1852 NEWS ARTICLES
5 March, 12 March, 19 March, 19 March Antiquities, 26 March
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5 MARCH 1852
HELSTON BOROUGH TOLLS - The tolls and dues arising from the markets and fairs of Helston, which have for some years been collected by the corporation, were on Monday last let to MR. HARWOOD for twelve months from Lady-day next, for the sum of £ 635.
LISKEARD UNION - At the Meeting of the Board of Guardians held on Saturday the 28th ult., MR.
THOMAS ALLEN, of St. Stephens in Branwell, was appointed Relieving Officer of this Union, in the place of MR. EDWARD BROKENSHIRE. The salary is £ 60 per annum.
A FINE PIG - A pig ten months and a fortnight old, and which weighed twenty-one score, was killed
last week, having been reared and fed by MR. PRINN, blacksmith, of St. Austell.
NAVAL PROMOTION - MR. WILLIAM GREEN, master, of Falmouth, (1826) has been promoted to the rank of retired commander. We understand that Lieut. TURNER, who commanded the “Ranger”
packet at Falmouth, from 1835 to 1843, is to be promoted to the rank of commander.
PRESENTATION OF A MEDAL FOR SAVING LIFE - JOHN REPPER, the engineer of the “St. Germans” steamer, has received from the Royal Humane Society in London, a beautiful bronze medal as a testimonial for his having saved a child that had fallen into the water alongside of the St. Germans
quay on the night of the 13th of December last. On that occasion the night was very dark, and three
persons on landing from the steamer walked over the quay. Repper rushed from his hot berth below,
and at once jumped into the water, and with a man named SPENCER saved the people from a watery
BOSCASTLE - We stated a few weeks since that some labourers had been held to bail on a charge of
riot, for forcibly passing through premises, respecting which an action was pending between MR. T. R.
AVERY, of Boscastle, and MR. LANGFORD. This is not the fact; there was no action pending, respecting the spot in question, but an action has since been commenced by Mr. AVERY for the interruption.
TRUNK WASHED ASHORE - On Saturday last, an iron-bound trunk was washed ashore at the back of St. Ives Head. It contained a letter, dated “Liverpool, July 27th, 1850,” commencing “My dear Anne” and signed “CHARLOTTE ANN WEECH”. The trunk also contained shirts, a frock coat, hat, straw bonnet, brush, woman’s pocket, two miniatures of a man on copper, and a pocket-book. The linen is not marked, and there are no directions to ascertain to whom it belonged.
TRURO POLICE - WILLIAM ROBERTS MATHEWS, labourer, was charged with being drunk and
disorderly and assaulting the police in the execution of their duty, at half-past one o’clock on Sunday
morning; for the assault he was fined £ 1 with costs, and in default of payment was committed to the House of Correction for one month. JOHN STEPHENS, brushmaker, for a similar offence, was fined £ 1.5s. with costs, and in default of payment was committed for one month. ELIZABETH THOMAS was charged with being drunk, and incapable of taking care of herself, being found sleeping in the street at two o’clock on Sunday morning. This was the twelfth time she had appeared before the bench, and the charge being proved, she was ordered to enter into recognizances with two sureties in £ 10 each to be of good behavior, in default of which she was committed to the House of Correction for three calendar months.
FALMOUTH POLICE - On Monday last, before MR. ELLIS, Mayor, and LIEUT. HILL, R.N., JOSEPH BASSETT, JOHN BASSETT, and ELIZABETH BASSETT, (mother of Joseph and grandmother of John Bassett) were placed to be examined relative to the robbery named in our last paper, from the shop of MESSRS. PALMER and TREWELLA. The evidence brought forward was not sufficient to commit either Joseph Bassett or his son, but the prisoner Elizabeth Bassett, about eighty years of age, was committed to take her trial for concealing property knowing it to be stolen. She was admitted to bail; and the Mayor gave a caution to the father and son, saying, although the evidence had not been sufficient to commit them, there were several circumstances which would tend to make against them if they were brought before the magistrates. On Tuesday last, a man called WILLIAM SMITH was convicted of assaulting the servant at the Fountain Inn, Falmouth, and was sentenced to seven days’ imprisonment.
ST. AUSTELL PETTY SESSIONS - At these sessions on Tuesday last, there was more business than usual.
A case was tried of a dispute with regard to an entrance to a garden spot at Mevagissey, between
JAMES MAYNE and WILLIAM PEARCE, and from Pearce having made use of improper language
towards Mayne he was bound in £ 20 to keep the peace towards Mayne. SAMUEL POAD, retail
brewer, of Carthew, was summoned by policeman SAMBLE, for keeping his house open until late
hours on the night of February 14th, and was fined 20s. and costs. MARY JULIFF, of the Sawle’s Arms
Inn, Carthew, was informed against by policeman WESTLAKE, and fined 20s. and costs, for keeping her house open late on Saturday night the 14th ult., and having drunken men on her premises. PETER
TREVENA, of St. Ewe, was charged by the gamekeeper of Mr. TREMAYNE with poaching on the
grounds of Heligan, and was fined 10s. and costs. A person named STEPHENS was charged by MR.
SNELL, of the Bugle Inn, with breaking glass, but for want of evidence this case was dismissed. A
number of persons were fined for having defective weights in their possession, information in these
cases having been laid by MR. ROWE, the inspector of weights and measures for the Eastern Division.
COMMITTAL - On Saturday last, two boys aged thirteen and fourteen years, brothers, called DAVIES, belonging to St. Michael Carhayes, were brought before MR. E. COODE, jun., charged with stealing iron, being part of a gate belonging to the mortgagees of the late MR. TREVANION, of Carhayes, for which offence they were committed to the house of correction for three weeks, and each to be privately whipped.
CAUTION - A person calling himself “HENRY MORETON” has been lately advertising in the Cornish papers for miners at £ 20 per month, to go to the gold diggings in Australia, and stating that on forwarding a certain number of postage stamps, a pamphlet would be sent to the party applying,
furnishing all necessary information. This advertiser, it appears, has been apprehended near Chatham
as a common swindler, and has been remanded by the magistrates until further evidence can be
brought of his swindling transactions. We understand he is now in the custody of the superintendent
constable at Rochester. Similar impositions have been practiced through the London and several
ST. TEATH - On Friday last, as MR. WILLIAM TREMAINE, miller, returned from Camelford market; he went into his mill as usual, and to his astonishment found his father, MR. ROBERT TREMAINE, suspended to a rope in a kneeling position, and life quite extinct.
SUDDEN DEATH - On Saturday last, as MR. SPETIGUE, farmer of St. Teath, was returning from St.
Tudy, he entered a house on the road side to light his pipe, where he dropped down and died
CORONER’S INQUEST - The following inquest has been held before MR. HICHENS, jun., deputy
coroner: On Monday last, in the parish of Constantine, on the body of WILLIAM HARVEY, jun., aged
fifteen years. The deceased was one of four waggoners, who were employed in driving a carriage
drawn by eight horses, laden with granite, from Trewardreva in that parish, to Porth Navis Cove, and
as he was passing from the horses to the back part of the carriage in order to get behind it, the road
being very narrow with a little turn in it, the deceased’s head was caught between a large granite block
on the carriage and the country which formed the fence against the road, and so crushed it as to kill
him on the spot. There appeared to be no blame attributable to any one in the matter, and the jury
immediately returned a verdict of “accidental death”.
