History of the Vendée, Lower Poitou, in France XXII


History of the Vendée
Lower Poitou in France



The foreign policy of Richelieu, that we will see being held in all its size, does not suffer any discussion, and Poitou was far from being indifferent there. Visà-screw from abroad, which often with glory the gentlemen bas-poitevins fought, this man was incarnated France, and so inside its policy lends sometimes to criticism, it was not inspired by it always by burning patriotism (1).

Nothing escapes this extraordinary man, who have the prescience of the future so to speak, and that the great part which will play in the modern society, the press, that one described as fourth state. In this order of ideas, it is still a poitevin, Théophrase Renaudot, born in London in 1586 and died in 1653, which opens the way which will widen and will develop little by little with a surprising speed.

Under the patronage of the king and the large cardinal, Renaudot, appointed police chief general of the poor, opened in the interest of unhappy without employment, an office of address, left advertising agency to which our modern Petites Posters does not hesitate to make go up their origin.

On May 1, 1631, also appeared, under the patronage of Richelieu, the Gazette, the first newspaper created in France, which through all our revolutions was transmitted until our days under the name of Gazette of France, and in which the king and the cardinal did not scorn to collaborate. The press, this powerful vehicle, was thus created in France by Richelieu and Louis XIII, i.e. by the dictatorship. Richelieu gave birth to any unit the two large enemies whose fight was to fill the modern world, the absolutism and the press.

As let us say, not to return more there, as it is still with a poitevin that France owes its literary press. Sallô Denis, lord of Coudraye, close Holy-Hermine, was born in 1626, in Paris, and was accepted, in 1653, adviser at the Parliament of Paris. In 1665, it founded, under the supposed name of the sior of Hédouville, his manservant, a periodic work, the Newspaper of the Scientists. It was erudite itself, and as it appeared in various cases where the court called upon its knowledge, Denis saw himself withdrawing his privilege with the 13th number, by the influence jealous of some authors of which it had not spared vanity in its criticisms enough, and was obliged to yield it to the Welsh abbot. Thus, always sic not the vobis; but its idea was fertile and the erudite world applauds it by imitating it (2).


On these entrefaites, Richelieu, to be delivered concern that the cabals formed against its power gave him, and to withdraw the king from the influence of the court, made him support a war in Italy against the duke of Savoy, war which was all with the advantage of France. The Imperial ones were beaten: Pignerol, the Step of Suze fell in our capacity. On July 6, 1630, the passage of Vegliana was forced in a violent one fights, where the duke of Montmorency illustrated itself, which also seized Conflans. This last business, particularly fatal, as that of the Step of Suze were, for two bas-poitevins especially, the occasion to illustrate itself. We believe duty to devote some lines to these two brilliances captains.

Henri of Trémouille, duke of Thouars, prince de Talmont, count de Laval, etc, born in 1599, Mestre of camp of the light cavalry of France, attended the seat of the La Rochelle in 1628, and abjured the Protestant religion between the hands of Richelieu. Being, little time after, with the attack of the Step of Suze, it was placed, with a great number of other young people lord, at the most perilous station. It was useful in Piedmont and was wounded with the knee while going to recognize the place of Carignan, which it seized. Named knight of the Holy Spirit in 1633, it chaired, on December 17, 1636, the States of Brittany, and when the king walked against the Spaniards who had seized Corbie, the duke suited it to join with 4.000 troops which it had raised to his costs. He fills the load of large Master to funerals of Louis XIII, and at the time of the Congress of Munster he made, with the approval of the king who, in 1651, had granted the prerogatives of foreign prince to him, all the protests against the occupation, by the king of Spain, of the kingdom of Naples, with the crown of which he claimed, of the chief of Anne of Laval, her great-grandmother. He died on January 21, 1674. He was married in Marie of the Tower, burning Protestant, which made build the castle of Thouars for which she spent, says one, 1.220.000 books.

One their wire, Louis-Maurice, was useful in Italy in 1642, with the head of its regiment of infantry, with the head offices of Crescentin, Nice, of the Straw, etc, then with that of Thionville, in 1643, under the duke of Enghien; embraced then the ecclesiastical state, was abbot of Cartwright and Talmont and died on January 25, 1681 (1).

Leon Barlot. - Leon Barlot, lord of Châtellier-Barlot, in the parish of Poiré-on-Velluire, Mestre of camp, which had been already announced as a combatant Soubise (2), in 1622, covered glory with Conflans; two years afterwards in front of Pézenas and Béziers, by his bravery our compatriot astonished the marshals by the Force and Schomberg. In 1635 (3), it was named first brigadier with the command as a second of the army of Flanders, under the orders of the marshal of the Force.

Very in cold with Richelieu, who refused the government of Poitou to him, it created and organized nevertheless the regiment which, since, bore the name of the province; then went to hide its dissatisfaction, counters what it regarded as a preferential treatment, at the bottom of the paternal manor, that it made restore and surround by new constructions of which much still remains.

One claims that Richeheu offered, with the stick of Marshal of France, to buy Châtellier-Barlot to him to create there the port of the areas of the West, established since in Rochefort. It died in Poiré in 1644, at the 62 years age. It employed the last years of its life to be made write, by Julien Collardeau and his Chatevère secretary, of the memories printed in Fontenay under this title: Memories to be used for the history, drawn from the cabinet of Lord Leon of Châtellier-Barlot, since the year 1596 until 1636. They were printed by Pierre Petit, printer of the king and the Body of City. MDCXLIII - In-4°.

A portrait with the three pencils existing in Paris, shows Châtellier-Barlot having large mine and the not very accommodating air. It left two wire, whose elder one was Mestre of camp of the regiment of Poitou. Its name died out in the person of a poor devil which finishes its days in a house depending on Châtellier.

