Bounty Scheme / Why Australia? / William Murray Borthwick / History of "Lady East" / Early Journeys / Liverpool-Sydney 1833 / Passenger List, Liverpool / Passenger List, Hobart / Passenger List, Sydney / Etherington Family / Heaton Family / Robbins Family / Russell Family / Missing Borthwick Cousins
This stunningly beautiful painting of the "Lady East" is owned by Tony who came across my web page on the internet and very generously offered to send some photos to post on the page. As can be seen the painting has been beautifully restored.
Thank you Tony for sharing this. It will enhance the imaginations and family histories of all whose ancestors sailed in the "Lady East".
The Journey of 1833
This page is dedicated to the "Lady East", her journey in 1833, and her passengers. If you know anything of this ship, or of someone who travelled to South Africa or Australia (either to Hobart or Sydney) on her in 1833, please contact me as it would be great to add that information here.
Four "Lady East" 1833 families in Australia have been located so far, with one other possible family in South Africa!
[The following background information on the Bounty Scheme is from a number of other places, including official publications. I will add to it and amend it as I discover more about the scheme.]
William Murray Borthwick and his family arrived in Australia in 1833 aboard the "Lady East". They were it seems encouraged to come here by the advertising and promotions carried out by recruiting agents in the British Isles. Those agents were seeking people with skills, who would emigrate to Australia, especially farmers, agricultural labourers, artisans & tradespeople. Often they chartered ships & sponsored the passage of people, being reimbursed by the colonial government.
The Concise Guide to State Archives of New South Wales says the following about the Bounty System of immigration which operated in Australia from 1832-1845.
Few free settlers were attracted to the penal colony of New South Wales during the first thirty years of its existence, despite the free passages, land grants and other incentives offered at various times during this period. As settlement spread and the proportion of emancipists and native-born increased during the 1820s, however, immigrants began arriving in greater numbers. With increasing prosperity came a growing demand for skilled labour, and the Government responded to this need (and to the problem of the great numerical inequality between the sexes) by introducing a number of assisted immigration schemes from 1832 onwards.
The first of the assisted migration schemes began in 1832 when eight single women and eight mechanics and their families left England aboard the "Marianne". Each single woman received a bounty of �8 and each mechanic was advanced �20 against his future wages. From 1832 to 1835, 3074 people received assistance at a cost to the colony of �31,028-6-9. They were selected and ships chartered for them by Emigration Commissioners in the United Kingdom, and during the voyage they were in the charge of the ship's master.
In Sydney, emigration was administered by the Colonial Treasurer, Collector of Internal Revenue (and, for a short time) the Superintendent of Emigrants and the Immigration Board. Female immigration was not persevered with and the Colonial Government sent Surgeon-Superintendents to act as Commissioners' selecting agents; while in 1835, employers acting through agents and the Commissioners brought out people with special skills.
The Government (or Wakefield) and Bounty systems operated unchanged until the establishment of the Immigration Office and the appointment of the first Immigration Agent in Sydney (James Pinnock) in 1838. The Government system operated until 1840, and the Bounty system until 1845; and their costs were defrayed from funds raised by the sale of waste Crown land in the colony (augmented by the sales of debentures against future land sales from 1842) and by parishes and workhouses in the United Kingdom.
In 1847, the second Bounty system of immigration was set up. The Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners were entrusted with the selection and conveyance of migrants, while the Immigration Board in Sydney decided whether or not shipping companies were entitled to payment for immigrants brought to the Colony. After 1852, most immigrants who received assisted passages did so through relatives and friends. For a short period after 1859, shipowners bore the costs of conveyance and were remunerated by the Board, and the small amount of government assistance that was provided was allotted by Legislative vote.
In 1861, the Immigration Office was abolished and unassisted immigration which had been growing apace over the previous 10 years came into its own. People were, however, still receiving assisted passages in 1896. Immigration became largely a federal matter during the twentieth century, and although New South Wales was involved in administering some immigration schemes (such as post World War II British immigration), overall policy decisions (and the majority of archival records) remain with the Australian Government.
According to "The Fatal Shore" by Robert Hughes (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1987) the bounty plan quickly attracted 18,000 free emigrants and 40,000 others emigrated by their own accord.
