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Malcolm Bull's Calderdale Companion : Background Information : G

Background Information



A type of fustian cloth

A leather or cloth leg covering, often with buttons up the side

A local name for the sweet myrtlemyrtus communis – which was used to produce a blue dye. This was used in dyeing wool. The effects of the leaves and berries were much stronger when soaked in ale

A type of ale

Galleried Houses
In some 19th century housing, such as top-and-bottom houses, a cantilevered walkway – with railings – from the street at the upper level gave access to the sections which were not directly on the street level.

There were many examples of such galleried houses in Hebden Bridge, and also at Green Lane, West Vale, St Peter Street, Boothtown and Waterloo Street, Boothtown

See Back-to-back houses and Up-and-over house

Galleries in churches were introduced from the late 17th century to accommodate the increasing congregation, although some of these were considered unsightly and were removed by the High Church Movement. The organ – and later the choir – were usually in the west gallery

See Million Pound Act and Pews

A hard sandstone

A lively French dance for two persons, usually in triple time

Gallipoly oil
Or Oile. Recorded in the late 18th century: a superior type of olive oil

A unit of capacity and volume equal to 4 quarts = 4·546 litres

Aka Gallowa. A small horse used as a packhorse. These were the most commonly used on the Pennine routes.

The animals were typically about 14-15 hands (56 inches) tall. They carried 2 panniers, each holding about 120 lbs of goods – see load. The horses were originally bred in the Galloway region of Scotland. They are now extinct

See Jagger and Limegal

Gallows, Right of
A privilege of the lord of the manor to hang criminals convicted by his court. This applied to criminals who had been accused of theft, and caught red-handed, with the goods on their person

See Gibbet Law, Hand-habend, Hanging, Infangthief and Utfangthief

Aka Galvanism.

A therapeutic treatment using electricity to stimulate the body.

These were available from independent galvanists – such as Samuel Fleming - and at medical centres such as the Sunnyside Hydro Institution, Southport

Some local connections with legal and illegal gambling include Seth Ambler, Aminadab Gaskin, John Russell Hadwen, Halifax Race Course, Samuel Halstead, Ladstone Rock, Norland Moor, Lottery, John Mitchell, Northowram Stocks, Edward Rookes, Jack Sharp, Southowram stocks, Sam Stead, Richard Stocks, Sun Woods, Shelf and PC Sykes

Game Lists
19th century newspapers carried extensive Game Lists of game-keepers and people who had obtained Game Certificates. An Act of 1784, required
every person qualified in respect of property to kill game and every person who shall keep any dog, gun, net or other engine for the taking or destruction of game

to register and take out a certificate annually

A disease in which the body tissue decays and dies as a result of bacterial action. Treatment may involve surgical removal of the tissue or amputation of the affected part.

The disease sets in through loss of blood supply to the area, which may be due to injury, frostbite, thrombosis, or diabetes. The affected part gradually turns black as bacteria colonise the tissue, and cause blood poisoning.

Gas gangrene is caused by infection of serious wounds with the bacterium Clostridium perfringens

See Mortification and St Anthony's fire

The words gaol and gaoler are alternative spellings of jail and jailer.

See Jails

Gaol delivery
A hearing of the charges against all prisoners awaiting trial in the local gaol to decide their guilt or innocence

Gaol fever
Another name for typhus which was prevalent in prisons where it was transmitted by body lice and fleas

This was originally a mediæval lavatory – often within the thickness of the wall of a building – with a chute leading to an external pit, cesspool, stream or moat.

Because the smell of ammonia wafting up the chute repelled moths, the room was often used for storing clothes – thus giving rise to the name which is related to the modern wardrobe.

See The Powder Closet, Shibden Hall

A stage – similar to carding – in the production of shoddy and mungo when cotton and other materials were removed, converting waste fibres or yarns into a web of fibres.

See Seaming

Tableware. A garnish of pewter was a complete set of platters, dishes, saucers, cups, and small plates. These were often placed on display

An element used in place names which means an enclosure or a yard.

The word comes from the Old Norse garðr

Gas, Lighting & Sewage Act [1846]

Gascon Rolls Project [1317-1468]
A project to produce an online calendar of the Gascon Rolls which were drawn up by the English royal administration for Aquitaine, south-west France from 1273.

A stage in the processing of cotton and silk in which the thread is passed at high speed through a gas flame, or over a hot plate, to burn off stray ends of the fibre, making it smoother.

The terms polished cotton and silk finish cotton are also used.