Louis de Bessay. - At the time when Leon Châtellier-Barlot announced himself by his bravery, one of its neighbors, of Bessay Louis, lord of Bessay and Saint-Hilaire-the-Vouhis, was charged, in 1632, with raising a regiment of infantry of twelve companies, which it led in Picardy, Champagne and Germany, and one sees by a role of quatre-vingt-douze gentlemen that it ordered the nobility of Low-Poitou to the arriere-ban convened by the king in Lorraine. He was under the orders of prince de Condé, for the army of Roussillon, in 1639, and was used, as well like volunteer as as commander the nobility of Languedoc. On February 22, 1652, it was named ordering of Périgord, to subject the rebels to the obedience of His Majesty, with order with all the nobility of the province and all the communities to obey the count de Bessay, in the capacity as gouvvernor (4).

German Foucher, baron of theHolyone. - German Foucher, nephew of Leon Châtellier-Barlot, by his mother Helene Barlot, girl of Antoine, lord of Châtellier-Barlot, was also distinguished during the reign from Louis XIII. As of the 14 years age, it started to be useful in the regiment of his uncle Leon, under the control of which it attended the head offices of Luzarches, La Rochelle and Saint-Jean-in Angély. Named gentleman of the brother of Sir, brother of the king, then its first chamberlain in 1632, it continued, in spite of that, to be useful, and belonged to the army of Italy. He clearly took the party of Mister against the king, and at the time of their reconciliation, Mister wanting to make known of it to king d' Espagne, who had spared it, dispatched for this mission the baron of theHolyone, who discharged some with general satisfaction, and accepted, inter alia present, a diamond pink of a great price.

On his return in France, Louis XIII gave him a regiment of men of foot of 20 signs with white flag, which took the name of Ford-Holy-Flaive. He was still useful during six years and was killed with the head office of Catelet, by the explosion of a mine, while wanting to carry attack one. breach of which it ordered the attack (5).


a few years later 1650, the theatre of a tragic event caused by the criminal speculation from which we come to speak.

François de Fesque, lord of Cacaudière, in Pouzauges, had married, in 1626, Renee de Vandel. The first years of the marriage had been

The attention of Richelieu went on all things. By letters patent of June 1631, a commission had been established with the Arsenal of Paris, in order to continue the crime of counterfeit money, lucrative crime, which multiplied among people of highest quality. The death sentence by contumacy, of the duke of Roannez, which had manufactured counterfeit money, had not been able to prevent this gold fever from invading the most distant provinces, and a castle up to that point almost ignored in Low-Poitou was going to be, happy: peace was disturbed by it by the arrival with the castle of Marie de Fesque, close relationship of François. Full with artifice and endowed with an infernal genius, Marie, that the sentence of the large seneshal of Poitiers compares with Médée, had soon a criminal trade with Fesque, on the spirit of which it took ascending complete. "It informed it in science of the transmutation of metals, and carried it, under pretext of the research of the Golden Fleece and the philosopher stone, to manufacture counterfeit money, of which having made with it a great quantity, it was solved, with another gentleman named Espinaceau, to go on a journey from Paris, to make more easily the flow of it, but one and the other was taken by the ways, by the provost of Orleans, which having convinced of crime of counterfeit money made them carry out in Orleans, in 1650 (1). "


About on November 20, 1632, Richelieu failed to die in Bordeaux in consequence of a retention of urine of the most serious character… "But he did not die about it however! The frail envelope of this so strong heart seemed always ready to dissolve, but it had been said that the heart forced the body to live, and that a magic power supported this exténué organization; magic power indeed that that of the immortal spirit and the free will overcoming nature in the large minister, of which one of the greatest concerns is to lower the house of Austria".


Beaten in high Germany, Franconie, Palatinat, the Imperial ones wanted to be avenged by an attack against évêché for Whorl, which was supposed neutral, under French protectorate. The episcopal city, which did not have a garrison, was taken. The war started thus between France and the Emperor.

The marshals of the Force and Brézé, reinforced by Bernard of Weimar, went to invest the place which went about mid-March 1635. During this terrible seat, Charles Bruneau, baron of Rabatelière, which had been already distinguished with the seat from the citadel from the island from D, under the orders of the marshal of Thoiras, crosses France to the head of a company of bas-poitevins, recruited on its grounds, the conduit with the army ordered by the marshal of the Force, and contribute successfully to the catch of Whorl (1).

Three years before, another Vendean gentleman, Philippe de Chateaubriant, count of the Rocks-Baritaud as a St-Germain-the-Prinçay had, at the 34 years age, found death with the battle of Lérida, and an inscription which one still sees in the church of Saint-Germain devotes this glorious episode.

The care of the war, the diplomacy and the administration was not enough with the activity to this man, who seemed to have only the breath. On February 12, 1635, it reorganizes on a vaster scale the company of the islands of America, creates three companies for the trade of the Western coast of Africa and another for the colonization of Guyana.


Establishments are based in Martinique, in the Guadeloupe, in the Antilles. From 1632 to 1636 the colony of the corsairs of the Tortoise starts, on the northern coast of Saint-Domenica. At the head of this republic of heroic pirates who, under the title of flibustiers, thank you make to the Spaniards a war without truce nor, by their immense maritime depredations and their descents devastators places Neau, known as Olonnais, born in Sablesd' Olonne at the beginning of the XVIIe century. It forms in its native port a small flotilla of light to the race, easy and prompt ships in the evolutions, although charged with artillery and filled with weapons. With the head of Sablais adventurers and Norman, it is the plague of all that carries an enemy house. Taken by the Indians in 1667, Neau is eaten by them.

In water of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, another bas-poitevin, a former bishop of Maillezais, Henri d' Escoubleau de Sourdis, born in Gaubretière, supported the honor of the French house against the Spanish and English fleets.

