cornwall england newspaper


1836 Articles and Other Items



3 June 1836, Friday


NEWS
- News from Spain
- Cornwall Agricultural Association meeting results
- Political discussions

Such is the demand for labourers in this neighbourhood at the present time, in consequence of the very flourishing condition of the mines in Cornwall, as well as in this county, that labourers for agricultural purposes can with great difficulty be at all obtained.†(From the Plymouth Paper.)

Cornish Wrestlers - We have just learned that two men of the names of Nicholas and Gundry, belonging to the parish of Sithney, near Helston, who lately went to London for the purpose of attending a wrestling match, have won the two best prizes.†The first was won by Nicholas, and the second by Gundry.†We have not heard particulars.

Fine Stocks - There are now growing in the garden of Mr. W. Blight, Manaccan, gillyflower stocks of a most extraordinary size, many of them measure 20 inches in length, and 14 inches in circumference.†Their colours are of the brightest vermillion, and although the coldness of the spring rather impeded their growth in the first place, they have now completely conquered it, and are greatly admired by all who flock to inspect them.†The persons calling to see these flowers have amounted to as many as forty per day.

St. Austell - The annual wrestling took place at St. Austell, on Tuesday and Wednesday, in presence of a numerous concourse of spectators.†The weather was exceedingly fine, and the play good.†The prizes were awarded as follows - The first prize of £5 to R. Gundry, and the second of £3 to T. Gundry, both of Sithney; the third of £2 to Wm. Coon, and the fourth of £1 to Wm. Ward, both of St. Austell.

Liskeard - On Monday week, a neat Methodist Chapel was opened for divine worship at Dubwalls, near Liskeard, the opening sermons being preached by three local preachers of the neighborhood.† Two-thirds of the money were voluntarily subscribed, and the chapel is made over to the local preachers, stewards, and members of the Methodist Societies in the Liskeard circuit.† The congregations were far too large for the chapel, vast numbers not being able to gain admittance at the time of public service.

Destructive Fire - On Monday last, the wood corner in the house of Mr. John Rowe, farmer, Trevean in Sancreed, having by some means caught fire, the flames rapidly spread, and speedily consumed the whole house, and the adjoining one, with almost every article of furniture they contained, including some money.

Caution - We deem it our duty to caution the public against utterers of base coin, who are actively engaged in plying their vocation at the various fairs which are now taking place in our County.† A specimen of the counterfeit pieces has been shown to me, and it is so well executed as to render it difficult of detection by the eye merely.† On testing it by weight and sound, however, the cheat is immediately discovered.

Hydrophobia - On Monday last, the inhabitants of St. Austell were thrown into considerable excitement by a report that several persons were bitten by a dog supposed to be in a rabid state.† The report was soon confirmed, and it was ascertained that three persons, several dogs, pigs &c were bitten.† To prevent a recurrence of so dreadful an evil, a public meeting was held in the market-house, on Tuesday morning.....resulting in resolutions requiring all person who have dogs to confine them, and to destroy them if supposed rabid.† A reward of 10s was offered for the destruction of the dog above referred to, and 2s 6d for any other which might be found at large after due notice of the passing of the resolutions.† To meet any expenses which might be incurred a subscription was immediately opened, and in the course of a few hours a large amount was raised for the purpose.† We trust that the example thus set will prompt other towns to follow, and by timely interference prevent the possibility of such dreadful accidents from occurring.

Scilly - Several petty seizures of spirits have lately been made, by the Preventive Coast Guard, on the Islands of St. Mary's and St. Agnes, in consequence (as is understood) of private information. †Two of the St. Agnes pilot-boats, named the "Champion" and the "Exmouth", have likewise been seized and detained, which will occasion distress of no ordinary kind to the inhabitants of that Island.

On Tuesday in Whitsun-week (being holiday time) a number of young persons at St. Mary's got an effigy prepared, which they paraded through the town and country, preceded by a flag, a bell, and music; and followed by a merry group of boys and girls, amidst much jeering and laughter by the by-standers, which continued until the figure "made an illustrious exit in flames", according to the common custom in such cases made and provided.

