Family Tree

of Trudy Mae COWLEY

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This page last updated:  12 March 2008

Andromeda I     Anson     Antipodes     Australasia     Boddingtons     Cacique     Calcutta     Caledonia     City of Edinburgh     Coromandel     Countess of Harcourt     Eden     Elizabeth & Jane     Equestrian     Gilmore     Governor Phillip     Guildford     Henry Porcher     Indefatigable     Indian     Lady Franklin     Lady Juliana     Lady Nelson     Mary Anne I     Midas     Ocean     Oriental Queen     Providence II     Regalia     Royal Saxon     Scarborough     Surprise     Sydney Cove     Tortoise

This is a list of any of the ships I have information on that are relevant to this family tree.  Information on who is associated with each ship is also provided.

Andromeda I

The Andromeda was a convict transport ship of 383 tons which was built at Sunderland.  She made one voyage to Van Diemen's Land, departing London on 14 October 1826 and arriving at Hobart Town on 23 February 1827, 132 days later.  She embarked 146 male convicts, disembarking 143 - thus losing 3 on the voyage.  Her master on this voyage was James MUDDLE and her surgeon was William B CARLYLE.  Dysentery was prevalent on the voyage, but no men died from dysentery.  There was also some scurvy but CARYLYLE used lime juice mixed with sugar to combat this disease.

Ancestors associated with the Andromeda I include:

bullet Peter HILL b.c1804 - transportation



The Anson was a convict transport which arrived in Hobart on 4 February 1844 after having sailed from Plymouth on 1 October 1843.  She was at sea for 126 days under the captaincy of Captain COGLIN, RN.  Her surgeon was Andrew MILLER.  The Anson embarked 506 male convicts and disembarked 499, seven dying on the voyage.

The ship had originally been a 74-gun frigate in the English Navy.  In 1843, however, at Sheerness, she was converted into a transport at a cost of £12,307.  When she had disembarked her prisoners at Hobart Town she was towed firstly to New Town Bay, then to Prince of Wales Bay where she was used as a women's prison hulk.

More information on the Anson is available here.

Ancestors associated with the Anson include:


Ann DALY b.c1826 - hulk



The Antipodes was a passenger ship which made at least two voyages from England to Launceston - one in 1860 and one in 1861.  On the first voyage she arrived at Launceston on 5 December 1860 and on the second voyage she arrived at Launceston on 19 October 1861, having departed London on 11 July 1861.

Ancestors associated with the Antipodes in 1861 include:


Dorcas Harriet TIBBALLS b.c1851 - immigration


John TIBBALLS b.1824 - immigration


Harriet WEST b.c1824 - immigration



The Australasia made one voyage as a convict transport.  It was built at the port of Sunderland dockyards just south of Newcastle Upon Tyne in Durham county, England in 1847.  Australasia, like other Sunderland-built vessels "proved excellent frigate-built vessels.  They were fast and seaworthy, and their more modern design made conditions for the prisoners far more pleasant than previously had been the case or was still the case in the older vessels" (Bateson, 1974, p.293). 

The Australasia was a barque of 500 tons, class A1.  Her master was James CONNELL, the surgeon superintendent was Alexander KILROY.  She sailed from Dublin on 26 June 1849, taking only 95 days to arrive at Hobart, Tasmania on 29 September 1849.

The surgeon superintendent, Alexander KILROY, made the following general remarks in his surgeon's journal for the voyage.

When the convicts were embarked at Kingstown they seemed to be in excellent health, although in reality they were not so for most of them had suffered from insufficient and bad food before their convictions and in Grange Gorman Depot had been fed a good deal on Bread and Milk which gave them a healthy appearance, but very soon after the change from that diet to the salt provisions of the ship they suffered considerably in health, labouring under obstipation with ma... and gastric ...ation  This change was felt the more suddenly from want of the usual supply of potatoes which are generally given to fresh convict ships and which could not be procured at the time the Australasia sailed from Kingstown.

The cases at first were not very severe in the Fever cases which occurred during the warm weather principally within the tropics.  The head was generally very much affected but in only two of them required b...section.  These two cases 3 and 4 of this Journal, their convalescence was very slow and frequently interrupted and complicated by local congestions, dysentry and dysuria.  The other cases of fever were generally relived by purging with a cold application to the head and in some of them b...tis which in hard cases had to be repeated.

The convicts remained in pretty good health until we got into cold and damp weather after passing the Cape of Good Hope.  When dysentery became prevalent amongst them the cases were not very severe at first although some of them proved tedious but after a time the cases became more or less complicated with Scarbulic (?) Symptoms and then became very troublesome and difficult to manage ...

Those sent sick on board the Anson were generally slight cases but still requiring medical treatment and there was not room for them in the Hospital.

... whenever they went on deck their feet soon became damp and cold in consequence of the thinness of their shoes which are very little use as a means of keeping the feet dry and warm and I think it would be a great improvement in female convict ships to send thicker and stronger shoes and in that case one pair per convict should be sufficient for the voyage.

The Australasia embarked 200 female convicts. Three of these convicts died on the voyage - 197 female convicts plus 28 children were landed at Hobart, Tasmania.

In March 1853, the Australasia was wrecked at Portland Bay in Victoria.  She was laden with wool for London.

Australasia Convicts

Ancestors associated with the Australasia include:


Ann DALY b.c1826 - transportation



The Boddingtons was an Irish convict transport.  Boddingtons was one of the few transports between 1788 and 1814 which carried a naval surgeon on board acting as naval agent with responsibility for the welfare of the convicts. 

Richard KENT, the navy surgeon aboard Boddingtons forwarded a report to the Home Department in 1793 in which he stated:

I must say that it would be right to bind down the captains of ships carrying convicts under the direction of an agent, that he might comply with the orders given him for the preservation of the lives and health of the convicts; for, if I had not persevered and got everything done myself on the Boddingtons, for the cleanliness and comfort of the convicts, I do believe there might be a great mortality amongst them; for my orders respecting them were never attended to, and Captain Chalmers told me he only came in the ship to navigate her.  After which I contrived to get the convicts themselves to preserve order, cleanliness and regularity among one another, and I am happy to say that the trouble I took in keeping them in order was amply compensated in the little trouble there was with them in the medical department. (quoted in Bateson, 1974, pp44-45).

Francis Grose, the acting Governor of New South Wales at the time, agreed on the good condition of the convicts, reporting the following in a despatch to England on 3 September 1793.

Sir, I have the honour to inform you that the Boddingtons, transport, with 124 male and 20 female convicts, from Ireland, arrived here on the 7th ultimo.  The stores she brings are in good condition, and the prisoners, according to their own account, have been exceedingly well treated; they are in much better health than any I have ever seen landed here, and have had but one death on their passage. (HRA Series I Vol I, p.446)

It is interesting to note that even with the care of the KENT, Mary CAMPBELL was pregnant when she arrived at Sydney Cove, a pregnancy which would have occurred aboard Boddingtons.

Boddingtons arrived at Sydney Cove on 7 August 1793 having departed Cork on 15 February 1793, a voyage of 173 days.  She was a ship of 331 tons.  Her master was Robert CHALMERS and the surgeon was Richard KENT.  The prisoners were landed in a healthy condition - the British Government had learnt some lessons from the disasters of the second fleet.  The Boddingtons also carried provisions and clothing.  The naval agent on board was Mr BELL.

Boddingtons was a Thames-built vessel which was launched in 1781.  She was delayed reaching Cork thus her prisoners, having been cooped up for seven weeks in another vessel awaiting her arrival, were sickly when embarked. 

