Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government
  
THE RISE AND FALL
OF THE
CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT
By
JEFFERSON DAVIS
VOLUME 2
NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
1, 3, AND 5 BOND STREET.
1881.

Jefferson Davis

Dedication
PART IV.-(CONTINUED).

The War


Review of 1861.—Summary of Hostile Acts of United States Government.—Fuller Details of some of them—Third Session of Provisional Congress.—Message.—Subjugation of the Southern States intended.—Obstinacy of the Enemy.—Insensibility of the North as to the Crisis.—Vast Preparation of the Enemy.—Embargo and Blockade.—Indiscriminate War waged. —Action of Confederate Congress.—Confiscation Act of United States Congress.—Declared Object of the War.—Powers of United States Government.—Forfeitures inflicted.—Due Process of Law, how interpreted.—"Who pleads the Constitution?"—Wanton Destruction of Private Property unlawful.—Adams on Terms of the Treaty of Ghent.—Sectional Hatred.—Order of President Lincoln to Army Officers in Regard to Slaves. —"Educating the People."—Fremont's Proclamation.—Proclamation of General T. W. Sherman.—Proclamation of General Halleck and others.—Letters of Marque.—Our Privateers.-0fficers tried for Piracy.—Retaliatory Orders.—Discussion in the British House of Lords.—Recognition as a Belligerent of the Confederacy.—Exchange of Prisoners.—Theory of the United States.—Views of McClellan.—Revolutionary Conduct of United States Government.—Extent of the War at the Close of 1861.—Victories of the Year.—New Branches of Manufactures.—Election of Confederate States President.—Posterity may ask the Cause of such Hostile Actions.—Answer


Military Arrangements of the Enemy.—Marshall and Garfield.—Fishing Creek.—Crittenden's Report.—Fort Henry ; its Surrender.—Fort Donelson; its Position.—Assaults.—Surrender.—Losses


Results of the Surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson.—Retreat from Bowling Green.—Criticism on General A. S. Johnston.—Change of Plan necessary.—Evacuation of Nashville.—Generals Floyd and Pillow.—My Letter to General Johnston.—His Reply.—My Answer.—Defense of General Johnston.—Battle of Elkhorn.—Topography of Shiloh


General Buell's March.—Object of General Johnston.—His Force.—Advance from Corinth.—Line of Battle.—Telegram.—The Time of the Battle of Shiloh.—Results of the First Day's Battle.—One Encampment not taken.—Effects.—Reports on this Failure.—Death of General Johnston.—Remarks


Retirement of the Army.—Remnants of Grant's Army.—Its Reënforecements.—Strength of our Army.—Strength of Grant's Army.—Reorganization.—Corinth.—Advance of General Halleck.—Siege of Corinth.—Evacuation.—Retreat to Tupelo.—General Beauregard retires.—General Bragg in Cora-mand.—Positions on the Mississippi River occupied by the Enemy.—New Madrid.—Island No. 10.—Fort Pillow.—Memphis.—Attack at Hatteras Inlet—Expedition of the Enemy to Port Royal.—Expeditions from Port Royal.—System of Coast Defenses adopted by us.—Fort Pulaski


Advance of General McClellan toward Centreville; his Report.—Our Forces ordered to the Peninsula.—Situation at Yorktown.—Siege by General Mc-Clellan.—General Johnston assigned to Command; his Recommendation. —Attack on General Magruder at Yorktown.—Movements of McClellan.—The Virginia.—General Johnston retires.—Delay at Norfolk.—Before Williamsburg.—Remark of Hancock.—Retreat up the Peninsula.—Sub-terra Shells used.—Evacuation of Norfolk.—Its Occupation by the Enemy


A New Phase to our Military Problem.—General Johnston's Position.—Defenses of James River.—Attack on Fort Drury.—Johnston crosses the Chickahominy.—Position of McClellan.—Position of McDowell.—Strength of Opposing Forces.—Jackson's Expedition down the Shenandoah Valley.—Panic at Washington and the North.—Movements to intercept Jackson.—His Rapid Movements.—Repulses Fremont.—Advance of Shields.—Fall of Ashby.—Port Republic, Battle of.—Results of this Campaign


Condition of Affairs.—Plan of General Johnston.—The Field of Battle at Seven Pines.— The Battle.—General Johnston wounded.—Advance of General Sumner.—Conflict on the Right.—Delay of General Huger.—Reports of the Enemy.—Losses.—Strength of Forces.—General Lee in Command

The Enemy's Position.—His Intention.—The Plan of Operations.—Movements of General Jackson.—Daring and Fortitude of Lee.—Offensive-Defensive Policy.—General Stuart's Movement.—Order of Attack.—Critical Position of McClellan.—Order of Mr. Lincoln creating the Army of Virginia.—Arrival of Jackson.—Position of the Enemy.—Diversion of General Long-street—The Enemy forced back south of the Chickahominy.—Abandonment of the Railroad


