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OUR DNA TESTING AND RESULTS

Our Male Y DNA Results
Further Reading - Y-DNA
Our Maternal DNA Results
Further Reading - mtDNA

INTRODUCTION

The DNA testing we are having done is performed on samples taken by simply scraping up against the inside cheek of a family member with a sterile swab, and sending the sample off to a laboratory for analysis. This testing can provide three kinds of information: the likely ethnic origins of our ancestors, the likely migration patterns of our ancestors, and an exact DNA fingerprint which can be used to confirm relationships and to find hitherto unknown relatives.

So, what is DNA, anyhow? If you have not studied any science or heard about DNA in the news, you might not know that DNA is a special kind of molecule that occurs in all of our cells. It is that part of all of the cells of our bodies that contains messages saying whether we are a boy or a girl, what color our eyes, hair and skin are, whether we are short or tall, what our blood type is, and all kinds of other things. For a longer, simplified explanation of what genes are and do, you can click here for recommended reading.

The DNA molecule consists of long strands that are called chromosomes. There are four types of DNA chromosomes that are used to study genealogy and ancient history:

  1. The Y chromosome - this is the chromosome that is in the DNA of males and not of females
  2. The X chromosome - this is a chromosome that is either paired with the Y chromosome in boys, or has two strands in girls
  3. mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) - this is present in both sexes but can only be passed down to their children by mothers
  4. Autosomal DNA - contains of 22 chromosomes that everyone has, and can be passed down to children regardless of the sex of the parent or child

The fourth item on the above list, Autosomal DNA, has become very popular for people to look at their ethnicity, and is what most people think of when asked about DNA testing. But as you can see above, there are a number of types of DNA. Each plays a unique role in our bodies and in the study of our history and genealogy.

On this page, we are focusing on the Y Chromosome and on mitochondrial DNA (i.e., mtDNA) results of our family members because, of all the types of DNA, they are the ones of most value in studying one's direct maternal and paternal lineages, going way back in time. Y DNA and mtDNA testing are also the most scientifically studied and most reliable, for proving and disproving one's lineage if you go back more than just a couple of generations.

DNA scientists have various theories about where the ancestors of people, whose DNA fingerprints match certain patterns, lived many centuries ago. Those patterns found in the Y chromosome and in mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) have been given names, like A, B, B1, B2, C, and so on. When Y DNA testing or mitochondrial DNA is performed on someone, their DNA can be compared to these patterns, and if their DNA matches one of these patterns, which are called haplotypes, then they are assigned to a haplogroup that corresponds to that haplotype.

Once one of our family members has been assigned to a haplogroup, we can then read about the ancient history of other people who belong to this haplogroup, and learn where our ancestors were likely to have come from and moved to many, many centuries ago. In the case of a perfect match for either mtDNA or Y-DNA, we know that somewhere in our history, the people tested share either a particular matriarch or patriarch.

Male or Y Chromosome Testing

Our Y-chromosome DNA testing, testing of the Y-DNA, is based on that part of the DNA molecule which is only passed from male to male, from father to son. It only looks at male or paternal lineage. Women do not receive or carry this kind of DNA.

The Y-DNA test results enable us to compare the pattern of our family member's Y DNA fingerprint to those of other living males. We are looking for a perfect match for all the points along the DNA molecule that are being compared, which are called markers. If our Y DNA matches perfectly for all of the 37 or 67 basic Y-DNA markers we are comparing, then we have found a cousin.

The Y-DNA testing can be performed on more or fewer markers, such as 12 markers or 25 markers, or 111 markers or what is called the Big Y. But we are starting out by using 37 and 67 marker tests for our Y DNA, because a match on fewer markers would not be very meaningful if we want to know if someone is related to us in recent history. And testing at higher levels is much more expensive and should only be done when warranted by the results of a lower level of testing.

In many populations, there are many, many matches at the 12 marker level of testing, and sometimes also too many at the 37 or 67 marker level. And, conversely, when there is a lack or very low number of perfect matches at a low level markers, it is highly unusual, suggesting either some major DNA shift, or that most members of the line perished in some kind of natural or man-made calamities or disaster(s), such as major flooding, pogroms, the Holocaust or, more likely, that our distant cousins are living in an area where, whether due to cultural, language or financial reasons, people are not purchasing DNA tests for genealogical purposes.

Once we study the results of a 37 or 67 marker Y DNA test, we can determine whether further testing is warranted to hone in on the appropriate direct paternal line.

You can learn more about Y-DNA by clicking here.

Female or Maternal Chromosome Testing

Our maternal or mtDNA testing is based on that part of the DNA molecule that mothers pass on to all their children, both their daughters and their sons. So, mtDNA testing for common maternal lineage can be performed on anyone, but the results will tell us just the migration of their mother's mother's mother's maternal line, revealing DNA patterns going back the maternal line many thousands of years. Men cannot pass their mtDNA on to their children, it is only passed from women to their children.

You can learn more about mtDNA by clicking here.

