New K Project Subgroups from Behar et al. (2012b) and PhyloTree Build 14

New or renamed Subgroups are shown in orange on the K Project mtDNA Results tab and are also displayed on the Google maps tab. Subclades are designations from the PhyloTree Build 14, and eventually, Family Tree DNA. Subgroups are assigned by the K Project Administrator. Generally, a Subgroup will include one subclade. In a few cases, a Subgroup will include two or more subclades, usually if one of the subclades has zero or one representative in the K Project. “Missing” Subgroups, such as K1a17, are those where there are no K Project members in the corresponding subclade.

Subgroups for those without full-sequence (FMS) tests are predicted from specific HVR mutations, relationships or matches with other Project members, or assignments from other testing companies.

All old and new Subgroups and subclades are described below. Subgroups only include those who are not in a deeper Subgroup. Defining mutations for a subclade may also be found in other subclades. Back mutations at defining mutation positions are always possible.

Mutations shown are still measured against the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), not the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) as proposed in “A ‘Copernican’ Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root,” Behar et al. (2012b).

Geographical information is based on all available full-sequence results and on the member-assigned pins on our Google maps. Areas or countries listed do not include those in lower subclades. Usually, information is listed only if there are at least two sequences available with listed maternal ancestry.


Old K: Defined, from parent U8b, by 10550G, 11299C, 14798C, 16224C and 16311C. Members usually have four other HVR and 17 other coding-region mutations back to the CRS.

Old K1: Defined by 1189C and 10398G. “Plain” K1 (also K1d, K1e and K1f) has 16362C. Most of those previously in this Subgroup have been moved to K1d or K1e.

Old K1a – Designated: Includes all those with 497T, but not 195C, and who have received just the K1a designation from FTDNA, but belong in no lower new subclade. (195C heads a group of subclades and branches under K1a, but may also appear in other subclades.) Europe and Middle East.

Old K1a – Predicted: Those with 497T, but not 195C, who do not have FMS results and cannot be predicted into a deeper Subgroup. Europe and Middle East.

Old K1a + 195C: Those who have 497T and 195C, with or without FMS results, but cannot be placed in a subclade deeper than K1a. Europe and Turkey.

Old K1a1: Defined by 11914A. 114T is found only in K1a1 and its lower subclades in varying percentages. British Isles, Central Europe and Italy.

Old K1a1a: Defined by 3552C. British Isles, Italy, Finland and Switzerland.

New K1a1a1: Defined by 9801A. Poland, Italy and Latvia. 

New K1a1a2, K1a1a2a and K1a1a2a1: K2a1a2 defined by 15799G. K1a1a2a adds 6060G and 8276.1C. K1a1a2a1 adds 4959A. Central Europe.

Old K1a1b: Defined by 15924G. British Isles, Estonia and Turkey.

Old K1a1b1: Defined by 11470G. British Isles, Southern Europe and Germany.

Old K1a1b1a: Defined by 10978G, 12954C and 16234T. About half are in branch headed by 16223T. Largest of three Ashkenazi subclades. Eastern and Central Europe.

New K1a1b1b: Defined by 593C and 2483C. British Isles and Scandinavia.

New K1a1b1c: Defined by 5585A and 16222T. Most have 16362C. British Isles, Northern and Central Europe.

New K1a1b1d: Defined by 14388G, 16082C and 16223T. British Isles.

New K1a1b1e: Defined by 9932A. British Isles and Italy.

New K1a1b2: Defined by 13326C. No examples at just this level.

New K1a1b2a, K1a1b2a1 and K1a1b2a1a: K1a1b2a defined by 152C, 7729G and 9800C. K1a1b2a1 adds 3777C and 15758G. K1a1b2a1a adds 7278C. Western and Central Europe and Norway.

New K1a1b2b: Defined by 189G and 10202T. England.

New K1a1c: Defined by 709A, 1694C, 16362C and 16400T. Northern Europe and the British Isles.

Old K1a2: Defined by 11025C. Scandinavia, Ireland, Italy and Armenia.

New K1a2a: Defined by 5773A. Europe.