De Sourdis. - On June 23, 1636, the fleet of the West, strong of 750 guns, to the orders of the count d' Harcourt and of Henri de Sourdis, archbishop of Bordeaux which, to the seat of the La Rochelle had given undeniable evidence of zeal and of capacity, left water of D, crossed. you strait, of Gilbratar, without the Spaniards trying to dispute the passage to him, took on its road an English vessel which had refused to lower house in front of the French admiral, and arrived on August 12 at the islands of Hyères. Unfortunately Harcourt and Sourdis did not find anything loan in consequence of the culprits operations of the marshal Vitry, governor of Provence, which came to this point of insolence of raising the stick on Sourdis. The fleet wintered in Provence, after some unimportant skirmishes against the naval army of the Spaniards. But in March of the following year, the fleet was happier, and the 28 fortifications raised since two years by the adversary around Holy-Marguerite, the principal one of the two enemy islands, were carried of attack; the large fortress capitulated on May 6, 1637 and the Spanish garrison re-embarked the 12. - In 1638, the archbishop of Bordeaux was called in the Ocean with half of the fleet which had taken again the islands of Lerins.


On August 1, 1638, of Sourdis, assembled on the flagship Couronne, the largest ship which France had still had, invests Fontarabie, besieged by Condé (1), general without decision and glance. who could not force Valetta to act, nor to open the breach in good time. "But the strength of the Navy presented a strange contrast with the inertia of the Army. A Spanish squadron having been announced to the height of Guetaria, Sourdis went ahead with eighteen large vessels and a half-dozen of scathing attacks: the Spaniards withdrew themselves in the roads of Guetaria. The French, supported by the wind, there attacked and launched their brulôts in narrow space where were tightened the enemy ships; thirteen galleons and much of lower buildings were cast flarings or with their crews and trois-mille soldiers which they carried to Saint-Sebastien. - The Spanish squadron was destroyed. - This terrible day cost Spain seven huit-mille marine and soldiers, and five hundred guns".

The following year, of Sourdis was not also happy. On June 1, 1639, it started from Beautiful-Isle with forty men-of-war, blackjacks scathing attacks and twelve transport charged soldiers, to go to attack the Spanish squadrons until in the ports of the Peninsula. It met in roads of Corogne, thirty-five enemy vessels which prepared to carry troops to Flanders. The Spanish fleet was withdrawn in the port. Sourdis blocked there, cannonaded there but could not force there. A violent storm maltreated the French fleet cruelly and obliged it to turn over to Beautiful-Isle to be repaired there. During this time the enemy, reinforced by other squadrons, slipped in and gained the English Channel. Sourdis, which had recovered at sea, did not meet any more on the coasts of Biscay but some buildings latecomers; it took the galleon-admiral of Galicia and made a descent with Laréda which it plundered (2).

Another failure in front of Tarragone (August 20, 1641) lost "the Prelate with the Foot-Sailor" in the spirit of Richelieu, who sent it in exile to Carpentras, and went until àdemander to the pope of the capacities for a commission of bishops which would be charged to judge Sourdis. The business trailed, and Richelieu died before his former friend had been able to justify himself and to undeceive it. The correspondence of the archbishop-admiral, the testimony of Duquesne, and that of all the best officers of the fleet appeared to clear completely of Sourdis (3).


Successes of the countryside of 1636 had been interfered reverse, and when the following year the Imperial ones invaded Picardy, Richelieu had, says one, one moment of doubt and fear; he saw Paris ready to revolt, the agitated provinces, the malevolent nobility, the people turned sour by the aggravation of the taxes (1). The peasants of Poitou, the Angoumois and Saintonge, where the irritating question of the gabelle one reappeared constantly, were in insurrection, and had at their head a brother of unhappy Chalais. The capital of Low-Poitou was dissatisfied, and of deaf persons grondements announced a new storm.

Richelieu then thought of sticking the middle-class of the only important center of the Vendée, and this year memo (1636) it decided the establishment of a présidial in Fontenay; but this project was temporarily abandoned following the urgent representations made to the inhabitants of Poitiers, by the doctor of the cardinal, Citoys, whose last male descendant died in Saint-Vincent-Puymaufrais in 1879. Later the edict of creation was returned, then withdrawn, and it was only in March 1644 (2) that Fontenay, already royal seat (3), had its présidial following the urgent steps of François Brisson, seneshal of Fontenay.

But this concession, or rather this favour had hardly modified the provisions of the campaigns, which the following the example of those of Guyenne still rose in 1636 and 1637 against the taxes and the tax collectors. One saw under the weapons several thousands of peasants, among whom many former soldiers, but the energetic attitude of the duke of Valette, lieutenant general of Guyenne, and that of the intendant of Poitou, made low put the weapons at these new "crunching".


The successes gained in the seas of Italy by the French fleet and the victory of Guetaria (August 22, 1638), had compensated France for the failures wiped on ground, in particular in front of Fontarabie, and the country, trustful in its destinies, was begun again to hope, when a great event occurred. Two days before the rout of Fontarabie, five days after the naval victory gained in front of Genes, by the French galères, on September 5, 1638, birthday of the birth of Richelieu, Anne of Austria put at the world, the castle of Saint-Germain-in-Bush hammer, a son who was named Louis Dieudonné. France greeted by a long cry of joy the birth of the child who was to be Louis XIV, and who begin with saving his country of the ignominieux yoke of Gaston of Orleans.