The following inquest has been held before MR. JOHN CARLYON, county coroner: On Friday last, at
Lanner, in the parish of Gwennap, on the body of MARY WILLOUGHBY, widow, aged 63 years. It
appeared that deceased had, for some weeks past, been under the delusion that her breath was
getting so short that she could not live long. This notion had latterly gained such an ascendancy over
her that it upset her mind, and she frequently threatened, and more than once attempted to destroy
herself. Her family had consequently kept a strict watch over her, and early on Friday morning she
contrived to get out of bed, unknown to her daughter, who slept with her, and went out into a stable
behind the house, and there hung herself. Verdict, Temporary Insanity.
WEST BRITON AND CORNWALL RAILWAY
5 MARCH, 1852
This line is now in a finished state throughout the entire distance from Penzance to Redruth, and is only awaiting the inspection of the Government official, to be opened for public traffic. In the mean time the stability of the works have been tested by passing over the line heavy loads of ore and ballasting, and trial trips have also been made with passenger carriages.
On Wednesday, the 25th ult., the first locomotive engine that had ever skirted the shores of Mount’s Bay arrived at the Penzance station on a trial trip that proved perfectly satisfactory; and the appearance of the novelty, unexpected as it was, soon occasioned the assemblage of a number of persons to greet its arrival. On the following days engines and carriages traversed the line, but the grand excursion day was Saturday last, when the chairman, deputy-chairman, secretary, and directors of the company, the resident engineer of the line, Mr. BRUNTON, the traffic superintendent, MR. PIKE, and other gentlemen, were conveyed by a special train from Redruth to Penzance. This train consisted of a new first-class carriage, fitted up with the utmost regard to elegance and comfort, a composite, or first and second class carriage, and a third class, drawn by an engine called “Penzance,” newly made at the Company’s workshops at Carn Brea, and though a small locomotive, yet powerful, and capable of a high speed. The engines are made at the company’s establishment under the direction of MR. BRUNTON, and the carriages under the direction of MR. MAY; and at the instance of the railway commissioners, the carriages are furnished with continuous foot-boards and handles, so that the guard may safely pass from one end of the train to the other, and collect the tickets without stopping, or use the arrangement when other circumstances may require.
The train, on the occasion referred to, started from the old station at Redruth at about half-past ten, the engine being driven by Mr. BRUNTON. On arriving at Carn Brea the train was stopped, and the directors got out to inspect the company’s engineering workshops, in which a variety of operations are performed by means of the giant power of steam. The company have been gradually enlarging this establishment, though not so as to have an accumulation of stock, which in the event of the line being changed to the broad gauge would be useless. They can construct engines in their own establishment much cheaper than they can get them made in other parts of the kingdom. There is one now in the workshop completed with the exception of the wheels, which are made in the north of England, the delay in supplying which has arisen from the strike in connexion with the amalgamated society. In the company’s workshops, we understand, there are no engineers connected with that society. The name of the new engine is the “Camborne,” it being of greater size and power than the “Penzance” which drew the train, and embracing some improved arrangements.
After the directors had inspected the workshops, the train proceeded to the Camborne station, where a considerable number of persons were congregated to see it pass off the new line. At this place the transition from the old rails to the new was instantly perceptible by those in the carriages, from the increased smoothness and ease of motion as compared with running on the old rails. This was attributed by some to the use of BARLOW’s patent wrought iron rails on this line, which are laid without wooden sleepers, but rest on iron saddles, each length of rail being secured by a bar of iron riveted to the opposite rail. This form of rails was adopted by the advice of MR. BRUNEL, they being more durable than the ordinary rail, and enabling the alteration of gauge at any time, at a comparatively trifling expense.
After leaving Camborne station on the new line of rails, there is a considerable cutting, for some distance through hard greenstone, which was the only part of the line, we were informed, that required blasting in making the excavations. After passing this the ground was more easy for working, and then the train goes over the Penponds viaduct, with its embankment about 70 feet high. About a mile and a half, or more, of the old rails, is used between Camborne and Hayle, the gradients in no part of the line being above one in sixty, and with no curve that is dangerous. After the Penponds viaduct, the train passes over the Angarrack viaduct, which is a stupendous work about 120 feet high, wholly composed of timber, but constructed on scientific principles in such a manner as to ensure the utmost amount of strength. The cost of this viaduct, we understand, was £ 4,000, whereas if an embankment had been made there its cost would have been £ 18,000, or if the whole had been constructed of masonry the cost would have been £ 30,000. After passing this viaduct the train was stopped, and the directors alighted and walked down to view the work.
The train then proceeded to Hayle, passing over the Guildford viaduct, about 80 feet high, and arriving at the Hayle new station. Here there were a large number of persons assembled, colours were hoisted, the shipping were decorated with flags, more persons entered the carriages, and the engine was decorated with the royal standard, with a flag bearing the Cornish arms, and its motto “one and all,” and with another flag of the Penzance borough arms. Hayle had quite a gay and holiday appearance for the occasion. After a short stay the train proceeded, the remaining viaduct passed over being that at the Hayle Foundry, which is about thirty feet above the level of the turnpike road, or about forty from the bed of the river.
The travelling was then accelerated to about twenty-five miles per hour, the train passing under some bridges erected to carry the country roads across the line; but between Hayle and Penzance the line on the whole passes through a country remarkably favourable for railway construction. The train soon came in sight of the picturesque St. Michael’s Mount, and the open expanse of Mount’s Bay, with a considerable fleet of wind-bound vessels at anchor.
After passing Long-bridge, the train proceeded towards the Penzance station at about twenty miles an hour. Here there were hundreds of persons assembled, the station being gaily decorated with various flags, and cheers were given by the spectators as the train came in. The Penzance station is a commodious structure of wood, in the erection of which regard has been paid both to economy and neatness.
On leaving the train, the directors proceeded to the Union Hotel, and held a board meeting, after which the half-yearly meeting of the company was held, a report of which is given in our sixth page. The whole extent of the line from Redruth to Penzance is upwards of sixteen miles, and since locomotives have been running, we understand the distance has been got over in thirty-eight minutes, including a stoppage at Hayle.
The contract for the works between Penzance and Hayle was taken by MR. RITSON at £ 29,100, and between Hayle and Camborne for £ 31,000. Thelast-mentioned was by far the most difficult and expensive part of the line, in consequence of the viaducts and cuttings. The longest viaduct on the line is that which passes over part of the town of Hayle, it being 1,200 feet in length, the pillars on passing through Messrs. Harvey’s foundry being of masonry, to prevent destruction by fire. The timber-work of the viaducts, though having a slight appearance for lofty erections, is yet of the same construction as works on the South Wales line, which have stood a heavy traffic. The rails used (Barlow’s patent) have never before been laid throughout the whole extent of any line, but we understand they have been tried on parts of the Great Western and Midland railways, where they have answered remarkably well. The construction of the line from Redruth to Truro is also proceeding with great activity, and the entire length is expected to be completed in July next. The contract for the whole line from Truro to Penzance will amount to about £ 105,000, for a single line on the narrow gauge; whereas the estimated coast by Mr. Brunel in 1848 was £ 292,000, a great reduction having since that period been made in the cost of railway construction.
