, while at Mass in the parish church of St Silvesto. After striking Henry with his sword. Guy dragged his body out of the church and mutilated it. It appears the murder was not premeditated but was a hot headed act of revenge for the death and mutilation of their father at Evesham in 1265. The brothers had never forgiven Henry for deserting their fathers cause and going over to Lord Edward, the Kings heir. Ironically Edward on his way south to fulfil his great ambition of going on crusade had sent Henry of Almain (also his cousin)to Viterbo on a mission of reconciliation. He had learnt that the two de Montfort brothers were nearby, serving in the army of Charles of Anjou, the King of Sicily.
1272-April 2nd Richard died at Berkhampstead Castle Hertfordshire after a stroke. He never recovered from the shock of the murder of his son.
In his last years he tried to reconcile the defeated parties in the civil war, including the young Simon de Montfort, his nephew. It was Simon who released him from prison in Kenilworth after the death of the older de Montfort at Evesham in 1265,but it was also this Simon who murdered his son at Viterbo Italy.
He was never a very effective king and did not win coronation as "Holy Roman Emperor" by the pope. He lacked the authority and resources to rule Germany directly and did not manage to re-establish the empires claims over Italy. He strongly supported his brothers close alliance with the pope. A pious man, he endowed many monasteries and churches, including Hailes Abbey in Gloucestershire where he was buried with his second wife Sanchia of Provence.
The castle at Launceston was owned by Richard Earl of Cornwall until his death this year.
1272-1300 The frater pavement at Cleeve Abbey in Somerset was probably laid being dated heraldically between these years suggests that Richard Earl of Cornwall King of the Romans to whom the convent was already indebted for confirming the grant of his Cornish estates, was a substantial benefactor to the fabric fund.