The naval surgeon, Richard Kent, and the ship's surgeon, Augustus Jacob Beyer, who had been surgeon on the Scarborough in the Second Fleet, restored them to reasonable health, however, before the ship sailed on February 15, 1793.  She embarked five men in excess of her appointed complement, and, according to Kent, could not have carried another prisoner.  A smaller vessel than the Sugar Cane by 72 tons, she carried only five fewer convicts, and on her arrival Collins thought it worth remarking that every prisoner had a bed to himself.  If there was overcrowding, it was not productive in the usual consequences.  She ran out to Rio de Janeiro in 54 days, arriving there on April 10, and made the passage from Cork to Port Jackson in 173 days.  Only one prisoner, who had been ill when embarked, died on the voyage, and but one man was on the sick-list when she arrived at her destination.

Throughout the Boddingtons' voyage there were frequent alarms of mutiny and conspiracy among the convicts and the guard of the New South Wales Corps, but no attempt to seize the ship actually occurred (Bateson, 1974, p.146). 

The Boddingtons embarked 125 male and 20 female convicts (a good reason why Mary CAMPBELL was pregnant at the end of the voyage!).  Only one male convict died on the voyage.  Boddingtons took only took 54 days to sail from Cork to Rio, a fast voyage. The second leg of her voyage to Port Jackson was nowhere near as fast.  The Boddingtons was discharged from Government employ on 23 August 1793.

Information on the female convicts aboard Boddingtons is available here.

Ancestors associated with the Boddingtons include:


Mary CAMPBELL - transportation



The Cacique was a barque built in 1831 which was later wrecked and converted to a lighter.  It worked as a passenger ship, including voyages between Port Phillip and Tasmania. 

Ancestors associated with the Cacique on its voyage from Melbourne to Tasmania arriving on 1 October 1852 include:


James STEVENSON b.c1816 - immigration



The HMS Calcutta was a convict transport and the ship which brought the first settlement of marines and Lieutenant Governor David Collins to Hobart in 1804.  The original intention was to settle at Port Phillip, however, this proved to be unsustainable.

In 1801 the then Home Secretary, Lord Pelham, proposed that naval vessels alone should be employed as convict transports, and that they should be despatched, not at the height of the inclement winter season, but regularly twice a year, at the latter end of May and at the beginning of September.  After some delay, the suggestion was adopted, and in 1803 H.M.S. Glatton and H.M.S. Calcutta sailed with convicts, the latter vessel carrying an expedition despatched to found a new penal settlement at Port Phillip. (Bateson, 1974, p.19)

The HMS Calcutta was accompanied by the storeship Ocean on her voyage to Port Phillip, the expedition being led by Lieutenant-Colonel David COLLINS, with instructions to found a new penal settlement at Port Phillip.  The order to establish a settlement at Port Phillip Bay had come from Governor KING (the third Governor of NSW) in 1802.

On Wednesday the 9th of February 1803 the Calcutta, under the command of the Master, Richard Wright, and Commander Daniel Woodriffe, sailed to Cawsand Bay, Plymouth to prepare for the voyage to Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.

They left Cawsand Bay on Saturday the 12th of February 1803 and moored at Spithead on Tuesday the 15th of February where the ships were maintained and re-caulked and then stocked with provisions for the long voyage that was ahead of them.

The convicts were loaded on to the Calcutta on Thursday the 21st of April 1803.  (Blacklow, n.d., p13)

The Calcutta embarked 307 male convicts, with 30 of their wives and children.  It sailed from Spithead on 24 April 1803.

Three days later she and the Ocean left Yarmouth Roads.  They made the passage to Teneriffe in 19 days, and, after a stay of four days, resumed their voyage on May 20.  They ran from Teneriffe to Rio in 40n days, arriving there on June 29.  They sailed again on July 19, but on the 31st, the two ships separated in thick weather.  The Ocean sailed direct to Port Phillip, and arrived there on October 7.  The Calcutta arrived two days later.  she had run from Rio to the Cape in 24 days and from the Cape to Port Phillip in 45.  The voyage from Spithead had occupied 168 days, on 109 of which the Calcutta had been at sea.

Including a prisoner drowned in attempting to swim ashore at the Cape, eight convicts died on the passage, but as five deaths had occurred before the Calcutta left Teneriffe, it si evident that some of the prisoners had been embarked in poor health.  Regarding Port Phillip as an unsuitable site for the settlement, Collins early in 1804 transferred the expedition to Sullivan's Bay, on the banks of the Derwent River, in Tasmania, thus becoming the founder of Hobart instead of Melbourne.  (Bateson, 1974, pp.186-187)

Calcutta, under the captaincy of Daniel WOODRIFF, sailed from Spithead on 24 April 1803, calling at Teneriffe, Rio de Janeiro and Cape Town, taking 168 days to reach Port Phillip on 9 October 1803.  Of the 307 male convicts embarked per Calcutta, 8 died on route such that 299 were landed at Port Phillip.

Lt Colonel David Collins disembarked all his company and goods on a sandy beach near what is now known as Sorrento.  He hadn’t attempted to find a suitable site for the settlement beforehand and soon after, Collins’ lieutenants reported on the unsuitability of the surrounding area as a settlement, so David Collins wrote to Governor Phillip King in NSW to seek permission to move the settlement from Port Phillip, Australia to Van Dieman’s Land.

In May 1804 this was granted and the settlement at Port Phillip, Victoria was abandoned and Collins set sail with his marines and prisoners for Van Dieman’s Land.  (Blacklow, n.d., p13)

Some information on HMS Calcutta is provided part-way down this page (follow the link).

Ancestors associated with the HMS Calcutta include:


John BLACKLOW b.c1774 - immigration



The Caledonia, a ship of 412 tons, built at Sunderland in 1815, made two voyages as a convict transport.  Its charter rate for the first voyage was the lowest for that period at £4 18s 3d. 

The Caledonia sailed from Portsmouth direct to Hobart, departing on 10 July 1820 and arriving 130 days later on 17 November 1820.  Her captain was Robert CARNS and her surgeon was Alexander JACK.  She embarked 150 male passengers, all of whom were disembarked at Hobart.

On her second voyage, the Caledonia departed Portsmouth for Hobart via Rio de Janeiro on 19 June 1822, arriving on 6 November 1822, 140 days later.  Her master was still Robert CARNS, but her surgeon was WILLIAMSON.  Once again, she carried 150 male convicts, however this time six died on the voyage.

Ancestors associated with the Caledonia on her first voyage as a convict transport include:


Richard CHUGG b.c1798 - transportation


City of Edinburgh

The City of Edinburgh was an immigrant ship used to remove settlers and convicts from Norfolk Island to Hobart in 1808.  It was not the convict transport later used to ship convicts from Ireland to Australia, a ship of 366 tons which was built at Coringa in 1813. 

The City of Edinburgh was a ship of upwards of 500 tons burthen.  She arrived in Hobart Town on 2 October 1808, under the captaincy of Simeon PATTERSON, carrying 83 settlers and free persons, 39 women, 96 children and 8 male prisoners; a total of 226 persons, comprising 28 families.

By all accounts the journey was miserable – cold and wet. 

The City of Edinburgh in September 1808 carried twenty-eight families to the Derwent, in Van Diemen’s Land, where, according to Governor Bligh, ‘she left them, in a state of wretchedness, almost naked’.  (Nobbs, 1988)

A letter sent on 23 October 1808 per City of Edinburgh by Lieutenant Governor COLLINS from Hobart to Lieutenant Colonel FOVEAUX in Sydney, who acknowledged receipt on 10 December 1808, stated:

… I have now to inform you that, on the 2nd instant, the City of Edinburgh arrived from Norfolk Island, having on board 242 Persons belonging to that Settlement.  They arrived in some distress with respect to dry provisions, their passage hither having been longer than they expected at their sailing.  Several of the settlers complaining – some, that their property had been plundered on the voyage; others, that it was not forthcoming – I directed an investigation of their claims to be entered into by a bench of magistrates, the result of which is herewith enclosed.

