THE RECEIPT BOOK : 1846
The Hon. Ellen Jane Prideaux-Brune kept a note book in which she made her recipe book, inscribed, "Receipt Book - Prideaux Place - 8th October 1846"
Ellen Jane was the second daughter oŁ Robert Shapland, First Baron Carew. She was born in County Wexford, Ireland, 2nd April 1821 and was married to Charles Glynn Prideaux-Brune on the 21st July 1846, at St.George's, Hanover Square. It was barely three months after her marriage that she started this Recipe Book - whether this was for her to use in her own interests or for the use of the staff, is not clear, but it does seen a lot of effort, and too well written, to be anything other than for personal use. It comprises some favourite recipes and some given by friends and family; for the meal-table as well as for general household and healthful remedy and benefit. Entries continued to around 1870. The MSS is now in the Llbrary at Prideaux Place, Padstow.
The following is a selection for temptation, trial or amusement. It is a fairly faithful transcription ( spellings are as they are written ), with the exception of some abbreviations which have been expanded, "oz" remains as ounce and "lb" as pound. My comments and notes are added in square brackets.
But a few words before proceeding ….
How the modern kitchen can translate the effects of a slow or quick oven and the difference between the open fire and a stove top, is a matter for experiment.
Clearly some importance was placed upon the use of spring water,
perhaps this may still hold to be true.
A dramatic difference will be, of course, found in milk, cream and butter.
It is extraordinary to note the lengths and processes of preparation necessary and detailed, but the actual process of cooking/baking is more often than not taken to be an assumed accomplishment.
It must be assumed that spoons have changed little in capacity over the years but, besides the usual conversions of weight and capacity necessary, some Troy measures may need explanation.
There were eight drachms in an ounce; three scruples to the drachm and 20 grains to the scruple. One ounce Troy is 31.1 grammes, not quite the same as one ounce avoirdupois at 28.35 grammes.
The current availability of some ingredients may be a problem, but substitutes could well be found: it is not suggested that the reader search for sources of opium!
Meat was usually stored in dry-salt barrels, with the sometime addition of potassium nitrate, as a drying agent. Brine salting in troughs was effective in long or short term keeping, depending on the length of steeping employed. Some meats were stored in vinegar solutions, brine or even, at best, wine.
The meat flavour ( ranging from poor to unpalatable ) in preparation and cooking, had to be improved, by the use of herbs and spices ( often kept under lock and key ). The mortar and pestle, together with various cutting choppers were employed to get the spice or herb into a fine powder. The palate came to expect heavy spicing. It was quite common for a gentleman to take some of his own spices to table.
To serve as an example, from the Receipt Book
Take a round of beef, 301bs in weight, rub it well with six oz of salt-petre [ ie. potassium nitrate ], finely pounded; turn it and let it be 24 hours in the salt-petre, then take six oz of allspice and six oz of black pepper finely ground and mixe these with one pound of common salt. Let it be in this pickle 14 days, turning it twice a day and rubbing it well. At the end of 14 days take it out of the pickle and lay it in a large earthen pan and pour as much melted suet over it as will cover it and then put a crust made of flour and water all over it so as to cover it closed and put it into a hot oven such as is proper for baking bread. Let it remain in the oven 12 hours. Then take it and lay it in a dry pan and when perfectly cold it will be fit for use. As earthen pans sometimes break, a clean well tinned brazing pan is better.
Sugar was regarded as another flavour, to be added to meats, as well as puddings. It was expensive ( & taxed until the 19th century ). The poor used honey as a "substitute", but the average intake per person per year was 12 lbs in the 19th century. In the refining process, the end liquid sugar was poured into conical moulds, to form a loaf of between three and fourteen pounds in weight. The loaf would stand vertical on a metal base, with a cover.
In use, pieces were chopped off and pound to a fine powder.
1 FRIARS OMELETTES
Boil a dozen fine large apples, as for sauces, stir in a quarter of a pound of butter, and sugar it to your taste. When it is cold, add four eggs, well beaten up. Then take a baking dish, butter the inside well. Thickly strew crumbs of bread so as to stick all over the bottom of the dish. Put in the apples and egg mixture and strew crumbs of bread plentifully over the top. When baked, turn it out into another dish and grate sugar over it - Lemon zest is a great good improvement and when dry, juiced also - Any other kind of fruit may be done the same way.
