|Drawing of Québec City|
Archives Nationales du Quebec, Forces, Quebec, No. 43, 1978, p. 37. Quebec City in 1700.
The son of Abel Turcault the image of their father lived on the Island of Orleans. We find them established in the parish of Sainte-Famille. (Map 3) Francis possessed in this parish, the land bearing no. 43, including 3 acres with building front, an acre of land no. 50 and 1 1 / 2 acres of land no. 51. On this one, have erected a house 24 feet by 20 feet, a barn and stables.
Louis's brother sat on the ground no. 66, described as suit 12. : 4 arpents, including 1 acre of land next to house, barn, stables, 60 acres of arable land and 3 acres of meadow. On earth no. 67, it has: 6 acres in front, including the land previous two 3-acre land with buildings.
The book of Leo Roy, tells us about the lands granted to the son of Francis.
François: (1692-1729) No Earth. 48, 6 acres, including the land previous no. 47, of 4 acres with house, barn, stables, 80 acres tillable and 5 acres of grassland.
Simon: (1696-1767) No Earth. 51, 1 acre.
Jacques: (1694-1745) No Earth. 51, his father Francis had conceded 3 / 4 of an acre. Jacques also had 3 acres of land no. 43, who belonged to Abel and Francis, and an acre of land no. 44, with house and 60 acres of arable land.
Simon Turquot bequeathed his house to his son Jean-Baptiste and Augustin in 1755. They will enjoy half of the building, described as follows by the notary Pitcher:
"A house stud forty / two feet long by eighty feet wide / Indoor plank and bardos / where there is the room that was built for this community" .13.
Me Pitcher also gives an inventory of property inside the house:
On this map you can see the land belonging to Mathurin Huot Ange-Gardien. This land belonged to Abel Turcault from 1662 to 1667. 14.
On the Island of Orleans numbers 2, 3 and 4 show us the land of Abel Turcault in 1667, and both Francis and son Louis.
|Map of Île d’Orléans|
"In the kitchen, the lawyer identifies the utensils to be, cooking utensils (pots, pans, griddles, hallway, grill, ladle), utensils (pots and a variety of earth and glass) sheepskin and reserves of meat and finally the buffet.
"In the attic, safe, wheel, reserves of perishable goods (peas, onions, bacon, beef, eel), grain and sheaves of grain."
"In the room, an iron stove, a bunk, a bed with a chair, a chair, a mirror, a spinning wheel of the tow and crockery .15.
The contents of this house we may sound elementary, see stripped of all wealth. Yet, what the average person had at that time. Humble, but inviting these houses reflect the kind of life of our ancestors. They reflect the tastes, manners and customs inherited from their father. They symbolize their dependence on climatic conditions and illustrate their adaptation to New France.
The inhabitants were all engaged in the business to make the rhetorical tools needed to practice their farming. Utensils and furniture of the house more often than not were also made by them. Only the land and animals could provide for food or clothing. As Indians, they were sometimes forced to live by hunting or fishing because they built "a poor quality wheat which is not pulling a poor coarse.
Over the years, the young colony progressed. Gradually ecumene Valley St Lawrence is saturated in recent years been the land of the Island of Orleans and the coast of Beaupre had all been granted. It became very difficult for small-son of the first settlers to settle near their family, while retaining sufficient land for their livelihood. For many of them, there will be a solution that settle in new estates, away from their parents. This was the first step in the history of the dispersal of families Turcotte on the American continent.
(Photo : A. Turcotte)
This house located in the village of Ste-Famille IO Was inhabited by a great-grand-son of Abel Turcault.
For half a century, the Indians were the sole inhabitants of the valley of the Chaudiere. But when, in 1736, the British pretended to settle, the French decided that it did happen that way. In two days, five estates were granted by the Hocquart and Governor Beauharnois. They extended from both sides of the boiler to the mouth of what is now St. George.
The manor of St. Mary was granted April 30, 1736, to Joseph Fleury of Gorgendière and his two sons: Thomas and Jacques Taschereau Pierre Rigaud de Vaudreuil.