The work was done by a gasser.

See Singeing

Also yate. Used in place names – such as Lydgate – the element often means street and comes from the Norse gade.

It may also have the more obvious meaning of an entrance or exit.

In other parts of the Britain, the word has become yat.

See also the dialect form a-gate

The element – used in names such as Gauxholme and Gaukroger – may be derived from the Norse gauk [a cuckoo or a left-handed or clumsy person]

An Old English custom – common in Kent and Wales – whereby a man's property was divided equally between his sons. If he had no sons, then it was divided equally between his daughters. If he had both sons and daughters, then only the sons benefited. It was abolished in 1992.

Compare this with Primogeniture

Harness for horses which was used to pull the wagons and ploughs

Abbr: GEnealogical Data COMmunication. A standard computer file format for exchanging family history data.

The standard is defined by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints

Saxon-Norman term for arable land. It was also the tax or rent paid to the lord of the manor. The money often went to pay for the royal fleet.

See Danegeld, Domesday Book and Ship money

A tax or payment

A smooth worsted yarn and the cloth produced from it.

Named for the town of Genappe, Belgium where the material was originally produced


A title given to the sons of a squire who himself had the formal title of Esquire.

He might also be addressed as Mr.

When the first-born son & heir of a squire inherited the estate, he received the title Esquire.

In another of the squire's sons inherited substantial lands, then his sons were also given the title generosus. For example

in the 1517 Will of William Savile, generosus, (he was son of John Savile of Hullenedge and wife Alice Lister), which was witnessed by Hugh Stansfeld, generosus. Hugh's father Richard, was a second son, but inherited substantial lands

A family history and local history website for the UK and Ireland

An Internet project to collate photographs of scenes from every Ordnance Survey grid square in the British Isles.

With kind consent of the Webmaster at GEOGPH.ORG.UK, photographs from the collection have been attached to many of the entries in Malcolm Bull's Calderdale Companion

George III
[1738-1820] Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and grandson of George II. He reigned from 25th October 1760 to 29th January 1820.

He was succeeded by his son George IV.

In 1809, a number of people subscribed to a fund which was raised for the celebration of the jubilee of George III in Halifax, including William Gath and James Taylor

George IV
[1762-1830] Son of George III.

He was succeeded by his brother William IV

George Noble
In 1526, Henry VIII issued a George noble coin worth 6s/8d and a half George noble worth 3s/4d

See Noble

George V
[1865-1936] On 25th July 1896, as the Duke of York, he visited Halifax with his wife, Mary of Teck, to open the Borough Markets and the Royal Halifax Infirmary. They paid a visit to Belle Vue.

He succeeded his father, Edward as King of the United Kingdom [1910-1936].

His coronation took place on 22nd June 1911.

A commemorative medallion was presented to schoolchildren in Hebden Bridge

Question: Does anyone know anything about the medallion? was it to celebrate the Coronation in 1911, or the royal visit in 1912? who funded the scheme? how many were distributed? were they only given in Hebden Bridge or were there similar medallions in other areas?


King George V and Queen Mary visited the district on 10th July 1912. This was the first visit by a reigning monarch.

His daughter was Princess Mary.

He was succeeded by his son, Edward VIII.

See Rev William Christopher Bell, William Crossley, George V Park, Lightcliffe, Halifax Madrigal Society, King Cross Band, Arthur Laycock, Manor Heath Mansion, Halifax, Royal Halifax Infirmary, Sandringham Time, The Stray, Lightcliffe, Tram Number 12, Tram Number 89, Tram Number 90, Reginald Alexander John Warneford and John Henry Whitley

George VI
[1895-1952] He succeeded his brother, Edward, as King of the United Kingdom [1936-1952].

The newly-crowned George VI and Queen Elizabeth visited Halifax on 20th October 1937.

He was succeeded by his daughter, Elizabeth.

See Conway's Limited and Rev William Foxley Norris

German Gas Attack
On 17th April-7th May 1915, the German captured Battle of Hill 60 in Flanders.

In early May, they used gas shells.

On 19th December 1915, the Germans made an attack on British Troops using Phosgene Gas.

Many local men die in the attack, and others died later from the effects of the gas.