2 LITTLE CUP PUDDINGS
Two eggs in the shells, and the weight of them in Butter, sugar and flour. Put the butter in a basin, and set it before the fire till it is melted. Then beat the butter till it is like a cream. Beat the yolks of the eggs together for ten minutes, then mix them gradually with the butter, add the sugar and then the flour, mix all well together. Grated lemon peel, and nutmeg may be added if liked. Pour this batter into small cups or a mould. Bake it in a slow oven to be light brown and serve with wine sauce if approved. Half this quantity is sufficient to make two puddings.
3 POMMES DE TERRE a la MAITRE D'HOTE Half a pint of Cream, the yolks of four hard boiled eggs, butter and flour to thicken and a little chopped parsley; work the butter and flour together and put it with the cream on the fire until it boils, then add the egg chopped very fine and the parsley and a very little salt. Have potatoes boiled, put them in about five minutes before you serve them up in slices.
4 CRAY SAUCE for ROAST BEEF or COLD MEAT
One tea spoonful of Mustard, two table do. of Vinegar, a little salt, a tea cup full of Cream or good milk, mix them well together, and add as much grated Horse-radish as will make it of the thickness of bread or onion sauce - Half of this quantity is enough at once.
5 Mrs. Pollard's receipt for GINGERBREAD
To 31b of Flour rub in 1lb of butter and half a pound of moist sugar, 2oz of caraway seeds, and 2oz of powdered ginger, the whole to be mixed with treacle. The paste must be very stiff, roll it very thin and cut it what shape you please.
[ Mrs. Pollard was the wife of Commander John Pollard; as Signal Midshipman on the "Victory", 1805, at the Battle of Trafalgar, assisted in the signal "England expects every man will do his duty" and he also, from the poop of the "Victory", with a musket, shot the Frenchman who killed Lord Nelson ]
6 To make BARLEY WATER
Take a small teacupfull of Pearl Barley and blanch it well in two or three waters, then put it into a jug with the rind of one Lemon peeled very thin. Add three pints of boiling water. The water must boil, or it will not be clear. Then cover it up and when it is cold it will be fit for use.
7 CASTOR OIL POMMANDER
Melt half a pound of lard, and strain it well. Then add 4 tablespoonfuls of Castor oil, and mix this well together. Scent it with Essences of Bergamot. [ Bergamot is a sweet lime ]
8 PEASE SOUP
6 or 8 onions sliced and fried thoroughly. 4 quarts of water, one pint and a half of split peas. One large carrot and turnip. Four heads of celery. Add the fried onions and let them boil very slowly for 4 or 5 hours. Then put them all through a hair sieve. Boil further half an hour in a clean pan. Season with pepper or salt, a little dried mint may be added. Put the soup when made through a sieve. Serve up with fried bread.
9 STOWE CREAM
Put into the dish you intend to send to the table 9 spoonfuls of lemon or orange juice, further add a little peel, grated. Some apricots or any other sweetmeats, good pears chopped small. Then take a pint of good cream with a quantity of Isinglass, just enough to set it, and some sugar. Boil it till the Isinglass is quite dispersed. Then strain it into a jug that has a spout to it and when the cream is about the heat of new milk pour it over the sweetmeats. It should be made some hours before it is wanted. ( Isinglass was a setting agent from a Sturgeon's swimming bladder, present day equivalents would be gelatine, pectin or agar agar. ]
10 GATEAUX de POMMES
Three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, and one pint of water till quite dissolved and leading to candy then add two pounds of apples pared and cored and the peel of a good lemon. You may if you like add a little of the juice. Boil all together then till quite stiff, then put it into a mold and when quite cold it will turn out very well. Serve with Custard round it and stick it with almonds if you like.
11 CHEESE CAKES
Boil four lemon peels in 3 or 4 waters to take out the bitterness, then pound them in a mortar to a paste and add 6 ounces of sugar, 6 ounces of fresh butter and the yolks of 4 eggs. Pound them all together and bake it in a thin paste. [ A pestle and mortar was a necessary kitchen accessory ]
12 STRENGTHENING MEDICINE 2 and a half drachmas of Camomile flowers; half a drachma of bitter orange peel; half a drachma of root ginger. 15 grains of root rhubarb; 2 scruples of Carbonated Soda. Pour a quart of boiling water on these ingredients. Let it stand till cold, strain it and put it into a bottle for use. A good sized wine-glass full to be taken one hour before breakfast and one hour before dinner.