On Monday last, the directors held a meeting and determined on the number of trains to run daily, and the charges for traffic. They are also about to adopt Edmonds’s principle of issuing tickets, as used on the Great Western and other railways. We understand that the works on the West Cornwall line have been carried out to the perfect satisfaction of the company by MR. RITSON, and as soon as the government inspector has signified his approval, the line will be opened for goods and passenger traffic.
March 12, 1852
TRURO COUNTY COURT
TRURO - At this court, on Friday last, there were fifty-five new cases, and seven adjourned from the last sitting. Among the cases were some of interest, connected with the practice of the truck system of payment by sub-contractors on the West Cornwall Railway Line.
The first case of this kind heard was that of ASH v. GREGSON, in which MR. STOKES appeared for plaintiff, and MR. HOCKIN for defendant. Mr. Stokes stated that the plaintiff was one of the class of men called "navies" - labourers engaged on railway work - and had been occupied in that capacity on the West Cornwall Line, having been employed by the defendant GREGSON, who was a sub-contractor under MR. RITSON, the principal contractor. Gregson employed plaintiff as a day labourer at 2s.8d. a day. The amount of wages which plaintiff considered had become due to him was £ 3.7s.4d., of which he acknowledged having received 6s.6d. in cash, and he now claimed the remainder, £ 3.0s.10d. There was no doubt as to the employment of the plaintiff, nor that he had done his work; the only question was whether he had been fully paid. The mode of paying these railway labourers was peculiar. A man, employed by the sub-contractor to keep time against the labourers, made out a statement of the time for which each man should be paid, and thereupon the labourer received a cheque (in the ordinary form of a banker's cheque) on Mr. Ritson, the principal contractor,for so much money. That cheque the labourer took to the "Tommy Shop" where, it was said, he might have the value of the cheque either in money or goods; but, how often cash got into the men's pockets he (Mr. Stoke) did not know. The men had to take up goods, and, in fact, the sytem was entirely what was commonly called the truck system; and the question now to be decided was whether those railway labourers came within the purview of the Act 1 & 2 William 4, cap. 37 - which was passed for the protection of certain classes of labourers against the application of the truck system of payment. He (Mr. Stokes) contended, in the first place, that railway labourers did come within the protecting provisions of that act; and, if he were right on that point, then of course the defendant, who had pleaded payment in goods, was out of court, because that At expressly provided that the labourers therein mentioned should not be paid except in cash. But if he should fail on that point, he should contend that the person (the defendant) who had pleaded payment, had no right so to plead, and that the mode of payment was not such as could be applied in this case. The plaintiff had never been paid by Gregson; if he had received anything at all, it was a piece of paper from Gregson which had been converted - not into cash, but into goods at the shop of a person named RITSON - a brother of the principal contractor; and the proper remedy for that shop-keeper was to bring his action for goods supplied.
Mr. Stokes then, with reference to the first point, adduced the Act 1 and 2 Wm 4, cap. 37, the material provision of which was in the 3rd clause:
“The entire amount of the wages earned by or payable to any Artificer in any of the trades hereinafter enumerated, in Respect of any labour by him done in any such trade, shall beActually paid to such artificer in the current coin of the Realm, and not otherwise; and every payment made to any such
artificer by his employer, of or in respect of any such wages, By the delivering to him of goods, or otherwise than in theCurrent coin aforesaid, except as hereinafter mentioned, shall be and is hereby declared illegal, null, and void.”
(The next section enacts, that payment in goods is illegal, and that artificers may recover wages, if not paid in coin.) Agricultural labourers were excepted from the operation of the Act; and the 19th section specified to what labourers the Act should extend. That section enacted that “nothing herein contained shall extend to any artificer, workman, or labourer, or other person engaged or employed in any manufacture, trade, or occupation, excepting only artificers, workmen, labourers, and other persons employed in the several manufactures, trades, and occupations following: That is to say (inter alia), in or about the working or getting of stone, slate, or clay; or in the making or preparing of salt, bricks, tiles, or quarries.” Mr. Stokes read most of the remainder of the clause, but said he relied only on the provisions as to labourers employed in working stone, slate, or clay, or in quarries; and he contended that, by implication, those provisions included railway labourers, although they were not specially mentioned in the clause – the act having been passed before the great extension of railways throughout the kingdom.
In support of his position, Mr. Stokes cited a dictum of Baron Parke, in Riley v. Warden and another, 18 Law Journal. He then dwelt on the hardship of the Truck System, by the operation of which labourers were made to pay one-third more for their goods than they would be required to pay at any other shop; and, in anticipation of the reply that it was optional with the labourers to have money or goods for their cheques, he stated that the men suited for this kind of work were brought down nearly destitute from other parts of the country – wages would not become due to them, in the course of payment, for a month or five weeks, and therefore they had, in fact, no choice but to accept the goods supplied by the sub-contractor. On the second point, Mr. Stokes, assuming that the statute did not apply to railway labourers, insisted that the defendant was out of court, inasmuch as the alleged payment in goods was made by Mr. RITSON, and not by the defendant GREGSON. Again, if payment had been made in goods, it was for the defendant to produce his books, and prove the various items of payment, and the prices at which the articles were charged.
JOHN ASH, the plaintiff, was then called. He stated that he was a Devonshire man, and was engaged by Gregson on the 29th of December. He had worked twenty-five days and a quarter, for which £ 3.7s.4d. became due to him; of which he had received 6s.6d. in money. He had cheques from time to time, which he took to a shop kept at Chacewater by Mr. RITSON, a brother of the principal contractor; they did not give him money for his cheques, but goods. The last time he was there, he begged them to let him have two-pence to send a letter off, but they would not let him have it; they wanted him to take up goods. When he first came down into Cornwall, he had no money in his pocket; he was tramping through the country with his wife and family. He had been obliged to take up all his wages in goods, except 6s.6d. They charged him for half a sack of seconds flour £ 1.1s.8d.; 11d. a pound for salt butter; and 6d. a pound for brown sugar which he could get at any other shop for 4d., and other things were charged at the same rate. When he took those cheques to the shop, he constantly asked for cash.
Cross-examined: It was the defendant who gave me the cheques. I asked him for money. I have many times handed him back the cheques and asked him for money; I swear I did that at least four times. I have had about nine or ten cheques altogether. When I have asked him for money he said he could not let me have money till pay night, but that if I liked to have cheques I might have them. Pay night ought to be once in four weeks, but there has been no pay night since I have been here, and no likes of it now. When I went to the shop with a cheque, I asked what price the butter and things were, and they told me; I said I wanted money, but they would not give me money, and then I took up goods. I asked for money four or five times at the shop. I asked them what was the price of goods; they told me, and then I took up those goods.
Re-examined: Was a quarryman, and nothing else but a quarryman.
By the Court: My work is to blast and quarry out stone fit for any purpose.
By Mr. Hockin: This work was done in cutting for the railway.