On the same day the "juveniles" of†St. Agnes wished to treat themselves and others with a somewhat similar exhibition, but they were interrupted by some preventative men (who had been "armed" in expectation of a riot) and who, with drawn swords and pistols, attacked†some and pursued others of the "merry-makers" which gave the affair an aspect rather serious.† No real mischief, however, ensued; and on the following day "the party" was allowed to carry, and burn, their effigy in quietness, as originally intended.† The two offending preventive men were subsequently convicted before the magistrates at St. Mary's, on two different charges of assault, and ordered to pay ten shillings each.

St. Keverne - On Wednesday se'nnight, the children of the Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School of this place, amounting to 170, were entertained with tea and cake, in a field near the Church-town; after which the teachers, and about 120 respectable persons of the parish and its vicinity, also took tea on the ground.† The children received a most impressive address from the Rev. Dr. Cope of Penryn, who, happening to be in the neighbourhood, kindly attended in the unavoidable absence of a Wesleyan minister.† Several hundreds of persons assembled on the occasion, who were all highly delighted with the proceedings of the day.


10 June


General News
- Report on the Royal Horticultural Society Meeting - one page of results
- Irish Municipal Reform Act
- British Troops in Spain

Local News & Advertisements

Commercial Hotel, Camborne, T. MATTHEWS, (late of the Plough Inn) Most respectfully returns his sincere thanks to the Inhabitants of CAMBORNE and the Public generally, for the liberal support he has met with during the time he has been in business, and begs to inform them that since his removal he has made considerable additions to, and improvements in, his new and commodious House, which will greatly add to the comfort and convenience of his numerous customers. Especial attention has been paid to the accommodation of Commercial Gentlemen and respectable families, by providing excellent Beds, Stabling, lock-up, coach-houses, &c. T. Matthews hopes by continuing to keep choice old WINES, excellent SPIRITS, and home brewed MALT LIQUORS of the best quality, and selling them at moderate prices, to merit a continuation of their favors and support. Camborne, June 1836

Flour and Grist Mills to be Let - To be LET by TENDER, all those well-known FLOUR and GRIST MILLS, with the HOUSES thereunto belonging, and about One Acre and Three-quarters of good Meadow Land, and one Acre of Pasture Land (more or less) known by the name of TREGONY MILLS. The said MILLS are in excellent repair (being two treble Mills) and the Taker is to keep them in good repair during the term which may be agreed on (Walls and Roof of the Mill House and Stable excepted). The Mills are constantly supplied with a good stream of water, even in the driest summer, and are situated in a good Corn Country, being about two miles from Ruan Lanyhorne; there is a navigable river to the port of Falmouth, seven miles from St. Austell, seven miles from Truro, seven from Mevagissey, and ten miles from St. Mawes; all good market towns; where an extensive Flour Trade may be carried on. The Taker will be expected to take the Stock and Materials on the premises at a fair valuation. Sealed Tenders will be received by Mr. NICHOLAS COURTENAY, of Tregony, the Proprietor (free of expense) until the 17th day of June next ensuing and after that day the person whose tenders shall be accepted (may have access).

    NOTICE (omitting the recurrent phrase "in the said County") Notice is hereby given, that on the Eighteenth day of October next, application will be made to His Majesty's Justices of the Peace, assembled at Quarter Sessions in and for the County of Cornwall, at Bodmin, in the said County, for an order for stopping up the several Highways following, that is to say -
    A certain Highway in the Parish of Morval, in the said County, lying between Steps and a certain House called and commonly known by the name of Giddy's House for the length of two thousand five hundred and fifty-two yards, or thereabouts. -
    A certain other Highway in the said Parish of Morval, lying between Newbridge, in the Parish of Duloe and leading through Pennarth Town into the said last-mentioned highway, for the length of nine hundred and two yards, or thereabouts. -
    A certain other Highway in the said parish of Morval, from a point at the bottom of a certain Field called Sandplace Hill, near a Lime-kiln now unused, but which was formerly worked by Mr. Nathaniel HEARLE, of West Looe, and leading through Pennarth Town into the said first mentioned Highway -
    5 more "Highways" are mentioned, including one "through a field Nantwindles.." and another leading from the Village of Morval, to the Borough of Liskeard. And to divert, turn, and substitute in the room and stead thereof, another Highway through the Lands and Grounds of John BULLER of Morval, in the said County, Esquire, for the length of three thousand seven hundred and eighteen yards, or thereabouts, at the breadth of sixteen feet - William RICH (and) William GIDDY, Surveyors of the Parish of Morval