It has been found necessary to hold a survey upon some part of the provisions and slop cloathing received by this ship, a copy of the report which is likewise enclosed, together with the Commissary’s return of the several articles of Provisions and stores he has received, and a general statement of the inhabitants within the settlement with an account of the time the provisions now in store will last for their support at the established ration …

On 10 May 1809, Lieutenant Governor COLLINS sent a letter from Hobart Town to Viscount CASTLEREAGH, London. 

… In continuation of my former reports to your Lordship on the subject of the evacuation of Norfolk Island, I have the honour to acquaint you that early in the month of October last, a ship, the City of Edinburgh, which had been chartered for the purpose by Major Johnson, arrived here, having on board the greater part of the remaining settlers and inhabitants from that settlement; and as I have reason to suppose I have now received the whole of these people that will be allowed to come here, I beg leave to enclose, for your Lordship’s information, a general return of the numbers landed from the several ships and vessels employed in the removal.

Of the settlers there are but very few who are not at this moment occupied in the cultivation of their new farms, and erecting habitations of some kind for their families.  The few not so employed are troublesome, discontented characters, who refuse the trifling assistance I can give them, because they cannot obtain the whole to which they have a claim …

Ancestors associated with the City of Edinburgh on her voyage from Norfolk Island to Hobart in 1808 include:


John SHERBURD b.1798 - immigration


William SHERBURD b.c1760 - immigration


Esther THORNTON b.c1770 - immigration



The Coromandel was a convict transport which twice transported convicts from England to Sydney. 

On her first voyage, the agents were Brown, Welbank & Petyt.  These agents were paid £10 for each convict embarked and £5 for every convict landed, with an allowance of 14 pence per head per lunar month for necessary money.  "The latter payment was an innovation.  Its purpose was to remunerate the contractors for fitting up the ships and for providing the necessary water casks, brooms, scrapers, windsails, cooking and eating utensils and other articles" (Bateson, 1974, pp.20-21).

The Coromandel was provided with a guard of 20 men by the contractors.  The contractors received "a flat rate of £75 for each man in payment.  A guard furnished by the contractor was not commanded by a military officer, but was considered as forming part of the crew, and the master was responsible for its direction, conduct and discipline" (Bateson, 1974, p.27).

Of the five convict ships to reach Port Jackson in 1802, the Coromandel and the Perseus, both owned by Reeve & Green, sailed from England in company on February 12, 1802.  The former, a teak-built ship of 522 tons, built in India [Chittagong] in 1793, made much the faster passage.  She was the first convict ship to make a direct passage, and took only 121 days.  This was six days shorter than the previous record passage via the Cape of the Matilda in 1791 ...

Although her direct passage denied her convicts fresh provisions on the voyage, their health did not suffer in consequence, and the Coromandel lost only one man.  Her surgeon, Charles Throsby, was one of the first surgeons of the convict ships to become a permanent settler in Australia.  (Bateson, 1974, p.179)

On her second voyage as a convict transport, Coromandel was captained by John ROBINSON then George BLAKEY.  There was no surgeon on board.  She departed Portsmouth on 4 December 1803, taking 154 days to arrive at Port Jackson on 7 May 1804.  She embarked 200 male convicts, with none dying on the voyage - upon arrival all her convicts were in a high state of health and fit for immediate labour.  She also carried a shipment of smallpox vaccine.

The majority of the convicts transported per Coromandel on her second voyage as a convict transport were sent to the public agriculture settlement to mix with the mostly Irish labourers already there.  However, a group of 74 convicts were sent to Port Dalrymple with Lieutenant Colonel PATERSON to found a settlement in the northern part of Van Diemen’s Land.  They left Sydney on 15 October 1804, arriving at Port Dalrymple by the end of 1804.

Ancestors associated with the Coromandel on her second voyage include:


Robert BEAMS b.c1781 - transportation


Countess of Harcourt

The Countess of Harcourt was a convict transport.  She was a fast ship, built in India in 1811, a two-decker of 517 tons, class E1.

On her maiden voyage as a convict ship in 1821, Bunn took her out to Hobart from Portsmouth in 99 days, and if contrary winds had not held her up for two days after entering the Derwent she would have anchored off Hobart 97 days after leaving England.  At that time only one other convict ship had gone out to Hobart from England in under 100 days, and not until 1837 was the record of 99 days bettered.  (Bateson, 1974, p.231)

She departed Portsmouth on 19 April 1821, sailing direct to Hobart arriving on 27 July 1821, taking 99 days.  Her captain was George BUNN; her surgeon was Morgan PRICE.  Countess of Harcourt embarked 172 male convicts on this voyage, with none dying en route.

In 1822, on her second voyage as a convict ship, the Countess of Harcourt made the 11th fastest passage from Britain to Australia in 109 days, sailing from Cork on 3 September 1822 and arriving at Port Jackson on 21 December 1822.  She was under the captaincy of George BUNN; the surgeon was Robert ARMSTRONG.  Again, 172 male convicts were embarked with one of them dying on the voyage.  Thus 171 male convicts were disembarked at Sydney.  A notice in the Hobart Town Gazette of 18 January 1823 about this voyage stated:

The Countess of Harcourt, Capt. Bunn, with 172 male convicts, sailed from Cork on the 6th September for these Colonies.  Captain Rollins, and 30 of the 3d or Buffs, were on board.

In 1824, the Countess of Harcourt made a third voyage as a convict ship, still under the captaincy of George BUNN, but with surgeon James DICKSON.  She departed Downs on 23 March 1824 and arrived at Sydney on 12 July 1824, taking 111 days for the journey on a direct route.  On this voyage, 174 male convicts were embarked.  Of these, two were relanded and one supposedly died at sea as only 171 were disembarked at Sydney.

Countess of Harcourt made a fourth voyage as a convict ship in 1827, this time under the captaincy of Robert NOSWORTHY.  The surgeon was Patrick MCTERNAN.  She departed Cork on 14 January 1827, sailing via Cape Town, taking 129 days to reach Port Jackson on 28 June 1827.  The number of male convicts embarked on this voyage increased by 20 to 194; two of whom died on the voyage.

A fifth voyage as a convict transport was made in 1828, this time under the captaincy of William HARRISON; with surgeon John DRUMMOND.  She departed London on 3 May 1828, calling in at the port of St Jago on her way to Port Jackson where she arrived 128 days later on 8 September 1828.  On this voyage, 184 male convicts were embarked and all were disembarked at Sydney.

Ancestors associated with the Countess of Harcourt on her first voyage include:


John Arnold MAWER b.c1804 - transportation



The Eden was a convict transport, a ship of 513 tons which was built at London in 1826 which was originally classed as A1 for ten years (Bateson, 1974, p.277).

She was the last convict ship to transport convicts to New South Wales.  On this, her second voyage, she arrived at Port Jackson on 18 November 1840, sailing from Sheerness on 10 July 1840, via Teneriffe. The voyage took 131 days.  Of the 270 male convicts embarked, only one died during the voyage.  Her captain was Henry J NAYLOR and her surgeon was George Ellery FORMAN.

On her first voyage as a convict transport she sailed from Portsmouth under the captaincy of Alex L MOLLISON on 31 August 1836.  Her surgeon was Gilbert KING.  She sailed via Cape Town, taking 113 days to reach Hobart on 22 December 1836.  She embarked 280 male convicts, of whom three died on the voyage.

The surgeon superintendent, Gilbert King, gives the following account of the voyage and the health of the convicts in his surgeon's journal.