Mr. Hockin then addressed the Court for the defence. He said there had been no attempt to prove over-charge except by the one witness, whose evidence could not be relied on. The sole question for the court was whether railway labourers were within the purview of the statute. He contended that Mr. Stokes’s assumption to that effect was negative by the very case cited by him. In that case the only question was whether a railway sub-contractor was a labourer within the statute; it was held that he was not, and that therefore payment to him in goods was a good payment. This was the only point decided in that case. The other point in the case was that, as there was some clay got in the course of railway cutting, and that clay was made into bricks, that manufacture of bricks brought the railway labourers within the Truck Act; however, on that point no decision was come to. Mr. HOCKIN then proceeded to refer to the Act itself, and observed that at the time it was passed, railways were not contemplated; if they had been, no doubt railway labourers would have been protected as well as other labourers. It was a misfortune, perhaps, that railway labourers were not included; but that was no reason why they should wrest an Act of Parliament from its plain meaning to suit a particular purpose. Mr. Hockin read the 19th clause of the Act, and argued that it could not be construed to include railway labourers, who might in the course of their work, the ulterior object of which was the formation of a railway, quarry or raise stone, slate, or clay. He next observed that, assuming Ash's testimony to be true, that when he went to the shop with his cheques, he asked for money, yet by his subsequent conduct he waived his claim thereto; for he asked the price of the goods, was told what that price was, took the goods at that price, and consequently must abide by his bargain. Mr. Hockin next urged, from the circumstances of the present case, that the system of payment adopted, if fairly administered, was beneficial to the men; but, of course, if it was wrongly administered, it was prejudicial to them. In conclusion, he contended that the plaintiff having accepted goods in payment of his claim, after full knowledge of the prices of those goods, could not now support his claim for payment in money.
His Honor deferred judgment.
VINING v. WERRY - This was a case similar to the preceding, plaintiff being a railway labourer called JOHN VINING, who deposed that he was employed by WILLIAM FORD, defendant's agent; that defendant was his master, and owed him £ 3.15s.3d. Plaintiff said his wife received cheques from time to time to go to the shop (as in the last case) and that they could never get money of the shopkeeper; when plaintiff asked for money, the shopkeeper said he must wait for the pay day. No one knew when the pay day would be, as it did not take place regularly; no mention was made when witness was employed as to when he should be paid; he was engaged at day wages, 2s.6d. per day, besides 1d. per day for "sick and doctor". The last pay day was in the week before Christmas. He wanted money to get requisites for his sick child, and a penny for a stamp to send a letter to his father, but was told at the shop that he must wait for the pay; he had, however, a threepenny back ticket written out for him. At the shop he paid for flour 2s.2d. per stone of 14 lbs., 11d. per lb. for coarse salt butter, 6d. per lb. for coarse brown sugar; for soap and candles and other things, plaintiff said they were also overcharged, he believed more than one-third. On cross-examination, plaintiff said if they refused to take tickets and go to the shop, they were 'sacked'; CHARLEY FOSTER was turned away from that cause. Plaintiff never asked MR. WERRY to give him money, because his time-keeper came round to give them tickets. The first time they went to the shop they inquired the price of the things, but not afterwards. On further examination, witness admitted that he had had an order from the "ganger" of 4s. for beer on the occasion of his child's funeral, and his wife had had money for the coffin.
JOSEPH CARNE, grocer, of Truro, was called on the part of plaintiff, and stated that in December last the price of flour in Truro was 15s. per bushel, or 1s.6d. a stone, instead of 2s.2d. the price last witness said he paid at the shop. In January the price was also 15x. and in February 17s. per bushel, or 1s.9d. a stone; the price had since been a trifle higher, but was now down again. Best butter in Truro was 1-d. per lb., inferior 6d., and 7d , candles 5ed., soap 5d., sugar 4d, and 5d, bacon 6d. and 7d per lb. (Plaintiff here said he paid 6d. per lb. at the shop for candles and soap, and 8d. for bacon.)
Mr. HOCKIN, for defendant, submitted as before, that the truck act was not applicable to these cases, and that on other grounds, plaintiff could make no claim, the men having in fact been consenting parties to the system carried on. They had taken the tickets, had gone to the shop with them, knew the prices they were giving, and received the goods. It was unjust for them now to claim the wages for which they had already been supplied with goods. Plaintiff was claiming the whole amount of his wages, as if he had received no goods, and if Mr. Stokes's view of the truck act were confirmed, the whole of the railway labourers would be claiming the full amount of their wages, irrespective of goods they had received. He should show that the men had acquiesced in the practice, and had never asked Mr. Werry, their employer, to pay them in money; and as they knew the prices they were giving at the shop they could not now complain.
The defendant, THOMAS WERRY, (sub-contractor), then gave evidence that he receives no profit from Mr. Ritson's shop, and that there was no contract or obligation between him and Mr. Ritson, by which he was obliged to send the men to that shop. When goods were had through those cheques, the amount was stopped back from defendant. The reason there had not been a pay-day for so long a time was a matter resting with Mr. Ritson. [brother of the shop-keeper, and principal agent for the Railway.] Some of the men take up a great part of their wages in goods before the pay-day. The men who were now plaintiffs had never asked for money; if they had, they would have had it. Defendant’s time-keeper had given VINING cheques to the amount of £ 2.11s.; defendant had also, on being applied to, passed his word for plaintiff to a carpenter for 14s. for a coffin. The pay is 2s.6d. a day, including the penny a day for "sick and doctor". On cross-examination witness said he paid the men in what they looked for.
Mr. Stokes – Will you swear you pay one-third in money?
Witness – I pay a great deal in money.
Mr. Stokes – If the men do not go to the shop, are they turned off?
Witness – No; they are not expected to go, there is no compulsion at all; they may go where they please; if they come for money they have it; if they come for cheques they go to the shop.
Was not Charley Foster turned off because he would not go to the shop?
Witness – No, not for not going to the shop, but for some misconduct or laziness.
Witness further said he did not know what prices were charged at the shop; his own family were supplied with groceries from the same shop.
A man called FORD, agent for defendant, stated that he had advanced 4s. to plaintiff for beer, on plaintiff asking him to do so when his child was buried. Foster was never told he should be 'sacked' if he did not go to the shop; he did go to the shop; he was turned off because he did not work fast enough.
Mr. Stokes replied, contending that even if the truck act did not apply, and defendant was entitled to the set-off he had pleaded, still it must be a fair set-off. The men had been overcharged at least one-third, and therefore, that proportion should in justice be taken from the set-off, and judgment for the difference be given for the plaintiff.
The JUDGE said it depended on the construction of the truck act whether the set-off should be allowed or not. On that point he would not give his decision at present; but if the truck act did not apply to these cases, then he did not see how he could help the plaintiff. The system pursued, if improperly carried on, might be very unfair and unjust towards the men, or if properly administered it might be of great convenience to them. They were not, however, compelled by any agreement to go to that particular shop; but if they went, and found the charges too high, they had the remedy in their own hands. They might compel their being paid in money, for the contract being at 2s.6d. per day, and no stated pay-day mentioned, they were entitled to be paid daily, or at all events at the end of the week. Or they might refuse to work under the system at all. He did not think the law could interfere in the case, unless the truck act applied, and of that he should take time to consider.
There were three other cases of the same kind, which on the application of Mr. Stokes were adjourned.
19 MARCH 1852
COUNTY COURT OF CORNWALL, LAUNCESTON.