From 1740 to the end of the French system, many families left the Island of Orleans and the Côte de Beaupré and settled in the manor Taschereau. It was during this period that established themselves and Augustin Louis Turcot, two grandchildren, son of Abel.
Augustine stood on the land intended to Jacques Faucher in the survey of 1738. It was on this earth that we find today the chapel of St. Anne.
The settlers of Nouvelle-Beauce unable to go to Ste-Anne (de Beaupré) to show their faith, decided to erect a chapel in his honor from 1778.
|Church at Ste-Anne|
(Photo : A. Turcotte)
"Desiring the undersigned for several years found a small chapel in the parish and manor of St. Mary's under the protection of Ste-Anne, we scored a lot on the estate of the said manor, just dial the parish church of 21 acres, said land of about 2,560 feet in area enclosed pile joining the southeast line of the land of Father Augustine Turcotte, north-west of King Road and north-east of the garden area said. 16.
A few years later, preferring to live away from the Chaudière River, near present-Rang St-Gabriel Augustin sold his land to the Lord Taschereau. Louis moved to nearby land the Lord Taschereau. Simon's brother Augustin was also acquired, lands in the lordship Taschereau, it was the same owner of the Pike Island. But moved to the Isle of Orleans, he never came to settle at Ste-Marie.
Augustine, who was captain of militia in Ste-Marie, Louis and Simon militia undoubtedly participated in the defense of Quebec during the siege of 1759.
"In May 1759, an edict of the Governor ordered the militia captains to be ready with a provision for six days' ...
"In June Pontbriand recommends that its priests to take refuge in the woods with their parishioners. Such caution was not needed in the Beauce as English incursions stopped at Levis.
"In July of that year, when General Wolfe ordered to fire and sword all parishes of the South Coast, Colonel Fraser did not exceed St. Nicolas' .17.
In the Island of Orleans cousins did not escape so easily to the action of British troops, as reported by Louis Philippe Turcotte:
On May 22, 1759 we had the news that the British fleet sailed up the River. The evacuation of the Island began immediately. The elderly, women and children were taken to Charlesbourg.18.
"What must be the pain of Islanders, when they were forced to abandon so suddenly their peaceful homes and deliver them and looting troops' .19.
"Each parish said goodbye with tears in their homes, and retired in Charlesbourg led by its venerable priest ... Elderly and sick were carried on beds and only saw each father's house. Several children were born in the woods and were baptized. "
"The Islanders went in there three long months in the biggest concern and most wide deprivation. From there they could see the damage and devastation that caused the English, who had established their camp. Several had deep pain of seeing their homes burn. Occasionally, the daring young men were sent to see what was happening on the Island, and returned to tell the sad detail pillage.20.
The period that followed the siege of Quebec and the surrender of New France was uncertain if, after signing the Treaty of Paris signed in 1763, the locals are sure to keep seeing their rights, language and religion, not showed no opposition vis-à-vis their new master. Gradually, the population of New France found lifestyle. No, without developing a certain nostalgia for the motherland and a certain mistrust vis-à-vis the invader. Therefore, in 1775, when they had to choose between the British crown and the starry flag of young American colonies their choice was not easy, especially in the Beauce. The Turcot of the time chose to remain loyal to the king of England. Once again, Louis and Simon were called to bear arms. They are found in the last months of 1775, enlisted in the army of General Carleton, ensuring the defense of Quebec against the troops of General Arnold.
The situation of Louis Turcot, the Beauceron was quite paradoxical, because most of the time of Beauce, in disagreement with the British rule, brought assistance to 1,200 men of the army of Arnold.
Peace restored, the country is experiencing a growth spurt. The population was increasing rapidly. A high birth rate and a considerable immigration were quick to make new, good farm land scarce and expensive. The second stage of the migration of families Turco-te begins in the early 1800s. In Quebec, the Turco-you emigrate to Montreal (Nicolet, Gentilly, Assumption and Yamachiche), Beauce, to Green Island, the Eastern Townships and Charlevoix.