See Horace Sykes

German U-Boats
During World Wars I & II, a number of local servicemen were lost in naval incidents involving German submarines and navy, including

Arnold Ackroyd
Clifford Akroyd

John Shaw Bailey
Kenneth John Barrett
Cyril Beach
Norman Cornthwaite Best
Samuel George Binns
Arthur Broadley
Benjamin Alfred Brookshaw
Stanley Buffett
Rudolph Butterworth

Eric Desmond Carr
Fred Clayton
Donald Clegg
Herbert Aquilla Clegg
John Clegg
Edward Cotterill
John Clifford Crosby
Reginald Crowther
Frank Ramsey Culpan

Stephen Thomas Deekes
Charles Dilworth

Herbert Eastwood
Geoffrey Conneau Emmett
Daniel Joseph Evans

Arthur Farrar
William Finnigan
Walter Firth

Harold John Gallop
Arthur Shane Gledhill
Henry Glentworth
Trevor Graydon
Lewis Leonard Greenwood
Thomas Philip Greenwood

Harry Haigh
David Hanson
Wilfred Hardisty
Harold Halliwell Harrison
Albert Barrett Harwood
James Robert Hayes
Stanley Higgitt
William John Hoggarth

Herbert Jackson
Richard Harrison Jackson
George Frederick Johnston
Richard George Kenneth Jones

George Taylor Law
Jack Lindsay
John William Livesey

Bernard Martin
John Alexander McKee
Stephen McQuinn
Norman Mellor
Patrick Miles
Harold Morgan
Joseph Henry Morton

John Walter Naylor

Albert Edward Porter
Harry Victor Prince

Gibson Ratcliffe
John Francis Reynolds
Frank Richardson
Arthur Hanson Riley
Herbert Lawson Riley
Bertram Ryan

Manuel Saiz
James Daniel Slater
Kenneth Spencer
John Stead
Walter Edward Steward
Arthur Hudson Stocks
Fred Stott
Fred Stott
Garnet Suttle

Jack Taylor
Dennis Melville Tierney

George Webster
Frederick Norman Wright

Gibraltar, Siege of
[1779-1783] During the American Revolution, the Spanish – assisted by the French – imposed a blockade of Gibraltar. The British destroyed the blockades.

See John Medley

Many local charities were named after the benefactor, including Bates's Gift, Bentley's Gift, Boyes' Gift, Brooksbank's Gift, Chamberlain's Gift, Gledhill's Gift, Greenwood's Gift, John Greenwood's Gift, John Greenwood's Gift, Haworth's Gift, Hoyle's Gift, Naylor's Gift, Sutcliffe's Gift and Whitley's Gift

A knife which is used to remove knots from the surface of a piece of cloth

Gig mill
A machine for carding / brushing the finished cloth to raise the nap by means of a set of teazels fixed to a rotating cylinder.

Also called a mozing mill, the machine was in use in some form from the 16th century.

They were used locally from the late 18th century.

By 1817, there were 72 gig mills in Yorkshire.

The gig mills were targetted by the Luddites.

See Carding, Cropping, Cloth dressing and Shearing frame

Gilbert Union
A parish or group of parishes which adopted the Gilbert Act [1782] to build a workhouse to house their poor

Old spelling of Guild

A unit of capacity and volume equal to ¼ pint = 5 fluid ounces = 0·1421 litres. In some parts of Britain – including Halifax – a gill is ½ pint

The cloth-making process of drawing a sliver between two pairs of rollers in which the movement of the fibres is controlled by pins on moving bars. Gilling performs three tasks: aligning the fibres, reducing the thickness of the sliver, and blending/mixing several slivers into one.

The process is carried out on a gill box.

Slubbing was a similar process

This cheap drink – distilled from malted grain and flavoured with juniper berries – became popular in the 18th century and was regarded as a cure-all.

It was also known as Calamity water and Hollands.

See Temperance

See Calamity water, Daffy, Hollands, Parliamentary brandy, Purl and Temperance

Ginger beer
A non-alcoholic drink brewed with ginger and sugar.

See Ginger beer brewers and Horehound beer


The process of removing seeds and impurities from raw cotton fibres.

See Batting and Scutching

Given names
Given names – or, in the present context, Christian names – were entirely a matter of choice for the parents.

A rough convention which was in operation from the 1500s was, for boys:

  1. the first son was named after the father's father
  2. the second son after the mother's father
  3. the third son after the father
  4. the fourth son after the father's eldest brother

For girls:

  1. the first daughter after the mother's mother
  2. the second daughter after the father's mother
  3. the third daughter after the mother
  4. the fourth daughter after the mother's eldest sister

The name of a godparent might also be used

A stage in the processing of cotton in which the thread is heated and then coated with wax, starch or other chemicals to produce a hard, glossy finish

Land belonging to the parish church and providing income as a part of the priest's benefice. These were listed in the Glebe Terrier.