The last facts of the countryside of 1638 confirmed the favorable omen which the people drew from the inception of the dolphin, and the Rhine comforted Richelieu of Bidassoa. The catch of Arras was still going to add to the prestige of France and to move back its borders. This seat, where was distinguished Charles de Bessay, who found there death at the 22 years age, was long and fatal. This city, invested on June 13, 1640 by the marshals of Meilleraye, Châtillon and Thatches, went only the 9 aoùt. The conquest of this chief town of province so a long time the boulevard of the Netherlands against France, the "recouvrance" of this antique stronghold since so a long time to the crown, excited in the nation a long quivering of joy. It was felt that it was there one of these conquests which are not reperdent, and one saw there the beginning of the absorption of the Belgian provinces in the French unit.


It was not only the political supremacy which Richelieu wanted to ensure his fatherland; if it aspired to move back the terminals of the material territory, it claimed to well more widen the intellectual field of France, and to make reign the French spirit, there even where could not penetrate the French Armies. - Whereas Spain and Italy overpowered our literature of their bright superiority, Richelieu had felt to tressaillir in the sides of France in work, the great century which was going to be born, and he was the father. To help the destinies of our language, of which it had judged the character and the range, it melted in January 1635 the French Academy, giving in any circumstance the knowing and men of letters, of the evidence of this high benevolence whose Fontenaisien, Julien Collardeau, were to receive a quite flattering testimony.

Julien Collardeau (1), after brilliant studies of right in Poitiers, under Louis of the Lane and François Lauzon, had become prosecutor of the king in 1590, at the 20 years age. In this city, which had formed Tiraqueau, Brisson, Viète, Nicolas Rapin, Besly, and where the worship of the letters, sciences and the right had remained in great honor, Collardeau had wanted to show the worthy follower of his noble precursors. At fifty years, become free of work which its load required, it undertook very long, very painful and very erudite work, the comment of the Discrepancies of Roman law. In 1634, the author had written to the large cardinal of Richelieu and had asked for the permission to him of dedicate its work to him, that it had sent to him. The cardinal honoured it with the most flattering answer. It is a too glorious title in our Collardeau to remove it.


"This will be to me always a great satisfaction at being able to usefully employ me for those which resemble to you. I read the subject, the foreword and part of the book which you wish to put at the day. It is worthy of its author, and such as I make sure that it will acquerra to him of the honor among the scientists, and will benefit all those which will read it. I have you particular obligation to agree to make it appear under my name. I return from there grace to you and asks you to believe that I will seek the occasions of you to testify my ressentimens to it, and with Mister the Prosecutor of the king, your son, and to show to you that I am,

Dear Sir,

Your affectionate and to be useful to you,

The Cardinal of Richelieu.

De Ruel, "January 30, 1634".

His/her son Julien (II), about which Richelieu speaks, cultivated early and also successfully letters and teased the MUSE.

Born in Fontenay in 1600, it was, since 1619, author (2), and made print, counters the dance and the masquerades, a satirical novel full with imagination and promptness. The épitre dédicatoire with Guillaume de Montholon, intendant of Poitiers, is dated from Fontenay, October 9, 1619; and a proof that Collardeau was still in its first youth draws from a letter of Jean Morel de Rheims, to which it had communicated his work, before making it public. "Eh! what, writes Morel to him, you are an already author? In truth, it is a true miracle. Such an amount of science, so much scholarship, a judgement if Net, if formed, at the age where you are, that is not conceived. " Today! tam cito? miraculum. Te id śtatis adolescentem pervenisse eo maturatis ingenii, eruditionis and doctrinś! The remainder is employed to speak in praise of the book of Collardeau.

The death of holy Marthe, made in 1623, awoke all the Muses, that of Collardeau held its part in this concert. A few years afterwards, it published a poem in French worms entitled: Tables of the victories of Louis XIII.

If one believed of it the praise contained in a sonnet that Colletet addresses to the author, Homère would be placed a notch lower than Collardeau; thus Colletet speaks to him.

Julien Collardeau, IIIe of the name, successor of his brother in the load of prosecutor of the king, are also considered rightly as one of the people more the well-read women whom Fontenay (3) produced at that time; one finds of it the proof in an inscription engraved on the door of the house which it lived in Fontenay and which was at one time occupied by the scientist collector, Mr. Hanaël Jousseaume.

Anx names of Collardeau, it is appropriate to add those of Besly, about which we already spoke, of Gasteau Pierre, sior of Vignault, brilliant speaker, appointed Third in the States of Blois. - Mizière, doctor, numismatist, editor of works of Clement Marot, Hillerin (Jacques and Charles).

Jacques de Hillerin (1573-1663), laid off ès-laws, prior of Mortagne and adviser of Church, is the author of several works published of 1635 to 1652, in four folio volumes, being composed mainly: chronological and spiritual Letters, of Christian with four wheels, driving Charriot with the hello, and Speeches, meslanges and various actions, made in the court of the Parliament of Paris.


Charles de Hillerin, nephew of the precedent, priest, doctor in Sorbonne, priest of Saint-Méry, in Paris, was born towards the beginning from the XVIIe century, in the surroundings of Fontenay-leComte (1). Brought early in Paris, it made in the capital of very strong studies traditional and theological, who were worth the honor to him to be provided for half of the cure of Saint-Méry. This parish had two priests, and from Hillerin great successes as speaker of the pulpit obtained there. Owner of a large fortune, of which it could make a noble use, all smiled to him in his sacerdotal functions, when disgusted world, that it had been able to see closely, thanks to Arnaud d' Andilly, it exaggerated its faults, and contacted with the famous abbot of Saint-Cyran, Duvergier de Hauranne, prisoner with Vincennes and was touched grace. Then began for the bas-poitevin a life of mortification and prayers. It gives up for the large benefit which its cure gave him, and with Fontaine and a worthy ecclesiastic, it comes, in February 1644, to withdraw itself in the priory of Saint-Andre-on-Sèvre, which it finds in a state of complete decay. In this modest asylum, Hillerin carried out a life of deprivations of any nature, being covered with a cilice and delivering itself to work with a heat such as the forces often betrayed its courage. After some voyages to Port-Royal, and to have bound of friendship with Baudry of Saint-Gilles d' Asson. it died on April 14, 1669, on the parish of Saint-Joseph of Haut-Pas. It had before composed a book having for title the sizes of the Verb incarnated, which, with the statement of Dreux-Duradier, could be well only one summary of that published, on the same subject, by his uncle.