NOTICE - Notice is hereby given that on the Eighteenth day - etc.,( as above), for stopping up a certain Highway in the Parish of Saint Martins, in the said County, and the Parish of Morval "leading through the farm of Long Coe to the Village of Morval," and to substitute another Highway through the lands and Grounds of John BULLER, of Morval. William CLOGG (and)†William ROSEVEARE, Surveyors of the Parish of Saint Martins

St. Neots and St. Cleer Mines - From the report alluded to in the Advertisement in another part of our paper, it appears that the prospects of this very extensive undertaking are of a most encouraging character, and although only about three months have elapsed since the Mines have been in the hands of the present company, we understand that there are already seven or eight lodes in course of working, varying from a foot and half to seven feet big, from which have been raised several hundred tons of tin stuff, a great deal of which is far above the average quality of tin lodes. Such we are told is the facility of spending the ground that upwards of eight hundred fathoms have been driven, sunk, &c, by not exceeding fifty or sixty men. And as soon as the stamps and dressing machinery are complete, sufficient ores will be ready to keep them in full and constant employ.

On Saturday last, the first part of Midsummer quarter's Tin coinage was terminated at Penzance. The quantities have been - At Morwellham †55 blocks, Calstock 32, Truro †787, Hayle 140, Penzance †286, Total 1300 blocks

We cannot be supposed to know the correct value of every interest referred to in the Advertisements in our columns; but, if the Certificates of well-known scientific men, which appear not to be questioned, have any value, certainly the Patent Brandy, made entirely from British Grain, is entitled to the support and encouragement of every well wisher to the Agriculture of the Country.

Fairs in Cornwall in June - Tywardreath - 10th, Grampond and Menheniot - 13th, St. Merryn - 15th, Breage - 20th, St. Keverne and Saltash - 21st, Constantine, St. Veep, and Wadebridge - 22nd, Mawgan in Pydar, Pelynt, Pool, Twelveheads in Gwennap, and Wainhouse Corner - 24th, Newgate in St. Stephens, by St. Austell - 27th, Camborne and Polperro - 29th


17 June


ADVERTISEMENTS

    NOTICE - To be SOLD, the FEE-SIMPLE and INHERITANCE of and in all that ONE QUARTER PART of the MANOR OF TREVETHAN, situate in the Parish of Gwennap, in the County of Cornwall.
    Consisting of the following MESSUAGES, TENEMENTS, and PREMISES, with their APPURTENANCES, in the several occupations of the Tenants, and pendant on the Lives, and subject to the Rents, Heriots and Redeemed Land-tax hereinafter stated, and containing about 35 Acres; and One-Fourth of the Common, containing about 16 Acres undivided.
    Through this Property run the Cooper Lodes from Huel Damsel, and other adjacent Mines, which have been very productive to the Adventurers, as well as the Lords.
    A Stream of pure and excellent Water issues from Huel Hope Adit, and supplies the Town and Population of St. Day, and serves the adjoining Mines, for condensing the Engines and dressing the Ores and Halvans.
    Two Setts have been granted to John Williams, Esq. over this Property, but no workings have been carried on for some years, and the Setts are long since forfeited, but it is presumed that if effectually worked, they would be very profitable.
No Tenements - Tenants - Lives - Ages in Lives In 1836
1 - Richard's Tenement - Richard Mitchell - Thomas Hodge - 44 - Thomas Mitchell - 22

2 - Skewes - Elisha Morcum - Matthew Vivian, jun - 52 - Elizabeth Rilf - 65 - Catherine Vivian - 62

3 - Trevethan - Melch. Williams - Grace Blamey - 18 - Mary Blamey - 16 - Grace Roberts - 13
4 - The Reens - James Powning - Jane Hichens - 38 - Mary Powning - 22

5 - Divided part of Thomas Mitchell - William Mitchell - 46 - commons - Thomas Mitchell - 44

6 - Inclosure - Thomas Simmons - Ann Simmons - 65 - George Simmons - 76

7 - Dwelling Houses - Philip Manuel - Philip Manuel - 56 and

8 - Philip Manuel, jun - Christian Manuel - 17

9 - Middle Betha - James Powning -†Mary Hichens - 32 - Rounds - Grace Bawden - 32