These settlers had again, just like their father, tackle the hard work of clearing. True to their traditions is to agriculture, they entrust their future. During this period, the son of Medard Turcot (brother of Louis the militia of the Beauce) migrate in the manor of Green Island. It does not seem that son had to play an important role in the history of this manor, much less across Quebec then. However, as the majority of their brothers or their cousins, the nineteenth century pioneers braved many challenges that summarizes Robert Michaud: 21.
"In general, the colon is a single twenty year marriage will think a little later.
Lost amid the thick forests that cover lots, he chose two locations at a certain distance from each other. The first site, he later built his house on the second, he built his camp immediately roundwood.
These initial operations are completed, he thinks to illuminate the first slash at the spot where his house will rise. When the fire has cleared the site, it will weigh the advantages and disadvantages that have been offered places.
Reduced, as primitive men to make a living by means of the more rudimentary, he was having a "fire fighting" and "cut" ...
The settler eats fish and game. He knows the handling of the baton gun.
In winter, one of the daily tasks is to maintain the fire within the camp of log cabins. The colon was digging an excavation in a mound of land selected for this purpose ... He sees that the fire is still smoldering in the ashes of the logs of maple or cherry.
The settler, when he ventures into the woods, first and foremost to the earth. His ax is its indispensable tool. It ensures felling trees in order to do well his first slash. After the fire has cleared the site of his house.
With any luck, we managed to "cleanse" a piece of land in the first year. The following spring, gardening begins and inoculated the remainder of the game cleared. In the summer, we cut the hay and the little fake grain to faucille.22.
|Map of Isle Verte|
(Photo : A. Turcotte)
Michaud, R. Green I'Isle view of the wide Lemeac, 1978, p. 145.
Map of the Lordship of L'Isle Verte which settled in the 1800s the son of Medard Turcot.
|Turcotte family photo, Île d’Orléans|
(Photo : Collection de M. Rodrigue Turcotte (Île d’Orléans).
One member of the Turcotte family of the Isle of Orleans to try his luck in the United States.
For Joseph Turcotte (it is located at the extreme right) the bells mills and the voice of the foreman replaced a few months during the seasons.
The migration of Quebecers should not stop at borders of Quebec. Quite the contrary, around 1830, although the population is still true to its agricultural, campaigns can no longer feed their population. At the same time, rapid industrialization of the United States opened new employment opportunities, the American adventure will attempt a more Turcot-te.
"One shudders, wrote the Abbe Groulx to some statistics that indicate, for each parish, the number of young people from eighteen to twenty-five years that lack of land. Rarely below 100, this number often exceeds 300 and 400 in parishes like St-Pascal, Cap-Saint-Ignace, Ste-Anne de La Pocatière, Saint-Rock-of Aulnaies, Green Island, the Islet. .. reached 700 and 800, to Yamachiche and St. Thomas, ... Inevitably this human tide is going to find a solution somewhere. And one senses that without a spillway near the boundary even stop it ".23.
Since 1842, there are several settlers, son of the Beauce established in Maine. Their first jobs were those of subsidies to farmers and loggers, the local population began to shift to more lucrative jobs in the "factories". The Franco-Americans appropriated the land and later were introduced also in plants. In 1841, Augustine Turcotte of St. Mary is sponsoring several children domiciled in the United Unis.24.
The fever of the United States deserted the ranks and old churches. The newcomers were quickly engaged in spinning and among footwear manufacturers. From 1860 to 1900, nearly 600,000 Quebecers left the shores of the St. Lawrence to the industrial cities of New England, and it is estimated that by 1900 one in four Quebecers lived in New Angleterre.25.
On the other side of the border, to compensate for this mass emigration were opened to new settlement areas, the Lac St-Jean, Saguenay, Abitibi and Témiscamingue were soon populated.