In the matter of the Petition of SAMUEL BROWN, of Furze park, in the parish of Laneast, in the county of Cornwall, Carpenter and Wheelwright, formerly of the Hare and Hounds Inn, within the said parish of Laneast, Innkeeper, Carpenter, and Wheelwright, theretofore of Furze Park aforesaid, and
previously of Trewethen, in the said parish of Laneast, Carpenter and Wheelwright, all within the
jurisdiction of this Honourable Court, and who, during six calendar months past, has carried on the
Business of a Carpenter and Wheelwright, at Furze Park aforesaid, within the jurisdiction of this
Honourable Court, NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN, that the County Court of Cornwall, holden at Launceston, acting in the matter of this Petition, will proceed to make a final Order thereon at the said Court, on the fourteenth day of April next, at Eleven o'clock in the Forenoon, unless cause be then and there shewn to the contrary.
JOHN DARKE, Clerk of the Court
JOSEPH SHORT, High Bailiff
NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN
THAT PHILIP NICHOLLS, of Truro, in the county of Cornwall, grocer, has by an indenture, bearing date the 6th day of March, 1852, ASSIGNED all his PERSONAL ESTATE and EFFECTS whatsoever and wheresoever, unto HULBERT WATHEN, of the city of London, Merchant, THOMAS HITCHENS, of St. Austell, in the said county of Cornwall, Merchant, and THOMAS BARRETT, of Truro aforesaid, Grocer, in trust for the benefit of all the Creditors of the said Philip Nicholls; which said indenture was executed by the said Philip Nicholls and the said Thomas Barrett, on the day of the date thereof, in the presence of, and attested by, JOSEPH ROBERTS, of Truro aforesaid, Solicitor, and by the said THOMAS HITCHENS, on the 11th day of March, 1852, in the presence of, and attested by, EDWARD COODE, of the parish of St. Austell, in the county of Cornwall, Solicitor, and by the said HULBERT WATHEN, on the 15th day of March, 1852, in the presence of, and attested by, GEORGE BURROW GREGORY, of 1 Bedford-row, in the county of Middlesex, Solicitor; and Notice is Further Given that the said indenture is now lying at the Office of Messrs. SMITH and ROBERTS, Solicitors, in Truro, aforesaid, for inspection and execution by the creditors.
SMITH and ROBERTS, Dated March 15, 1852
PENZANCE INSTITUTE - On Monday evening an interesting lecture was delivered by MR. R. Q. COUCH on the tin-trade of the ancients. The lecturer arrived at the following conclusions: first, that tin was well known among the ancients and the ancients of Canaan; second, that the Canaanites were among the most early merchants; third, that both tradition and history pointed to western Europe as the source whence tin was procured; and fourth, that Cornwall was most probably the unknown land containing it. These were confirmed by the Asiatic character of the theology of Cornwall - the Druid; by the occasional discovery of Phoenician remains in West Cornwall; and by the discovery of the remains of ancient smelting-houses and blocks such as might be expected where a tin traffic had been carried on. The lecturer also read, by way of appendix, some interesting notes attached to his paper, as to Stannary laws, charters, the emoluments of Richard Earl of Cornwall, &c. A discussion took place, and at the close, a vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Couch for his interesting lecture.
LISKEARD - The recent lectures of MR. COLLIER in the Town-hall are likely to be followed by important results. The attendance on each occasion was crowded and respectable, and the exposition of his plans for the speedy removal of adult ignorance was cordially received. At the conclusion of his last
lecture, a society with the REV. JAMES F. TODD, the vicar, and several influential gentlemen at its head, was organized for the purpose of making provision for the immediate tutorage of miners and all others in the town and district, who had grown up uninstructed. They have begun in right earnest, and under promising circumstances.
DRUIDICAL REMAINS - On Monday last, while some masons from St. Ives were excavating some
stone near Towednack Churchtown, they came upon a vault containing two earthen vases of ancient
construction. They were found in an inverted position, and underneath were a quantity of bones and
a piece of metal supposed to be a mixture of copper and tin. When found, one of the vases was entire, but the men broke it soon afterwards. Next day the remains of the broken vase were gathered together and deposited in the St. Ives Institution, with some of the bones; quite enough of the vase remains to ascertain its size and shape, but no date or hieroglyphic is visible either on the piece of metal or vase. The following is the description of the vault by the men: The upper vase was found near the surface, surrounded by loose stones, inverted on a slab of granite, and underneath a quantity of bones and bone dust. On removing the slab, a walled vault was discovered, and under which was a quantity of bones in a more perfect state. The vault was 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 6 inches, and 2 feet 4 inches in height; the size of the vases eighteen inches high, fifteen inches over the top, and will contain about six gallons. There are several cairns and cromlechs on the surrounding hills, intended to point out a place of burial.
ST. STEPHENS COOMBE CHORAL SOCIETY - the members of this society gave a concert at the
Assembly-room, Truro, on Tuesday the 9th instant. The voices of some of the choir are of remarkably
good quality, and considering that they have had scarcely any professional training, their execution
was very creditable. The choruses generally , and also some of the solos, were given with considerable effect; and we cannot but consider that the cultivation of music by cottagers and others
in rural localities, is an example worthy of being followed.
PILOTAGE - At Falmouth, on Thursday the 11th inst., MR. DASH, a licensed pilot, summoned CAPT.
WALSHAW, master of the "Express" from Constantinople, for non-payment of pilotage. Mr. Dash said
he hailed the "Express" inside the Black Rock, before her anchor was down, and tendered his services
as a licensed pilot. Captain Walshaw said the weather was very boisterous, and without a pilot he
brought his vessel from sea to inside the limits of the port, when a long-boat was observed pulling
from the shore toward his vessel, but he could not discern what was hailed by the pilot, and as he had
brought his vessel to without his assistance, he did not consider he was liable to pilotage. The
magistrates, however, were of opinion that the captain was liable, and he had to pay the pilotage with
VIOLENT ASSAULT - On Monday last, JOANNA BUNT, and MARY ANN and RICHARD BUNT (mother and two children) of the parish of St. Dennis, were charged before MR. E. COODE, jun., at St. Austell, with assaulting SAMUEL FARRO, with intent to do him bodily harm. It appears a distress was put in on the farm stock of the prisoners, and Farro was left in charge of the same. He left the house for a few minutes, and on his return was met by the prisoners, and Bunt, the husband of Mrs. Bunt, armed with shovels, pikes, &c., with which they attacked Farro and broke both his arms, besides inflicting other injuries. On Saturday the St. Austell police apprehended the prisoners, with the exception of the
husband, and they were committed for trial at the assizes. Bunt, the husband, absconded, and has
not since been taken.
STEALING FROM A LETTER - At Tregothnan, the seat of the Earl of Falmouth, there have lately been some house-decorators employed from London. On the 27th ult., a letter arrived at the Truro post-
office, containing two five pound notes, addressed to the foreman of these workmen, for paying their
wages. A lad called JOHN HICKS, of Malpus, conveyed the post-bag, containing this and other letters
from the post-office to Tregothnan. The house-steward took the letter in question from the post bag
and gave it to the lad to carry to the foreman of the painters; but the youth kept the letter and
abstracted the notes, one of which he afterwards had cashed at the Miners Bank, Truro. It was
subsequently discovered that the money had been sent, and inquiries having been made, the lad was
apprehended by police constable WOOLCOCK, and on Wednesday the 10th inst., was committed for
trial at the assizes.