10 - Dwelling House - James Powning - Jane Hichens - 30 - Bussa Meadow, Croft - Thomas Michel - 17 & c - Peggy Morcum - 22

11 - Higher South - John Hart - Richard Hart - 38 - Trevethan - Alice Jacks - 36 - Mary Ann Angove - 33

12 - Dwelling House -†Richard Mitchell - Ann Mitchell - 46 - gardens -†Francis Angove - 44

13 - Lower Field, Furzy - Richard Mitchell - William Mitchell - 47 - Plot &c - John Dyer - 24

14 - Gilbert's Croft - Thomas Mitchell - John Mitchell - 43 - Thomas Mitchell - 44 - Grace Mitchell - 30

    For this purpose, a SURVEY will be held on Tuesday, the 19th of July next, at Andrew's Hotel, in the Town of Redruth, by Four o'clock in the Afternoon. In the interim, the Tenants on the respective Premises will shew the Property. Information may be obtained on application to Mr. Chilcott, Solicitor, Truro..... Dated 3rd June, 1836

NEWS

The Lander Column - A Meeting of the subscribers was convened at the Town-Hall of Truro, on Monday last, to receive the report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the cause of the failure of this column, when the following report was received and adopted: "That the real cause of the failure of the Column, was the imperfect manner in which the Base was constructed, the Pedestal not having been formed of good Blocks of Stone, nor carefully, nor strongly built as specified in the Contract. "The Committee at the same time cannot avoid expressing their great regret that a more responsible surveyor was not appointed to watch the progress of the work, as it appears that the occasional inspection of the architect, gratuitously rendered, was not sufficient to ensure the proper execution of the engagements of the Contractors. - We are also of opinion that a dangerous settlement having taken place in the column, the Committee was justified in the experiment made by them, under the sanction of an able architect, and with the consent of the contractors. (signed) Rd. Taunton, Truro, 4th June, 1836 - Chairman
    Resolutions were subsequently carried, with a view to the re-erection of the column, and a Committee was appointed to take the necessary steps, and consult the architect, Mr. Sambell, on the subject; and the Committee will hold their first meeting on Thursday evening, when arrangements will be made for the immediate re-construction of the column, towards the expense of which we hope the admirers of the intrepid Lander, will be induced to make additional contributions.

Accident at Sea - On the 9th instant, about one A.M., Matthew Johns, fisherman, at Polruan, whilst fishing at anchor in his open boat at sea, about five leagues south of Fowey harbour, was run down by the brig "Acorn" of Yarmouth, bound from Jersey to Wales. Johns was alone in the boat, and fortunately succeeded in saving himself by springing to the bow of the brig, and getting onboard by the chain cable, shortly after which his boat sunk. The master of the brig was not on deck when the accident happened, but from Johns' statement, no proper look-out could have been kept, for he had a light and hailed repeatedly, directing the brig to alter her course so as to go clear of him. By this accident the poor man has been deprived of the means of supporting himself and family.

Penwith Agricultural Society - The exhibition of stock on Thursday, the 9th instant, at the Annual meeting of this Society in Penzance, greatly surpassed every thing before shewn (sic) here.. ..the following is the adjudication of the premiums:
- For the best Bull kept in the Hundred. £2 2s to Mr. James Permewan, Buryan
- Second £1 1s Mr. John Permewan, Sennen
- Best bred milch cow £1 1s to Mr. James Trembath, Sennen
- Best yoke of oxen £1 1s Mr. James Permewan, jun, Buryan
- Second - £10s 6d Mr. William Osborne, Sennen
- Best fat cow, fed in the Hundred £1 1s to Mr. Henry Laity xxxxx(blotted out) possibly Perranzabuloe

His Majesty's Schooner "Pike" - We understand that the officers of H. M. Schooner "Pike" have been tried by a Court Martial for the loss of that vessel; and that Lieut. Brooking, the commander, and the mate, are to be dismissed the service; the latter previously to undergo an imprisonment of three months in the Marshalses.

Penzance Market House - The old Market House at Penzance is nearly demolished, and the contracts are all entered into for the erection of a beautiful structure, from a design drawn by Mr. Harris, Architect, of Bristol, which it is expected will be completed in eighteen months.