Autosomal Chromosome Testing

Autosomal DNA testing is now also available from a variety of laboratories. Autosomal chromosomes can be passed to children of either sex by either parent, and gives us the option of comparing our autosomal chromosome fingerprints with people we think are related, even when there is no one available to test as a direct line male or direct line female descendant for testing either Y-DNA or mt-DNA.

Since autosomal DNA testing clearly reveals ethnic origins, it also can show the proportion of ancestors someone has, who came from specific areas of the world or had any clearly defined ancestral origins. The autosomal DNA testing we have had performed thus far confirms ancient Jewish ancestry in our families.

When autosomal DNA is performed, the results are also compared to those of other people from various locales and ethnic groups, and can provide us with very meaningful information about our general ancestral origins. Because Jews have primarily married within the Jewish population for millenia, specific DNA signatures are revealed in autosomal DNA testing that confirm our ancient Jewish ancestry.

If you want to see how much autosomal DNA people Ashkenazi Jews tend to share with each other, it is better to look at studies of just that, rather than look at studies of how much DNA relative share with each other in the general population. This is because Jewish Autosomal DNA breaks all the rules, and the results from looking at studies of DNA in the general population simply do not apply.

https://larasgenealogy.blogspot.com/2018/01/ashkenazic-jewish-shared-dna-survey.html

So while autosomal DNA is a great tool when used properly, using commercial test results to determine how closely related we are to other people is inevitably fraught with errors, precisely because of this intermarriage. People with Jewish ancestry share a whole lot of DNA with each other just because of that ancestry. While all the various DNA testing companies try to take that into account when estimating relationships, they still tend to overpredict how related we are to other people, as well as to sometimes underpredict how related we really are to our cousins, just because of the random and unpredictable way in which the bits of DNA are passed down from parent to child.

Nevertheless, the use of autosomal DNA is quite promising, and we are excited about working with this type of testing as an additional tool in helping us to learn more about our ancestry and to connect with distant or hitherto unknown cousins. We are testing our autosomal DNA using FamilyTreeDNA's Family Finder for several of our families over a number of years, and have also had some family members who tested their autosomal DNA at ancestryDNA . Please do contact us if you have already tested, or are interested in learning more, participating, or helping fund this testing.

Interpreting DNA Test Results

So, you have your or your family member's DNA test results, or are about to read about them below. What do all the numbers mean? How you interpret the results depends on what your reasons are for getting tested, as well as what kinds of tests were performed and which company performed the testing.

In our case, we are having simple genealogical testing done, to answer genealogical questions. We could examine each and every number in an effort to learn what particular portion of the DNA molecule they correspond to, and what the various specific numbers mean. However, we have chosen to focus our attention, instead, on the summary measures and on locating other people whose profiles match ours.

We have posted the specific results for our Y DNA and mtDNA testing here only in order that if, per chance, someone happens to be looking for DNA matches using a search engine instead of a DNA database for locating matches, it will increase the chances they can find us. So, if the numbers do not make any sense, don't worry about it, the most important thing for us is to see if our numbers match those of someone else.

We have not posted any specific results here for our autosomal DNA testing because there are no simple, straightforward summary measures that make sense to post in detail. All the family members tested thus far have Middle Eastern Jewish Ancestry, according to the Population Finder utility at FamilyTreeDNA.com. A few also have small portions of other European populations mentioned in their results, such as Sardinian Spanish and Western European.

Our Research and Our Privacy Policy

We have ordered DNA testing for the families mentioned on this page, in the hopes that we will be able to find out more about our history and find "lost" cousins who we can work together with in expanding our family history and family tree. The basic results below are just the bare bones numbers defining our DNA fingerprints, and the more meaningful results of history learned via connections made with any newly found cousins will be posted once results have been studied more intensely or relationships have been confirmed. So, do check back occasionally or contact us if you want to be informed of our progress.

Please note that, in accordance with our strict privacy policy, no information about any person`s DNA test results is published here without their expressed, eager permission. First names of living people are obviously also not available on this page for reasons of confidentiality.

OUR MALE Y DNA RESULTS

Feldberg

Results of our Feldberg Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com are consistent with that of haplogroup R1a1a, with terminal SNP of R-M198. This haplogroup is thought to be associated with the Kurgan culture, which is known for having domesticated the horse about 5000 years ago. About 55% of Russians belong to this haplogroup, which also has members in the Slavic, western Asian and Indian cultures. For suggested further reading about this haplogroup, click here.

If you would like to read more about what our Feldberg DNA results mean, practically speaking, then click here.

Our Feldberg Y-DNA results were posted as user 6AD3P at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our results. Meanwhile, the results of our initial 12-marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus         1      2      3      4      5        6      7      8      9      10      11      12
 
DYS#        393   390   19*   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389-1   392   389-2   
 
Alleles      13     25     16     10     11      14     12      12     10     13      11      30
 
    *Also known as DYS 394

The results of our Feldberg Panel 2 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13   14    15     16     17    18    19    20    21     22       23         24       25
 
DYS#    458  459a   459b   455   454   447   437   448   449   464a**   464b**    464c**    464d**
 
Alleles  14   9     10     11    11    24    14     20    31      12      12        15        15
 
**Values for these particular markers were adjusted down by familytreedna by 1 point because of a change in lab nomenclature in May 2003.