Retreat of the Enemy.—Pursuit and Battle.—Night.—Further Retreat of the Enemy.—Progress of General Jackson.—The Enemy at Frazier's Farm.—Position of General Holmes.—Advance of General Longstreet—Remarkable Features of the Battle.—Malvern Hill.—Our Position.—The Attack.—Expedition of General Stuart.—Destruction of the Enemy's Stores.—As-saults on the Enemy.—Retreat to Westover on the James.—Siege of Richmond raised.—Number of Prisoners taken.—Strength of our Forces.—Strength of our Forces at Seven Pines and after.—Strength of the Enemy


Forced Emancipation.—Purposes of the United States Government at the Commencement of 1862.—Subjugation or Extermination.—The Willing Aid of United States Congress.—Attempt to legislate the Subversion of our Social Institutions.—Could adopt any Measure Self-Defense would justify.—Slavery the Cause of all Troubles, therefore must be removed.—Statements of President Lincoln's Inaugural.—Declaration of Sumner.—Abolition Legislation.—The Power based on Necessity.—Its Formula.—The System of Legislation devised.—Confiscation.—How permitted by the Law of Nations.—Views of Wheaton; of J. Q. Adams; of Secretary Marcy; of Chief-Justice Marshall.—Nature of Confiscation and Proceedings.—Compared with the Acts of the United States Congress.—Provisions of the Acts.—Five Thousand Millions of Property involved.—Another Feature of the Act —Confiscates Property within Reach.—Procedure against Persons.—Held us as Enemies and Traitors.—Attacked us with the Instruments of War and Penalties of Municipal Law.—Emancipation to be secured.—Remarks of President Lincoln on signing the Bill.—Remarks of Mr. Adams compared.—Another Alarming Usurpation of Congress.—Argument for it.—No Limit to the War-Power of Congress; how maintained.—The Act to emancipate Slaves in the District of Columbia.—Compensation promised.—Remarks of President Lincoln.—The Right of Property violated.—Words of the Constitution.—The Act to prohibit Slavery in the Territories.—The Act making an Additional Article of War.—All Officers forbidden to return Fugitives.--Words of the Constitution.—The Powers of the Constitution unchanged in Peace or War.—The Discharge of Fugitives commanded in the Confiscation Act.—Words of the Constitution.


Forced Emancipation concluded.—Emancipation Acts of President Lincoln.—Emancipation with Compensation proposed to Border States.—Reasons urged for it.—Its Unconstitutionality.—Order of General Hunter.—Revoked by President Lincoln.—Reasons.—"The Pressure " on him.—One Cause of our Secession.—The Time to throw off the Mask at Hand.—The Necessity that justified the President and Congress also justified Secession.—Men united in Defense of Liberty called Traitors.—Conference of President Lincoln with Senators and Representatives of Border States:—Remarks of Mr. Lincoln.—Reply of Senators and Representatives.—Failure of the Proposition.—Three Hundred Thousand more Men called for.—Declarations of the Antislavery Press.—Truth of our Apprehensions.—Reply of President Lincoln.—Another Call for Men.—Further Declarations of the Antislavery Press.—The Watchword adopted.—Memorial of So-called Christians to the President.—Reply of President Lincoln.—Issue of the Preliminary Proclamation of Emancipation.—Issue of the Final Proclamation.—The Military Necessity asserted.—The Consummation verbally reached.—Words of the Declaration of Independence.—Declarations by the United States Government of what it intended to do—True Nature of the Party unveiled.—Declarations of President Lincoln.—Vindication of the Sagacity of the Southern People.—His Declarations to European Cabinets.—Object of these Declarations.—Trick of the Fugitive Thief.—The Boast of Mr. Lincoln calmly considered


Naval Affairs.—Organization of the Navy Department.—Two Classes of Vessels.—Experiments for Floating Batteries and Rams.—The Norfolk Navy-Yard.—Abandonment by the Enemy.—The Merrimac Frigate made an Iron clad.—Officers.—Trial-Trip.—Fleet of the Enemy.—Captain Buchanan.—Resolves to attack the Enemy.—Sinks the Cumberland.—Burns the Congress.—Wounded.—Executive Officer Jones takes Command.—Retires for the Night.—Appearance of the Monitor.—The Virginia attacks her.—She retires to Shoal Water.—Refuses to come out.—Cheers of English Man-of-war.—Importance of the Navy-Yard.—Order of General Johnston to evacuate.—Stores saved.—The Virginia burned.—Harbor Defenses at Wilmington.—Harbor Defenses at Charleston.—Fights in the Harbor.—Defenses of Savannah.—Mobile Harbor and Capture of its Defenses.—The System of Torpedoes adopted.— Statement of the Enemy.—Sub-terra Shells placed in James River.—How made.—Used in Charleston Harbor; in Roanoke River; in Mobile Harbor.—The Tecumseh, how destroyed