13 RICE PLUM PUDDING
3 tablespoonsful of whole rice boiled in a pint of milk, half Lb of suet, half Lb of currants, 2 egg yolks and whites well beaten, 2 ounces of sugar, 2 ounces of citron (very good) but for a better pudding add lemon peel grated and a glass of brandy. Serve it with wine sauce. Boil it 3 and a half hours.
14 A GOOD CAKE WITHOUT YEAST 6oz butter, 6oz sugar, 4 eggs yolks and whites, 1lb of flour, two thimblesful of ammonia, 1lb of currants, half pint of warm milk. Beat up the butter with a spoon till it is like cream, then beat up the eggs. Mix them with the butter, warm milk, ammonia and half the flour. When these ingredients are well mixed add the remainder of the flour and the currants, candied peel or any other flavour you please, and stir it up well just as it is put into the oven. [The ammonia was probably sal volatile ]
15 SALLY LUNNS
1 and a half pounds of flour, qtr lb butter, 3 tablespoonsful of cream, 2 eggs yolks and whites a spoonful of good yeast. Mix all well together and let it remain an hour and a half to rise. Make it into large loaves and bake in a quick oven. Cut the buns in 4 and butter them the moment they come out of the oven. [ There are many recipes for this bun, sold by Sally Lunn in Bath 1797, presumably because she never gave away her secret and everyone tried their best to copy it.]
16 GOOSEBERRY HOPS
Take the largest green walnut kind and cut the bud end in four quarters leaving the stalk end whole, pick out the seeds and with a strong needle and thread, fasten 5 or 6 together ( by running the thread through the bottom ) till they are the size of a hop - Lay vine leaves at the bottom of a great preserving jar, cover them with the hops then a layer of leaves and then of hops at the top -Cover them with water. Store them close down that the steam can get out and set it by a slow fire till scalding hot, then take it back. Remove the paler leaves and continue to do till the gooseberries are of a good green colour then drain them on a sieve. Hake a thin syrup of 2 ounces of sugar adding the quantity for 3 or 4 days a week. Should they green slowly then make your syrup according to the quantity you want.
17 GINGERBREAD NUTS - EXCELLENT
31bs of flour, 2 and a half oz of powdered ginger, half lb moist sugar, teaspoonful of potash, 16 ounces of butter and treacle enough ( warmed ) to mix well into a paste.
18 FOR TAKING WINE AND OTHER STAINS OUT OF HOUSE LINEN
Dissolve 3 pennyworth of Soda of Lime in a quart of rain water, steep the articles stained for about 5 minutes, moving it about with the hand then rinse and wash it thoroughly in plain water.
19 PASTE THAT WILL KEEP A YEAR
[ Mrs Enys, daughter of Davies Gilbert ] Dissolve slowly in water to prevent its becoming a bad colour, two square inches of glue and about an equal weight of alum. Let this liquor be mixed with the flour in making the paste and boiled as usual. When the paste is nearly cold, stir into it about two tea-spoonfuls of an espetial oil - oil of spike is one of the best. The paste may then be kept in a well covered vessel for a year or more. This receipt is to make a pint of paste. [ Alum is a herb of the Saxifrage family ] [ Spike is the Lavender ]
20 SODA CAKE
Very useful in the country when yeast can not be procured. One pound of flour, qtr lb loaf sugar, half lb currants, qtr lb of butter, caraway seeds and tincture of saffron; a desertspoonful of each. A teaspoonful of carbonate of soda free from lumps and dissolved in a half pint of new milk and mixed quite smooth with it. The butter must be rubbed into the flour. Bake it in a tolerably hot oven for one hour and three quarters.
21 CHEESE FONDU
Half a pint of milk and cream, 2oz of butter, one and a half oz of flour, 4oz of Parmesan cheese, 3oz double Gloucester cheese, 4 eggs. Mix the milk and cream, butter and flour over the fire till it boils, stir in the cheese and yolks of eggs while warm, beat the whites of the eggs to a strong froth and mix in very gently. Put it in a paper case and bake it ten minutes.