The Eden, “Convict Ship”, (having the Guard on Board, and the usual arrangement for receiving the prisoners being completed) left Deptford on Sunday the 14th of August 1836 and anchored off Woolwich shortly afterwards.  On the following day, One Hundred and Eighty Convicts, the number intended for immediate Embarkation, were examined on shore, and as they were sent on Board without any delay, we were enabled to get under weigh next morning, and in compliance with our Orders, proceeded to Portsmouth.

The voyage to Portsmouth occupied five or six days for the wind during that time was generally foul, nay sometimes boisterous, and as it occasioned an … motion of this ship almost all the prisoners, in consequence, suffered very much from sea sickness.

On the 22nd of August we received One Hundred Convicts from the hulks in Portsmouth Harbour, (middle aged and athlet men, many of them soldiers) and this completed our stipulated number of Two Hundred and Eighty.

Having received the Government despatches on the 30th August, we endeavoured to get to sea, but did not succeed until next day; perhaps it would have been better had we remained at Spithead for more favourable weather, for we had a foul wind with a head sea until we got as far as Scilly, when part of the stern of the ship having been carried away, by heavy pitching, we were obliged to bear up for Plymouth Harbour.  In this short course the prisoners again suffered much from sea sickness, and I have been … particular in pointing it out because I am satisfied the seeds of future disease were sown here, and that the debility induced by the continuance of so distressing an affliction were an in no small degree the predisposition to scurvy arising from other causes …

In the present ship, the Eden, the disease commenced shortly after we had passed the Equator and became so general among the prisoners (although not in an aggravated form) that I considered it absolutely necessary to go into Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope, for the purpose of obtaining fresh beef and vegetables[1] .  Our stay in Harbour was unnecessarily short, but its beneficial effects were sufficiently obvious – and exceeded the most sanguine expectations; the countenance which before was pale, sallow, and dejected now became clear, the cheeks assumed a healthy bloom, the appetite returned and cheerfulness pervaded every part of the ship.

Whilst in Cape Town, Eden took on board another 22 convicts, since the others were seen to be recovering so well so quickly, according to the surgeon superintendent.

On leaving the Cape we were supplied with two live bullocks, a certain number of sheep and a suitable allowance of vegetables, and although scurvy again made its appearance before we reached Van Diemen’s Land, its character was mitigated …

The measures I adopted for preserving the health and promoting the comfort of the people entrusted to my charge, may be specified in a few words.  The prisons were washed only once or twice during the voyage but they were kept very clean and wholesome by dry holly stoning the decks and using occasionally the scrapers.  I allowed no foul or damp cloths between decks; had windsails constantly in the hatchings for the purpose of ventilation, and in moist and cold weather clean burning stoves were placed, for a short time, in the prisons.  My orders respecting personal cleanliness were peremptory, and although a certain number only in rotation could bathe in the tub, yet all were required to appear every morning with clean hands and faces and every Sunday they were mustered for church with a clean shirt at least.  Lastly, I encouraged every kind of innocent amusement and recreation; and the singing and dancing which we had every evening when the weather permitted, had (I am confident) a salutary tendency not only as a physical, but moral prophylactic.

It is interesting to note, that unlike some other surgeon superintendents on convict transports, King did not issue prisoners with a mixture of lime juice and sugar to combat scurvy.  The causes and prevention of scurvy were poorly understood at the time.

The Eden made a third voyage, sailing from Woolwich on 22 March 1842 direct to Hobart, arriving on 5 July 1842, a voyage of 105 days.  Her captain on this voyage was John JONES and her surgeon was Alexander NEILL.  She embarked 280 male convicts; of which two were relanded and five died on the voyage.  Thus 275 were landed at Hobart.

In 1849, Eden made a fourth voyage as a convict transport, departing Plymouth on 5 October 1848 under the captaincy of MURDOCH.  She sailed via Madeira to Hobart taking 108 days and arriving on 21 January 1849.  Her surgeon at the start of the voyage was Robert MCCREA, but he was put ashore at the Cape of Good Hope due to illness and replaced by Robert BEITH.  The Eden subsequently sailed to Port Phillip where it landed convicts at Geelong, arriving on 4 February 1849.  On this voyage, 237 male convicts were embarked, five died on the voyage, 35 were disembarked at Hobart and 198 were disembarked at Port Phillip.

Ancestors associated with the Eden on her first voyage include:


William FISHER b.c1813 - transportation


William WALTON b.c1783 - transportation


Elizabeth & Jane

The Elizabeth & Jane made at least one voyage to Tasmania as an immigrant ship.  On this voyage she departed London with general cargo, 13 cabin passengers and 53 (or 57) immigrants on board.  She arrived in Launceston on 8 or 9 February 1843.

A list of immigrants and other details about the ship are available.

Ancestors associated with the Elizabeth & Jane include:


William DOBSON b.c1817 - immigration


Ann RICHARDSON b.c1818 - immigration



The Equestrian was a convict transport which made three voyages as such from England to Hobart.  She was a ship of 801 tons which was built at Hull in 1842.  Her class was A1. 

The surgeon’s report for this passage provides some idea of what life was like on the Equestrian during the voyage.

There were embarked on board the “Equestrian” convict ship at Woolwich on 20th January 1844, 290 male convicts for transportation to Van Diemen’s Land.  According to regulations I previously inspected these men at the Millbank Prison, and observed that with few exceptions they were in the prime of life and apparently in good health, this was also certified by the Medical Officer of the Prison.  Much however to my surprise I found on their embarkation that several were seized with epileptic fits.  I thought that either I had been deceived, or more likely that these fits were feigned by the Prisoners for some particular purpose.  A little reflection however enabled me to perceive that it might be accidental and caused by their sudden removal from a state of solitude and silence, to one to them of great excitement.  After a week or two on Board, they disappeared.

The Between Decks of the “Equestrian” were lofty and spacious, and fitted up after a novel and improved form, instead of standing bed places as heretofore upright stauncheons were placed in rows along the deck connected to the sides by transverse bars, on which hammocks were suspended by their corners.  They were placed in two tiers one above the other, capable also of being taken down and rolled up with the bed and blanket much like a soldier’s great coat and then carried on the upper deck.  A moveable table was raised from the lower deck, round which the prisoners could sit, take their meals and employ themselves as necessary, resembling in many respects the lower deck of a Man of War and as easily cleaned and ventilated.  The objection to the plan at first, was the difficulty the men had in getting in or out of their hammocks, and in passing through the Tropics they seemed to suffer more from heat and closeness, as I however I [sic] made a special report it will not be necessary here further to analyze on it.

We were supplied with preserved Meat and Potato to be given once a week to the prisoners in lieu of their salt rations, on the good effects of which I have also reported.  We sailed from Woolwich on the 20th January 1844 and arrived at Hobart Town on the 2nd May following making the Passage in 95 days, and without touching at any intermediate Port.  In working out of the English Channel, we encountered squally and tempestuous weather.  In passing through the Tropics catarrhal afflictions and bilious diarrhea were most frequent amongst the prisoners, attributable to exposing themselves to currents of air whilst overheated.  Towards the close of the voyage some five or six obscure cases of scurvy made their appearance.  The mortality on board from all causes, was four, two amongst the Children of the soldiers, and two amongst the Prisoners.  There were three births on Board, two survived the voyage.  Our immunity (I may say) from scurvy I attribute to increased accommodation thereby implying better ventilation and to the meal of preserved meat and potato once a week.  I used very little lime juice having seen in a former voyage its little value either in preventing or curing scurvy[1] , what was used, was in the Hospital as a common drink.  I was much surprised to hear that after the prisoners were landed and inspected in the Barrack Square by the Lieutenant Governor and other authorities, a great many were taken into Hospital.  I have but to remark that on our arrival in Port I was only too happy to be able to sent all the sick to Hospital, except the few obscure cases of scurvy before mentioned, and which often requires only a few days in Port to remove.  It was evident to me as well as to the Master and Officers of the “Equestrian” that the Health of the prisoners generally improved during the passage, several spoke to me of diseases they had previous to embarkation where there was any external evidence or probability in their statement, they received attention.