Truro - Irish Rights petition (1 1/2 colums long; greatly shortened here) (A meeting to discuss a petition to His Majesty, King William, to reject the Irish Bill adopted by the Upper House of Parliament in toto, "in the belief that Irish people are equally qualified for, and entitled to, all the rights and privileges enjoyed by Englishmen.") Captain KEMPE seconded the adoption of the petition. Mr. Robert MICHELL then proposed an address to his Majesty, entreating him to withhold his sanction from the bill as altered by the Lords. This was seconded by Mr. TRELOAR. † Messrs. BENNALLACK, CONCANEN, TEALOR (sic), and DAVEY then addressed the meeting... The petition obtained about 500 signatures, and was forwarded to Mr. TOOKE (M.P.)

Capture of a Whale - On Monday last, in Mount's Bay, about six miles distant from the shore, Lieut. Toms, Commander of H. M. Cutter "Viper", shot a fine young Whale, supposed to be about four months old, measuring 17 feet in length. The ball is supposed to have passed through the heart, as immediately after receiving the shot, the young monster of the deep turned on his back, and was taken on board the Cutter and brought into Newlyn.

Penzance - There is now in flower in the green-house of Mr. John Fox, Rosevale, near Penzance, a splendid plant of the Cactus speciossimus, having on it 73 flowers, of the most brilliant colours, some of which are now full blown, and immensely large. There are also some seedlings equally fine.

Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway Excursion - This Railway Company, having added to their establishment another locomotive engine, the Elephant, on Tuesday last, she, for the first time, proceeded over the whole of the line, together with their other engine, the Camel. Public advertisements having announced that the trains would be fitted up for the purpose of taking parties on an excursion of pleasure, almost the whole of the wagons were engaged some days previous, and several hundreds of persons were disappointed at not being able to procure places on the morning of the day. † About half-past eleven o'clock, the whole of the parties having assembled at Wadebridge, the Elephant, with a train of 18 waggons, and an omnibus, on which was stationed the band of the "Duke of Cornwall's Rangers", took the lead, the Camel following closely after with a train of 14 waggons, the whole of which, containing above 800 persons, proceeded on their route to Wenford Bridge, an extremity of the line, distant about 13 miles. (rest of the article cut off, but it sounded like a lovely time was had by all)

Dreadful Accident - On Tuesday last, as a girl of about eleven years of age, of the name of Mary Quick, daughter of Mr. Thomas Quick, was returning from school in St. Ives, a kettle of boiling water was incautiously thrown upon her, by a person whose door she was passing, which scalded her so dreadfully that her life is despaired of.

FRANCE - The King of the French, touched with the welcome reception given to his sons by the Monarchs of Prussia and Austria, has invited Princes Charles, Albert, and Augustus of Prussia, the Archdukes Charles and Maximilian of Austria, and several distinguished German Nobles, to participate in the festivities of Fontainbleau, in August. It is reported that the King of Prussia intends to visit... about the same time. His Majesty will preserve a strict incognito. (how strict could it be, when details are published in the London and Cornwall papers two months prior to the trip?)


24 June


News
- Tremoutha Railway Bill
- Registration of Voters
- Church Rates
- Stannary Jurisdiction Bill

Local News

St. Ives - On Friday Last, a meeting of the subscribers to the new road was held at the Town-hall, when a resolution was unanimously adopted to transfer the amount of the St. Ives subscriptions, about £125, which were deposited in the Mount's Bay bank, to the managing Committee, Messrs. John, Richards, and Hichens. We may, therefore, hope that, as no further obstacles remain, the work will be proceeded with immediately.

The Lander Column - The Committee met on Wednesday last, when Mr. Sambell, the architect, submitted two plans for re-erecting the Column, one of which was adopted as the best in point of economy and good taste. A sub-committee was afterwards appointed to confer with Mr. Sambell, for the purpose of making such arrangements as, it is hoped, will ensure the completion of the Column by Michaelmas.

Smuggling - In consequence of information having been received at the Customs House in this town, J. S. Stansmore, Esq. the Collector, and F. Hingston, Esq. the Comptroller, proceeded on Friday last, to Penpoll Wood, about two miles down our river, where they found secreted in a cove about sixty kegs of smuggled spirits, which were safely lodged in the Customs- House. It is generally supposed that large quantities of contraband spirits have, from time to time, been landed in this wood, and from thence carried into different parts of the county. On Wednesday evening last, the Coast Guard at Kynance, captured about 50 tubs of contraband spirits on the beach. They also found a boat and two men in it at Gilling, which was seen near the spot but a few hours before; but as there was not sufficient evidence to commit the men or warrant the detention of the boat, they were set at liberty.