Naval Affairs (continued).—Importance of New Orleans.—.Attack feared from up the River.—Preparations for Defense.--Strength of the Forts.—Other Defences.—The General Plan.—Ironclads.—Raft-Fleet of the Enemy.—Bombardment of the Forts commenced.—Advance of the Fleet.—Its Passage of the Forts.—Batteries below the City.—Darkness of the Night.—Evacuation of the City by General Lovell on Appearance of the Enemy.—Address of General Duncan to Soldiers in the Forts.—Refusal to surrender.—Meeting of the Garrison of Fort Jackson.—The Forts surrendered.—Iron-clad Louisiana destroyed.—The Tugs and Steamers.—The Governor Moore. —The Enemy's Ship Varuna sunk.—The McRae.—The State of the City and its Defences considered.—Public Indignation.—Its Victims.—Efforts made for its Defense by the Navy Department.—The Construction of the Mississippi


Naval Affairs (continued).—Farragut demands the Surrender of New Orleans.—Reply of the Mayor.—United States Flag hoisted.—Advent of General Butler.—Barbarities.—Antecedents of the People.—Galveston.—Its Surrender demanded.—The Reply.—Another Visit of the Enemy's Fleet.—The Port Occupied.—Appointment of General Magruder.—Recapture of the Port.—Capture of the Harriet Lane.—Report of General Magruder.—Position and Importance of Sabine Pass.—Fleet of the Enemy.—Repulse by Forty-four Irishmen.—Vessels captured.—Naval Destitution of the Confederacy at first.—Terror of Gunboats on the Western Rivers.—Their Capture.—The most Illustrious Example.—The Indianola.—Her Capture.—The Ram Arkansas.—Descent of the Yazoo River.—Report of her Commander.—Runs through the Enemy's Fleet—Description of the Vessel.—Attack on Baton Rouge.—Address of General Breckinridge.—Burning of the Arkansas


Naval Affairs (continued).—Necessity of a Navy.—Raphael Semmes.—The Sumter.—Difficulties in creating a Navy.—The Sumter at Sea.—Alarm.—Her Captures.—James D. Bullock.—Laird's Speech in the House of Commons. —The Alabama.—Semmes takes Command.—The Vessel and Crew.—Goes to Sea.—Banks's Expedition.—Magruder at Galveston.—The Steamer Hatteras sunk.—The Alabama not a Pirate.—An Aspinwall Steamer ransomed. —Other Captures.—Prizes burned.—At Cherbourg.—Fight with the Kear-sarge.—Rescue of the Men.—Demand of the United States Government for the Surrender of the Drowning Men.—Reply of the British Government.—Sailing of the Oreto.—Detained at Nassau.—Captain Maffit—The Ship half equipped.—Arrives at Mobile.—Runs the Blockade.—Her Cruise.—Capture and Cruise of the Clarence.—The Captures of the Florida.—Captain C. M. Morris.—The Florida at Bahia.—Seized by the Wachusett.—Brought to Virginia and sunk.—Correspondenee.—The Georgia.—Cruises and Captures.—The Shenandoah.—Cruises and Captures.—The Atlanta.—The Tallahassee.—The Edith


Naval Affairs (concluded).—Excitement in the Northern States on the Appearance of our Cruisers.—Failure of the Enemy to protect their Commerce.—Appeal to Europe not to help the So-called "Pirates."—Seeks Iron-plated Vessels in England.—Statement of Lord Russell.—What is the Duty of Neutrals?—Position taken by President Washington.—Letter of Mr. Jefferson.—Contracts sought by United States Government.—Our Cruisers went to Sea unarmed.—Mr. Adams asserts that British Neutrality was violated.—Reply of Lord Russell.—Rejoinder of Mr. Seward.—Duty of Neutrals relative to Warlike Stores.—Views of Wheaton; of Kent.—Charge of the Lord Chief Baron in the Alexandra Case.—Action of the Confederate Government sustained.—Antecedents of the United States Government.—The Colonial Commissions.—Build and equip Ships in Europe.—Captain Conyngham's Captures.—Made Prisoner.—Retaliation.—Numbers of Captures.—Recognition of Greece.—Recognition of South American Cruisers.—Chief Act of Hostility charged on Great Britain by the United States Government.—The Queen's Proclamation: its Effect.—Cause of the United States Charges.—Never called us Belligerents.—Why not?—Adopts a Fiction.—The Reason.—Why denounce our Cruisers as "Pirates "2—Opinion of Justice Greer.—Burning of Prizes.—Laws of Maritime War.—Cause of the Geneva Conference.—Statement of American Claims.—Allowance.—Indirect Damages of our Cruisers.—Ships transferred to British Registers.—Decline of American Tonnage.—Decline of Coasting Tonnage.—Decline of Export of Breadstuffs.—Advance of Insurance


Attempts of the United States Government to overthrow States.—Military Governor of Tennessee appointed.—Object.—Arrests and Imprisonments.—Measures attempted.—Oath required of Voters.—A Convention to amend the State Constitution.—Results.—Attempt in Louisiana.—Martial Law.—Barbarities inflicted.—Invasion of Plantations.—Order of General Butler, No. 28.—Execution of Mumford.—Judicial System set up.—Civil Affairs to be administered by Military Authority.—Order of President Lincoln for a Provisional Court.—A Military Court sustained by the Army.—Words of the Constitution.—"Necessity," the reason given for the Power to create the Court. —This Doctrine fatal to the Constitution; involves its Subversion.—Cause of our Withdrawal from the Union.—Fundamental Principles unchanged by Force.—The Contest is not over; the Strife not ended. —When the War closed, who were the Victors?—Let the Verdict of Mankind decide