The results of our Feldberg Panel 3 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 
Locus    26     27      28      29      30    31    32     33    34     35     36    37
 
DYS#    460  GATA H4  YCA IIa  YCA IIb  456   607   576   570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438   
 
Alleles  11     11      19      23      14    16    19     20    35     39     14    11

We have also obtained testing for the additional 30 markers of the 67 marker Y-DNA test for Feldberg. The results of the first 9 markers for this panel of our Feldberg 67 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 4 (38-47)
 
Locus     38     39       40      41       42       43     44     45      46      47
 
DYS#     531    578    395S1a    395S1b    590     537    641    472    406S1    511    
 
Alleles   11     8       17       17       8       12     10      8       11      10
 

The next 13 markers of our Feldberg Panel 4 of the 67 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 4 (48-60)
 
Locus     48      49     50      51     52     53     54    55    56     57     58     59    60
 
DYS#     425    413a    413b    557    594     436   490   534   450    444    481    520    446
 
Alleles   12     22      22      15     10     12     12    13    8     14     23     21     12
 

Here are the results of the final 7 markers of the 67 marker test for our Feldberg family Y-DNA.

PANEL 4 (61-67)
 
Locus     61     62     63     64     65    66    67
 
DYS#     617    568    487    572    640   492   565
 
Alleles   12     11     13     10     11   12    13

If you wish to learn about our Feldberg family history, click here, and if you wish to view our family tree, which includes our Feldberg ancestors, you can click here for the Tribal Pages version of our tree. You also may like the reports at the Rootsweb WorldConnect version of our Feldberg Family Tree. If you want to view the most up to date online version of our Feldberg Family Tree, go to http://thecohens.theunixplace.com/trees/feldberg/


 
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Grossman

Results of our Grossman Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com reveal haplogroup R1b1b2, R-M269 . People with this haplogroup are thought to have left the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East over 10,000 years ago, and spread to Eurasia before spreading out over Europe. For suggested reading about this haplogroup, click here.

Our Grossman Y-DNA results were posted as user 8BAK8 at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our results. Meanwhile, the results of the first 12 markers of our Grossman Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus     1   2   3   4   5    6    7   8 9   10   11   12
 
DYS#     393 390 19* 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
 
Alleles   12  23  14  11  12  15   12  12 12  14   14   29
 
*Also known as DYS 394

The results of our Grossman Panel 2 of the Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13  14   15   16   17  18  19  20  21   22   23     24     25
 
DYS#     458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a** 464b** 464c** 464d**
 
Alleles  18   9   10   11   11  25  15  19  30   15    15     16     17
 
**Values for these particular markers were adjusted down by familytreedna by 1 point because of a change in lab nomenclature in May 2003.

The results of our Grossman Panel 3 of the Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 
Locus      26     27      28        29      30      31      32      33   34      35     36    37
 
DYS#      460  GATA H4  YCA IIa   YCA IIb   456     607    576     570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438   
 
Alleles    11    11       19       23       17      15      17      16   36      39     12    12
 

If you wish to learn about our Grossman family history, click here, And if you wish to view our family tree, which includes our Grossman relatives and ancestors, you can click here for the Tribal Pages version of our tree. You also may like the reports at the Rootsweb WorldConnect version of our Grossman Section of our Feldberg Family Tree.

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Jacobs

Results of our Jacobs Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com reveal haplogroup R1b1a2, R-M269. People with this haplogroup are thought to have left the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East over 10,000 years ago, and spread to Eurasia before spreading out over Europe. For suggested reading about this haplogroup, click here.

Our Jacobs Y-DNA results were posted as user ATRCB at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our y-dna results. Meanwhile, the results of the first 12 markers of our Jacobs Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus     1   2   3   4   5    6    7   8 9   10   11   12
 
DYS#     393 390 19* 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
 
Alleles   12  25  14  10  11  14   11  14 12  13   14   29
 
*Also known as DYS 394

The results of our Jacobs Panel 2 of the Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13  14   15   16   17  18  19  20  21   22   23     24     25
 
DYS#     458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a** 464b** 464c** 464d**
 
Alleles  17   9   10   11   11  25  15  19  30   15    15     16     16
 
**Values for these particular markers were adjusted down by familytreedna by 1 point because of a change in lab nomenclature in May 2003.

The results of our Jacobs Panel 3 of the Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 
Locus      26     27      28        29      30      31      32      33   34      35     36    37
 
DYS#      460  GATA H4  YCA IIa   YCA IIb   456     607    576     570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438   
 
Alleles    11    10       19       23       15      16      17      17   37      38     12    12
 

If you wish to learn about our Jacobs family history, click here, and if you wish to view our Jacobs family tree, click here.

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Kaminsky

Results of our Kaminsky Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com reveal membership in haplogroup T M70. Haplogroup T apparently split off from haplogroup K about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago, with its members travelling from the middle east out around the Mediterranean and other parts of Asia and Africa. The T Y-DNA haplogroup has been found in about 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews.