After landing the prisoners the ship was ordered to Sydney N S Wales thither to disembark the Guard and land the Government stores on which passage nothing of moment occurred.

Comparing the mortality in convict ships with that of England and Wales, the effects of an improved system of management is very evident, and altho’ prisoners may not be in the worst condition of life for health, they are very far from being in the best.  They must necessarily be confined on the prison deck in a close and often vitiated atmosphere 12 hours out of every 24 during a voyage of from 3 to 4 months the greater part of which is in tropical weather when the thermometer ranges from 70° to 84° often in the prison to 88°.  The principal difficulty we labour under in Convict Ships is to give the prisoners sufficient exercise, when all are on deck they are an immovable mass, when an opportunity offers, which I am sorry to add is not often, I send them on deck by divisions and make them run round the masts in single file, as in the practice of troops in transports.

With respect to the moral and intellectual improvement that can be effected in convicts in so short a period as the voyage occupies, I am not so sanguine as others, the Surgeon Superintendent has as much as he can do in preventing acts of immorality and indecency and this he will best accomplish by keeping them constantly employed in cleaning prison and decks, keeping their persons clean, working at trades, attending schools &c &c.  I never knew them fail in an outward respect to Religion, they always attend with seeming devotion to the Prayers read morning and evening and to the Church Service every Sunday.

The prevention of disease, especially scurvy, depends on a strict observance of the Rules of Hygiene, these are now well understood and amply laid down in our instructions, but from the various elements of discord in a convict ship, the Surgeon Superintendent must be eminently possessed of temper and firmness and above all an untiring attention to the multifarious duties of his station.

The Equestrian's first voyage was captained by James CROMARTY, with surgeon William WEST.  She departed Woolwich on 20 January 1844 taking 95 days to arrive at Hobart on 2 May 1844.  She embarked 290 male convicts - two died at sea.

In 1845, Equestrian sailed from London to Hobart, departing on 5 July and arriving 102 days later on 15 October.  Her captain on this voyage was Joseph L SPENCE and her surgeon was Thomas ROBERTSON.  She embarked 300 male convicts of which one was relanded and one died on the voyage.

M C LONEY was the captain on the third voyage of the Equestrian as a convict transport.  The surgeon on this voyage was Alexander CROSS.  She departed Plymouth on 1 September 1852 and arrived, 106 days later, in Hobart on 16 December 1852.

Alexander Cross claimed that at least a quarter of the 61 convicts sent to the Equestrian from Dartmoor prison in 1852 were "old and worn out men", while he believed that probably more than 30 of the original number had been sent to Dartmoor as invalids from other prisons.  He asserted he would have objected to 30 or 40, but he thought it unlikely his objection would have been sustained.  (Bateson, 1974, p.61)

On this voyage, the Equestrian embarked 294 male convicts, but disembarked only 290 at Hobart.  The four unaccounted for are presumed to have died on the voyage.

Ancestors associated with the Equestrian on her first voyage include:


William Cain CREW b.c1821 - transportation



The Gilmore was a British ship of 500 tons carrying four guns which thrice transported convicts from England to Australia.  Its second voyage was to Hobart Town, arriving on 23 January 1839 having departed Portsmouth/Spithead on 5 October 1838, thus taking 111 days for the journey.  The ship was mastered by J THREAKER and landed 278 male prisoners, a guard of the 21st regiment and families, the Surgeon Superintendent Joshua STERET, and iron/rails for the railroad in Hobart Town on 24 January 1839.

The Gilmore sailed from Hobart Town on 20 February 1839, but didn't leave the Derwent River until 26 February 1839, heading for Sydney.  It carried government stores and 45 passengers, including 6 prisoners and their guard.  The agent was Hewitt & Co.  (Nicholson, 1985)

The Gilmore arrived in Sydney on 4 March 1839.  The prisoners and their guard must have left the ship at this point as she sailed from Sydney on 14 April 1839 headed for India and Guam carrying only ballast.

Ancestors associated with the Gilmore on her trip from Hobart to Sydney include:


James ELY b.c1800 - transportation


Governor Phillip

The Governor Phillip was a Government brig of 150 tons.  She plied the route, for a while at least, between Sydney and Norfolk Island during the 1830s and 1840s.  On 22 May 1839, under the captaincy of BOYLE, she sailed from Sydney for Norfolk Island carrying cattle, stores and passengers, including 14 prisoners and a guard of 34 soldiers of the 80th regiment.  (Nicholson, 1977)

Ancestors associated with the Governor Phillip on her trip to Norfolk Island in May 1839 include:


James ELY b.c1800 - transportation



The Guildford was a ship of 521 tons built at the Thames in 1810.  According to Bateson (1983, p.231)

The Guildford was one of the best known convict ships ...  In eight voyages as a convict ship the Guildford conveyed over 1,500 male prisoners to Australia for the loss of about a dozen men on the passage, the record of her passages being as follows:


London to Port Jackson

137 days


Ireland to Sydney

not recorded


Cork to Sydney

138 days


Portsmouth to Sydney

139 days


London to Sydney

99 days


England to Sydney

190 days


Plymouth to Sydney

116 days


Dublin to Sydney

115 days

The Guildford had the same master for its first seven voyages, Magnus JOHNSON.  Robert HARRISON was her master on her eighth voyage.  "Johnson was a prudent and conscientious master, and he treated the convicts humanely" (Bateson, 1983, p.232).

On her fourth voyage, the Guildford sailed from Portsmouth on 14 May 1820, passing via the Cape to Sydney, where she arrived on 30 September 1820, and then on to Hobart where she arrived on 28 October 1820, 167 days after leaving Portsmouth.  Her surgeon on this voyage was Hugh WALKER.  She carried 190 male convicts, of which one was landed at Sydney and the remaining 189 were landed at Hobart Town.

Ancestors associated with the Guildford on her fourth voyage include:


James ELY b.c1800 - transportation


Henry Porcher

The Henry Porcher was a convict transport.  She was a ship (or barque) of 485 tons built at Briston in 1817 (class A1) which made three trips to Australia as a convict transport.

On her first voyage she departed Dublin on 5 August 1825 under the captaincy of John THOMSON.  Her surgeon was Charles CARTER.  She took 120 days to travel to Sydney, where she arrived on 3 December 1825.  She embarked what is thought to be 176 male convicts and disembarked 175 - thus it assumed that one male convict died on the voyage.

In 1835, Henry Porcher embarked on her second voyage as a convict transport, departing Downs on 4 September 1834, taking 119 days to reach Sydney on 1 January 1835.  Her captain on this voyage was John HART, and her surgeon was Thomas GALLOWAY.  On this voyage, Henry Porcher embarked 260 male convicts, of which eight died on the voyage.

Henry Porcher's third voyage as a convict transport was again under the captaincy of John HART.  This time her surgeon was John SMITH.  She departed Portsmouth on 4 August 1836 and arrived at Hobart on 15 November 1836, taking 103 days to make the voyage.  She embarked 260 male convicts - two died on the voyage.

Ancestors associated with the Henry Porcher on her third voyage include:


John TRETHEWIE b.c1799 - transportation



The Indefatigable was a convict transport - the first transport to arrive in Tasmania after the Calcutta. 