Further-Attempts of the United States Government to overthrow States.—Election of Members of Congress under the Military Governor of Louisiana.—The Voters required to take an Oath to support the United States Government.—The State Law violated.—Proposition to hold a State Convention; postponed.—The President's Plan for making a Union State out of a Fragment of a Confederate State.—His Proclamation.—The Oath required.—Message.—"The War-Power our Main Reliance."—Not a Feature of a Republican Government in the Plan.—What are the True Principles?—The Declaration of Independence asserts them—Who had a Right to institute a Government for Louisiana?—Its People only.—Under what Principles could the Government of the United States do it?—As an Invader to subjugate.—Effrontery and Wickedness of the Administration.—It enforces a Fiction.—Attempt to make Falsehood as good as Truth.—Proclamation for an Election of State Officers.—Proclamation for a State Convention.—The Monster Crime against the Liberties of Mankind.—Proceedings in Arkansas.—Novel Method adopted to amend the State Constitution.—Per-version of Republican Principles in Virginia.—Proceedings to create the State of West Virginia.—A Falsehood by Act of Congress.—Proceedings considered under Fundamental Principles.—These Acts sustained by the United States Government.—Assertion of Thaddeus Stevens.—East Virginia Government.—Removed to Richmond and upheld by the United States Government.—Such Acts caused Entire Subversion of States.—Mere Fictions thus constituted

Address to the Army of Eastern Virginia by the President.—Army of General Pope.—Position of McClellan.—Advance of General Jackson.–Atrocious Orders of General Pope.—Letter of McClellan on the Conduct of the War. —Letter of the President to General Lee.—Battle of Cedar Run.—Results of the Engagement.—Reinforcements to the Enemy.—Second Battle of Manassas.—Capture of Manassas Junction.—Captured Stores.—The Old Battle-Field.—Advance of General Longstreet.—Attack on him.—Attack on General Jackson.—Darkness of the Night.—Battle at Ox Hill.—Losses of the Enemy


Return of the Enemy to Washington.—War transferred to the Frontier.—Condition of Maryland.—Crossing the Potomac.—Evacuation of Martinsburg.—Advance into Maryland.—Large Force of the Enemy.—Resistance at Boonesboro.—Surrender of Harper's Ferry.—Our Forces reach Sharpsburg.—Letter of the President to General Lee.—Address of General Lee to the People.—Position of our Forces at Sharpsburg.—Battle of Sharpsburg.—Our Strength.—Forces withdrawn.—Casualties


Efforts of the Enemy to obtain our Cotton.—Demands of European Manufacturers.—Thousands of Operatives resorting to the Poor-Rates.—Complaint of her Majesty's Secretary of State.—Letter of Mr. Seward.—Promise to open all the Channels of Commerce.—Series of Measures adopted by the United States.—Act of Congress.—Its Provisions.—Its Operation.—Unconstitutional Measures.—President Lincoln an Accomplice.—Not authorized by a State of War.—Case before Chief-Justice Taney.—His Decision.—Expeditions sent by the United States Government to seize Localities.—An Act providing for the Appointment of Special Agents to seize Abandoned or Captured Property.—The Views of General Grant.—Weakening his Strength One Third.—Our Country divided into Districts, and Federal Agents appointed.—Continued to the Close of the War

The Enemy crosses the Potomac and concentrates at Warrenton.—Advances upon Fredericksburg.—Its Position.—Our Forces.—The Enemy crosses the Rappahannock.—Attack on General Jackson.— The Main Attack.—Repulse of the Enemy on the Right.—Assaults on the Left—The Enemy's Columns broke and fled.—Recross the River.—Casualties.—Position during the Winter.—The Enemy again crosses the Rappahannock.—Also crosses at Kelly's Ford.—Converging toward Chancellorsville, to the Rear of our Position.—Inactivity on our Front—Our Forces concentrate near Chancellorsville and encounter the Enemy.—Position of the Enemy.—Attempt to turn his Right.—The Enemy surprised and driven in the Darkness.—Jackson fired upon and wounded.—Stuart in Command.—Battle renewed. —Fredericksburg reoccupied.—Attack on the Heights.—Repulse of the Enemy.—The Enemy withdraws in the Night —Our Strength.—Losses.—Death of General Jackson.—Another Account


Relations with Foreign Nations.—The Public Questions.—Ministers abroad.—Usages of Intercourse between Nations.—Our Action.—Mistake of European Nations; they follow the Example of England and France.—Different Conditions of the Belligerents.—Injury to the Confederacy by the Policy of European Powers relative to the Blockade.—Explanation.—The Paris Conference.—Principles adopted.—Acceded to by the Confederacy with a Single Exception.—These Agreements remained inoperative.—Extent of the Pretended Blockade.—Remonstrances against its Recognition.—Sinking Vessels to block up Harbors.—Every Proscription of Maritime Law violated by the United States Government—Protest.—Addition made to the Law by Great Britain.—Policy pursued favorable to our Enemies.—Instances.—Mediation proposed by France to Great Britain, and Russian Letter of French Minister.—Reply of Great Britain.—Reply of Russia.—Letter to French Minister at Washington.—Various Offensive Actions of the British Government.—Encouraging to the United States.—Hollow Profession of Neutrality