Ancestry.com has called the ancient members of haplotype T, "the valley farmers" . Not all other sources mention this, but they claim that this haplotype populated areas around the Tigris River where agriculture developed.

This haplogroup also has the distinction of having the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson, as a member. This neither means that Jefferson is an ancestor of ours, nor that he necessarily had Jewish ancestors. What this does mean is that, tens of thousands of years ago, our male Kaminsky ancestors and his shared a forebear. For suggested further reading about haplogroup T, click here.

Our Kaminsky Y-DNA results were posted under the ID of CCW8F at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our y-dna results. Meanwhile, the exact values of our Kaminsky Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus    1     2     3     4     5       6      7    8     9    10      11     12   
 
DYS#    393   390   19*   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389-1   392   389-2   
 
Alleles  13   23    14    11     14     16     11    12    11   14       13    30
 
*Also known as DYS 394
 

The results of our Kaminsky Panel 2 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13     14    15     16    17    18    19    20   21     22       23        24       25       26      27
 
DYS#    458   459a   459b   455   454   447   437   448   449   464a**   464b**   464c**   464d**   464e**   464f**   
 
Alleles  17     9     9     11    13    26    14    20    34      11       11      11       13       16       18
 
**Values for these particular markers were adjusted down by familytreedna by 1 point because of a change in lab nomenclature in May 2003.

Here are the results of the third panel of the 37 marker test for our Kaminsky family Y-DNA.

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 
Locus     28      29        30        31      32    33    34    35    36     37     38    39
 
DYS#     460   GATA H4   YCA IIa   YCA IIb   456   607   576   570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438
 
Alleles   10     10        23         23      17    14    17    16    35     36     11     9

We have also upgraded our Kaminsky Y-DNA to 67 markers. The results of the first 9 markers of the additional 30 markers are:

PANEL 4 (38-47)
 
Locus     38     39       40      41       42       43     44     45      46      47
 
DYS#     531    578    395S1a    395S1b    590     537    641    472    406S1    511    
 
Alleles   11     8       17       17       8       11     11      8       12      9
 

The next 13 markers of our Kaminsky Panel 4 of the 67 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 4 (48-60)
 
Locus     48      49     50      51     52     53     54    55    56     57     58     59    60
 
DYS#     425    413a    413b    557    594     436   490   534   450    444    481    520    446
 
Alleles   12     20      20      17     10     12     12    14    8     11     22     19     14
 

Here are the results of the final 7 markers of the 67 marker test for our Kaminsky family Y-DNA.

PANEL 4 (61-67)
 
Locus     61     62     63     64     65    66    67
 
DYS#     617    568    487    572    640   492   565
 
Alleles   11     12     14     10     12   12    11

If you wish to find out about our Kaminsky family history and Kamienetsky ancestors, click here, and if you wish to explore our Kaminsky family tree, click here.

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Kaplansky/Cohen

Results of our Kaplansky/Cohen Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com are consistent with that of haplogroup J2, defined by the terminal SNP M-172. This haplogroup is thought to have originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent, after which it spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and into India. It is thought to have originated at least 10,000 years ago, and research shows that a major portion of Cohanim belong to J2 and the closely related haplogroup J1. For suggested further reading about this haplogroup, click here.

Our Kaplansky/Cohen Y-DNA results were posted as user RW9DE at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our y-dna results. Meanwhile, the results of the first 12 markers of our Kaplansky/Cohen Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus    1     2     3     4     5       6      7    8     9    10      11     12   
 
DYS#    393   390   19*   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389-1   392   389-2   
 
Alleles  12    23    15    10    14      17    10    15    11     13     11    29  
 
*Also known as DYS 394

The results of our Kaplansky/Cohen Panel 2 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13     14    15     16    17    18    19    20   21     22       23        24       25
 
DYS#    458   459a   459b   455   454   447   437   448   449   464a**   464b**   464c**   464d**
 
Alleles  15     8     9     11     11   24     15    21    32     12      13       17      18    
 
**Values for these particular markers were adjusted down by familytreedna by 1 point because of a change in lab nomenclature in May 2003.

The results of our Kaplansky/Cohen Panel 3 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 

Locus      26     27      28        29      30      31      32      33   34      35     36    37
 
DYS#      460  GATA H4  YCA IIa   YCA IIb   456     607    576     570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438   
 
Alleles    10    11      19        23       16      14      18      18     36     37    12    9
*Also known as DYS 394

If you wish to learn about our Kaplansky/Cohen family history, click here, or you can visit our Jacobs Family Tree home page, which explains how to navigate the tree and has quick links for each branch, including our Kaplansky/Cohen family.

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Levin

Results of our Levin Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com are consistent with that of haplogroup G1a1, with a terminal SNP of M201. This haplogroup separated from other types within Haplogroup G and G2 somewhere between 5,000 and 12,000 years ago. One source claims that about 10% of Jewish males carry G2b Y DNA, another says that 10% of Ashkenazi Jewish males are haplogroup G. The origins and migration of this haplogroup are still being researched, but it is clear that members of G seem to have lived in western Asia or the Middle East before spreading elsewhere. For suggested further reading about this haplogroup, along with various interesting maps and charts, click here.