Industrialisation increased so that prosperity passed the ordinary labourer by. Bad harvests led to an agricultural depression. The Corn Laws were passed so that food prices rose wages fell starvation set in. Relief for the poor became urgent. In 1834 new Poor Laws led to the rise of Workhouses. The condition of village labourers continued to deteriorate until many reached such a state of despair that they were ready to revolt. One factor contributing to the economic distress in the counties of southern England, was the decline in the demand for English Southdown wool. This was being ousted from the market by wool from German sheep crossed with Spanish merinos. This period became so distressing for agricultural labourers and tradesmen that the Parish officials began encouraging them to emigrate to N.S.W. Standard foodstuffs on migrant ships were:- salt beef, pork1 flour, peas, tea, sugar, rice, raising and oatmeal. The migrants themselves had to provide clothing, bedding, personal articles and they were advised to bring some tools.
The Bounty Immigration Scheme was first suggested by Edward Gibbon Wakefield. He suggested that: The system of free land grants should cease and Colonial land should be sold. The revenue from these sales should be used to boost emigration from the U.K. Certain conditions should apply to the type of emigrant accepted. This scheme was gradually adopted. The first set of Bounty Regulations was gazetted by Governor Bourke in October 1835: The persons accepted should be mechanics tradesmen, or agricultural labourers. They should have references as to their character from responsible persons, such as the local magistrate or clergyman. To prove their age they should have Certificates of Baptism.
At first, before 1835, the passage money was advanced to emigrants by the Government, to be paid back out of their salary, but many refused to pay it back, so the Government converted this Loan into a Free Bounty. Settlers in N.S.W. were allowed to recruit their own workers in the U.K. Most employed agents to do so. The Government also had an Agent-General in London after 1837, and Agents in other embarkation ports. Under the Bounty Scheme the settler who wanted workers paid the Emigrants' passages. On arrival these workers were examined by a Board appointed by the Governor and, if the Board were satisfied, the settler would be issued with a Certificate entitling him to claim the Bounty money back from the Government. Complaints from the settlers before 1841 were uncommon. The Bounty was refused on only about 1% of applications, mostly on grounds of age. The costs were: £30 for a man and wife under 30 years on embarkation; £15 for each single female 15y to 30y with the approval of the settler or the agent, and under the protection of a married couple or to stay with the family till otherwise provided for; £10 for each unmarried male 18y to 30y (equal number of males and females mechanics or agricultural labourers were to be encouraged by the settlers); £5 pounds for each child over 1y.
There were several faults in the Bounty Scheme: Settlers complained that not all migrants knew the trade they claimed; Not many settlers had the money to pay the Agents in the UK to act for them and the system soon fell into the hands of the ship owners or of speculators; There were not many checks to the system; The ship owners sometimes changed the arrangements; Discipline aboard ship was often neglected; The Agents In the UK created false impressions of life in NSW ~A.Barnes reprinted from Tulle, vol 17, number 2
William Murray Borthwick and his family decided to emigrate to Australia in early 1833. The record of their emigration held in Tasmania is as follows:
Colonel Arthur, was Lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen's Land.
According to his descendant, Kerry, Andrew Crombie was a "writer to her majesty's signet" in his home town of Edinburgh before turning his hand to sending ships to the 'colonies'. He was first council clerk in Hobart 1853-54. Kerry doesn't know anything about his attraction of emigrants to Australia and believes that perhaps his main activity was trade and the emigrants were a sideline. The electoral roll for Hobart shows that he was admitted as a Barrister in that State in 1838. His portrait can be found here.
Descendants of the families who travelled on this ship would love to locate a drawing or painting of the "Lady East". If any reader has access to one, or knows where we might look please email me.
The following information has been contributed by Ken Croft, a descendant of the Heaton family, who also travelled to Australia on the "Lady East" in 1833.
I don't really understand shipping records yet so am just posting here the raw information. Once I know what it means I'll post further detail.
To Tasmania 1824?
Vessel Arrived Port Sailed From Days Embarked Tasmania NSW Victoria Norfolk Is Master Surgeon M F M F M F M F
Lady East 09 04 1825 VDL 16 12 1824 England 114 210 208 And Talbert Wm McDowell
Unknown date/s - Convicts to Australia
Convicts who are said to have come to Australia on this ship are:
With the East India Company 1829?