New K1a2a1: Defined by 4748T, 13368A and 16189C. Scotland.

New K1a2b: Defined by 8005C. British Isles and France.

New K1a2c: Defined by 4216C and 7775A. Finland, Poland and Lithuania.

Old K1a3: Defined by 13117G. Central Europe, Norway, France, Italy and Iran.

Old K1a3a: Defined by 7559G. France, Germany, Ireland and Iceland.

Old K1a3a1: Defined by 8440G and 16093C. France, Slovakia and Italy.

Old K1a3a1a: Defined by 9548A, 10697T and 14530T. (No FTDNA examples.)

New K1a3a1b: Defined by 8552T. British Isles.

New K1a3a2: Defined by 5580C and 16093C.

New K1a3a3: Defined by 13590A. British Isles and Norway.

New K1a3a4: Defined by 6257A, 14094C and 16093C. British Isles and Norway.

Old K1a4: Defined by 11485C. Italy, Central Europe, Switzerland, Portugal and Georgia.

Old K1a4a: Defined by 6260A. Germany, Greece and Ukraine.

Old K1a4a1: Defined by 11840T and 13740C. Europe.

New K1a4a1a: Defined by 4295G and 15884A.

New K1a4a1a1: Defined by 195C and 3867T. British Isles.

New K1a4a1a2: Defined by 16245T. Europe.

New K1a4a1a2a: Defined by 9377G. Europe.

New K1a4a1a2b: Defined by 146C and 13401C. British Isles, Scandinavia, Germany and France.

New K1a4a1a3: Defined by 195C and 5177A. British Isles, Germany and Russia.

New K1a4a1b: Defined by 8098G. British Isles and Sweden.

New K1a4a1b1: Defined by 8856C. British Isles.

New K1a4a1b2: Defined by 16261T and a back mutation at 1811. England and Germany.

New K1a4a1c: Defined by 195C and 13413G. British Isles, Germany and Finland.

New K1a4a1d: Defined by 3394C. British Isles and Germany.

New K1a4a1e: Defined by 152C and a back mutation at 16311. Ireland, Norway, Germany and France.

New K1a4a1f: Defined by 152C, 325T and 10029G. British Isles and Germany.

New K1a4a1f1: Defined by 217C and 5774C. England.

Old (revised) K1a4b and New K1a4b1: K1a4b defined by 280G and 9448G. K1a4b1 adds 6975C, 7388G, 8410T and 13105G. British Isles, Turkey, Czech Republic and Druze.

Old K1a4c and New K1a4c1: K1a4c (none in FTDNA) defined by 152C, 12612G and 13827G. K1a4c1 adds 5264T, 13710G and 16246T. Italy, Armenia, Turkey, Cherkes and England.

New K1a4d: Defined by 723C, 11071T, 15355A and 16093C. Germany, British Isles and Western Europe.

New K1a4e: Defined by 942G.

New K1a4f and K1a4f1: Defined by 7118G and 16093C. K1a4f1 adds 12017G. Turkey, Palestine, Malta and Portugal.

Old K1a5: Defined by 4640T, 9647C and 16362C. Druze/Lebanon.

Old K1a6: Defined by 8703T, 8790A, 10454C and 16527T. None from FTDNA. Druze.

Old K1a7 (revised): Defined by 431A. None from FTDNA. Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Avar.

Old K1a8 (revised): Defined by 295A. None from FTDNA.

New K1a8a: Defined by 7927G and 16234T. None from FTDNA. Saudi Arabia.

New K1a8a1: Defined by 15850G. None from FTDNA. Lebanon and Syria.

New K1a8b: Defined by 11818G and 16497G. None from FTDNA.  Duplicated by K1a22.

Old K1a9: Defined by 195C and 16524G. Second-largest Ashkenazi subclade. Eastern and Central Europe and Israel.

Old K1a10: Defined by 195C and 16048A. (Those in this Subgroup and not in the lower K1a10a always have the additional 16047A – so far. Those with HVR2 results also have 316A.) British Isles.

New K1a10a: Defined by 16291T. British Isles, Norway and Sweden.