Advance of General E. K. Smith.—Advance of General Bragg.—Retreat of General Buell to Louisville.—Battle at Perryville, Kentucky.—General Morgan at Hartsville.—Advance of General Rosecrans.—Battle of Murfreesboro.—General Van Dorn and General Price.—Battle at Iuka.—General Van Dorn. —Battle of Corinth.—General Little.—Captures at Holly Springs.—Retreat of Grant to Memphis.—Operations against Vicksburg.—The Canal.—Concentration.—Raid of Grierson.—Attack near Port Gibson.—Orders of General Johnston.—Reply of General Pemberton.—Baker's Creek.—Big Black Bridge.—Retreat to Vicksburg.—Siege.—Surrender.—Losses.—Surrender of Port Hudson.—Some Movements for its Relief


Inactivity in Tennessee.—Capture of Colburn's Expedition.— Capture of Streight's Expedition.—Advance of Rosecrans to Bridgeport.—Burnside in East Tennessee.—Our Force at Chattanooga.—Movement against Burnside.—The Enemy moves on our Rear near Ringgold.—Battle at Chickamauga.—Strength and Distribution of our Forces.—The Enemy with-draws.—Captures.—Losses.—The Enemy evacuates Passes of Lookout Mountain.—His Trains captured.—Failure of General Bragg to pursue.—Reenforcernents to the Enemy, and Grant to command.—His Description of the Situation.—Movements of the Enemy.—Conflict at Chattanooga


Movement to draw forth the Enemy.—Advance to Culpeper Court-House.—Cavalry Engagement at Beverly's and Kelly's Fords.—Movement against Winchester.—Milroy's Force captured.—Prisoners.—The Enemy retires along the Potomac.—Maryland entered.—Advance into Pennsylvania.—The Enemy driven back toward Gettysburg.—Position of the Respective Forces.—Battle at Gettysburg.—The Army retires.—Prisoners.—The Potomac swollen.—No Interruption by the Enemy.—Strength of our Force.—Strength of the Enemy.—The Campaign closed.—Observations.—Kelly's Ford.—Attempt to surprise our Army.—System of Breastworks.—Prisoners


Subjugation of the States of Tennessee, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Virginia.—Object of a State Government; its Powers are "Just Powers "; how exercised; its Duty; necessarily sovereign; its Entire Order; how founded; how destroyed.—The Crime against Constitutional Liberty.—What is the Government of the United States?—It partakes of the Nature of a Limited Partnership; its Peaceful Objects.—Distinction between the Governments of the States and that of the United States.—Secession.—The Government of the United States invades the State; refuses to recognize its Government; thus denies the Fundamental Principle of Popular Liberty.—Founded a New State Government based on the Sovereignty of the United States Government.—Annihilation of Unalienable Rights.—Qualification of Voters fixed by Military Power.—Condition of the Voter's Oath. —Who was the Sovereign in Tennessee?—Case of Louisiana.—Registration of Voters.—None allowed to register who could not or would not take a Certain Oath; its Conditions.—Election of State Officers.—Part of the State Constitution declared void.—All done under the Military Force of the United States Government


Subjugation of the Border States, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.—A Force invades Maryland and occupies Baltimore.—Martial Law declared.—A Military Order.—Banishment from the State.—Civil Government of the State suspended.—Unalienable Rights of the Citizens invaded.—Arrests of Citizens commenced.—Number.—Case of John Merryman.—Opinion of Chief-Justice Taney.—Newspapers seized.—Houses searched for Arms.—Order of Commanding General to Marshals to put Test to Voters.—The Governor appeals to the President.—His Reply.—Voters imprisoned.—Statement of the Governor.—Result of the Election.—State Constitutional Convention.— Emancipation hardly carried.— First Open Measures in Kentucky.—Interference at the State Election by the United States Government —Voters excluded.—Martial Law declared.—Soldiers keeping the Polls.—The Vote.—Statement of the Governor.—Attempt to enroll Able-bodied Negroes.—The Governor visits Washington.—The Result.—Arrests, Imprisonment, and Exile of Citizens.—Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus by President Lincoln.—Interference with the State Election.—Order to the Sheriffs.—Proclamation of the Governor.—Enlistment of Slaves.—Emancipation by Constitutional Amendment—Violent Measures in Missouri.—The Governor calls out the Militia.—His Words.—The Plea of the Invader.—"The Authority of the United States is Paramount," said President Lincoln.—Bravery of the Governor.—Words of the Commanding General.—Troops poured into the State.—Proceedings of the State Convention.—Numberless Usurpations.—Provisional Governor.—Emancipation Ordinance passed