Quebecers know now Ernest Turcotte, through the poem Raoul Duguay "had known Ernest Turcotte, who was of beautiful wood round ... But how many know the difficulties that this man left with his family and moved to northern Quebec had to overcome. As a rough journey through the vast forest, part of which is now called Park Verendrye, we have the testimony of a woman who carefully noted each day the nights of the soul of this journey . Here are some excerpts:
|Drawing of 19th century farm home life|
Life in our houses in the 19th century.
Drawing made by Paul Turcotte, 15, of Deauville, on the occasion of a drawing competition for young family Turcotte from 0 to 15 years, as part of celebrations of the Turcotte family.
In the spring of 1909, the Turcotte family left Saint-Remi of Amherst to settle in Western Canada. After spending a year, not being satisfied with the benefits offered by this part of the country, they decided to return it in the province of Quebec and settled in North Timiskaming dreaming of going later s establish in Abitibi, because they had excellent reports from explorers and engineers employed in the route of Transcontinental. They chose the place where the railroad would cross the river Harricana site for later become the center of the region.
Mrs. Joseph Turcotte had the excellent idea to write the scene, the details of this perilous journey to the North Témiscamingue Harricana (Amos). Take the opportunity to congratulate and thank her for having sent for the History of Abitibi.26. Here is what we draw from his journal. Do not forget that Mrs. Ernest Turcotte holds in her arms a baby of nine months:
"After spending the summer in northern Témiscamingue, we decide, September 22, 1910, to leave with our families, bringing weapons and baggage. The names of passengers:
Joseph Turcotte and his wife (Bernadette Thomas), Ernest Turcotte and his wife (Albertine Chalifoux), Armand Turcotte, age 5, Rose Turcotte, aged 3 years, Aline Turcotte, aged 2 years, Ivanhoe Turcotte, aged nine months.
"We start, with about two tons of cargo and supplies that we carry around with those two cars to double Lac des Quinze, is a distance of 15 miles. We are led by Mr. Dupuis of North Timiskaming.
"During the journey from Lake Timiskaming to the Fifteen, we see several bears that are saved in the path once they hear the noise of cars. The children call them "big black dogs." Women are the majority of the journey on foot.
"On arrival at the Lac des Quinze, at seven o'clock in the evening, it is very cold and the wind is impetuous. We have just enough time to lift our tents and settling down for the night before dark.
"The next morning, everyone is happy, it's Friday, September 23. We fish for lunch. It rained all day.
"Saturday the 24th, we obtain two old canoes at the farm Klock, we rapiéçons our best to transport people and luggage. It's still raining all day.
"On Sunday, the 25th, we prepare for the big departure. We jumped in our boats to an hour in the afternoon. Several people were present and we are their best wishes. Some will tell them that we are crazy to risk everything, life, health, etc.. In such an adventure ... The lake is beautiful like a mirror. We plan to go tonight, camping at Long Point, so called by the Indians.
"A hundred feet before coming, as it is already dark, a canoe fails. Fortunately, our boat has no damage. We landed, and as time progresses, we get up one of our tents. The men prepare to fire the "kettle", while children play around the flames.
"Monday, 26. It's nice, we get up early in the morning and leave in a hurry to take advantage of calm weather. There is only by boat rower. They are so loaded that the water is three inches from the edge. Fortunately we have good weather all day. We cross the lake during the Fifteen-morning, and one that bears the name of expansion, in the afternoon. The evening we camped on the banks of the Ottawa River. We choose a beautiful place where we could admire the sunset in all its splendor. During the night we are disturbed in our sleep by the moose that walk on water, beside the River.
"On Tuesday, the 27th, and the next days are very boring: it rains continuously. Thursday the 29th, it's fine and we continue our journey. We soon reach a quick and our men decided to take our canoes to the "Cordell". They have water and sometimes the knees to below the arm, leading the boats to avoid the reefs that we might capsize. Despite these precautions, an accident occurs: a sharp rock bursting one of our boats. We unload the rapiéçons our best, which takes a lot of time.
"This work ended, we hit, arrive soon at the head of the rapids. We still have three quarters of a mile to go to reach the collapse of the sturgeon, where there is a portage of about half a mile. Here we have for the first time, carry our baggage on our shoulders. In addition, we suffer a hellish storm of thunder, rain and wind, so we decided to raise our tents we put away our luggage. The rain ended, we prepare dinner.