The following has been given as the best remedy for this disease : As soon as posslble after a person is attacked give ten or twelve drops of ether in a little warm brandy and water and alternately every hour one grain of Calomin and one grain of Opium - It is well to have recourse to this when no medicine aid can be procured.
[ The reader will not be spared the edification of the severity of this disease. It was known in ancient India and China, but spread to Europe in 1826, the pandemic reaching Cornwall in 1830 and lasting until the 1850s. The actual bacteria was not isolated until 1883. The infection was transferred through infected water or direct, by air. The effects were disastrous and more often than not, fatal. The disease starts with diarrhoea, vomiting, emaciation, wrinkled skin and sunken eyes; the heartbeat weakens and breathing becomes difficult. The sufferer could die in between 12 and 36 hours, depending on their stamina at the time of contracting the disease. ]
23 SAUCE FOR A ROAST PIG
Cut a slice of the soft part of the bread, chop finely whatever you like to flavour your sauce with and put it upon the bread, after which sew both inside the pig. When the pig is nearly roasted, cut it open and take out the bread and herbs, also take off the head of the pig saving all the gravy which runs out -then take out the brains and chop them together with the bread mixing with them the gravy and adding a little good cream and butter, then serve hot in a boat.
24 ALMOND PASTE
Half pound honey, the same quantity of almonds and two ounces of Spermacete finely pounded and mixed together; the almonds must be blanched. [ Spermaceti is a wax taken as cetyl palmitate, from the skull of a whale. ]
24a ALMOND PASTE FOR CHILBLAINS, CHAPPED HANDS, &C
Half lb Bitter Almonds, half oz Camphor, 6 Drachmas Spermacete, 5 oz Honey. To be made into a paste. Wash the hands or feet in warm water and apply the paste while the skin is warm and moist. Made very well by James Brothers, Truro. [ Camphor is taken from the laurel, hence the proliferation in this country. It was used for cooking, health and
especially for lamp burning. ]
25 CHRISTMAS PUDDING
[ A list of ingredients is given, but not completed, nor are there directions.]
21bs flour, 1lb suet, 3 qtrs lb raisins, 3 qtrs lb currants and four eggs.
26 CHRISTMAS CAKE
[ A list of ingredients is given, but not completed, nor are there directions.]
2 and a half lbs flour, 1lb currants, 1lb butter.
27 OLD MAN'S BEARD PUDDING
[ A list of ingredients is given, but not completed, nor are there directions.]
21bs flour, half pound suet, qtr lb currants, qtr lb raisins and 3 eggs.
The raisins to be stoned but not to be cut up.
28 ORANGE JELLY
Soak one ounce of gelatine in half a pint of cold water for ten minutes then add the same quantity of boiling water. Stir it until dissolved. Add the rind and juice of five oranges and the rind and juice of two lemons, three qtrs lb of loaf sugar. Let it boil about 5 minutes then strain it through a lawn sieve. Stir it till nearly cold then put into your molds - this makes about a quart.
29 ALMOND CAKE
6 ounces of sweet almonds, 4 ounces bitter almonds, 12 ounces of sugar, 10 yolks of eggs and the whites of 4 beaten separately the latter to be well mixed to a cream with the almonds then add the yolks and the sugar by degrees, lastly sift in 4 ounces of fine flour.
30 COUGH MIXTURE
2 Tablespoonfuls of Vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of Treacle, 60 drops of Laudanum. Take a teaspoonful of this mixture night and morning.
30a THE BEST APPLICATION FOR CHILBLAINS BEFORE THEY ARE BROKEN
Equal parts of Laudanum, Ammonia and Olive oil.
Issued by Sir C. Napier to the Baltic Fleet.
31 DOUBLE BAKES
Pound and a half of flour, three qtrs lb of fresh butter rubbed in thoroughly, a tablespoonful of sugar, a teaspoonful of salt and a tablespoonful of balm. Roll out and cut into any shape you like, baked and then put into an oven ( from which the bread has been drawn ) for two hours.
32 WHITE WATER BISCUITS
To 51bs of flour, 1lb butter, to be made very hard and beat they must be rolled very thin and pricked. Baked in a quick oven and baked on the sheet of the oven not on a tin. The biscuits when made with basin.