Baudry d' Asson, gentleman poitevin, contemporary and friend of Hillerin, were born in April 1617, with the castle of Asson, located between Boissière and Treize-Septiers. Owner of a rather large fortune and fatty an emolument, it gives up his benefit suddenly and the other advantages while rising for, in 1647, to withdraw itself with Port-Royal-of-Fields, house famous for the merit and the number of the great men who lived this loneliness then. The lord of the manor brought there his gaiety, his spirit, his goodwill, and a rare aptitude for all things. Responsible for the agricultural work management of the famous abbey, it also dealt with the particular businesses of the monks and was devoted to all kinds of deprivations. Endowed with a great energy, it highly took the defense of large Arnauld and its friends Sacy, Tillemont, Singlin, the Nicole, thwarting research of the police force, while leaving with Port-Royal the habit to take again, out of the enclosure, the sword of gentleman.

Sight taken of the roadway
(Stereotype Auguste Douillard, of Montaigu)

It held head with the prosecutors and, in 1656, "the Provincial ones", whose impression is due to a bas-poitevin and that the police force wanted to choke as of their appearance, were everywhere spread, thanks to Baudry of Saint-Gilles d' Asson, in Périer, brother-in-law of Pascal and with Pontchâteau.

Asson (vault of the castle)
Stereotype Auguste Douillard, of Montaigu

Some address which had put Baudry d' Asson to thwart the operations of the police force, its steps had not been so secret that it had not learned something from it. Then against him a series of annoyances started. After the dispersion of the monks of Port-Royal, Baudry d' Asson was charged to negotiate an agreement between the cardinal of Retz and the famous abbey. Lastly, after cross-pieces of all kinds, the corrector of the tests of Pascal, the dispenser of alms of Mrs. de Longueville, the confidant of Arnauld, the untiring defender of the widows and nuns, the negotiator in all the difficult businesses, died out on December 30, 1668, and its heart was carried to Port-Royal-of-Fields.


About this time, Low-Poitou still counted, among the well-read men, an abbot of Saint-Michel-in-the Herm, Hardouin Péréfixe de Beaumont (1605-1670). Wire of one Master-of hotel of the cardinal of Richelieu, it was, after brilliances success in Sorbonne, tutor of Louis XIV, then his confessor. It composed for its royal pupil Institutio Principis and the Life of Henri IV. This history, remarkable by the elegant naivety of the style and a simplicity full with charm, obtained a popular success that time confirmed (1); also the French Academy, in 1654, hastened it to call in its centre Péréfixe de Beaumont, then abbot of Saint-Michel-in-the Herm (2). Péréfixe arrived, in 1662, with the seat archiépiscopal of Paris, and became, little of time afterwards, headmaster of the Sorbonne and commander of the orders of the king.


Richelieu had died on December 4, 1642, and, God alone knows the secrecy of the confidence with which this man, who had been if not very miséricordieux, awaited the mercy of the Sovereign Judges. Louis XIII followed it in the tomb little time after, and its last moments were marked by a really singular and memorable demonstration. "On May 10, 1643, the king dreamed that the young duke of Enghien, party recently to go to take the command in chief of the army of North, gained a bloody victory, obstinately disputed, but decisive. The opinion of old on the gift of prophecy granted to dying was, this time, confirmed by the fact; but Louis did not see the realization of his dream; the battle of Rocroy was delivered on May 19: Louis had died the 14, thirty-three years, day for day, after the assassination of Henri IV. He had not lived forty-two years (1). "

"France was seized by enivrement inexpressible, when it learned this triumph, more the brilliance that its weapons had obtained for one century, and when it saw arriving at Notre-Dame of Paris the two hundreds - sixty standards conquered at Rocroy. All contributed to the prestige of a victory gained by a twenty-two year old prince, for a five year old king. It seemed miraculous to see glory inaugurating the government of a woman and a child, government whose idea joins, usually, with that of the weakness and the impotence: consequently this cradle, cover of so early bay-trees, seemed to carry in its sides a new destiny. "


Less than two years after this bright victory, of new bay-trees were to crown the armies of the young king. As of the beginning of April 1645, Of Plessis-Praslin the seat in front of the important seaboard town of Pinks or Rosas put, that the Spaniards had preserved at the north-eastern end of Catalonia. Neither the violent rains, neither the brooks changed into torrents, drowning the French camp and spoiling the luggage and the ammunition, neither the extreme solidity of the fortifications built out of stone, "hard like diamond" nor the fatal resistance of a brave woman and many garrison discouraged besieging them, among which illustrated several bas-poitevins of which we quoted the names elsewhere.

Pinks was reduced to capitulate on May 26. The enemy navy had not tried anything to help the place. The Spanish house did not dare quasi any more to be shown on these seas where Charles-Quint and Philippe II had formerly reigned.

A few months afterwards, another bas-poitevin, François Bruneau, wire of the lord of Rabatelière, Charles, who had been distinguished itself with the Seat from Whorl, died struck of five wounds with Nordlingen (August 3, 1645), as a combatant with the head of his company under the orders of the large Cop. Its body was buried on the battle field and its heart locked up in a lead box, brought with Rabatelière and deposited in the church with this epitaph.