The first transport to reach Tasmania direct from England was the Indefatigable, which arrived at Hobart on October 19, 1812.  She had been preparing to sail for Port Jackson when a despatch was received in London from Macquarie urging that a convict ship should be despatched direct to Tasmania.  Hitherto, with the exception of the prisoners transferred from Port Phillip by Collins in 1804 all the convicts to reach Tasmania had been transhipped from Sydney.  Usually they were despatched in small batches in the brigs and schooners owned by the colonial government or in locally-owned traders hired for the purpose.  This system, however, was uneconomical, and, in addition, prevented the convict population in Tasmania being built up rapidly. Macquarie's suggestion had been prompted by these considerations, and, the British authorities concurring with it, the Indefatigable's destination was altered.

The Indefatigable, having embarked 200 prisoners, sailed from London on June 4 in company with the Minstrel, bound for New South Wales and making her second voyage as a convict ship.  Built at Whitby in 1799 by Ing. Eskdale, the Indefatigable, a first-class ship of 549 tons, was owned by the well-known shipping firm of James Atty & Co.  She was a square-rigged three-master, with a length of 127 ft. and a beam of 31 ft. 8 ins., and had three decks.  The two ships made a passage to Rio of 54 or 55 days, and sailed again in company on August 11.  From Rio the Indefatigable took 69 days to Hobart, where she anchored, 137 days out from London, with the loss of one man. (Bateson, 1974, p.202)

On this first voyage her captain was John CROSS.  She departed from England on 4 June 1812 and arrived at Hobart on 19 October 1812.  She embarked 200 male convicts - only one died on the voyage.

The Indefatigable's second voyage as a convict transport was under the captaincy of Matthew BOWLES.  She sailed from England via Rio to Sydney arriving on 26 April 1815.  From Sydney she sailed to Java where she was burnt by accident at Batavia on 23 October 1815, a total loss.  On her second voyage she also embarked 200 male convicts - this time, two died on the voyage.

Ancestors associated with the Indefatigable on her first voyage include:


James JESSOP b.c1772 - transportation



The Indian was a passenger ship.  She was loaded in London on 10 July 1843 and sailed for Launceston.  Her master was W CARR and she weighed 350 tons.

A ship named Indian was used as a convict transport in 1810, but this is not the same ship as this one weighed 522 tons.

Another researcher, Peter Hodge, has put together information on this voyage.

Ancestors associated with the Indian include:


Mary HAWKEY b.c1797 - immigration


Frances ROWE b.c1823 - immigration


John TRETHEWIE b.c1799 - immigration


John TRETHEWIE b.c1819 - immigration


Lady Franklin

The Lady Franklin was a barque of 295 tons which plied the waters around Australia in the early 1800s.  She was sometimes used as a convict transport.  On 17 May 1844 she departed Norfolk Island carrying convicts and 24 military personnel of the 51st regiment (including Ensign SINGLETON) and one military person of the 96th regiment, as well as Master WILLETT and Dr AGNEW.  The Lady Franklin docked at Sydney on 26 May 1844, and then proceeded to Hobart Town where she arrived on 6 June 1844.

Ancestors associated with the Lady Franklin include:


James ELY b.c1800 - transportation


Lady Juliana

The Lady Juliana was a convict transport, the first to bring only female convicts to Australia, the first to sail after the first fleet and the first to be under private contract. 

The contract with William Richards, jun., provided that he should receive payment at the rate of nine shillings and sixpence per register ton per month from the time the Lady Juliana was taken up until six weeks after her discharge in New South Wales, with an allowance of 40 shillings per head for the clothing of each prisoner during the voyage and a victualling allowance of sixpence a day for each convict embarked.  The latter payment was to be increased to ninepence a day so long as fresh previsions were served before sailing and to a shilling a day when fresh rations were supplied at foreign ports of call.  In addition, Richards was to be paid, so long as the prisoners were aboard, seven shillings a day towards the salary of a surgeon.  (Bateson, 1974, p.20)

For various reasons, the departure of the Lady Juliana from England was long delayed.  She lay in the Thames River for six months before sailing from Plymouth on 29 July 1789.  Several accounts of her voyage have been written including a colourful account by one of the sailors on board, John NICOL (Flannery, 1997) and an analysis of the women on board titled The Floating Brothel (Rees, 2001 - read a review). 

The Lady Juliana was a ship of 401 tons.  She transported 226 female convicts to Port Jackson, arriving on 3 June 1790, 309 days after she left Plymouth, an unusually long voyage. 

She called at Teneriffe and St. Jago, and was a hundred and twenty days out when she arrived at Rio de Janeiro, where she remained for forty-five days.  From Rio she ran out to the Cape in fifty days, arriving at Table Bay on March 1, 1790.  H.M.S. Guardian, which had left England six weeks after the Lady Juliana, arrived at the Cape more than three months before her.  The Lady Juliana remained nineteen days at the Cape, and took seventy-five days for the passage from the Cape to Port Jackson.  (Bateson, 1974, p.121)

The naval agent appointed to the Lady Juliana was Lieutenant Thomas EDGAR (nicknamed Little Bassey). 

Nicol describes him as a "kind, humane man", very good to the women convicts.  "He had it in his power," Nicol recalls, "to throw overboard all their clothes when he gave them the convict dress, but he gave them to me to stow in the after hold, saying they would be of use to the poor creatures when they arrived at Port Jackson." (Bateson, 1974, p.120)

The surgeon was Richard ALLEY, by all accounts a competent medical officer, though unable to stop the fraternising between the sailors and convict women aboard the ship.  Many of the sailors formed "relationships" with the convict women and some of the women sold their favours.  The women also found ways to obtain alcohol and were often rowdy and drunk during the voyage.

Not all of the female convicts were involved in this behaviour.  Some were put to work (and paid) by Captain AITKEN making shirts out of linen he had brought on board.  He  made a tidy profit when he sold the shirts at Port Jackson.  The female convicts were embarked from Newgate and county gaols, the majority being from London. 

John NICOL recorded many stories about the journey of the Lady Juliana from England to Port Jackson which has allowed historians to put together a detailed picture of the journey.

At the Cape disaster almost overtook the Lady Juliana.  The carpenter carelessly allowed the pitch-pot to boil over on deck, and as flames and smoke arose, the frightened women ran screaming about the deck, creating a great deal of confusion.  Nicol says he was able to keep the fire under control until the seamen extinguished it with water, and the ship was saved from burning.  She had another narrow escape when standing into Port Jackson in a strong southerly.  She got close into North Head, and only the set of the tide saved her from going ashore.  As it was, she was unable to make her way up harbour, and eventually had to be towed into Sydney Cove on June 6, three days after she had entered the heads.  (Bateson, 1974, p.123)

Only five women died during the voyage - rations were properly issued, the ship was kept clean and fumigated and the women were given free access to the deck and received fresh provisions at their extended ports of call.  Several of the women gave birth during the passage and many were pregnant upon arrival at Sydney Cove.

A list of all convicts transported on the second fleet, including the Lady Juliana is available here.  A list of all convicts on board the Lady Juliana is available here.  A list of Lady Juliana convicts that came to Tasmania is available here.

Ancestors associated with the Lady Juliana include:


Catherine RILEY b.c1780 - immigration (transported with her mother)


Elizabeth RILEY b.c1764 - transportation


Esther THORNTON b.c1770 - transportation


Lady Nelson

The Lady Nelson was used as a passenger ship and convict transport.  The Lady Nelson, in company with the ship Ocean, transferred part of Lieutenant Colonel David COLLINS' abandoned settlement from Port Phillip to the River Derwent arriving on 20 February to establish a second settlement at Sullivans Cove.  HMS Calcutta arrived in May 1804.