33 TO EXTRACT LAMP OIL OUT OF STONE OR MARBLE HALLS &c
Take a pint of strong soap lees. Have some Fuller's earth well dried and a little pipe clay pounded fine, let the whole be well mixed together and laid upon the part which is oiled, then put a hot iron upon it till dry; if all the oil should not come out the first time, do it all again and in putting it on, let it be well rubbed into the stone. By doing it two or three times in this way you will be able to get it out.
Put 31bs of waste leaf into two pints of water and boil it down to 2 pints. Take the best part of two dozen leeks and scald them. Put them in the soup with an old fowl, one dozen of pimento pepper and salt. Boil it an hour and a half. Serve up the fowl in the soup tureen.
Haddock boiled and boned, Rice first parboiled with water, afterwards with milk till done, two eggs add a little butter, pepper and salt the whole well mixed up together and served for breakfast as hot as possible.
36 CHARLES SAWLE'S SALAD Shell carefully a hard boiled egg and cut it exactly in half. Pick out the yolk ( without breaking the white ), Mince it to a powder. Put into first a helping of mustard, a small piece of cayenne and a little anchovy sauce, then a tablespoonful and a half of oil and 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Mix up well together. Then add the salad cut up. Mix all together and shred on the whole a pickled onion finely minced. Garnish with some fresh [ green salad ] and the white of the egg cut into nice bits. [ Sir Charles Brune Graves Sawle was born in Padstow 1816 and was Sherrif of Cornwall and MP for Bodmin ]
37 MADIERA PUDDINGS
Qtr lb butter, qtr lb flour, qtr lb white sugar, 2 eggs, the yellow and white beaten separately, when well mixed, beat them till they become of the substance of a thick cream. Put them into little tins or cups and bake them in a quick oven.
38 SOYER'S NOURISHING SOUP MEAGRE
Put two ounces of butter or oil into a two gallon and a half stew-pan, peel four ounces of onions, cut them, put them on the fire till lightly brown ( stirring it now and then ) and half a pound of vegetables, as turnips, leeks, celery, carrots, etc., do not peel them or throw away anything except that part which may be decayed but wash them well, cut them in a slanting direction, put them in a stew-pan and fry 10 minutes longer, put in a pound and a qtr of peas, fill it up with two gallons of water, let it simmer for three hours, or till the peas are in a pulp, mix half a pound of oaten meal with a pint of water make it into a liquid paste, pour it into the soup, stirring it with a spoon, add three ounces of salt, half an ounce of brown sugar, boil it ten minutes and it is ready for use; a little mint, bay leaf, thyme, marjoram, winter savory, in small quantities is an improvement and also soaking the peas in soft water.
39 SOYER'S PEA SOUP
Have a quarter of pound of fat bacon, if none, take a leg of beef, veal or pork, cut it into dices. Peel and slice two good sized onions, or three small ones, fry them with the meat until lightly brown, then add half a pound of vegetables, either carrots or turnips, well washed, but not peeled, also leeks or any other vegetables which fry gently, then add one pound of yellow peas, previously soaked some hours, and eight quarts of water, three ounces of salt, half an ounce of brown sugar, let the whole boil gently for two hours, stirring it now and then. Put into a stew pan half a pound of common flour, mixed into a liquid paste, quite smooth, with cold water and pour into your soup, stirring the contents with a wooden spoon, so as to mix it well, boil again a quarter of an hour and serve.
[ SOYER'S SOUPS
These soups were prepared for the the poor and needy, and they were also offered to travellers and sojourners to help them on their way, with little cost to the household, but were considered to be very wholesome and nourishing.]
Alexis Benoit Soyer, was born in Heaux, France in 1809. Although he was "destined" for the church, he became the most famous cook of his day in Paris; but, at the age of 21 years, he fled to England in 1830, upon the outbreak of the French Revolution, and he became the head cook at the Reform Club in London 1837-1850. The Irish famine took his interest and, in 1847, he caused the government to appoint him to establish food kitchens in Dublin to relieve the distress. He wrote the Shilling Cookbook, 1854. He then became concerned at the plight of the soldiers in the Crimean war, devising the Soyer stove. In 1855 he went to the Crimea and, with Florence Nightingale, re-organized the system of food supply. Alexander ( as he became known ) Soyer died in London 8th August 1858. ]
40 LIGHTNING CAKE
German receipt given me by Mrs.Rodd 1855 A qtr lb of butter and a qtr lb of fine pounded sugar are well mixed together in a basin. 4 eggs are then added and lastly qtr lb of fine white flour. Divide this paste into 2 portions bake each separately on a flat or oval tin in an oven of moderate heat/ spread preserve on one half, lay the other upon it, trim the edges and cover with a little powdered sugar. A pretty dish may be made by baking the paste in several small oval shapes of predicated sizes and building them up with preserve between them into a pyramid.