"Just or rather excusable expression of the moment and the place, known as Mourain de Sourdeval; but which would know today, without the manuscript hidden at the bottom of the library of the castle of Rabatelière, twice passed in other hands, which François Bruneau succumbed valiantly and contributed to the one of the most beautiful victories of the Large Cop (2). "


In spite of the failure of Lérida (1646), never France had not been in such a brilliant military situation. The whole of the events at the end of the year 1646, seemed to not only contribute to make triumph, but to exceed the secret thought of Mazarin, which was to impose on the emperor an advantageous peace in France, and to continue the war against Spain alone, until the catholic King resigned to a long truce which would leave France in possession of all that it had taken.

Partial risings however took place in Low-Poitou, where the nobility always stirring up tried to benefit from the minority of the king to restore part of the prerogatives which the large cardinal had removed to him. - Many troops were sent there, as one can see it by the commission of controller of the cloths employed with the clothing of the soldiers, data on June 16, 1647 in Etienne Moyne by François of Rochefoucauld, governor of the province (1).

But these disorders were not enough serious to prevent the Prime Minister from continuing his plan of countryside against the imperial ones. On September 23, 1647, the Gassion marshal, with several lords bas-poitevins, suddenly went to invest Lens. The 28, it took by storm a half the moon: it was its last exploit; it was mortally wounded there of a mousquetade to the head. Lens did not go from there less on October 3, but a similar conquest was not worth the life of such a captain. - Lens was however taken again by the Spaniards on August 18, 1648, but it made return to France as of the following day, following a great victory gained by Condé under the walls of the city.


With the year 1648 had begun, for France, a new phase; at the time when the national diplomacy obtained a so bright success by the treaty of Westphalia, the movement and the dramatic interest of the history which were at the borders and the outside returned inside the kingdom, signs almost always disastrous, and which announces, like it says eloquently Henri Martin "that the country turns its activity not only on itself, but against itself. "

The Spaniards had refused to reach the treaty of Westphalia, always flattering themselves to see bursting in France of the disorders which would enable them to take again their advantages. They had considered to be well the mood turbulent of the large lords and the changeable spirit of the people. New taxes, required by five years of war, excited a dissatisfaction general. The Parliaments and the nobility were combined against Mazarin, whose immense fortune appeared to be the fruit of misappropriation (1). On August 26, 1648 (2), the ministry made stop the Broussel Adviser, who had refused with more force than the others against the recording of some edicts. The people of Paris, animated by the coadjutor Paul de Gondi, since cardinal of Retz, man of spirit and intrigue who affected to play the part of Catilina, raised, establish barricades and made slacken the Advisers that the Court had imprisoned.

This organized and permanent riot was called the Sling. Poitou, too far away from the principal leaders, took share there only rather late, after it had burst.

By the influence of prince de Marsillac, governor of Poitou, attache to the party of the Members of a league, some carried out obscure agitated the city of Poitiers. The mayor, Jean Richeteau, was threatened with various recoveries. Little time after, of Marsillac, with the head of some troops, advanced until Lusignan. But in Low-Poitou, the duke of Thouars, Henri of Trémouille, invested confidence of the Parliaments of Paris and Bordeaux, supported with glare against Chateaubriant of the Rocks-Baritaud, governor of Low-Poitou, the cause of the principal insurrectionists.

Provided with the patent given, in 1649, by the Parliament "of raising troops for the service of the king, defense of the court, the Parliament and the public in the west of France", Henri of Trémouille started to recruit soldiers.


Rocks-Baritaud, holding for Mazarin, had just occupied the town of Fontenay, and sought of all its capacity to enter the castle. Mrs. of Boulaye (1), the husband was in favour of the Parliament, thought little of withdrawing herself in front of this last. Chateaubriant dispatched then in Paris, Portecuière, one of its gentlemen, who brought to him the provisions of governor "of the city and castle". Controlling, seeing itself too weak to resist, sent Brisson, brother of the seneshal François (2) close it duke, to ask help. Trémouille reads to him to answer, by two aldermen of Thouars, that it would protect it. It broke at once the negociations entered into with Rocks-Baritaud, under the auspices of Raoul, bishop of the La Rochelle, and called the population of the city to the weapons. The mayor, Lancelot To curdle, made sound the alarm bell, and drove out the lieutenant general of Low-Poitou. The duke of Thouars, informed what had arrived, sent troops in the castle, under the orders of Chezerac, and ordered to refuse the entry in Mazarins (3).


Baritaud Rocks was compensated for its failure by the catch of Holy-Hermine (1). In February 1649, it seized the castle, and y concentrated troops. All the next winter was employed with preparations on both sides, and when the first beautiful days had returned, the duke of Thouars ordered to the Viscount of Marcilly to put himself able to go to cover Fontenay, which could, threatened being.

One gave oneself appointment to Faye-l' Abbesse on March 18, and the count of Laval (2) took the command of the army of forwarding. The 21, it arrived at its destination, and the inhabitants accepted it with great demonstrations of joy. The captains were of opinion to separate and going to raise new troops; but Mrs. of Boulaye, Brownish Jean mayor, and the body of city required of all their force which one did not stop in so beautiful way, and which one tackled the enemy. This opinion prevailed, and it was decided initially that one would go to Mareuil. One reconsidered this first project however, because this place was moved away too much, and one walked right on Holy-Hermine. Fontenaisiens three joined hundreds the members of Parliament; one drew sixty men from Maillezais and fifty of Luçon; then Chézerac took two parts of gun to the castle. Rocks-Baritaud, prevented in time, withdrew the Holyone and went to camp with the Chaize-the-Viscount, where it was completely beaten (3) by the count of Laval, and, finally made captive with Sand-in Olonne.

The other events of this catch of weapons were unimportant, and when peace arrived at the beginning of April 1651, the principal actors were already withdrawn on their premises.