These Y DNA results placing our direct line male lineage in Haplogroup G are also consistent with the lack of any family tradition of belonging to the Levite tribe. Somewhere along the way, the Levin surname was taken by our direct line male Levin ancestors, for reasons having nothing to do with tribal membership.

Our Levin Y-DNA results were posted as user YTT8B at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our y-dna results. Meanwhile, the results of our initial 12-marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus        1     2     3     4      5       6     7     8      9      10      11      12
 
DYS#        393   390   19*   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389-1   392   389-2   
 
Alleles     13     23    14    11     14     15     11      12     11     12      12      28
 
    *Also known as DYS 394

The results of our Levin Panel 2 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13   14    15     16     17    18    19    20    21     22       23         24       25
 
DYS#    458  459a   459b   455   454   447   437   448   449   464a**   464b**    464c**    464d**
 
Alleles  17   9     9     11    11    24    16     20    28      11      13        14        16
 
**Values for these particular markers were adjusted down by familytreedna by 1 point because of a change in lab nomenclature in May 2003.

The results of our Levin Panel 3 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 
Locus    26     27      28      29      30    31    32     33    34     35     36    37
 
DYS#    460  GATA H4  YCA IIa  YCA IIb  456   607   576   570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438   
 
Alleles   9     10      20    20      16    13    17     18    35     36     11    10

We have also obtained testing for the additional 30 markers of the 67 marker Y-DNA test for Levin. The results of the first 9 markers for this panel of our Levin 67 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 4 (38-47)
 
Locus     38     39       40      41       42       43     44     45      46      47
 
DYS#     531    578    395S1a    395S1b    590     537    641    472    406S1    511    
 
Alleles   11     8       16       16       8       11     10      8       11      10
 

The next 13 markers of our Levin Panel 4 of the 67 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 4 (48-60)
 
Locus     48      49     50      51     52     53     54    55    56     57     58     59    60
 
DYS#     425    413a    413b    557    594     436   490   534   450    444    481    520    446
 
Alleles   12     20      21      16     10     12     12    18    8     11     21     20     15
 

Here are the results of the final 7 markers of the 67 marker test for our Levin family Y-DNA.

PANEL 4 (61-67)
 
Locus     61     62     63     64     65    66    67
 
DYS#     617    568    487    572    640   492   565
 
Alleles   12     11     13     10     11   11    11

If you wish to read a genealogical report about the Levin family, click here, and if you wish to view our Levin family tree, click here.

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Rubin

Results of our Rubin Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com reveal haplogroup R1a1a, with a terminal SNP of R-M512. This haplogroup is thought to be associated with the Kurgan culture, which is known for having domesticated the horse about 5000 years ago. About 55% of Russians belong to this haplogroup, which also has members in the Slavic, western Asian and Indian cultures. For suggested further reading about this haplogroup, click here.

Our Rubin Y-DNA results were posted as user BWRGM at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our y-dna results. Meanwhile, the results of the first 12 markers of our 37 marker Rubin Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus     1   2   3   4   5    6    7   8 9   10   11   12
 
DYS#     393 390 19* 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
 
Alleles   13  25  16  11  11  14   12  12 10  13   11   30
 
*Also known as DYS 394

The results of our Rubin Panel 2 of the Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13  14   15   16   17  18  19  20  21   22   23     24     25
 
DYS#     458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a** 464b** 464c** 464d**
 
Alleles  15   9   10   11   11  23  14  19  31   15    15     15     16
 
**Values for these particular markers were adjusted down by familytreedna by 1 point because of a change in lab nomenclature in May 2003.

The results of our Rubin Panel 3 of the Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 
Locus      26     27      28        29      30      31      32      33   34      35     36    37
 
DYS#      460  GATA H4  YCA IIa   YCA IIb   456     607    576     570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438   
 
Alleles    11    11       19       23       16      15      20      19   34      38     12    11
 

If you wish to learn about the Rubin branch of our family, click here, and if you wish to view the Rubin branch of our family tree, click here.

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Vishnick

Results of our Vishnick Y-chromosome DNA testing performed by http://familytreeDNA.com reveal haplogroup R1b1b2, with a terminal SNP of M269. This haplogroup is an offshoot of R1b1, of which the ancestors, as mentioned above, are thought to have left the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East over 10,000 years ago, and spread to Eurasia before spreading out over Europe.

The R1b1b2 haplogroup was originally thought to be a distinct offshoot of R1b, and was called R1b3 and then, after further research, R1b1c. But additional research has shown that it actually seems to have branched off from R1b1.

According to a Wikipedia article, research suggests that the R1b1b2 group existed before the last Ice Age and that it was associated with the Aurignacian culture which existed from about 32,000 B.C. to 21,000 BC. The precise migration pattern is uncertain, but the Aurignacian culture is thought to be associated with the Cro-Magnon people, the first modern humans to enter Europe, and to be the first documented human artists, who created sophisticated cave paintings.