INCENDIARY FIRE - On Sunday evening last, the inhabitants of the vicinity of Falmouth, were alarmed by the appearance of a large fire, which was thought to be at a farm place, but was found to be at Tregarne common, and which consumed about ten acres of furze and plantation, the property of the
REV. M. N. PETERS, of Penwarne, in Mawnan. It was evidently the work of an incendiary, and a reward has been offered for the discovery of the offender.
ACCIDENT ON THE WEST CORNWALL RAILWAY - On Wednesday afternoon, a train of five carriages left the Redruth station at half-past three o'clock, and preceeded as usual in safety, passing over the Penponds, Angarrack and Guildford viaducts; but about fifty yards after passing the latter, and
approaching the Hayle station, the axle of the engine broke, which caused it to run off the line and
over the embankment. There was an open carriage immediately behind the engine, which was
dragged down the embankment after it; but the engine, having fallen on its side, its further progress
was stopped, so that the rest of the train (excepting the open carriage) remained on the line. A few
passengers in the open carriage were thrown out on the turf without injury, and others in the train
were jerked off the seats, but received nothing more than a few slight bruises. It was reported that
the engine-driver had been seriously hurt, but this has since been contradicted. It was also said that
the accident had been caused by an accumulation of stones on the newly-formed part of the line; but
the guards of the engine would have removed any ordinary obstruction of this kind, and our informant
states that the true cause of the accident was the breaking of the axle of the engine as before
CAUTION - DEATH FROM ARSENIC - In the following instance, death was caused from the application of a poultice containing a portion of Price's patent composite candles. HANNAH CLIFTON, aged 38, applied at the surgery of MR. GURNEY, at Camborne, on Thursday afternoon the 11th instant, with her upper lip enormously swollen, inflamed, and covered with small sores, the result of a pustular eruption, showing underneath white sloughs. On examination the surgeon's opinion was, from the appearance of the eruption, that she had used some application containing arsenic, and, on
questioning her, he found that on Saturday the 7th, she had discovered a small pimple or blackhead on
the edge of her under lip, and that on Sunday she had applied a white bread poultice, on which had
been mixed a portion (as grease) of Price's patent composite candles, and that she had continued the
same application for five succeeding days. The quantity of candle used was about an inch and a half in
length, or half an ounce. She came again on the following morning (Friday,) having walked a mile; she
did not appear worse, or had the erisypelatous inflammation increased. He ordered her to continue
the applications recommended on the preceding day, but not come again herself, but send if worse.
On Monday, however, he was informed that she had died on the Sunday night.
PROBUS FARMERS' CLUB
At the last meeting of the society, on the 6th instant, the subject of "Cross-breeding" was introduced
by MR. W. F. KARKEEK, Veterinary Surgeon, Truro. The manner in which he treated the subject was
altogether new to his hearers, and if proved by experience to be true, it will most certainly admit
hereafter of the most important practical applications in the breeding of the domesticated animals. It
is this - "that a male animal that has once had fruitful connexion with a female, may so influence her
future offspring begotten with OTHER males, as, to a greater or less extent, to engraft upon them, HIS
OWN DISTINCTIVE FEATURES; his influence thus reaching to the subsequent progeny, in whose
conception he himself has had no share, and his image and superscription being, so to speak, more or
less LEGIBLY INSCRIBED UPON THEM." This was the extraordinary text which formed the subject of Mr. Karkeek's lecture.
[The article, which extended over two full columns, then cited a paper published in the "Veterinarian"
by Mr. James McGillavray, V.S. Huntly, and gave examples of the phenomenon, starting with cattle.
He maintained that as the first calf developed in the heifer's womb, the calf absorbed 'influences'
from her, and vice versa. These 'influences' became embedded in the womb, and future calves were
thus 'influenced' too. From there, he extended his arguments into sheep, horses, and dogs.]
CORNWALL COUNTY COURTS
HELSTON - 8th March, 1852, Jury Case - STEPHEN SILVESTER, plaintiff; and JAMES CLARKE and JANE CLARKE, his wife, defendants.
Mr. HILL opened the case to the jury on behalf of the plaintiff. The action was brought for £ 30, the
amount of fifteen weeks' allowance at £ 2 per week, due the plaintiff under the will of MR. JOHN
SILVESTER, deceased. Mr. Silvester died in 1846, leaving the income of his property to his widow
during her life, and after her death to Mrs. Clarke, the defendant, with a condition that the sum of
£ 2 should be paid weekly to the plaintiff, first by Mrs. Silvester during her life, and after her death
by Mrs. Clarke. Three trustees were appointed under Mr. Silvester's will, two of them renounced, and
Mr. Clarke took out probate alone, contrary to the intention of the will. Mr. Clarke acted alone under
the trusts of the will, and in 1849 he became insolvent and withheld from Mrs. Silvester the dividends
of the Great Works mines, whereon Mrs. Silvester filed a bill in chancery for Mr. Clarke to account as
executor, and for the appointment of a receiver; the appointment of a receiver was strongly opposed
by Mr. Clarke, but the court appointed a receiver. Mrs. Silvester died in November last, and on her
death the Chancery suit abated. The plaintiff, as Mrs. Silvester's executor, revived the suit to get Mr.
Clarke's executor's accounts settled. Mrs. Clarke has filed a petition to dismiss the receiver, and also a
bill against her husband and children, and thus matters stand in Chancery.
The learned gentleman said he had entered into the Chancery proceedings, as his learned friend
would no doubt contend that the plaintiff should apply to a Court of Equity for redress, but he rested
his claim on the fact of Mrs. Clarke having taken possession of the freehold house and furniture in
Helston, and of her having made a tender of £ 12 to the defendant, under the advice of her
It appeared that at Mrs. Silvester's death, the plaintiff was living with her in Helston, Mrs. Clarke and
family residing at Gwealmayowe farm. Six weeks after Mrs. Silvester's death, Mr. PLOMER's clerk
made the plaintiff a tender on behalf of Mrs. Clarke, of £12 for six weeks allowance under the will,
which defendant then refused. Mrs. Clarke has since taken possession of the freehold house and
furniture in Helston, and sold some portion of the furniture at auction. Mr. Hill concluded his address
by a strong appeal to the jury, on the intention of the testator, and on the unhappy differences that
existed between the plaintiff and defendants, and contended that the defendants were both morally
and legally bound to pay the plaintiff. Mr. Hill proceeded to call witnesses, but Mr. Plomer said they
could agree on the facts. Mr. Hill and Mr. Plomer then arranged the facts to be admitted on each side.
Mr. Plomer then addressed the Court at great length, to nonsuit the plaintiff; he said the defendants
were not legally liable, that a receiver had been appointed by the Court of Chancery, and the plaintiff
had no right to enforce his weekly allowance against the defendants in a court of law. The receiver
was in receipt of the rents, and the defendants had not received any profit from the estate; the estate
was heavily mortgaged, together with other debts, and it was possible that Mr. and Mrs. Clarke might
never reap any benefit whatever from the property. The learned advocate urged that the claim was a
freehold rent-charge; that Mrs. Clarke was merely a trustee, and that no action at law would lie for the
plaintiff's claim, and cited various cases in support of the position he had taken, and as regards the
£ 12, it was tendered by mistake, and Mrs. Clarke was not bound by it. Mr. Hill replied that the
tender fixed the defendant as it admitted money had and received to that amount. The learned
Judge said he considered the defendant liable by the tender, and directed the jury to find a verdict for
plaintiff for £ 12. Verdict accordingly.