The truce was of short duration. The dissatisfied ones were still raised in Guyenne, as of September 1651, and were combined to the Spaniards. Low-Poitou, without directly taking part in a war that it disapproved, was held on which lives.


A serious business took place however with Ford-of-Velluire; on November 4, 1651, between the inhabitants of Fontenay and the marquis de Jarzé, who went, with two hundred riders, to join the troops of prince de Condé (1), declared, on October 8, 1651, criminal of lese-majesty. The honor of this last feat of arms was allocated entire to the craftsmen of the Cabins, ordered by two young gentlemen, Laurent de Puy-Rousset (2), and Pierre of Boulay (3), and assisted by some middle-class men. The riders of the marquis de Jarzé were killed or made captive and brought back triumphantly downtown. The 5 and the 6, one made public funeral with the two chiefs who had died in the action, and Rene Moreau registered their praise and this fact on the funeral registers of Notre-Dame (4).

The échevinage and the magistrature, almost only composed of enemies of the Cardinal, found however average to adapt the benefit of a feat of arms to which they were remained foreign, notwithstanding a procuration of the inhabitants of authorizing Fontenay, on December 8, 1651 (5), Pierre Denfer and François Daguin, lawyers, to be opposed so that the mayors and aldermen are anoblis at the time of a feat of arms to which they had not taken share (6). In spite of the intervention of the clergy of the diocese, that Rene Moreau had gained with the cause of the protesters, Julien Collardeau and the former Jacob vice-seneshal of Modon. made name advisers of State; Andre Garipault, lieutenant of the constabulary, accepted the collar about the Michaelmas, and became, though commoner, gentleman of the room; the mayor, at one time servant of Louise of the Mark, obtained letters of nobility (7).


While these events achieved in-Low-Poitou, a stop of December 29, 1651 declared Mazarin and its criminal members of lese-majesty, enjoignait with the communes "to run to him known, ordered to proceed to the sale of its pieces of furniture, of its library, and to take, on the product of this sale, 150.000 books to reward whoever would represent it with justice, dead or sharp.

The sale and the dispersion of the library of the Cardinal are one of the most ashamed acts which ever no assembly made. This beautiful collection of forty thousand volumes had been joined together and classified by the Naudé scientist, for the use of all the studious men, to which Mazarin opened the doors liberally of them. Naudé could not survive such a blow. It should be said however that this act of vandalism was not thorough until the end: the sale was stopped with half way (1). Mazarin had made its collection a true prototype public library of our large national Library, which occupies the old Mazarin palate today. The collection of Mazarin forms the first funds of the Mazarine Library.

While dying, the same Cardinal, who was also abbot of the Michaelmas in-the Herm, expressed the desire that the abbey mense was joined together with the college of the Four-Nations. In this college, richly equipped, the studies were free. It was thus named of the four Nations because Mazarin had joined together in France, Alsace, Artois, Roussillon and Pignerolles, in Italy.

In 1808, this palate became the palate of the Institute.


So during the wars of the Sling, part of the Vendean nobility had taken makes and causes for the Parliaments, others of its members during this lamentable time of interior dissensions, fought bravely on the borders for the size of France, and covered glory. It will be enough for us to point out here the names of the marshal of Clérembault, Charles Mesnard de Toucheprés and François de Bessay.



Philippe de Clérembault Palluau, resulting from one of the most famous families of Low-Poitou (1) originating in Plessis, close Aizenay, was hardly 16 years old when it started to carry the weapons. Simple captain of a company of light horsemen, under the orders of Comtsalaud, colonel of the light cavalry of France, it had in this quality to belong to a forwarding in Italy, in August 1636. He was with the combat of Tessin; the following year, with the head office of Landrecies; and in 1641 with the attack of the lines of Arras.

Become brigadier then, Clérembault took share like such with the head office of Perpignan in 1642; it accompanied, the year according to, the Large Cop with the head office of Thionville, and celebrates it battle of Freiburg helped it in 1644 to gain. It still fought in Nordlingen in 1645, and was following these brilliances feat of arms promoted Mestre of camp general of the light cavalry. Its valiant control with the head offices of Philisbourg, Courtray, of Dunkirk, of Bassée and Lens, was worth little time to him after the general lieutenancy of the armies of the king. It ordered them so well with the head offices of Ypres, Bellegarde and Montrond as Berry, whom it was finally made Marshal of France, the shortly after the attack given to this last place (February 18, 1653). - The badge of its dignity to him was given on June 1 of the same year.

At this point in time breaking with the charms of so much Ninon of the Enclosure celebrates, it married, on April 26, 1654, Louise Francoise Boutilhier, the girl of the Secretary of State Chavigny; then also that it thought of rebuilding its feudal residence of Palluau in the taste of the Masters of the Rebirth, whose its stay in Italy had enabled him to admire the incomparable style.

Meanwhile, it accompanied in 1659 Mazarin with the conferences by the island by the Pheasants, which brought the treaty of the Pyrenees. On December 31, 1661 it was named governor of Berry, baillif of this province, etc It was then with the apogee of its glory.

But our marshal did not taste a long time the joys of the marital intimacy, nor the ostentation of his new residence where it made aillèurs only of rather short stays. As of the year 1662, it was taken of a wasting disease, and neither the doctors to which it had recourse, neither water of Bourbonne of which it tested, nor the fresh air and salubrious of its countryside of Palluau could remake its faded health. Three years afterwards, on July 24, 1665, it succumbed in Paris. Its body, brought back to Palluau, was buried in the church of the place. When in 1794, the infernal column of Commaire burned this building, fall it from the marshal of Clérembault was, according to the tradition, odieusement violated, and the bones which it contained thrown with contempt and derision in the ditches of the castle (2).