Information about the Lady Nelson is available here.

Ancestors associated with the Lady Nelson include:


John BLACKLOW b.c1774 - immigration


Mary Anne I

The Mary Anne I was a ship of 479 tons which was built at Batavia in 1807.  She made two voyages as a convict transport.  On her first voyage she arrived at Sydney 19 January 1816 carrying 103 female convicts.  One had been re-landed before departure, one died on the voyage, so 101 were disembarked at Sydney.  On this voyage here master was John R ARBUTHNOT and her surgeon was James BOWMAN.

On her second voyage, the Mary Anne I sailed from Portsmouth on 25 December 1821 via Rio and Hobart to Sydney, arriving on 20 May 1822, thus taking 146 days for the voyage.  Her master on this voyage was Henry WARINGTON and her surgeon was James HALL.  This surgeon had a bit of a reputation as a "zealous, meddlesome and litigious individual" (Bateson, 1983, p.225).  When surgeon aboard the Brothers he tried to suppress prostitution, so it can be assumed he took a similar attitude aboard the Mary Anne I

108 female convicts were embarked on this second voyage, of which only one died during the voyage.  As such, 45 female convicts were landed at Hobart on 2 May 1822 and the remaining 62 were landed at Sydney 18 days later.

Ancestors associated with the Mary Anne I on her second voyage include:


Elizabeth BOUCHER b.c1804 - transportation



In 1820, the Midas carried passengers from England to Tasmania; five years later she carried convicts.  She was a ship of 430 tons built at Hull in 1809 (class E1). 

The Midas left England carrying passengers in 1820 and arrived at Hobart on 12 January 1821 under the captaincy of Master WATSON.

Her captain in 1825, as a convict transport, was James BAIGRIE and her surgeon was Charles CAMERON.  The Midas departed London on 24 July 1825, sailing via St Jago and Hobart to Sydney, arriving there on 17 December 1825, having arrived at Hobart on 23 November 1825.  On this voyage she embarked 109 female convicts of which one died on the voyage, 58 were landed at Hobart and 50 were landed at Sydney.

Ancestors associated with the Midas on her voyage in 1820 include:


Christiana PRESNELL b.c1808 - immigration


John PRESNELL b.c1786 - immigration


Eleanor SKELTON b.c1791 - immigration



The Ocean was the supply ship which accompanied the HMS Calcutta to Port Phillip Bay in order to establish a settlement in 1803 under the leadership of Lt Col David COLLINS.  When this settlement was abandoned, the Ocean, in two journeys, relocated the settlers, convicts and  marines to the River Derwent (Hobart Town) in 1804.


Oriental Queen

The Oriental Queen only made one voyage as a convict transport.  She departed Plymouth on 4 November 1852, taking 107 days to arrive at Hobart on 19 February 1853, the last year of transportation to Tasmania.  She was a ship of 645 tons (draught of 14' 6") built at Cork in 1842 (AE1 class) and registered in London (owned by Blyshe & Green)

Her master (and agent) was S R THOMAS and her surgeon was David GEDDES.  She carried 280 male convicts, of which three died before arrival in Hobart.  Apart from the convicts, the Oriental Queen carried 2 guns, 32 crew, 4 boxes of mail, 1 bag of despatches, 49 men of the 11th regiment, 1 man of the 99th regiment, 7 women and 10 children, including the cabin passengers Dr GEDDES R N, Major REED 99th Regiment, F PETREE Ensign 11th Regiment and C CASPER Religious Instructor.

Upon arrival in the River Derwent on 19 February 1853, she was boarded by the Pilot, W LAWRENCE at 12:30 pm 12 miles NNW of the Iron Pot Light-House.  The wind was westerly and the weather was squally.  Her state of health was good. 

Ancestors associated with the Oriental Queen include:


Joseph DAVIES b.c1828 - transportation


Providence II

The Providence II was a ship of 380 tons built at Lynn in 1812.  The Providence II sailed as a convict transport to Tasmania in 1821 and 1826.  On her first voyage she departed from England on 13 June 1821, sailing via Port Praya, Rio and Hobart to Sydney Cove, arriving at Hobart on 18 December 1821 after 188 days and Sydney on 7 January 1822 after 208 days.  She carried 103 female convicts on this voyage, landing 53 at Hobart then 50 at Sydney.

On her second voyage she departed The Downs, Thames River on 24 December 1825 carrying 100 female convicts.  She disembarked 99 of these convicts at Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land 143 days later on 16 May 1826 after sailing via Tenerife.  Her master on this voyage was John WAUCHOPE and her surgeon superintendent was Matthew BURNSIDE.

According to Bateson (1983, pp226-227), Surgeon Matthew BURNSIDE:

arrived at Hobart as surgeon-superintendent of the female transport Providence on May 16, 1826, and at the inquiry into his conduct was proved to have cohabited for the greater part of the voyage with one of the female prisoners entrusted to his care and to have invited other convicts to his cabin for a drink.  Instead of remonstrating against these irregularities, the ship's master John Wauchope, had been a party to them.

Ancestors associated with Providence II on her second voyage include:


Julia MULLINS b.c1805 - transportation



The Regalia sailed as an immigrant ship in 1822 and later in 1826 as a convict transport.  She was built at Sunderland. 

As an immigrant ship, Regalia  arrived in Hobart on 30 December 1822 under the captaincy of T COLLINS.  The ship's arrival notice in the Hobart Town Gazette of 4 Jan 1823 (p2 c1) read:

Ship Arrivals from England

Per Regalia, 70 in number viz. James Ross, Esq., L.L.D. and family, Mr Smith and family, Miss S A Grefley, Mr Gill, Mr Danvers, Mr Atkinson, Mr Curling and family, Mr Shennan, Mr J Roberton, Mr W Robertson, Mr Evans and family, Mr Seal, Mrs S Presnell and family, Mr Barker, Mr Browning, Mr Westley, Mr Bainton, Mr Casper, Mr Lancester, Mr Perriman, Mr & Mrs Field, and Mr Martinge.

Her master on the convict voyage was Robert BURT with James RUTHERFORD as surgeon.  She sailed from Dublin on 16 March 1826, via Rio to Sydney, arriving on 5 August 1826, 142 days after departure.  She transported 130 male convicts with only one dying during the voyage.

Ancestors associated with the Regalia on her voyage in 1822 include:


Sarah TOOTH b.c1741 - immigration


Royal Saxon

The Royal Saxon brought bounty immigrants to Launceston from London via Cork, arriving on 22 November 1842. 

A list of immigrants aboard Royal Saxon is available here.

Ancestors associated with the Royal Saxon include:


Ann Sarah Maria BANNISTER b.c1817 - immigration



The Scarborough was a convict transport which sailed on its second voyage with the second fleet, otherwise known as the death fleet.  Much has been written about this second fleet and the terrible conditions of the prisoners, the most comprehensive and well-researched being Michael FLYNN's book, The Second Fleet:  Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790 (Flynn, 1993).

A main reason why the voyage was so grim for the convicts was the way in which the contractors were paid.  They were paid on a per capita basis, with the contract stipulating an all-inclusive payment (for transportation, clothing and food) of £17 7s 6d per convict.  There was no incentive in this contract for the ships' masters to keep their convicts alive.

The naval agent for the second fleet transports Neptune, Scarborough and Surprise was Lieutenant John SHAPCOTE.  The evidence suggests he was "lax, incompetent, and irresolute" (Bateson, 1974, p31).  The highest death toll (147 men and 11 women) was on the Neptune the ship on which SHAPCOTE sailed.  Overall, 256 male convicts and 11 female convicts died, 26.5 percent of all those transported.  Another 48.3 percent were landed sick.