Subjugation of the Northern States.—Humiliating Spectacle of New York.—"Ringing of a Little Bell."—Seizure and Imprisonment of Citizens.—Number seized.—Paper Safeguards of Liberty.—Other Safeguards.—Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus absolutely forbidden with One Exception.—How done.—Not able to authorize another.—Abundant Protective Provisions in New York, but all failed.—Case of Pierce Butler.—Arrest of Secretary Cameron.—The President assumes the Responsibility of the Crime. —No Heed given to the Writ of Habeas Corpus issued by the Court.—The Governor passive.—Words of Justice Nelson.—Prison overflowing.—How relieved.—Oath required of Applicants for Relief.—Oath declined by some.—Reasons.—Order forbidding the Employment of Counsel by Prisoners.—Victims in almost Every Northern State.—Defeat at the Elections.—Result.—Suit for Damages commenced.—Congress interferes to protect the Guilty.—State Courts subjugated.—How suspend Habeas Corpus.—Congress violates the Constitution.—What was New York?—Writ suspended throughout the United States.—What is "Loyalty"?—Military Domination.—Correspondence between General Dix and Governor Seymour.—Seizure of Newspapers.—Governor orders Arrest of Offenders.—Interference with the State Election.—Vote of the Soldiers.—State Agents arrested.—Provost-Marshals appointed in Every Northern State.—Their Duties.—Sustained by Force.—Trials by Military Commission.—Trials at Washington.—Assassination of the President.—Trial of Henry Wirz.—Efforts to implicate the Author.—Investigation of a Committee of Congress as to Complicity in the Assassination.—Arrest, Trial, and Banishment of Clement C. Vallandigham.—Assertions of Governor Seymour on the Case


Inactivity of the Army of Northern Virginia.—Expeditions of Custer, Kilpatrick, and Dahlgren for the Destruction of Railroads, the Burning of Richmond, and Killing the Officers of the Government.—Repelled by Government Clerks.—Papers on Dahlgren's Body.—Repulse of Butler's Raid from Bermuda Hundred.—Advance of Sheridan repulsed at Richmond.—Stuart resists Sheridan.—Stuart's Death.—Remarks on Grant's Plan of Campaign. —Movement of General Butler.—Drury's Bluff.—Battle there.—Campaign of Grant in Virginia


General Grant assumes Command in Virginia.—Positions of the Armies.—Plans of Campaign open to Grant's Choice.—The Rapidan crossed.—Battle of the Wilderness.—Danger of Lee.—The Enemy driven back.—Flank Attack. —Longstreet wounded.—Result of the Contest.—Rapid Flank Movement of Grant. —Another Contest.—Grant's Reenforcements.—Hanover June-tion.—The Enemy moves in Direction of Bowling Green.—Crosses the Pa-munkey.—Battle at Cold Harbor.—Frightful Slaughter.—The Enemy's Soldiers decline to renew the Assault when ordered.—Loss.—Asks Truce to bury the Dead.—Strength of Respective Armies.—General Pemberton.—The Enemy crosses the Jamcs.—Siege of Petersburg begun


Situation in the Shenandoah Valley.—March of General Early.—The Object.—At Lynchburg. —Staunton.—His Force.—Enters Maryland.—Attack at 3Ionocacy.—Approach to Washington.—The Works.—Recrosses the Potomac.—Battle at Kernstown.—Captures.—Outrages of the Enemy.—Statement of General Early.—Retaliation on Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.—Battle near Winchester.—Sheridan's Force routed.—Attack subsequently renewed with New Forces.—Incapacity of our Opponent.—Early falls back.—The Enemy retires.—Early advances.—Report of a Committee of Citizens on Losses by Sheridan's Orders.—Battle at Cedar Creek.—Losses, Subsequent Movements, and Captures.—The Red River Campaign.—Repulse and Retreat of General Banks.—Capture of Fort Pillow


Assignment of General J. E. Johnston to the Command of the Army of Tennessee.—Condition of his Army.—An Offensive Campaign suggested.—Proposed Objects to be accomplished.—General Johnston's Plans.—Advance of Sherman.—The Strength of the Confederate Position.—General Johnston expects General Sherman to give Battle at Dalton.—The Enemy's Flank Movement via Snake-Creek Gap to Resaca.—Johnston falls back to Resaea.—Further Retreat to Adairsville.—General Johnston's Reasons. —Retreat to Cassville.—Projected Engagement at Kingston frustrated.—Retreat beyond the Etowah River.—Strong Position at Alatoona abandoned.—Nature of the Country between Marietta and Dallas.—Engagements at New Hope Church.—Army takes Position at Kenesaw.—Senator Hill's Letter.—Death of Lieutenant-General Polk.—Battle at Kenesaw Mountain.— Retreat beyond the Chattahoochee.—Results reviewed.—Popular Demand for Removal of General Johnston.—Reluctance to remove him—Reasons for Removal.—Assignment of General J. B. Hood to the Command.—He assumes the Offensive.—Battle of Peach-tree Creek.—Death of General W. H. T. Walker.—Sherman's Movement to Jonesboro.—Defeat of Hardee.—Evaeuation of Atlanta.—Sherman's Inhuman Order.—Visit to Georgia.—Suggested Operations.—Want of Cooperation by the Governor of Georgia.—Conference with Generals Beauregard, Hardee, and Cobb, at Augusta.—Departure from Original Plan.—General Hood's Movement against the Enemy's Communications.—Partial Successes.—With-drawal of the Army to Gadsden and Movement against Thomas.—Sherman burns Atlanta and begins his March to the Sea.—Vandalism.—Direction of his Advance.—General Wheeler's Opposition.—His Valuable Service.—Sherman reaches Savannah.—General Hardee's Command.—The Defenses of the City.—Assault and Capture of Fort MeAlister.—The Results.—Hardee evacuates Savannah