However, the information provided at http://familytreeDNA.com is contrarary to this, stating that the R1b3 group developed about 1,800 to 2,000 years ago. For suggested further reading about this haplogroup, click here.

Our Vishnick Y-DNA results were posted as member S37A5 at http://ysearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our y-dna results. Meanwhile, the results for the first 12 markers of our Vishnick 37-marker Y-DNA test are as follows:

PANEL 1 (1-12)
 
Locus    1   2   3   4   5    6    7   8   9   10   11  12
 
DYS#    393 390 19* 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
 
Alleles  12  24  14  10  11  14    11  12  12  13   14   30
 
*Also known as DYS 394

The results of our Vishnick Panel 2 of the 37 marker Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 2 (13-25)
 
Locus    13     14    15     16    17    18    19    20   21     22       23        24       25
 
DYS#    458   459a   459b   455   454   447   437   448   449   464a**   464b**   464c**   464d**
 
Alleles   17    9    10      11    11    24    15    18    30      15       15      16      16

The results of our Vishnick Panel 3 of the Y-DNA test are:

PANEL 3 (26-37)
 
Locus      26     27      28        29      30      31      32      33   34      35     36    37
 
DYS#      460  GATA H4  YCA IIa   YCA IIb   456     607    576     570   CDYa   CDYb   442   438   
 
Alleles    11     10       19       23       17      16     17     17     38     40    12    12

If you wish to learn about our Vishnick family history, click here, and if you wish to view our Feldberg family tree, which includes our Vishnick ancestors and relatives, you can click here for the Tribal Pages version of our tree. You also may like the reports at the Rootsweb WorldConnect version of our Vishnick Section of our Feldberg Family Tree. Then, if you want to check out the most up to date online version of our Vishnick Family Tree, go to http://thecohens.theunixplace.com/trees/vishnick/

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Maternal DNA Results

The mtDNA results listed below are those of various relatives. We have not been able to test the mtDNA for our matriarch Lena Bernstein Grossman because her only daughter had no children, nor for our matriarch Leah Liss Feldberg because her daughters have no living appropriate direct female line descendants. If you are interested assisting by helping fund or provide a sample for the mtDNA for another matriarch in our family, please email us.

Sosnowitz - Tannenbaum Maternal DNA

We have maternal DNA results for a descendant of Emil Grossman's wife, Irene Tannenbaum, who we do not believe is related to the Tennebaum family of Israel Tennebaum. Irene's mother was Lottie Sosnowitz, who was born in Russia and passed away in Colorado in 1924.

The haplogroup of this maternal line is I, and it's mtDNA results were posted under the listing for member 8BAK8 http://mitosearch.org, but that site has been taken offline. We may try to find another similar site for sharing our results. Meanwhile, the DNA mutations for this line, relative to the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) in HVR1, are:

16129A 16223T 16264T 16270T 16311C 16319A 16362C 16391A 16519C

These Sosnowitz - Tannenbaum maternal DNA results revealing membership in haplogroup I (and probably in the I2 subgroup) are consistent with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry. For suggested further reading about haplogroup I, click here.

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Shapiro - Dworkin Maternal DNA

We have the maternal DNA results of a descendant of Freda Pesha Shapiro from Pinsk, in what is now Belarus. Freda married Isaac Dworkin, and passed away in Russia in 1913. We know she had a sister named Rivke Shapiro, who married a man whose name was Zalman.

Our Dworkin-Shapiro mtDNA results were previously also posted as member CCW8F at http://mitosearch.org. Since that site has been taken offline, we may try to find another similar site for sharing our results.

The haplogroup of this maternal line is U1b, and the DNA mutations, relative to the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) for HVR1, are:

16104T 16111T 16249C 16327T 16519C

These mitochondrial DNA results placing them in haplogroup U1b are consistent with ancient Mediterranean and Eastern European ancestry. For suggested further reading about haplogroup U1b, click here.

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Feldberg - Vishnick Maternal DNA

We have the maternal DNA results of a descendant of Channah Feldberg, who lived in Makow Mazowiecki in the Lomza Province/Warsaw Gubernia area of Poland in the late 1800s. Channah was the second wife of Lazarus Vishnick (Wiznik), whose first wife was Channah's sister Esther Feldberg.

The haplogroup of this maternal line is HV1b2, and the DNA mutations, relative to the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) for HVR1, are:

16067T 16182C 16183C 16189C 16519C

These mitochondrial DNA results for haplogroup HV1b2 are consistent with ancient Near Eastern and European ancestry. For suggested further reading about mtDNA haplogroup HV, click here.

If you wish to learn about our Feldberg family history, click here, and if you wish to view our family tree, which includes our Vishnick and Feldberg ancestors, click here.

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Kaminsky-Tennebaum Maternal DNA

We have the maternal DNA results of a descendant of Rachel Kaminsky, who was born around 1855 in Odessa or Osova and married Israel Tennebaum. Her sister Feige Kaminsky married Hyman Kasle and her brother Tevye Kaminsky married Pearl Naiman, all in or around Osowa in Volhynia Gubernia, Ukraine.