41 RICE TART
German receipt given me by Mrs.Rodd 1855 A qtr lb of fine ground rice, sifted and washed twice in hot water. When thoroughly clean, pour boiling water upon it and place it upon the hot plate and leave it to swell until quite tender, then pour into a sieve, let the water drain off. Then spread it out on a plate, sprinkle it well with pounded sugar and add the juice of 2 lemons. Let it stand a short time, the paste having been prepared as for an open tart. The rice is placed in it, strips of paste laid across. A piece of sugar well rubbed into a lemon pounded and the tart powdered with it. The whole baked in a quick oven, in order that the tart may not become dry.
42 LEMON PUDDING
10 oz of grated bread, half lb of suet, half lb moist sugar an egg, the rind and juice of a lemon. Boiled in a shaped for an hour. A teaspoonful of orange marmalade improves it.
43 REGENT'S PUDDING
half oz bitter almonds, 1 oz sweet almonds pounded fine, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 pint sweet cream or good milk, half oz isinglass, sweeten to your taste, give the ingredients the finest simmer, stirring it the way lest it should turn. Pour it into a shaped in bowl. Turn it out next day and stick it with almonds.
44 POTATOE PUDDING
Take 4 oz boiled potatoe, 2oz butter, yolks of 4 eggs, whites of two eggs, 2 spoonsful of cream, 1 spoonful of white wine, juice and rind of a lemon. Beat all to a froth, sugar to taste, a crust in the dish and bake it for turning out.
45 IRISH CAKE
To 1 lb of butter turned to cream add 1 lb white sugar dried and sifted, the yolks of 8 to 10 eggs, the whites beaten to a froth, 1 lb currants, a nutmeg grated, a glass of brandy, 2 citrons, 2 bitter almonds, 4 oz sweet almonds blanched and pounded, 1 lb best flour dried and sifted. One hour and a half will bake it. This quantity will make three cakes.
46 ARROWROOT BLANCMANGE Boil a quart of new milk with three or four orange leaves or nine or ten bitter almonds ( bruised ), and 2 oz of good white sugar. Have ready 2 large tablespoonsful of nice clean arrowroot well mixed, with about a quarter pint of the milk cold. Take out the leaves or almonds and throw the mixture into the boiling milk, stirring it briskly without stopping a moment, especially at the bottom, to prevent its burning. Continue this till it has boiled a minute or two when it may be poured into moulds and turned out when quite cold.
47 ARROWROOT CUSTARDS
The yolks of two eggs well beaten and two tablespoonfuls of arrowroot. Add a quart of milk with sugar, almonds or laurel leaves to flavour, and stir it over the fire until it boils, then pour into cups.
48 FADGE CAKES
Take one lb and a half of brown flour, kneading in a little butter say half or qtr lb, a pinch of soda and of baking powder. Then wet it with very sour milk or butter-milk, make into round cakes about an inch thick and bake them about half an hour.
49 SCOTCH GINGERBREAD
1 lb flour, 1 lb treacle, 6 oz good brown sugar, 6 oz butter, 2 oz candied peel cut very thin, 1 oz ginger, 1 oz caraway seeds, 4 grains cayenne pepper, 4 eggs. A small teaspoonful of Carbonate of Soda mixed with the flour which goes in last. Mix the sugar and the treacle together well and melt the butter. Mix all together putting the flour last. Butter a tin well and bake in a slow oven. It will take 2 hours or more baking.