Exchange of Prisoners—Signification of the Word "loyal."—Who is the Sovereign?—Words of President Lincoln.—The Issue for which we fought.—Position of the United States Government.—Letters of Marque granted by us.—Officers and Crew First Prisoners of the Enemy.—Convicted as "Pirates."—My Letter to President Lincoln.—How received.—Act of Congress relating to Prisoners.—Exchanges, how made.—Answer of General Grant.—Request of United States Congress.—Result.—Commissioners sent.—Agreement.—Disputed Points.—Exchange arranged.—Order to pillage issued.—General Pope's Order.—Proceedings.—Letter of General Lee relative to Barbarities.—Answer of General Halleck.—Case of Mumford.—Effect of Threatened Retaliation.—Mission of Vice-President Stephens.—A Failure.—Excess of Prisoners.—Paroled Men.—Proposition made by us.—No Answer.—Another Arrangement—Stopped by General Grant.—His words, "Put the Matter offensively."—Exchange of Slaves.—Proposition of Lee to Grant.—Reply of Grant.—Further Reply.—His Dispatch to General Butler. —Another Proposition made by us.—No Answer.—Proposition relative to Sick and Wounded.—Some exchanged.—The Worst Cases asked for to be photographed.—Proposition as to Medicines.—No Answer.—A Final Effort—Deputation of Prisoners sent to Washington.—A Failure.—Correspondence between Ould and Butler.—Order of Grant.—Report of Butler.—Responsibility of Grant for Andersonville.—Barbarities of the United States Government.—Treatment of our Men in Northern Prisons.—Deaths on Each Side


Subjugation the Object of the Government of the United States.—The only Terms of Peace offered to us.—Rejection of all Proposals.—Efforts of the Enemy.—Appearance of Jacques and Gilmore at Richmond.—Proposals.—Answer.—Commissioners sent to Canada.—The Object.—Proceedings.—Note of President Lincoln.—Permission to visit Richmond granted to Francis P. Blair.—Statement of my Interview with him.—My Letter to him.—Response of President Lincoln.—Three Persons sent by me to an Informal Conference.—Their Report.—Remarks of Judge Campbell.—Oath of President Lincoln.—The Provision of the Constitution and his Proclamation compared.—Reserved Powers spoken .of in the Constitution.—What are they, and where do they exist ?—Terms of Surrender offered to our Soldiers

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General Sherman leaves Savannah.—His March impeded.—Difficulty in collecting Troops to oppose him.—The Line of the Salkehatchie.—Route of the Enemy's Advance.—Evacuation of Columbia.—Its Surrender by the Mayor.— Burning the City.—Sherman responsible.—Evacuation of Charleston.—The Confederate Forces in North Carolina.—General Johnston's Estimate.—General Johnston assigned to the Command.—The Enemy's Advance from Columbia to Fayetteville, North Carolina.—" Foraging Parties."—Sherman's Threat and Hampton's Reply.—Description of Federal " Treasure-Seekers " by Sherman's Aide-de-Camp.—Failure of Johnston's Projected Attack at Fayetteville.—Affair at Kinston.—Cavalry Exploits.—General Johnston withdraws to Smithfield.—Encounter at Averysboro.—Battles of Bentonville.—Union of Sherman's and Schofield's Forces.—Johnston's Retreat to Raleigh


Siege of Petersburg.—Violent Assault upon our Position.—A Cavalry Expedition.—Contest near Ream's Station.—The City invested with Earthworks.—Position of the Forces.—The Mine exploded, and an Assault made.—Attacks on our Lines.—Object of the Enemy.—Our Strength.—Assault on Fort Fisher.—Evacuation of Wilmington.—Purpose of Grant's Campaign.—Lee's Conference with the President.—Plans.—Sortie against Fort Stead-man.—Movements of Grant farther to Lee's right —Army retires from Petersburg.—The Capitulation.—Letters of Lee


General Lee advises the Evacuation of Richmond.—Witbdrawal of the Troops.—The Naval Force.—The Conflagration in Richmond.—Telegram of Lee to the President.—The Evacuation complete.—The Charge of the Removal of Supplies intended for Lee's Army.—The Facts.—Arrangement with General Lee.—Proclamation.—Reports of Scouts