The surgeon on board Scarborough on her second voyage was Augustus Jacob BEYER.  His ability to effectively supervise health of the prisoners is questionable considering the fate and condition of many of the prisoners on the Scarborough and the first voyage of the Britannia, a ship on which he was also surgeon. The master was John MARSHALL .

259 male prisoners were embarked per Scarborough during December 1789 for its second voyage as part of the second fleet.  Seventy-three of these died on the voyage (one for every 3.5 convicts embarked!), six were relanded and eight more (survivors from the wreck of the Guardian) were embarked at the Cape.  Thus 188 were disembarked at Sydney Cove, of which 96 were sick.  The fleet had sailed from Portsmouth on 19 January 1790 and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June 1790, just 25 days after the arrival of the Lady Juliana which left 6 months previous.  They had called at the Cape on 13 April 1790, refreshing supplies for 16 days. 

The rations of the prisoners in the Scarborough were not deliberately withheld, but owing to a reported attempt at mutiny the convicts were very closely confined.  On February 12, when the Surprize was out of sight and the Neptune a long way ahead, a plot to seize the ship and murder the officers was formed by some of the prisoners.  Their intentions were disclosed by a forger, Samuel Burt, and the plotters were secured without difficulty.  The ringleaders were flogged, and the more dangerous of them stapled to the deck ... the prisoners were kept closely confined and given insufficient access to the deck.  It was to this fact that the high death rate was directly due. 

The three ships presented a pitiful and sickening sight when they arrived at Port Jackson.  "... I beheld a sight truly shocking to the feelings of humanity," wrote the settlement's chaplain, Rev. Richard Johnson, describing his visit to the Surprize, "a great number of them laying, some half and others nearly quite naked, without either bed or bedding, unable to turn or help themselves.  Spoke to them as I passed along, but the smell was so offensive that I could scarcely bear it."  Johnson was persuaded not to venture into the Scarborough's prison, and of the Neptune he wrote that she "was still more wretched and intolerable, and therefore never attempted it." 

Johnson, however, watched the prisoners being disembarked.  "The landing of these people was truly affecting and shocking," he wrote, "great numbers were not able to walk, nor to move hand or food; such were slung over the ship's side in the same manner as they would sling a cask, a box or anything of that nature.  Upon being brought up to the open air some fainted, some died upon the deck, and others in the boat before they reached the shore.  When come on shore many were not able to walk, to stand, or to stir themselves in the least, hence some were led by others.  Some creeped upon their hands and knees, and some were carried upon the backs of others."  All were in an indescribably filthy state, "covered", as Johnson said, "almost with their own nastiness, their heads, bodies, cloths, blankets, all full of filth and lice."  (Bateson, 1974, pp128-129)

Most of the prisoners landed were, according to David COLLINS, "lean and emaciated".

The Scarborough was built at Scarborough in 1782, a ship of 418 tons.  Her maximum length was 111 feet, 6 inches, her maximum width was 30 feet, 2 inches and she had a height between decks of 4 feet, 5 inches.  "She was a two-decked, three-masted vessel, rigged as a barque, and was owned by three Scarborough merchants, Thomas, George and John Hopper" (Bateson, 1974, p.96).

The Scarborough had also sailed as part of the first fleet - again, much has been written about this voyage.  On this voyage, the Scarborough embarked her prisoners at Portsmouth.  She carried 208 male convicts.  Her master was John MARSHALL and her surgeon was Dennis CONSIDEN.  There were rumours of a mutiny aboard the Scarborough on the run from England to Teneriffe, but it came to nothing.  The Scarborough took 184 days to reach Botany Bay and sailed into Port Jackson with the rest of the fleet on 26 January 1788.

It seems that on this voyage the marines fared less well than the convicts, with marines receiving between 50 and 150 lashes for various offences and convicts only receiving between one and two dozen lashes.  No convicts were lost on the passage of the Scarborough - all had been embarked in a healthy state. 

Information on the second fleet, including the Scarborough, is available here.  A list of convicts on the second fleet is provided here.  More information the second fleet is available here.  More information on the Scarborough is available here.

Ancestors associated with the Scarborough on her second voyage as part of the second fleet include:


William SHERBURD b.c1760 - transportation



The Surprise was a convict transport which was part of the second fleet, along with the ScarboroughJust over a month after it's arrival in Port Jackson on 26 June 1790 (after having been blown out to sea after spotting the heads on 23 June), the Surprise sailed to Norfolk Island with marines, convicts and supplies on 31 July 1790, arriving a week later on 7 August 1790.

The Surprise was a ship of 400 tons and took 158 days to make the voyage from Portsmouth to Port Jackson, having left Portsmouth on 19 January 1790.  On its voyage as part of the second fleet its master was Nicholas ANSTIS and the surgeon was William WATERS.  Nicholas ANSTIS was also the master for the voyage from Sydney Cove to Norfolk Island. 

The Surprize, by reason of her size and build, was an unsuitable vessel for so long a voyage and proved a wet ship even in moderate weather.  In the rough seas, and heavy gales encountered after leaving the Cape the convicts, according to Captain William Hill who commanded the guard in her, "were considerably above their waists in water, and the men of my company, whose berths were not so far forward, were nearly up to the middles".  (Bateson, 1974, p127)

On the second fleet voyage, the Surprise embarked 256 male convicts, two of which were relanded; 218 convicts were disembarked at Sydney Cove after 36 died on the ill-fated voyage from England - 121 of those landed were sick.

In the smaller Surprize, owing to the great quantities of water shipped, the convicts lived in a state of perpetual misery and discomfort, and as the decks were swept continuously by seas in heavy weather, they necessarily had to remain confined for long periods in the damp, unhealthy prison.  Scurvy and other diseases appeared and could not be checked, but there seems little doubt that, as in the Neptune, the prisoners were deliberately starved by the ship's master, Nicholas Anstis, who had been chief mate of the Lady Penrhyn in the First Fleet.  (Bateson, 1974, p.128)

The Surprise made a second voyage as a convict transport from England to Port Jackson in 1794, arriving on 25 October having departed England on 2 May, a voyage of 176 days.  This time her master was Patrick CAMPBELL and her surgeon was James THOMSON.  On this voyage she only carried 23 male convicts and 60 female convicts, none of which were lost on the voyage.

Ancestors associated with the Surprise on its voyage from Sydney Cove to Norfolk Island in 1790 include:


Catherine RILEY b.c1780 - immigration


Elizabeth RILEY b.c1764 - transportation


William SHERBURD b.c1760 - transportation


Esther THORNTON b.c1770 - transportation


Sydney Cove

The Sydney Cove made one trip as a convict transport, departing Falmouth direct to Sydney on 11 January 1807 and arriving 158 days later on 18 June 1807.  Her captain was William EDWARDS.  She was a ship of only 282 tons built in Rotterdam in 1803. 

The Sydney Cove embarked 4 male convicts and 113 female convicts.  Three of the female convicts died on the voyage.

A list of all the women transported per Sydney Cove is available here.

Ancestors associated with the Sydney Cove include:


Susannah BRELSFORD b.c1790 - transportation



The HMS Tortoise made one trip as a convict transport. She was a naval ship of 1000 tons.  Her master was Captain J HOOD, R.N. and her surgeon was Thomas BROWNRIGG. 

HMS Tortoise departed Plymouth on 26 October 1841, taking 116 days, without stopping, to reach Hobart on 19 February 1842.  She embarked 400 male prisoners of which three were relanded and three died on the voyage.  Thus 394 male convicts were disembarked at Hobart.

Information on HMS Tortoise is available here.

Ancestors associated with the HMS Tortoise include:


William Caldecut COWLEY b.c1814 - transportation


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