Merchant Vessels in the Service of the East India Company, 1601-1832 Vessels F-N Source: Jean Sutton, Lords of the East; The East India Company and Its Ships (London: Conway Maritime Press, 1981), pp. 162-168.
Name of Vessel Tons Number of Voyages Period
of Service (Seasons)
On the trip in which I am most interested, the one that the Borthwick family made, the "Lady East" left Liverpool, England on 15 June 1833 & arrived in Hobart on 28 October 1833. After a week in Hobart, where many of her passengers disembarked, she left for Sydney, arriving there on 15 November, exactly five months after she sailed out from Liverpool, England. Nothing more is known of her journey at this stage. Please email me if you know of this ship or of its journey to Australia in 1833.
Diane Fryer, a descendant of the Etherington family, has contributed the following piece of information. The Governor's Despatches of 1833 states:
Lord Hay was in charge of all Immigration shipping.
Who were the immigrants from St Mary's Newington? Why did they come to Australia together (if this is what did happen)?
On the GENUKI site there is a page for the 1840 Pigot's directory of Newington and Rainham, including a description of the Parish and of St Mary's Church, "a handsome structure, principally in the English style; it is dedicated to St Mary and the living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the provost and fellows of Eaton College". It is stated there that there were just 731 inhabitants of Newington Parish in 1831.
The Journey from Liverpool to Hobart Town
The Master was Alexander Strachan and the Ship's Surgeon Patrick Harnoll. The Agent for this particular journey was William Morgan.
I have not yet searched for a passenger list in Liverpool and would be very pleased if any reader is able to advise or help with that.
Five months on a small ship. What was it like?
Stopover in South Africa?
You will see below that Diane Fryar suspects that young James Etherington was buried in South Africa. However we don't yet know whether the "Lady East" did stopover there for any length of time. Nor do we know whether any passengers disembarked there. Christo Welgemoed is particularly interested in that point as he is trying to discover more about his ancestors.
Christo is from South Africa and has reason to believe that his ancestor Charles Sparks and his three sons may have disembarked from the Lady East in 1833 and remained in South Africa. However Charles Sparkes' name is not on my passenger list.
My list appears to be of the passengers who arrived in Australia, not those who left Liverpool but I need to go back to the films to check.
Can anyone help with this?
Arrival in Hobart Town, 28 October 1833
The Archives Office of Tasmania Arrivals Index includes the following for arrivals in Hobart Town, Tasmania:
I do have a copy of part of this passenger list (not all pages) and will gradually add the names and details as time permits. I will post the updates on the "What's New" page for this site, so stay tuned .....
I will also try to obtain a full copy of the passenger list.
Surnames that appear on the partial list I have include SHORTER, MAJOR, HARDIE, MURRAY, GLYNNE
Arrival in Sydney, 15 November 1833
The NSW record for the arrival of the ship in Sydney has been obtained andthe passenger list transcribed (below).
On the same day three other ships arrived in Sydney Harbour: The "Anne Jameson", which had sailed from London on 5 July; the "Mary Anne" which had also sailed from London, leaving on 31 March and arriving in Sydney via Launceston; and the "Rubican" which had left London the day after "Anne Jameson", on 6 July, and had sailed to Sydney via the Cape of Good Hope.
a) Cabin Passengers
For convenience surnames are capitalised on this list. They don't appear in capitals on the ship's records. Many of these names are very difficult to read and my copy of the record is poor so there will certainly be errors in the following transcriptions.
Noted at the end of the list is the following: "The Hundred and Six Steerage Passengers a return of whom was made in the course of the afternoon." The Passenger List is signed "T Jeffries, Tide Surveyor".
Normally some sort of report on the trip and the passengers would be issued on the afternoon of the day the passenger lists etc were lodged by the Captain. However in the case of the Lady East this document is not on the microfiche and is apparently missing.
The Harnoll Family
Perhaps the other Harnolls on board were relatives of the Ship's Surgeon, Patrick Harnoll (see passenger list above). Mr Savianaes Harnoll, a Farmer, his wife Ellen and their five children travelled as Cabin passengers. They were from England. In addition John Harnoll aged 10 years, from Ireland, travelled in Steerage. It seems strange for a 10 year-old child to have travelled alone in steerage. Are there any members of the Harnoll family who can throw light on this?