Charles Mesnard de Toucheprés, married in 1648 or 1649 in Marie Oil cake, became baron de Pouzauges, lord of Châtelliers and of Ramée, etc, was also useful with distinction, followed the Large Cop, and announced themselves brilliantly to the head office of Rethel (9 December 13, 1652), under the control of the marshal of Plessis, fighting against Turenne then with the service of Spain.

The valiant soldier was condemned to pay his glory dearly; the victory of Casement bolt had cost him its second wire at one time; the victory of Rethel cost him his/her elder son (1).


De Bessay (François), born on October 17, 1628, attended the catch of Lérida in 1646, and was useful in quality of volunteer with the army of Catalonia. It ordered the cavalry of the defense of Ypres, where it was distinguished. He was useful in quality of Mestre of camp, at the time of the attack of the fortress of Mount-Round as Berry, accepted, on January 25, 1653, a commission to order in Low-Poitou, the capacity of marshal of the camps and armies of the king, and as lieutenant of His Majesty, vacancy by the death of the sior of the Rocks-Baritaud. He assisted, in the capacity as Mestre of camp, ordering the regiment Clérembault, light cavalry, with the head offices of Landrecies, Saint-Guillain and of Cop, like he Appert of a certificate delivered on September 29, 1655, by Turenne, with the camp of Angres; - was then to advise of the king in his Councils of State and private.


So during the wars from which we come to speak, the nobility of our country paid its person bravely, and was distinguished on almost all the battle fields where France deployed its standards; in more modest spheres, large hearts and noble characters did not honour with it less the Vendée, and we are happy to devote here some lines to the worthy priest, Rene Moreau (1605-1671), whose name met higher under our feather, and with a humble girl of the people, Anne Benoist.

Rene Moreau. priest of Notre-Dame of Fontenay
(According to an extremely rare portrait had by Mr. Treuttel, of Sévigné).

Rene Moreau has been descended in the tomb for 230 years, but its memory was not forgotten of Fontenaisiens, which had to him mainly then to escape the horrors of the civil war. "Disciple of Christ in spirit and truth, known as Fillon, it taught, for the example of his life, which can, in a modest parish as well as on a vaster theatre, allied intelligence with the devotion of each day. Reconciling and full with tolerance at one time of sournesses religious arguments, it never ceased calling upon the harmony, and could gain, by ascending its virtues, the courses of these even as their faith separated from him. How had it been differently, when one saw it with work? A feature, between thousand, will be enough to make known it. Fire is declared the night in the residence of a carpenter calvinist of the Cabins, and threatens to set ablaze the close houses. The priest of Notre-Dame, informed by the noise of the alarm bell, runs, though sick, on the theatre of the fire, and learns that the small girl of the huguenot will perish in the middle of the flames. The danger is extreme; nobody, not even the father dares to face it. But Rene Moreau does not hesitate a moment; he addresses to God a short prayer, removes his cassock, and seizing a scale, he goes up to tear off the victim with dead (1). He had known François de Salles and Vincent of Paul while he followed to Paris the courses of theology, and its relationships to this last do not appear to be stopped (2).

The large hospital was founded by him (3). Two other establishments of benevolence, which it had created, could not remain since it had ceased existing. Born on September 16, 1605, in Chapronnière, village of the parish of Notre-Dame de Moulins, close Mauléon, in the hut of a ploughman, it finishes his days on January 28, 1671, leaving with its successors a library chosen well, and a furniture which was not worth fifty ecus. The effects belonging to its person were estimated five books.

The influence of Rene Moreau on the population was, one must think it, too considerable so that, in these times of disorders, the parties did not often try to attract it with them; but it could resist all their advances. The duke of Rochefoucauld, the marquis of Boulaye, the archbishop of Bordeaux, his personal friend, and several other large characters in vain tried to make it leave the way which it had traced. The prospect for one évêché did not try it, and it preferred with the honors of the mître, the love of those which surrounded it. The Jansenists, knowing it of austere manners, wanted to stick it; but they were not happier. It was also held far from the one and other from the two sects which disturbed the peace of the Church then.

It was the duke of Roannez, governor of Poitou, which endeavoured to gain Rene with the doctrines of Port-Royal, during one of its stays to the castle of Fontenay, where the duties of its load called. The apartment occupied by him in these occasions, was furnished with a singular simplicity, as notes it the drawn up inventory after it had been dislocated of its government to withdraw world. One noticed there only one portrait of the King, a Holy Family and two landscapes; one placed above a piece of furniture in drowning, the other behind the door. With the back of these last fabrics were worms allotted to Blaise Pascal, the famous friend of late (4).


Anne Benoist, linen maid, died in thirty-three years and ten months, were the pupil of the worthy priest of NR. - D. Educated by him in the principles of charity without terminals, it devoted its so short life to good deeds. Estimated of all, one hastened to entrust to his hands considerable sums. It regulated of it employment with a marvellous sagacity; because the girl of the people knew, better than nobody, to help the unhappy ones, without asking which communion was theirs.

On May 11, 1669, all the population, without reference of rows and beliefs, accompanied with its last residence the body by Anne Benoist. She carried especially the regrets of the poor of the city, of which she was Providence. "It was, known as Aubineau, vicar of Rene Moreau, a person of great virtue, having even a particular gift to relieve the wounded and ulcerated patients whom it treated, bandaged and médicamentait with such an amount of success, which there was place to judge that it was in her a singular grace of God. Its life like its death was exemplary (1)".


At the same time, with Fontenay-the-Count, a sculptor of great talent lived, Jean Logeay, died in 1681, and to whom one allots the very pretty chimney whose drawing appears below.

Stereotype of the collection B. Fillon (Communicated by Mine Charles Fillon.)

It decorated formerly the residence of B. Fillon. On the coat the characters of the Garden of love of Rubens see themselves, playing about in a park of the garden of Mazarin.