Our Kaminsky-Tennebaum mtDNA results were posted as member RW9DE at http://mitosearch.org, and while that site has been taken offline, we are leaving the member number here for people searching for that listing. We may try to find an additional site for sharing mtDNA to take it's place.

The haplogroup of this maternal line is H, and the DNA mutations, relative to the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) for HVR1 and HVR2, are:

HVR1: 16172C 16222T 16299G 16519C
HVR2: 146C 263G 309.1C 315.1C

If you wish to learn more about our Kaminsky family history and ancestors, click here, or you can go to our Kaminsky family tree home page, which has vignettes and quick links to various views of the tree.

These mitochondrial DNA results for haplogroup HV1 are consistent with ancient Near Eastern and European ancestry. For suggested further reading about haplogroup H, click here.

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UNDERSTANDING WHAT GENES ARE AND DO

I have added this section of recommended simple learning resources for those readers with extremely limited or no knowledge about DNA. If you already know the basics that are often generally taught in high school science classes, you can skip to the next section for recommended reading about Y DNA, or go to the section about mtDNA for recommended reading about mtDNA.

The following website is a simplified explanation of what genes are and do. It is a multipage explanation geared towards a young audience and includes pictures to help children learn about genes. If you are in a rush, you may prefer the second link, which is a text-only version that includes the entire writeup all on one page. This wonderful explanation seems to have disappeared from the government site where it originally appeared, so we have included a links to Archive.org's caches of both the version with pictures (the first link below) from September 5, 2015, and the text-only version from May 27, 2010 for your convenience. Note that the text version seems to have disappeared from the NIH site a few years before the main pages also disappeared, but they still are recorded for posterity at Archive.org.

Making it in a Tough Environment -- You and Your Genes!
 
    Cache of http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/stories/genes/index.htm
 
    Cache of http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/genes/text.htm

 

FURTHER READING ABOUT Y DNA

The following page is an excellent general overview and listing of known Y DNA haplogroups:

http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm

While the following article focuses on the geographic spread and ethnic origins of European haplogroups, it has a very readable explanations about most Y and mitochrondrial DNA haplogroups:

https://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml

The following page is a theoretical explanation of what genetic haplogroups are and includes a listing of which haplogroups are thought to have branched off from the others. Since the page is no longer on the living web, we are providing a link to an archived copy because we think it will be easier for beginners to grasp the information, than if we just sent you to the most up to date webpages, which are generally quite technical and complex. Once you grasp the information on the page, you can then read more recent articles about Haplogroups and haplogroup trees.


Archive.org copy of http://www.dadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Haplogroups

If you get lost trying to understand the above general discussions, here is a page which provides concise summary of Kerchener's haplogroup descriptions:

http://www.bobhay.org/_downloads/_genes/YDNA_mtDNA_Haplogroup_Descriptions.pdf

Haplogroup G

Haplogroup G split off from Haplogroup F somewhere between 16,000 and 46,000 years ago, depending on whose theories you want to believe. And recent research developments about the origin and migration patterns of the members of Haplogroup G and it's subgroups G1, G2a and G2b make it very difficult to find definitive, up to date webpages that are also not too technical. So, I am doing my best to provide you with the most understandable and reliable resources I can currently find, for you to learn more about this haplogroup.

The following post and associated comments in Dienekes' Anthropology Blog about recent research on Y chromosome haplogroup G are very informative and make the current state of disagreement about much of the history of Haplogroup G very clear.

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/05/major-new-paper-on-y-chromosome.html

ISOGG is an extremely reliable resource, and the following page has an excellent tree showing the subgroups of haplogroup G, and also discusses distribution:

http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpG10.html

The following is also an excellent resource with information about the history of Haplogroup G and it's subgroups, but is more focussed on classification and research.

https://sites.google.com/site/haplogroupgproject/

Haplogroup J2

Haplogroups J1 and J2 along with their parent J are among the most well studied of the haplogroups, in part because of the interest in the DNA lineage of the Jewish Cohanim tribe.

The following wikipedia page may be a bit too technical for the novice, it has interesting migration and distribution maps and statistics.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J2_(Y-DNA)

The following article about the geographic spread and ethnic origins of European haplogroups has a nice section about the history of the J family of haplotypes:

https://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml#J

The family tree site Geni.com has a lot of information about Haplogroup J2 on it's J2 project page:

https://www.geni.com/projects/Y-J-M172/33998

Haplogroup K

Haplogroup K is one of the oldest haplogroups, and the forebear of many haplogroups. The following provides a good basic introduction to the Y DNA haplogroup K and the history of it's subtypes:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_K_(Y-DNA)

The following article about the geographic spread and ethnic origins of European haplogroups has a nice section about the K haplotype:

https://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml#K

R1a1

The following is a good discussion of basic R1a1 haplogroup theories including maps. Since the page is no longer on the living web, we are providing a link to an archived copy because we think it will be easier to grasp the older information, than if we just sent you to the most up to date webpages, which are generally quite technical and complex. Once you grasp the information on the page, you can then read more recent articles about the current R1a1 Y DNA Haplogroup and tree.