Old K1a11: Defined by 16T, 150T, 199C, 9938C, 16129A and deletions of bases 8281 to 8289 (the “nine-base-pair deletion”). British Isles, Norway and Denmark.

New K1a11a: Defined by 152C and 10966C. Central Europe and Switzerland.

New K1a11b: Defined by 14605T. British Isles and Belgium.

New K1a12, K1a12a, K1a12a1 and K1a12a1a: K1a12 is defined by 5460A. K1a12a adds 11923G. K1a12a1 adds 6284G. K1a12a1a adds 11497T. All Project members are in K1a12a. Italy, Spain and Middle East.

New K1a13: Defined by 146C, 195C, 1709A and 9545G. Western Europe and Germany.

New K1a13a: Defined by 8870C. Croatia, Finland, Ireland and Spain.

New K1a14: Defined by 195C, 8020A, 9977C and 15626T. Iberia.

New K1a15: Defined by 195C and 8155A. British Isles and Germany.

New K1a16: Defined by 195C and 6367C. British Isles.

New K1a17 and K1a17a: K1a17 defined by 247A, 4561C and 15670C. K1a17a adds 1719A and 16260T. None from FTDNA. Middle East.

New K1a18: Defined by 6680C and 6881G. None from FTDNA. Middle East.

New K1a19: Defined by 12338C. Armenia, Italy, Iran, Poland and England.

New K1a20: Defined by 63C, 64T, 8277C, 11878C, 12134C, 12397G, 15031T, 16093C and 16187T. None from FTDNA. Georgia and Turkey.

New K1a21: Defined by 153G, 408A, 6407C, 9438C and 11017C. Germany, Italy and Slovakia.

New K1a22: Defined by 11818G and 16497G. None from FTDNA.  Duplicates K1a8b; will be replaced.

New K1a23: Defined by 5093C. Iran and Syria.

New K1a24 and K1a24a: K1a24 defined by 150T and 15625A. K1a24a adds 195C, 5964C, 15791G and 16145A. British Isles, Norway, Germany and France.

New K1a25: Defined by 152C, 4158G and 14308C. None from FTDNA. Austria and Lebanon.

New K1a26: Defined by 195C, 4113A and 16093C. FTDNA examples have 16192T. British Isles and Italy.

Old K1b: Defined by 5913A. No examples not in deeper subclades.

Old K1b1: Defined by 9962A, 10289G and 15946T. No examples not in deeper subclades.

Old K1b1a: Defined by 152C, 11923G, 15257A, 16319A and 16463G. (13967T moved down to K1b1a1 level.) British Isles, Central Europe and Spain.

New K1b1a1: Defined by 13967T. British Isles, Central Europe and Scandinavia.

New K1b1a1a: Defined by 199C and 4646C. France, Switzerland and Ireland.

New K1b1a1b: Defined by 199C and 14308C.

New K1b1a1c: Defined by 3834A and 4775G. Germany and Italy.

New K1b1a2: Defined by 195C, 8260C, 9371T, 15381T, 16093C and 16318T. Portugal and Ireland.

Old K1b1b: Defined by 6053T, 8164T and 16093C. None in K Project.

Old K1b1c (revised): Defined by 94A, 3337A and 11914A. Scotland, Azerbaijan, Palestine and Druze.

Old K1b2: Defined by 146C, 195C and 12738G. No K Project FMS examples not in deeper subclades. Northern Europe, British Isles and Finland.

New K1b2a: Defined by 12771A. British Isles, Germany, Finland and Armenia.

New K1b2a1: Defined by 13759A. British Isles, Central Europe, Finland and Italy.

New K1b2a1a: Defined by 12019A. Sweden.

New K1b2a1a1: Defined by 16524G. Sweden and British Isles.

New K1b2a2: Defined by 7521A. British Isles, Central Europe and Russia.

New K1b2a2a: Defined by 14687G. Scandinavia.

New K1b2b: Defined by 5237A, 6845T, 10154G and 15301A. British Isles, Spain, France and Poland.

Old K1c: Defined by 146C, 152C and 498-. No examples not in deeper subclades.