"After a short rest, we leave for a trip of 19 miles up the river Ottawa. We have a big wind behind us helps a lot. At sunset we put up tents for the night. Our sleep is still troubled: believe we hear ducks, but they are wild and we hear that we see for the first time.
"Friday, September 30. It's very beautiful, we have a fair wind, and we use small sails, which helps us to rise up the Ottawa River Kinojevis. We climb the latter on a length of about 10 miles to the portage Gendron, where we put up our tents.
"Two days are enough to portage our stores at the other end, three quarters of a mile, near a lake. We kill a lot of partridges, and see trails of moose, which our husbands very interested! ...
"Sunday, October 2nd. We load our luggage and cross a small lake. It is very beautiful. We see many ducks. The lake is crossed, as it's Sunday, we recite the rosary.
"We unload our luggage for transport even a half-mile of a lake 5 miles long. We put up our tents.
"Monday, October 3. The weather is threatening, but we still decide to cross the lake. Arrived after we did not find the stream that should lead us further. We must then retrace our steps to find this stream we find ourselves at last. It is narrow, very embarrassed and excessively crooked, and we must descend 25 miles away.
"About three o'clock in the afternoon, we experience a downpour! We must "try" in a most unpleasant place. It is still raining ... During the night, thunder and lightning prevent us from sleeping.
"Tuesday, October 4. It's still raining, but as we are in a bad place, we go further down the stream of increasingly embarrassed by fallen trees. With a saw and an ax, we make our way, but with great difficulty. After five hours of walking we reach the river Kakak which at this point is 50 feet wide and deep enough.
"After dinner, we continue our road to the first fast this river. It's five o'clock, and as the weather is threatening, we moved to the shelter. This place is very dangerous with large dead trees that threaten to engulf our tents. The night of anguish that we spend here is indescribable. Storms accompanied by thunder, lightning, high winds! ... Trees batter around us. But God protects us, and we spend the night without incident.
"Wednesday the 5th, we do carry our luggage at the foot of the portage. After having reloaded our canoes, we continue down river. In some places, we still have great difficulty in force our way through the pile of wood. We arrive at Lake Kakak, which is about five miles long. The wind is favorable, we decided to tie our two boats near each other, and we raise a sail to make us grow by the wind. Arriving at the other end of the lake, we continue down the current of the river to the lake Kewagama. It was 20 miles long, and we must wait until the wind dies down before starting the journey.
"At four o'clock in the afternoon, we start with the intention to make half the journey, and go" try "Molybdenite Mine owned by Mr. Bob Sweezez now.
"After two miles, now the wind is! The waves seem to engulf us, we hesitate to throw our supplies water to relieve our canoes. We persist and half past six, we landed safely. We spend our tents for another night remarkable for its storms with wind, thunder and lightning ...
"Thursday, 6. Men repair the boats. Women benefit to bake bread in ovens sheet. At one o'clock in the afternoon despite the wind, we decided to go along the lake as much as possible. Reached a turning point, we had to take off and make a crossing three miles with a side wind. We regret this new adventure because more than ever before, we feared or throw our supplies of water, or sinking. Women recite the rosary, men avironnent courageously. Fortunately we finally arrive at a narrow lake measuring about 200 feet and then find a nice place to camp. While the men stand tents, children play with the partridge abound.
Friday 7. Our husbands go alone to fetch a load of supplies to the camp of Mr. Ritchman on Kinojevis River. They brought this lake Témiscamingue, the previous week. Upon their return, as the wind picked up, we still spend hours there with anguish, and we wonder what we will do if our brave husbands drown ... Also, the joy at their arrival is great! ...
Saturday, 8. It rained all morning. Several partridges come visit us and we give them a good reception. In the afternoon, for my part, I hesitate to leave a canoe, but as he must, we set, looking for the port that we must conduct at Seal Lake's Home on the Harricana. To get to port, we must cross a lake about 3 miles wide. There is a wind of rage, and we pass the location of the port without seeing and we return to our camp for the night, during which we continually rocked by the wind shook the trees until their roots.