The word meant soil or earth

Glebe Terrier
A document recording land, tithes, property and endowments belonging to the parish church and providing income as a part of the priest's benefice. A description of the church, graveyard, vicarage and other property are included. A cathedral record holds details of a cathedral's property.

See Glebe

The element is used in local place names – such as Gledcliffe and Gledhill – and may be derived from

  • the name gled [meaning a kite] – because the birds may have once nested there
  • an old form of the word clay – because there was clay mining in the vicinity

A song written for three or more male solo parts, usually without instrumental accompaniment.

Glee clubs and glee societies were popular in the 19th century.

See Brighouse Glee & Madrigal Society, Madrigal and Rastrick Glee & Madrigal Society

The Glorious Revolution
The victory of William over James II at the Battle of the Boyne

Go where he will
A term which is used in Domesday Book for an Anglo-Saxon landholder who had freedom of jurisdiction over his land. This caused disputes after the Norman Conquest because, in the Norman system of landholding, tenants held land under a tenant-in-chief or the lord of the manor

Aka Rod

Local term for a water-channel – often an underground channel – or the small dam of a mill.

A tail goit channels the water from the mill.

Other spellings, such as: goyte and goyt are found

Golden Dawn
Aka The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. A 19th century occult secret society.

See Dr Bogdan Edward Jastrzebski Edwards

A sexually-transmitted disease

Goods & Chattels
Another term for a person's effects.

See Personal chattels

A triangular – or irregularly-shaped – piece of land, often a difficult corner of an open field resulting from the terrain. The element is often used in place names and field names.

See Butt

The word is derived from the Old English godsibb meaning a kinsman in God, and referred to a godparent.

The word is related to sibling.

Later [14th century], it was used to refer to any close friend, and then specifically for a friend of the mother who was present during childbirth.

Later [16th century], it generalised to meaning a group of people taking part in idle talk

Gothic Architecture

Gothic Revival
Architectural style popular in the 19th century.

It was a reappearance of the Gothic Architecture which flourished between 1180 and 1520.


A disease – occurring mainly in men – causing the inflammation of the hands and feet, arthritis, and deformity. It was believed to be aggravated by drinking port wine

Goux system
A domestic waste-disposal system – based on designs by Pierre Nicholas Goux – which succeeded dry earth closets.

The waste was collected into a tub and rammed down with a large plug before being covered with deodorising powder. It was then ready for re-use. The compacted waste could be removed and then disposed of.

Around 1870, Halifax was one of the first towns to use the system

In 1916, there are references in the Improvement Committee Minutes to changing them over to water closets. From late 1923, a grant of around £4 5/- was being paid to householders who were using the system. In 1926, it is recorded that they were being changed over to water closets on a gradual basis. In 1933, Council Minutes indicate that they were still in the process of changing to water closets. In 1939, the task was completed.

Sowerby Bridge also used the system for disposal of night soil.

See Goux, Manure & Sanitary Company Limited

A woman responsible for teaching and caring for young children in a private family.

This was a popular occupation and was commonly found amongst the daughters of middle-class households in the 19th century. The equivalent male position was as a tutor.

The Brontë children had several such positions: Cottingley Old Hall, Greenhow family, Ingham family, Postlethwaite family, Robinson family, Sidgwick family, White family.

The characters in many of their novels take up posts as governesses and tutors, all based upon the sisters' own experiences

Governing document
The formal document which sets up a charity and states, amongst other things, the objects of the charity, the powers of the charity, and the trustees who run the charity

General practitioner (in medicine), a doctor

A unit of weight equal to 1/7000th of a pound = 0·0648 gram. It was originally the weight of a seed of corn.

See Ounce apothecaries and Pennyweight

Used in place names – such as Brook Grains Hill, Rastrick, Brook Grains Lane, Rishworth, Graining Water, and Oxygrains Bridge, Rishworth.

The word comes from the Old Norse grein and usually implies a junction, or a place where 2 watercourses join or divide

Grains of Paradise
The seeds of a plant – aframomum melegueta – used in North and West African cuisine. Quassia and Cocculus Indicus were also used for similar purposes.

In the 19th century, they were used illegally in brewing to create an illusion of strength in gin and malt liquors.

In 1870, these were advertised on for sale the Liverpool Produce Market at 22/- per cwt.