Old K1c1: Defined by 9093G and 11377A. Europe and Turkey.

Old K1c1a (revised): Defined by 7082T. Italy and the British Isles.

Old K1c1b: Defined by 15900C. Europe.

New K1c1c: Defined by 9903C. Finland.

New K1c1d: Defined by 1442A, 3720G and 13602C. Germany.

New K1c1e: Defined by 16368C. Central and Eastern Europe and Italy.

New K1c1f: Defined by 10698T. Central and Eastern Europe.

Old K1c2: Defined by 9006G, 14002G, 14040A and 16320T. British Isles, Scandinavia, Central Europe, Morocco, Algeria and Avar.

New K1c2a: Defined by 15944-. Ireland.

New K1d: Defined by 16362C, 195C, 573.1C, 4856C, 5592G and 8901G. British Isles, Netherlands and Poland.

New K1e and K1e1: K1e defined by 152C, 1819C, 8251A, 10478T and 14142G. K1e1 adds 151T, 6413C, 16189a, 16274A. Germany and British Isles.

New K1f (formerly K1ö): Defined by 3513T and 8137T. This is the subclade for Ötzi the Iceman, the only member so far.

Old K2: Defined by 146C and 9716C. No examples not in deeper subclades.

Old K2a: Defined by 152C, 709A and 4561C. Europe, Turkey and United Arab Emirates.

Old K2a1: Defined by 7930G, 15325G and 15652G.

Old K2a1a: Defined by 11881T and a back mutation at 16311. No FTDNA examples.

Old K2a2 and Old K2a2a (revised): K2a2 defined by 8697A. No K Project FMS examples. K2a2a now defined by 11348T.

New K2a2a1: Defined by 512C, 9254G and 11914A. Now the smallest of three Ashkenazi subclades. Eastern and Central Europe.

Old K2a3: Defined by 13293T. Scandinavia and Western Europe.

New K2a3a and K2a3a1: K2a3a defined by 12795A. K2a3a1 adds 13708A. England and Austria.

Old K2a4: Defined by 11549T. Central Europe and France.

New K2a5: Defined by 324T. South Asia, Germany and Ireland.

New K2a5a and K2a5a1: K2a5a defined by 15803A. K2a5a1 adds 11491G and 16235G. England and Portugal.

New K2a6: Defined by 14305A. British Isles, Germany and Russia.

New K2a7: Defined by 12346T. Usually has 522-, 523-. British Isles, France and Germany.

New K2a8: Defined by 207A and 16189A. All examples also have 16182C and 16183C, but the PhyloTree does not use those mutations. Spain and Mexico.

New K2a9: Defined by 5081C and 5130C. All K Project examples have back mutations at 152 and 709. Lithuania, Iraq, Italy and Romania.

New K2a10: Defined by 11923G. British Isles and France.

Old K2b (revised): Defined by 2217T, 5231A, 11869A and 14037G. (13135A moved down to K2b1.) Europe.

New K2b1: Defined by 13135A. British Isles, Central Europe and Spain.

New K2b1a (revised): Defined by 16270T. British Isles, Northern Europe and Ukraine.

New K2b1a1 (revised): Defined by 16222T. British Isles, Finland, Sweden and Germany.

New K2b2: Defined by 195C, 5054A, 11016A, 12501A and 16129A. British Isles, Central Europe, Scandinavia and Switzerland.

Old K2c: Defined by 4976G, 7912A, 9053A, 10262G, 11015G, 11041A, 11172G, 16192T and 16210G. No examples from FTDNA.

New K3: Defined by 150T, 195C, 235G, 560T, 7657C, 8188G, 9852T, 14212C, 16093C, 16148T and 16153A. No examples from FTDNA. Georgia and China.

Old “U8b – Probably”: Includes those with the defining mutation for K, 10550G, but which will eventually be classified as U8b.

Old “Unassigned members – Upgrade suggested”: Usually those with only HVR1 results that are insufficient to allow for Subgroup prediction.

© 2012 William R. Hurst

Administrator, mtDNA Haplogroup K Project