EXETER COURT OF BANKRUPTCY (Before Mr. Commissioner Bere)
In re THOMAS HARRIS, grocer &c. of Camborne. This was a meeting for last examination.
His balance sheet showed debts owing £ 1,115.3s.9d.; profits (on goods actually sold amounting to
£ 14,313.0s.9d.) at 7 1/2 percent, £ 1,073.9s.6d; received from his wi..... father for board and
lodging from 1846 to 1852, £ 135.8s.4d.; capital at the commencement of the balance sheet, £
100.On the credit side was entered good debts £ 204.14s.3d., bad ditto £ 8.4s.1d., doubtful ditto £ 70.10s.8d., other property £ 344.1s.0d., losses by bad debts £ 63.14s.8d, trade expenses £ 748.7s.2d., household ditto £ 980.18s.4d. The bankruptcy was attributed to want of capital. The
balance sheet extended from the 26th of August, 1846, to the 27th of January, 1852.
Mr. G. W. TURNER sought to prove a debt of £ 145 for MR. J. REED ROWE of Stithians, to £ 15 of which the official assignee objected. The bankrupt in the course of his dealings with this creditor had been charged, as was then the practice with millers, 2s. for a sack which was allowed when returned.
The sacks supplied to the bankrupt which had not been returned amounted to upwards of three
hundred, for which £ 30 were claimed, but the official assignee considered £ 15 sufficient.
The bankrupt accounted for their loss by stating he [...] have sent them out to customers who had
forgotten to return them.
HIS HONOR said he thought the price must depend on the condition of the sacks.
It was ultimately agreed to take them at £ 20.
The bankrupt passed his examination, the 15th of Aug. being fixed for the certificate day.
19 MARCH 1852 - Antiquities
STATISTICS of CORNWALL
To the Editor of the WEST BRITON
Sir - I now resume my account of the ancient works, &c.
In the five eastern hundreds I have not had such opportunities for examination as I have had in the four western hundreds, and shall have comparatively but few of the ancient works to describe. Probablymany of those which I have not seen may have been examined by others, who, I hope, will fill out many of the great blanks which I must leave open.
In the hundred of Trigg I begin with Bodmin. Two miles west of that town, in the low ground about a quarter of a mile south of the river Camel, at Tregear, is an ancient square entrenchment. (Tre-caer,
the castle place.)
About a half a mile north of Lower Boscarne, is a barrow, diameter 50 feet.
In Dunmeer Wood is a circular entrenchment with a high bank and deep ditch, the bottom of the ditch
being about 20 feet below the top of the bank. The whole work occupies about six acres, and the interior, within the embankment, is about three acres and a half.
About a mile south eastward of Bodmin church is Castle Canike, a circular entrenchment occupying the
summit of a conical hill; it has two ditches with a high bank between them; this middle bank having its
top about 15 or 16 feet above the outer ditch. The interior area within the inner ditch is about 11 1/2
acres and its whole extent about 16 3/4 acres.
A little west of Castle Canike is a barrow, diameter 55 feet.
HELLAND - A little northwards of Penhargate, in the woody ground on the east side of the Camel river,
is Penhargate Castle, a circular entrenchment, now overgrown with wood and thickets; the ditch which
surrounds it is deep, and the whole work appears to occupy about two acres and a half.
ST. MABYN - A little north-east of the village of Washaway, is a small circular area, about half an acre, surrounded by a bank and ditch, outside of which it is surrounded by another bank and ditch,
prolonged towards the west so as to form an ellipsis; and from the northern and southern parts of this
outer ditch, there is another bank and ditch extending westward, so as to make the outline of the whole work, an ellipse nearly twice as long as it is wide, and occupying about four acres and three quarters. These works are overgrown with wood, and appear to have served as a sort of keep to an extensive circular entrenchment of about 80 or 100 acres, part of which is still visible, extending from the inn at Washaway about 50 fathoms south-eastward, so far the ditch is open; and beyond that bank extends about a quarter of a mile eastward along the northern side of a road. Another part of it is to be seen about 250 yards north of Washaway on the eastern side of the road leading to Pencarrow; where two banks and ditches extend north-eastward about 100 yards beyond which they appear to have been destroyed, but the trace of the inner ditch exists for about a quarter of a mile, extending towards the eastern part before described.
Half-a-mile eastward from Three-holes Cross on the road from Wadebridge to Camelford, is Kelly
Round, an ancient circular entrenchment; the interior of which is about two acres and a quarter, which
was surrounded by a bank and ditch; about twenty fathoms beyond which was another bank and ditch
surrounding the inner work; both these ditches were very deep and appear to have been sunk to
about twenty feet below the tops of the banks. A road passes nearly east and west across the centre
of the work; on the northern side of which the banks and ditches still exist, but the traces of them are
nearly gone on the southern side. The whole of this circular work occupies about 10 1/4 acre. From the
western part of the outer ditch, goes off a bank and ditch extending about 100 fathoms turning round
to the southward and bending towards the east as if to surround the circular works; and eastward
about 50 fathoms outside of the outer circular ditch, are the remains of part of another ditch, which
appears to have been a continuation of that which is connected with the western part, and probably
was continued quite round the interior works, and if so, embraced a site of about thirty-five acres.
About 150 fathoms north of Kelly Round, at a little south of the turnpike road, is an entrenchment,
partly circular and partly straight, with bank and deep ditch, (which cannot be well described in words.)
This work might probably have been in some way connected with Kelly Round. It occupies about one
acre and three-quarters.
EGLOSHAYLE - I have not seen anything in this parish.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant, RICHARD THOMAS Falmouth, March 11, 1852
26 MARCH 1852
[A dinner given for Mr. Thomas Field, formerly of Penzance, was detailed, images 9821 - 9824, where
398 ounces of silver, in the form of punch bowl, salt-cellars, spoons, sugar baskets, etc., designed by
Mr. Pentreath of Penzance, were presented to him.]
HELSTON MIDLENT FAIR - This fair, on Monday last, was not so well supplied with cattle as it usually has been, though the attendance of dealers was good. Fat beef was very scarce and dull of sale at about 42s. per cwt. Store cattle sold freely at from 30s. to 33s. per cwt.
TEA MEETING - On Monday last, a public tea took place in the Congregational School-room, St.
Austell, which was well attended. It was got up as a mark of respect to MR. BALKWILL, late of the
Devon and Cornwall Bank, and president of the Teetotal Society, who is about to leave this
neighbourhood. Since Mr. Balkwill took up his residence in this town he has taken a very active
interest in the Teetotal Society, which has more than doubled its numbers, since he came among
them. In the evening of the same day a temperance meeting took place in the Town-hall, which was
addressed by MR. J. P. UREN, the county advocate.
CAMELFORD - The inhabitants of this place were on Thursday the 18th instant, favoured with a lecture in the Town Hall, on the Gas Microscope, with illustrations, by MR. CROWTHER. The audience were so highly pleased on the occasion that a request was made that another lecture on the same subject should be delivered to them. The lecturer obligingly complied with the request, and accordingly on Monday last, he again addressed a crowded assembly, and was listened to with much apparent interest and satisfaction.