50 ORANGE BISCUITS
Take 3 dozen Seville oranges, rub and clean them on a cloth, peel them in quarters and boil them in spring water as for marmalade. When done wash them in cold water to extract the bitterness. Take out all the pulp and weigh the peel. Put the latter only into a mortar and pound it well, rub it through a hair sieve then add 12 oz sifted white sugar to 1 lb peel. Put it altogether into a mortar to mix it and then rub it again through a hair sieve. Spread it very thin on cartridge paper and lay these on a diaper [ a linen cloth ] to dry. Hold them over boiling water and the biscuits will separate from the paper. Lay them on a table and cut them in whatever shape you please. When quite dry put them into canisters.
52 FRUIT SYRUP Mrs Enys To every 5 lb of fruit put 2 and a half oz tartaric acid. Dissolve the acid in a quart of cold water. Throw it over the fruit and let it stand without pressing 24 hours or rather more. Strain off the juice and to every pint put a little of the best white sugar pounded. Bottle the syrup but do not cork it until the working is quite over.
53 FRUIT SYRUP JELLY
To a pound and a half of syrup add an ounce and a half of isinglass dissolved in a half pint of water . If you want it particularly good make it of the above syrup. If you do not want it so good or so strong of the fruit put half fruit and half water.
51 AMERICAN RECEIPT FOR A LIGHT CURRANT ICE CAKE
Mrs Glynn [ her Mother-in-law ]
OR TO BE USED FOR A PUDDING WITH SAUCE OF CREAM OR WINE.
1 lb sugar, 1 lb flour, whites of 8 eggs, yellows of 4 eggs, half cup water, teaspoonful soda, 2 teaspoonsful cream tartar, juice and grated peel of one lemon, third lb currants, a little nutmeg. Dissolve the soda in the water and mix the cream tartar in the flour. Sift the sugar into the yellows of the eggs and beat them with the lemon until very light then add the water containing the dissolved soda. Next sift in the flour containing cream tartar throwing in the currants, stirring very little indeed leaving much of the flour to be seen. Last add the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth - rather chopping than stirring them in. Bake about an hour in rather a hot oven. The quality of the cake depends upon the mixing of the ingredients to be tender and light, the sugar with the yellows of the eggs must be beaten very light but when adding the flour and whites it must be stirred as little as possible otherwise it will be tough.
54 BUTTER MILK PUDDING
Three qtrs pint butter milk, 2 eggs a tablespoonful of flour, a little sugar, and a little salt. The dish to be buttered and a thick layer of marmalade ( or any other preserves ) placed in the bottom of the dish. The ingredients to be well beaten together and placed on the marmalade.
55 BABA CAKE
From Lady Molesworth, St.Petroc Minor 1860
An equal weight of flour and butter. The butter to be well worked with the hand before mixing. Part of the flour must be made in to leaven separately and left to rise. 5 eggs to be allowed for each lb of flour. The flour butter and eggs are to be gradually mixed together and well beaten with the hand but the leaven must be added in the last thing. The whole to be left in a rather warm place to rise some hours before the cake is baked to ensure its being light. Sultana raisins and citrons can be put in according to taste and a tablespoonful of Brandy or Rum improves the cake.
( Scandinavian refreshing summer dish ) Take 3 and a half pounds of juice of currants and three pints of water and sugar add 1lb with a flavouring of almonds or cinnamon ( ounce and a half ). Boil the mixture and when it begins to boil add 1 and a qtr lbs of ground rice or a pound of sago. Let it boil a quarter of an hour and stir it often; afterwards it is to be poured into moulds or tea cups which have been wetted with cold water and left to cool. Then it should be turned out and eaten with cream and sugar. Any other juice of acid fruit will do as well.
57 COFFEE CREAM PUDDING Roast 8 oz of Mocha coffee in a small preserving pan over a stove fire stirring it the whole time with a wooden spoon until it assumes a light brown colour; then blow away the small burnt particles and throw the roasted coffee into a stew pan containing a pint of boiling milk or cream. Put the mix on the stewpan and set it aside to allow the infusion to draw out the flavour of the coffee. Then strain this through a napkin into a stewpan containing 8 yolks of eggs and 12 oz of sugar and add a very small pinch of salt. Stir the cream over the stoves fire until it begins to thicken and then quicken the motions of the spoon and when the yolks of the eggs are sufficiently set, strain the cream through a sieve into a large basin. Mix half a pint of whipped cream and one ounce and a half of clarified isinglass with this. Pour the whole into a mould ready set in trough of ice for this and when the cream has become firm dip the mould in warm water and turn the cream out on its dish.