S&SMFB - FAMILY HISTORY BASED ON GENETIC DATA
gave all living cells on earth an element that encodes genetic information which
we call DNA, part of this genetic information is used as a new and useful tool
in genealogy to locate other living relatives with our identical genetic data.
There are three major types of DNA tests used as a tool in genealogy studies.
1) Y-chromomsome DNA (Y-DNA) is passed from father to son consisting of two genetic areas of research.
(a) Y-STR, resulting in a persons Haplotype that is used in surname and heritage studies of descendants of a common ancestor. With Y-STR's, like in traditional genealogy we start with ourselves and work backward solving our genetic lineage during the surname era.
(b) SNP's resulting in defining a persons Haplogroup. Y-SNP's are used in the study of ancient groups of peoples and their migrations, and more recently in hereditary studies during the surname era traveling downstream to a personal Y-SNP of the family branch of the family tree. With Y-SNP's we start as far back as ~200,000 years and work forward to the present.
2) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed from mother to daughter and also to a son, however the son cannot pass it on. Currently mtDNA is not as popular as Y-DNA because of the difficulty of identifying maiden surnames as they change with each generation, whereas with Y-DNA the surnames remain basically the same. Also currently full genome testing results can only identify the mtDNA SNP Haplogroup dates within a few thousand years. With mtDNA SNP's we start thousands of years ago and work forward.
3) Autosomal DNA (atDNA) is passed from all male and female relationships to the tester, at least currently claimed from the 5th Great-Grandparents (8 generations). The atDNA test results indicate who you may have a relationship with, both male and female, and from there it is a matter of communication and documented genealogical records between the testers to identify the most recent common ancestor.
How these tests have contributed to "my family history" can be found in this chapters contents below.
GENETIC FAMILY HISTORY of ARTHUR B. STAPLES, JR.
Genetic test results and information compiled mainly from the "Peter Staple Heritage Group (PSHG)" (Y-DNA STR & SNP test results; "National Geographic Society, Geographic Project - GENO 2.0"; "FTDNA Genomics Research Group"; "R1b-U106 Y-DNA Haplogroup"; the "U5a FGS mtDNA Project" and the FTDNA Family Finder Autosomal Test. to answer the question -
GENETICALLY WHO AM I?
EXAMPLES OF GENETIC TESTING RESULTS
* Determine if two people are related.
* Determine if two Family Branches could
be related without a paper trail.
* Locate ancestral home in England.
CHAPTER II CONTENTS
|II-1, Study of my (a) AUTOSOMAL DNA and||II-4, mtDNA study of my PATERNAL GRANDMOTHER:|
|(b) HOMINID ANCESTRY: NGS GENO 2||II-5, mtDNA study of my WIFE|
|II-2, Study of my PATERNAL Y-DNA:||II-6, study of my AUTOSOMAL X-MATCH|
|II-3, Study of my MATERNAL mtDNA:|
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