Archive.org copy of http://www.dadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Haplogroup_R1a1_(Y-DNA)

The following wikipedia article is more technical in tone, but you may find useful information there as well:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a1_(Y-DNA)

R1b1

R1b1 is a subgroup of the R1b haplogroup. The following is a good discussion of basic R1b haplogroup theories including maps. Since the page is no longer on the living web, we are sending you to an archived copy to make it easier to grasp the basics, than if we just sent you to the most up to date webpages, which are generally quite technical and complex. Once you grasp the information on the page, you can then read more recent articles about the current R1b Y DNA Haplogroup and tree.

Archive.org copy of http://www.dadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Haplogroup_R1a1_(Y-DNA)/Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA)

The following wikipedia article is also more technical but it is more up to date, and you may find useful information there as well:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA)

R1b1b2

The following page has a long discussion of the R1b1b2 haplotype, including discussion of the suggested migration and associated culture:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R1b#R1b1b2

T

The following page is a somewhat technical discussion of haplogroup T, which was formerly called K2, and is an offshoot of the K haplotype mentioned above:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_T_(Y-DNA)

And the following page talks about the discovery of Thomas Jefferson's membership in haplogroup T. For an excellent article about research about Thomas Jefferson's membership in haplogroup T, as well as a very clear discussion about it's ancient origins, see:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6332545.stm

FURTHER READING ABOUT MTDNA

The following page provides a very short, simple introduction to mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA), and includes a chart showing how the various subgroups are related to each other: Since the page is no longer on the living web, we are providing a link to an archived copy because we think it will be easier for beginners to grasp the information, than if we just sent you to the most up to date webpages, which are generally quite technical and complex. Once you grasp the information on the page, you can then read more recent articles about the current Mitochondrial Haplogroups and trees.

Archive.org copy of http://www.dadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Mitochrondrial_DNA_Haplogroups

mtDNA Haplogroup H or Helena

mtDNA Haplogroup H split off from the mtDNA Haplogroup HV about 20,000-25,000 years ago, apparently in Southwest Asia. It has been called Helena by a number of mtDNA authors, and has a very strong presence in modern Europe.

The following page at Eupedia provides a more readable history of mtDNA haplogroup H than that at wikipedia:

https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_H_mtDNA.shtml

The following Wikipedia page also goes into detail about the history and distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup H and the Haplogroup Subclades descended from it's members.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_H_(mtDNA)

mtDNA Haplogroup HV

Members of the original mtDNA Haplogroup HV were descended from the mtDNA Haplogroup R0 at least 25,000 years ago in Western Asia, which in turn, consisted of descendants of the original mtDNA Haplogroup R.

The following page at Eupedia provides a more readable history of mtDNA haplogroup HV than that at wikipedia:

https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_HV_mtDNA.shtml

The following Wikipedia page provides statistics about the distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup HV and provides links to various research studies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_HV_(mtDNA)

mtDNA Haplogroup I or Iris

The following page provides a short, simple explanation of what haplogroup I is. Since the page is no longer on the living web, the link below leads to an archived copy to make it easier as introductory reading, than if we just sent you to the most up to date webpages, which are generally quite technical and complex. Once you grasp the information on the page, you can then read more recent articles about the current mtDNA Haplogroup I.

Archive.org copy of http://www.dadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Haplogroup_I_(mtDNA)

Bonnie Schrack's haplogroup I homepage provides an enjoyable, somewhat artistic introduction to and history of the I haplogroup, whose matriarch has been given the name Iris. It is not on the living web at this point, but there is a backup of the page at the following link:

Archive.org copy of http://www.ancientrootsresearch.com/Hap-I/Hap-I-home.html

mtDNA Haplogroup U

The following provides a good basic introduction to the maternal DNA haplogroup U and it's subtypes:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_U_(mtDNA)

The following page is a theoretical explanation of what genetic haplogroups are and includes a listing of which haplogroups are thought to have branched off from the others. Since the page is no longer on the living web, we are providing a link to an archived copy because we think it will be easier for beginners to grasp the information, than if we just sent you to the most up to date webpages, which are generally quite technical and complex. Once you grasp the information on the page, you can then read more recent articles about the current mtDNA U Haplogroup and tree.

Archive.org copy of http://www.dadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Haplogroup_U_(mtDNA)

The following, clearly written article is a more technically detailed summary of haplotype U1a and U1b research, providing a lot more information about the U1a and U1b haplotypes:

http://www.cagetti.com/Genetics/U1a-haplogroup.html

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The DNA results on this page are available to us because of gracious contributions by members of our families who helped pay for the tests, and those members of our families who contributed the DNA samples. We are deeply indebted and grateful for their interest and support.

This page is http://freepages.rootsweb.com/~thecohens/family/results.html
 
Original URL: http://freepages.family.rootsweb.com/~thecohens/results.html
 
Revised March 11, 2019


 
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