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JOHN



SHIELD and
DUPREY


SPENCELEY,
MOODY and
SWORD

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WINCKWORTH

TILDEN

PREBBLE
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TRIPP

SLADE & STEVENS

KAINES

CLAVELL
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WOODCOCK
inc. CROCKETT
HEATH
DAVIS
SANDEFORD
and MOURBY

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OLIVER
inc.GUEST and BOWATER

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WIGG
inc. CANDY
and MORGAN

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WILLS
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Research Sites






Welcome to my website. I am an amateur genealogist and I have been researching the histories of these families since 2000.
Alexander Anthony John and Vera Mary Winckworth were married for over 50 years, I was lucky enough to know them for a while.
I hope you enjoy reading about their ancestry.


THE PATERNAL FAMILIES

The JOHN family
I have traced their history back to India starting in the early 1800's. They were wealthy Merchants who lived mainly in Agra.


The SHIELD family were from Dublin.  The DUPREY family were from London.


The SPENCELEY family were from Yorkshire,
The MOODY and SWORD families were from Cumbria. 



THE MATERNAL FAMILIES






The WINCKWORTH family were from London.

The TILDEN family were from Kent

The PREBBLE family were from Kent.

 
The TRIPP family were from Dorset

The SLADE and STEVENS families were from Dorset

The KAINES family were from Dorset

The CLAVELL family were from Dorset.



The WOODCOCK  and CROCKETT families were from London

The HEATH, DAVIS, SANDEFORD, and MOURBY families are all from Oxfordshire.






The OLIVER family were from Worcerstershire and Shropshire
The GUEST, and BOWATER families were from Worcestershire and Shropshire



The WIGG family were from Hampshire.
The CANDY family were from Wiltshire and Hampshire
The MORGAN family were from Somerset, were Gentlemen Farmers and land owners. 



WILLS

These are my transcriptions of Wills  all relating to the Winckworth side of the family.
The Wills were written by hand and very often extremely difficult to decipher.
There were no discernable paragraphs, sentences or even fullstops.
In the originals, 'and' or 'item' seem to have been the customary words used to indicate the start of a new paragraph or sentence, I have changed this in order to make them easier to read.



RESEARCH RESOURCES
One of the primary sites I have used is Ancestry.co.uk and it has given a great deal of the information contained here.
Other online resources have also proved to be invaluable, and I have provided a listed them.


PARISH  REGISTERS

Until civil registration began in 1837 there was no central registration of births, marriages and deaths in England and Wales.

Parish registers were introduced by Thomas Cromwell in 1528. At that time every church was required to store their records in a Parish Chest and Church officials were responsable for entering details of Births, Marriages and Burials.  In the beginning these were often written on loose leaves of paper so have only rarely survived.
In 1598 Queen Elizabeth I agreed to an order that stipulated that every church had to use registers made of parchment.
The order stipulated that they were to copy any old surviving records into the parchment registers and then copy each years register of baptisms, marriages and burials.
And send these copies to the relevant Bishop for safekeeping. These are known as 'Bishops Transcripts'. Some of these records are available today when parish registers are not.
Queen Elizabeth I was particularly concerned that records covering her reign be preserved, which is why so many parish registers date from 1558

The Paris Registers show that baptism could take place any time after birth and before death.
Many families baptised all their children on the same day although they clearly had different birth dates,  sometimes both these dates are recorded.

Prior to 1929 a girl could marry at the age of 12 and a boy at 14 although parental consent was required, since 1929 the lower age has been set at 16 years of age.

Burials usually take place between 3 to seven days after death where possible, but there are exceptions to this rule.
For example frozen ground in winter, foul play or contagious diseases meant a Coroner could delay a burial.

Until the passing of various bits of legislation during the 18C and 19C the quality and extent of the information was entirely dependant on the official who maintained the register. 
Early registers were often written in latin, the official use of which was not abolished until 1733.
In practice though, english had been used for some time, however even when these registers were written in english sometimes it was with inconsistent spelling and barely legible handwriting and this has made them very difficult to decipher.
Often the Clergy were the only members of a community who could read or write and they would use their preferred spelling.
After Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act of 1754,  separate volumes were used for Marriages and Banns
Before this records of births marriages and deaths were written on a day to day basis,  in one book in chronological order.
It was not until George Rose's Act of 1813 that baptisms and burials were also recorded in their own volumes.

CENSUS

In Tudor and Stuart times Bishops were responsible for counting the number of families in their diocese.
There was no official census of England and Wales, apart from the 11th C Domesday Book until 10/03/1801 following the passing of the Census Act in 1800.
The Act also applied to Scotland but this was taken separately.
Information was statistical and collected on a Parish basis, mainly numbers of houses, whether they were inhabited or not, residents per house and trades.
It was collected by landowners and the clergy. The document had to be sworn by a Justice of the Peace before being sent to the Home Office to be collated then laid before Parliament. The count in1800 revealed the population as 8.7 million.
The military, seamen and convicts were not included in the census but their numbers were added afterwards making a total of around 9.4 million.
Ireland did not hold a census until 1821

In the UK except for 1941 a census has been taken every 10 years since 1841
The information is provided by the head of the household and includes everyone in that house on that day, and shows useful information including dates and places of birth etc.

A note about the Modern Calender
The month of January did not exist until around 700 B.C.
The first time the new year was celebrated on January 1st was in Rome in 153 B.C.
This was the beginning of the civil year, when two newly elected Roman consuls, the highest officials in Rome, began their one-year tenure.
This new year date was not always strictly and widely observed, and the new year was still sometimes celebrated on March 1st.
Then from 40 BC the Julian Calender was used and January 1st was considered the start of the new year.
During the middle ages in mediaeval Europe however, the celebrations accompanying the new year were considered pagan and unchristian.
In 1582, the Gregorian Calendar Reform restored January 1st as New Year's Day.
Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar almost immediately, Protestant countries did not.
The British did not adopt this reformed calendar until 1752, and until then the British Empire including their American colonies still celebrated the new year in March.
This is why some early birth, marriage and death records, between  January to March are recorded with two year dates.





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