The Etherington Family
Diane Fryar, a descendant of the Etherington family advises that they had earlier shipped in the "Princess Elizabeth" but had to put back to Port because of unseaworthiness. They then travelled to Australia on the "Lady East" arriving in November 1833. James Etherington paid £32 10/- for their fare. The names of the family believed by Diane to have travelled were as follows:
We searched and found them on the list of passengers who arrived in Sydney. They are recorded as HETHERINGTON on the passenger list. See above. In that list, in the columns for children, it looks as though it might say 2 children over 12 years of age and then "396" - I don't know yet what these numbers mean. James, the son, did not arrive in Sydney so must have died on the voyage out.
James and Penelope Etherington were the only other couple on board who were anywhere near the age of William Murray Borthwick and his wife Helen Paterson (remembering of course that the Borthwicks were both 51, not 45 as stated.) The Etherington's daughter was also about the same age as Elizabeth and John Borthwick. It seems likely that the families would have spent time together during the voyage.
The Heaton Family
James Heaton sailed from Liverpool on 15 June 1833 on the Barque 'Lady East' arriving in Port Jackson 15 November 1833 with his wife Nancy and five children, Hannah 22, James 12, Priscilla 10, John Robert 4 & Salina 4 months.
The Directory for City of Leeds, 1826 & 1830 show James Heaton, Brushmaker, 13 Brunswick Street Water Lane, Leeds. His professions include Waterman & Brushmaker. (Ken Croft is the descendant researching this family.)
The Robbins family
Mary Twyford's ancestors were the "Robins" family, also steerage passengers. Mary's brother traced them to the "Lady East", after a long search, as their surname is actually spelt "Robbins". William Robbins and "Johanna" Robbins settled at Penrith NSW with two of their sons, William and John. The older boy "Henry" was not their child so it took sometime to locate their entry into Australia.
William and Johanna Robbins are buried at St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Penrith. William, a stonemason (bricklayer), helped build the church. Their childrens' names were William Charles Robbins, Philpot John Curran Robbins and Walter Augustus Robbins (Mary's line) who was probably born on arrival in Australia.
The Russell Family
On the last day of 2002 a descendant of the Russell family wrote with details for this page. Thank you Theresa Simpson! Theresa advises that Thomas Russell and his wife Mary were her great-great-grandparents. Her paternal grandmother was the daughter of a third son. A second son was born in Maitland, NSW, and the family left NSW for NZ about 1840. Their third son, James, was Theresa's great-grandfather.
Thomas and Mary have a number of descendants in New Zealand some of whom have since settled in Australia. Click here for a NZ site which includes the biographies for Thomas and RUSSELL John Benjamin.
Their three older sons all died in England and there are numerous descendants there.
Theresa advises that the 17 year-old William Russell shown on the passenger list is a mystery. Perhaps he was a younger brother of Thomas Sr. Did he die in Australia or travel to NZ?
**Once again it is worth noting that the surname is misspelt on the passenger list - for three out of the four families so far located this was the case.**
It is understood that WMB came to Australia with two of his cousins who settled in different States, one in Victoria & one in Queensland. Who were these cousins? As yet (January 2001) I had been unable to locate them but during that year discovered WMB's nephew Alexander Borthwick had come to Australia in 1852 and settled in Victoria. He is probably the "cousin" from Victoria. Who was the cousin who settled in Queensland? If I could discover this I may be able to Trace WMB's own family back some further generations.
There were no other Borthwicks on the passenger list for the 1833 journey of the "Lady East" so I am really puzzled by the following. In 2000, a fellow Borthwick researcher, not related to our family, sent me a copy of index cards that she had obtained. Aside from the card above for William Murray Borthwick she had a copy of another:
However the Archives Office of Tasmania now has no record at all of this family. They don't appear on page 319 along with William Murray Borthwick, and yet they appear to be quite a different family. Were these the cousins who emigrated with WMB - and if so why are they "no longer" on the passenger list? Please email me if you know anything about this family.
Does anyone know?
Copyright: Ann Carson 2001
All rights reserved.
Created: 30 April 2001
Last Updated: 4 July 2001 (with the fourth Lady East family to be located ... the Robbins family!)