The use of the seeds was undesirable because (1) they replaced hops and thus avoided payment of the appropriate duty, and (2) they were considered to be harmful.

In 1816, legislation prohibited dealers, brewers and beersellers from possessing or using the additives (with a penalty of £200), and prohibited druggists from selling them (with a penalty of £500).

In the mid 19th century, a number of local brewers and landlords – including

- were fined and the renewal of their licences was challenged for having used the seeds in their brewing.

Druggists Richard Toone and Joseph Brice Walton were charged with supplying the grains

Grand Mal
A severe epileptic fit characterised by convulsions affecting the whole body, and may result in loss of consciousness.

See Petit Mal

The Grand Tour
From the 17th and into the 18th and 19th centuries, it was common for the wealthy to go on a grand tour of Europe, visiting the cities and sites of classical antiquity – France, Italy, Greece, Turkey – to study the art and architecture. This was usually done by the men of the time.

See Harriet Smith Fisher, John Harper and Anne Lister

A word for grandmother

A farmhouse or land with barns, stables, granaries and other farm-buildings, often belonging to the church or a monastery.

The bailiff in charge of a grange was known as the granger

Granger Report
In 1848, the Public Health Act laid down standards for the health, sanitation and water supplies in the growing and overcrowded towns and cities of Britain. To assess the situation in readiness for enforcing the Act, a young engineer – William Ranger visited Halifax. The chief areas which caused him concern were Crib Lane, Cross Hills, Haley Hill, Hodgson's Fold, Orange Street, the City, The Square and Winding Road. His findings were published in the Granger Report

This may be a form of the element Grain, meaning
a junction, or a place where 2 watercourses join or divide

See Granny Hall, Brighouse, Granny Hill, Halifax and Granny Hill Lane, Copley

Grant in fee
Land given to someone in exchange for their services.

See Demise

Anyone who buys or receives property.

The grantor is the person selling, giving or transferring property

See Body-snatcher, Coffin, Epitaphs, Graves, Memorials & Epitaphs, Graveyard shift, Private grave, Public grave and War Memorials


Gravel working
The gravels – which occur with the sand and clay of the coal measures – have been successfully gathered for making concrete. Lake Calder was the source of much local gravel.

Small stones – such as would be of no use as flags or for other purposes – were often crushed to make gravel.

See Calder Valley Sand & Gravel Company Limited, Clay working, Elland Gravel Pits, Halifax Sand & Gravel Company Limited and Stone quarrying

Graves, Memorials & Epitaphs


Graveyard shift
In Victorian times, a fear of being buried alive led to the practice of making a small hole to carry a thread from the corpse's finger to a small bell on the grave.

A member of the graveyard shift would be on duty to listen for the bell and exhume the person on hearing the bell ring.

In 1895, Dr J. C. Ouseley wrote that as many as 2,700 people were buried prematurely each year

Greasy piece
A piece of cloth straight from the loom

Great beasts
Those animals which were part of a tithe. The equine beasts included horses, mules, and donkeys; the bovine beasts or rother beasts included oxen, bullocks, and cattle

The Great Exhibition [1851]
Prince Albert was a patron of industry, science and the arts, and he planned the Great Exhibition of 1851 as a showcase for industry and enterprise from Britain and the British Empire, and other parts of the world.

There were over 10,000 exhibits, and over 6 million people attended the exhibition which was held in the specially-built Crystal Palace designed by Joseph Paxton in Hyde Park, London.

Several local businesses exhibited their products at the Exhibition, including J. Aked & Sons, James Akroyd & Son, William Barraclough, Erasmus Bigelow, M. Bottomley & Sons, William Brown, Carpet mosaics, J. T. Clay & Sons Limited, John Foster & Son Limited, T. Gregory & Brothers, John Hadwen & Sons Limited, Hoadley & Pridie, John Holdsworth & Company Limited, Henry Charles McCrea, Jonathan Schofield, J. Schofield, Shepherd & Perfect, Samuel Wallis, Ward & McRea and John Wilson

Great Plague
This was the most famous epidemic of the bubonic plague, and it struck Britain during the period 1665-1666. In 1665, the Court and Parliament moved to Oxford

Great Pox
Aka Syphilis as distinct from smallpox

Great Tithes dispute
The Waterhouse family of Halifax were the bailiffs in the North for the Priory of Lewes, and collected tithes and administered the lands in the Parish of Halifax. Because of the distance to Lewes, the monks encouraged the landowners to commute their tithes into money payments.