COUNTERFEIT COIN - Several spurious half-sovereigns were passed in Falmouth market on Saturday last. They were changed by two women, one of whom was stout, with red trimmings and linings to her bonnet. They decamped from the town before the country persons discovered the base coin.
FIRES - On Tuesday night the 16th instant, the flour-mill at Luggans, in Phillack, in the occupation of
MR. HOSKEN, was destroyed by fire, leaving only the four bare walls standing. The man in charge of
the premises, who was in the upper part when the fire was discovered, had left a lighted candle in the
basement of the premises about half-an-hour previously; but whether the fire was caused by the
candle, or by the mill gear becoming hot and igniting the materials around, cannot be ascertained. A
hundred sacks of flour were destroyed, which fortunately was a smaller stock than Mr. Hosken has
generally had on the premises. The premises belonged to the REV. W. HOCKIN, of Phillack; they and
the machinery were insured, but the loss of the stock will fall on Mr. Hosken.
On Friday night last, four cottages were burnt at Guilford, near Hayle, and the furniture of the dwellings almost destroyed from the hurry necessary in removing it. The Copperhouse engine was quickly on the spot, but the premises could not be saved. The cottages belonged to the Hayle Copperhouse company, and are uninsured. The inmates supposed that the fire was caused by a spark from the railway engine lodging in the thatch, but it is stated that the wind at the time would have blown sparks in the opposite direction.
On the same day, a cottage nearer the Camborne station, about fifty yards from the railway, was burnt, the roof having been thatched, and the fire also supposed to have been caused by a spark from the locomotive. The cottage was situate on Menner Downs, in the occupation of a man called HENDREW.
SERIOUS ACCIDENTS - On Saturday last, JAMES PITCHERS, a seaman belonging to a vessel lying in Penryn river, took a gun for the purpose of shooting gulls, which accidentally exploded, discharging its
contents into his right elbow, and frightfully injuring the joint and extensively lacerating the flesh. He
was conveyed to the work-house, where the house surgeon, MR. G. W. TRENERY, was promptly in
attendance, and found it necessary to amputate the arm, which he immediately did, assisted by MR.
JEWEL, surgeon. The operation was performed whilst the man was under the influence of chloroform,
the administration of which was so successful that the patient felt no pain. He is now progressing
A man named WALTER PAUL met with a serious accident, and narrowly escaped with his life on
Monday last, whilst at work in East Tywarnhayle Mine, St. Agnes. He was engaged in taking some
timber out of the shaft, when a heavy piece fell on him and knocked him away, and he consequently
fell into four of five fathoms of water below. Fortunately his comrade hastened down and caught hold
of him as he rose to the surface, or he would certainly have been drowned. He has however received
severe bruises, and will not very soon be able to resume his labour.
On Monday last, a miner named ROBERT CRAZE, who worked at Wheal Clarence mine, near St. Agnes, was about to descend the engine shaft, and had got to the bottom of the first ladder, when he struck a match for the purpose of lighting his candles, when by some means he fell away to forty fathoms below, and was killed on the spot. He was twenty-eight years of age, and has left a wife and two
children. An inquest was held on the body on Tuesday by Mr. John Carlyon, and a verdict of 'accidental death' was returned.
SUDDEN DEATHS - At Treligga, St. Teath, as JOHN KEAT, an old pensioner, 65 years of age, was sitting by the fire on Thursday last, after making a hearty meal and apparently in better spirits and health than he had been for some time before, he fell from his seat and died instantly. At Tramaganna, near Camelford, on Sunday last, as RICHARD FOLLY was in the act of going up stairs he fell down and died instantly.
CORONER'S INQUESTS - The following inquests have been held before MR. JOHN CARLYON, county coroner:
On Saturday last, at the Royal Cornwall Infirmary, Truro, on the body of CALEB HENNAH, aged 15 years. Deceased was in the employ of MR. JOHN REED ROWE, of St. Gluvias parish, miller. Last Thursday afternoon he was returning from Penryn, riding one of his master's horses, and in turning a corner at Burnthouse, the horse fell with him and threw him to the ground. Some parties, who saw what had happened, immediately ran to his assistance, and removed him in an insensible state to the Lemon
Arms public house near by, from whence he was conveyed in a cart, the same evening, to the Royal
Cornwall Infirmary, but he never spoke or recovered consciousness, and died the following evening
about seven o'clock. Deceased was riding very hard at the time, and it appeared he had been thrown
from the same horse once before the same day, and also the day before, entirely from his reckless
manner of riding, as it was proved the horse was a very quiet one. Verdict, accidental death.
On Monday, at Calenick, near Truro, on a new born female infant, which had been left by some one in
one of the rooms of the Cornish Arms public house, at Calenick, on Saturday last, tied up in a canvass
bag. The body was that of a well formed healthy child, which had arrived at the full period, and had
breathed, but the medical evidence was not sufficient to prove that it had been fully born alive. Verdict accordingly.
Mr. Morgan's Fox Hounds will meet on Monday next, at Pitland Corner; and on Thursday at Dunderton; each day at half-past ten.
INCENDIARY FIRE - The farm house and premises of MR. PHILIP CRISPIN, at Eastacomb, in the parish of Tawstock, were destroyed by fire, on Friday morning g last. There is reason to suppose the work was the diabolical act of a vagrant, who is said to have called at the house begging. The premises were insured with the West of England Company, who have offered a reward of £ 50 for the conviction of the offender. The servant girl, who was alone in the house, gives the following description of the man - "Middle height - thirty to forty years of age - black ragged trowsers, and long fustian coat, an old black hat, with the pollbroken in, and no stockings or shoes, and had a dirty white bag tied to his
shoulders." The girl states the man asked for alms, and on her saying she could not comply, as no one
was at home, he immediately knocked her down, and beat her about the head with the iron fork
standing by the chimney, and said that before long the place would be in flames - and the next thing
she saw was the fire issuing from some straw in the barn, and the man making his escape by the lane
in the direction of Barnstaple. In the course of the day a vagrant was apprehended and brought
before her, but she said, immediately, he was not the man, and up to this time the efforts of the
police to capture the offender have been unavailing.
ODDS and ENDS
DEATH FROM CHLOROFORM
A young man has died in St. Bartholomew's Hospital from inhaling chloroform. He had an aneurism or
tumour behind the ear; this was operated upon under the influence of chloroform; on a second attempt some days after, the chloroform caused a cessation of pulsation in the heart; twice sensation was restored by stimulants, a bath, and galvanism, but the patient died in a short time.
HORSE KILLED BY A TIGER - On Tuesday week, as Hylton's menagerie, which has been exhibited for the last few weeks in the Grassmarket, was passing along the road at the back of the Castle, on its way to Limekilns, a tiger, which was confined in one of the caravans, burst the iron bars of its den, and
bounding into the road, seized one of the horses attached to the vehicle by the throat, from which its
hold could not be relaxed until its victim was rendered lifeless. Meanwhile, by throwing a mass of
ropes over the ferocious brute; the keeps effected its capture, and consigning it to its cage, the train
proceeded on its journey. (Edinburgh Witness)