Invitation of General Johnston to a Conference.—Its Object.—Its Result.—Provisions on the Line of Retreat.—Notice of President Lincoln's Assassination.—Correspondence between Johnston and Sherman.—Terms of the Convention.—Approved by the Confederate Government.—Rejected by the United States Government.—Instructions to General Johnston.—Disobeyed.--Statements of General Johnston.—His Surrender.—Movements of the President South.—His Plans.—Order of General E. K. Smith to his Soldiers.—Surrender.—Numbers paroled.—The President overtakes his Family.—His Capture.—Taken to Hampton Roads, and imprisoned in Fortress Monroe


Number of the Enemy's Forces in the War.—Number of the Enemy's Troops from Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee.—Cruel Conduct of the War.—Statements in 1862.—Statements in 1863.—Emancipation Proclamation.—Statements in 1864.—General Hunter's Proceedings near Lynchburg.—Cruelties in Sherman's March through South Carolina


Final Subjugation of the Confederate States.—Result of the Contest.—A Simple Process of Restoration.—Rejected by the United States Government.—A Forced Union.—The President's Proclamation examined.—The Guarantee, not to destroy.—Provisional Governors.—Their Duties.—Voters.—First Movement made in Virginia.—Government set up.—Proceedings.—Action of So-called Legislature.—Constitutional Amendment.—Case of Dr. Watson.—Civil Rights Bill.—Storm brewing.—Congress refuses to admit Senators and Representatives to Seats.—Committee on "Reconstruction."—Freedmen's Bureau.—Report of Committee.—Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.—Extent of Ratification.—Another Step taken by Congress.—Military Commanders appointed over Confederate States, with Unlimited Powers.—Reconstruction by the Bayonet.—Course of Proceedings required.—Two Governments for Each State.—Major-Generals appointed. —Further Acts of Congress.—Proceedings commenced by the Major-General at Richmond.—Civil Governor appointed.—Military Districts and Sub-districts.—Registration.—So-called State Convention.—So-called Legislature.—Its Action.—Measures required by Congress for the Enfranchisement of Negroes adopted by the So-called Legislature.—Assertion of Senator Garret Davis.—State represented in Congress

Final Subjugation of the Confederate States (continued).—Slaves declared free by Military Commanders in North Carolina.—Provisional Governor.—Convention.—Military Commander.—Governor-elect turned out.—His Protest.—Members of Congress admitted.—Proceedings in South Carolina.—Arrest of Judge Aldrich.—Military Reversal of Sentence of the Court.—Post Commanders.—Jurors.—Proceedings in Georgia.—President's Plan.—Plan of Congress enforced.—Other Events.—Proceedings in Florida.—Rival Conventions.—Plan of Congress enforced.—Proceedings in Alabama.—Suspension of Bishop Wilmer by the Military Commander.—Military Authority.—Action of Congress.—Proceedings in Mississippi.—Constitutionality of the Act of Congress before the Supreme Court.—Remarks of Chief-Justice Chase.—Military Arrests.—Removals.—The Chief-Justice of the State re-signs.—The So-called Constitution rejected.—Ames appointed Governor.—Proceedings in Louisiana.—Plan of Congress enforced.—Other Measures. —Arkansas.—Texas.—Opinion of the United States Attorney-General on Military Commanders.—Consequences that followed the Measures of Con-gress.—Increase in State Debts.—Increase in Frauds and Crimes.—Examples.—Investigating Committees of Congress.—The Unalienable Rights of Man.—The Sovereignty of the People and the Supremacy of Law gone


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

  1. JEFFERSON DAVIS
  2. GENERAL BRAXTON BRAGG
  3. DAVIS HOUSE, AT RICHMOND
  4. LIEUTENANT—GENERAL T. J. JACKSON
  5. MEMBERS OF THE CONFEDERATE CABINET
  6. LIEUTENANT—GENERAL JAMES LONGSTREET
  7. GENERAL WADE HAMPTON
  8. GENERAL J. E. JOHNSTON
  9. GENERAL JOHN B. HOOD
  10. LIEUTENANT-GENERAL WILLIAM J. HARDEE
  11. MAPS.
  12. BATTLE—FIELD OF FORT DONELSON.
  13. MAP USED BY TILE CONFEDERATE GENERALS AT SHILOH
  14. BATTLE OF SHILOH
  15. CHICKASAW BAYOU
  16. VICKSBURG
  17. VICKSBURG
  18. PORT HUDSON
  19. YORKTOWN AND WILLIAMSBURG
  20. OPERATIONS IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA
  21. OPERATIONS AROUND RICHMOND AND PETERSBURG.
  22. BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG
  23. OPERATIONS IN MISSISSIPPI
  24. OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE
  25. BATTLE—FIELD OF CHICKAMAUGA
  26. BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
  27. OPERATIONS IN GEORGIA AND TENNESSEE
  28. FORT FISHER
  29. PETERSBURG
  30. RETREAT FROM RICHMOND AND PETERSBURG
  31. OPERATIONS IN GEORGIA AND SOUTH CAROLINA


Rise and Fall