Dreadful Accident

On Saturday last, as Mr. James Quick, of Trevega, was removing his horses from the whim, in Trevega Mine, in the parish of Zennor, the kibble slipped from the hook and the whim was, in consequence, pulled round with such violence, that he was knocked down by the bar, and his ribs, back bone, and limbs, were so dreadfully fractured, that no hopes are entertained of his recovery.

Naval Court-Martial - A court-martial was held on board the "Royal Adelaide", on Thursday morning last, Capt. Superintendent Ross, C. B. President, for the trial of Mr. Wm. McAuley, Assistant-Surgeon, of the "Linnet", on a charge preferred against him by his commander, Lieut. Wm. Downey, of having been drunk on board the "Linnet" packet, at Falmouth, on the 4th of April. The prisoner handed in a number of testimonials of good character from various officers, and the Court, after some consultation, in consideration of the long services and high testimonials of his former character, adjudged him to be dismissed his Majesty's packet-brig "Linnet".

Frightful Accident - On Saturday last, the two sons of Wm Davey, Esq. of Redruth, were placed by a servant on the back of a very spirited horse, which suddenly took fright at some object in the road, and threw them to the ground with great violence. The elder escaped unhurt, but the younger was so much injured in the head, that it was at first thought he could not survive the accident. We are happy to learn, however, that he is now in a fair way of recovery.

Padstow and Plymouth Railway, with a breakwater at Padstow On Wednesday last, a public meeting was held at the Guildhall, Callington, to consider the best means of carrying this projected undertaking into effect, the Rev. Dr. Fletcher in the chair. The meeting was addressed by Richd. Doidge, Esq., Mr. Pearce, Mr. Avery, Mr. Foot, and Mr. Thomas Liddell, with considerable effect; and several spirited resolutions were passed expressive of the determination of the company, to use every means in their power to accomplish their design.

Penzance - Mr. Walter Coulson has been appointed Recorder of this town, according to the provision of the Municipal Reform Bill.

Falmouth Shipping - [only two day's worth! two weeks ago, list started off with Norway, Italy, and Amsterdam - a very busy International port; this might also give you an idea why tracking transport ships for emigration is difficult!]
    Tuesday Arrived: Aleiope, from Palermo; Jessie Ritchie, from Aux Cayes; Spey, from Turk's Island; Snow Down, from Liverpool; Mary Robert, from London; John Daniell, from London; Unity, from Lyme; Dove, from Brixham; Unicorn, from Charlestown
    Sailed: the Glasgow, for London
    Wednesday arrived Nautilus, from Malaga; Margaret, from Gallipoli; Aldborough, from Rotterdam; Active, from Poole; Mary Hall, from Fowey Adventure, from Plymouth; Albinia, from London

ADVERTISEMENT - (decorated with Masonic Symbols across the top) CORNWALL - The Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, His Most Gracious Majesty The King, Royal Grand Patron, Sir John St. Aubyn,Bart., P.G. M. for CORNWALL THE ANNUAL FESTIVAL advertised to be held at Helston, is unavoidably POSTPONED, as the D.P.G.M., P. VYVYAN ROBINSON, ESQ. and the other Officers and Members of the P.G.L. of Cornwall, will attend with the DE DUNSTANVILLE MEMORIAL Committee, for the purpose of laying the first stone of a structure on Carn Brea to the memory of that highly distinguished Nobleman and Brother; the ceremony to take place on Monday, the 27th instant, at One o'clock. The P.G.L. will be opened at ANDREW's HOTEL, REDUTH, by Eleven on that day, and go from thence to Carn Brea Castle, where they will meet the Committee, and proceed with them to the spot. Brethren, not members of the Prov. Grand Lodge, desirous of joining, must signify the same to the Director of the Ceremonies, not later than ten o'clock on that day - ELLIS Hon. P. G. Secretary And director of Ceremonies, Falmouth 18th June, A.L. 5826, A.D. 1836




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