Holy Roman Emperor Frederich II HOHENSTAUFEN
- Born: 26 Dec 1194, Lesi, Italy
- Marriage (1): Constance DE CASTILE
- Marriage (2): Yolande DE BRIENNE
- Marriage (3): Princess Isabel PLANTAGENET
- Marriage (4): Bianca LANCIA
- Died: 13 Dec 1250, Fierento, Apulia, Italy at age 55
Another name for Frederich was Frederick Roger II SICILY.
King of Sicily
Frederick II (Holy Roman Empire) (1194-1250), Holy Roman emperor (1215-50) and as Frederick I, king of Sicily (1198-1212). Born in Lesi, Italy, on December 26, 1194, Frederick was the son of Henry VI and grandson of Frederick I, Holy Roman emperor. He wasmade German king in 1196 and on the death of his father twoyears later became king of Sicily. When his mother, Constance ofSicily (1146-98), acting as regent, died several months later,the four-year-old prince was placed under the guardianship ofPope Innocent III, the new regent of Sicily. Emperor Otto IV was deposed in 1211, and the German princes selected Frederick to replace him. A contest for the imperial throne ensued, because Otto was unwilling to relinquish the crown.
Supported by the papacy, to which he promised many concessions, and aided by the French, Frederick was eventually secure in his title. He was crowned king of Germany at Aix-la-Chapelle (now Aachen, Germany in 1215 and Holy Roman emperor at Rome in 1220. On hiscoronation Frederick made a number of elaborate promises to thechurch, including a vow that he would go on a Crusade. Hepostponed the Crusade, however, because of an outbreak of anarchy in Sicily and because of the resistance of the Lombard cities, which in 1226 renewed the Lombard League, originally formed against his grandfather, Frederick I. The following year Frederick annulled the Treaty of Constance and put the Lombard cities under the ban of the empire. Threatened several times with excommunication if he did not fulfill his coronation pledge, Frederick determined to sail for Jerusalem in 1227. An epidemic forced him to return three days after his departure,whereupon Pope Gregory IX declared him excommunicated.
In 1228 Frederick led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land, where he took Jerusalem and concluded a 10-year truce with the sultan of Egypt. Having married Yolande (1212-28?), the young daughter of the titular king of Jerusalem, John of Brienne, and having assumed his title upon her death, Frederick was crowned king ofJerusalem in that city in 1229. He returned to Europe and spent many of his remaining years attempting to bring the Lombards under subjection. During intermittent struggles with the papacy he was excommunicated twice again, by Pope Gregory IX in 1239 and in 1245 by Pope Innocent IV. His participation in costly wars in Italy caused him to neglect the welfare of his German subjects. Frederick managed to establish peace, prosperity, and order in Sicily, however, promulgating there in 1231 a comprehensive code of laws, described as the best issued by any Western ruler since the reign of Charlemagne.
Frederick also made worthy contributions to learning in Italy. Because he was a man of culture, he gathered scholars and men of letters at his Sicilian court, which Dante called the birthplace of Italian poetry. The University of Naples was founded by Frederick in1224. For about a century after his death, on December 13, 1250,the belief persisted that Frederick was still alive. According to one famous legend, Frederick resides in a cave in the Kyffhäuser Mountains, in the region of Thuringia, awaiting the summons of the German people to return and restore peace in the empire. The legend was later interpreted to refer to Frederick I.
Frederich married Constance DE CASTILE, daughter of King Of Leon Alfonso IX Fernandez DE CASTILE and Queen Of Castile Berengaria DE CASTILE. (Constance DE CASTILE was born about 1195.)
Frederich next married Yolande DE BRIENNE, daughter of Jeane DE BRIENNE and Maria JERUSALEM. (Yolande DE BRIENNE was born about 1200.)
Frederich next married Princess Isabel PLANTAGENET, daughter of King Of England John I PLANTAGENET and Queen Of England Isabella DE TAILLEFER. (Princess Isabel PLANTAGENET was born in 1214 in England and died in 1241.)
Frederich next married Bianca LANCIA, daughter of Boniface LANCIA and Unknown. (Bianca LANCIA was born about 1200.)