"Saturday, October 15. This is the last day of our journey. We have lunch and leave favored a fair wind, which allows us to use our sails, and the trip is quick.
"We finally arrived at the spot where the route of the Transcontinental crosses the river at five o'clock in the afternoon. It rained in torrents. We saw some camps, construction company Boley Welsh & Stuart, entrepreneurs railways were starting work. Mr. Lang, foreman, saw us coming, met us and filled with pity, offered us hospitality.
"The men raised their tents, and soon, Mr. Lang sent for them for dinner, what we all agreed.
"Mr. Lang had his wife with him. They were very surprised at our arrival and asked us what we were doing. We told them there was nothing to our event and we could do anything ...
"After dinner, they invited us to sleep in their camp, but we started to be wild and preferred to sleep in our tents when we installed our sheet pans.
"The next day, October 16 is Sunday. Tired of the trip, we got up late. He fell six inches of snow overnight, and water had accumulated in the tent of Ernest and his family. It was he who awakened us, and here's how he found a shovel and dug a small canal and drain the water introduced into his tent, when suddenly he caught in the rigging of ours who back on me and my husband! This little incident amused us very much ...
"On Monday the 17th, he must remember to build camps for the winter. We take a long saw the engineer Transcontinental and our husbands sawing planks needed for roofing, flooring, doors and tables.
"Two weeks later, we are suitably accommodated each home. The few employees of contractors often come to visit us and question us on our adventure travel as we did without incident and all in perfect health.
"We also visit the game birds and ground game that reign supreme in the forest. The partridge abound. Children who play outdoors are often warn us to go see them, sometimes they run the floor, sometimes they eat the buds on trees.
"The Indians are numerous. They come to us and offer their furs in exchange for food. The contractors are doing everything we can to oblige. They give us enough pay contracts.
"The first winter was very cold, and we have lots of snow. After the holidays, we decide to hunt, and we are lucky. The first week we take several martens and a beautiful silver fox.
"A little later, a painful accident occurred: one afternoon, Ernest Turcotte went to visit his traps. He had to go along, and darkness overtook him before he could get out of the woods. It was a cold 45 degrees below zero. In passing over a brook, he was pressed with rackets and "sack pack". With difficulty, he managed to break away and having a few matches, he succeeded in lighting a fire to dry his clothes. It was nine o'clock in the evening.
"He then continued his march towards his house, but, alas! after a few minutes, he drove back to the water to the waist. He tried to make a second fire, but the matches were too wet, and he could not succeed. Soaked to the bone, then he began running, but as the cold was piercing, it felt freezing as it progressed. "One more mile to do" he said. He felt weak and began to despair.
"In our house, we were the greatest concern and we wondered what might happen. We wanted to meet him, but did not know what direction to take, because he would not return the same way. Very often, we left the camp to see if it happened. It was bright moonlight.
"Suddenly, oh joy! We heard the sound of his pants frozen, it was him! Sometimes ... Alas! His trembling lips could not utter a word! We did sit coupâmes his pants, his shoes and sat down his feet in ice water, because they were frozen! ...
"Despite all our good care, he had to spend the rest of the winter without walking. Joseph Turcotte continued to hunt alone, and Ernest, nailed to his chair, stripped the game.
"The spring came, we sold goods store because we feared the fire. We made a garden that brought us fine vegetables in the fall.
Joseph Turcotte was later acquired a homestead he sold it to his brother Ernest in 1914.
Modern history: Here stop my pen. As the song says "Gens du pays, it's your turn." Yes cousins it's your turn to take the pen, and touch on the contemporary history of our family. What was the life of your grandfather, your father, your uncles. Meet them, ask them to tell you how they spent the years of World War I, those of the Crisis and War. They can answer better than me, all your questions. So thanks to you, their names are forever etched in the memory of time and each of us has contributed to write his story ...