Robert Waterhouse of Shibden Hall triggered off a dispute over tithes in 1535 when he demanded a tenth of the harvest instead of the fixed sum of money which had become the custom.

A lawsuit followed and Gilbert Waterhouse, a kinsman of Waterhouse, killed with a dagger worth 20 pence George Crowther, one of the many who had opposed the demands. In 1607, David Waterhouse made an abortive proposal for the more rigorous exaction of first fruits and tithes

Greater tithe
See Tithe

Also Grieve, Grave, Reeve. A minor local official, bailiff or foreman whose responsibilities included the collection of rents and dues for the lord of the manor from the people of the graveship.

The word comes from the Old English gerefa

When used in place names – such as Good Greave, Hardcastle Crags, Great Greave, Soyland, Greave Clough, Hebden Bridge, Greave Head, Soyland, Greave House, Midgley, Greave Mill, Stainland, Raistrick Greave, Heptonstall, and The Greave, Midgley - the element may mean a woodland area, a grove [of trees or other plants].

See Grove

Aka Graveship. The area for which a greave was responsible.

See Manor of Wakefield

An area of common grassland within a village which was used for grazing

Green Fever
Aka Green sickness. A form of anæmia

Green track
An unpaved track such as was used by packhorses. As these became quagmires with the frequent traffic, many were changed to paved causeways

Various forms of this element are used in local place names – such as Black gress, Brighouse, Greece Fields, Halifax, Greece House, Halifax and Thorngreese, Todmorden.

The element means steps or stairs

Aka Greave

An artificial channel dug into the peat and moorland to allow the land to drain.

Unfortunately, these lead to flash flood effects, allowing the water to run off quickly and, in turn, leading to flooding of the rivers. This has been particularly bad in Swaledale.

See Drain

An obsolete silver coin which was worth four pence = 4d = issued by Edward I in 1279, and in circulation until 1662. A half groat coin was issued in 1344 by Edward III. The helmeted figure of Britannia first appeared on the silver groat of 1836. The last groats were issued in 1855. The coin is still used as Maundy Money. The name comes from Middle English and Middle Dutch word groot, meaning great referring to a thick penny

Grocer's itch
A skin disease caused by mites found in sugar or flour

A coarse fabric, often stiffened with gum

A type of beer

When used in place names, the element may mean a grove [of trees or other plants] or a mine.

See Greave

A thin porridge made by boiling a little oatmeal in a large amount of water

Guardian of the Poor

Guide stoop

Aka Gild. A body of skilled workers established for mutual support, for relief of the poor, and for standardisation, control and protection of their trade and prices.

There were often grades of membership: an apprentice progressing to a journeyman, and then to a master. Each grade had its own rules, its obligations and its privileges. They specified and controlled factors such as how long an apprentice must serve, how many apprentices a master may have.

The word guild is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word for money, and reminds us that members of the guilds paid a fee.

There were guilds involved in cloth-making in London, Beverley, Nottingham, Norwich, and York, but there are no records of any guilds in the Halifax district. This led to complaints of unfair competition from weavers outside the district.

Religion played an important part in the life of the early guilds and each company had its own patron St and was associated with a particular church. The name of the patron St is often incorporated into the name of the guild.

The guilds and their monopolies were protected by, and paid money to, the sovereign.

In 1504, Henry VII placed guilds and companies under state supervision.

As the companies grew and prospered, they bought or built halls in the large towns and cities for use as meeting places. These were often known as Livery Halls, referring to the livery or uniform which members of the guild wore.

Social, economic and political events – such as the Industrial Revolution, overseas trade and the Reform Act – ended the dominance of some of the guilds, but others continue to the present day.

See Livery company and Mystery

The French version of the gibbet was named after the French physician, Joseph Ignace Guillotin who visited Halifax in his search for a means of execution during the time of the French Revolution.

In 1790, Guillotin demonstrated his new, humane and painless method of execution.

The design of the French guillotine is attributed to Antoine Louis, a surgeon, and originally the machine was named after him Louison or Louisette

Guillotine lock
A type of lock in which the gates are raised and lowered vertically. These are where there is insufficient space for conventional lock gates.

Two local examples are Brooksmouth Lock, Salterhebble and Library Lock, Todmorden

Unit of currency before decimalisation equivalent to £1 1s = 21s = 21/-. The first guinea was worth £1 and minted with gold from the Guinea Coast in West Africa in 1662 when Charles II ordered that all coins be produced mechanically. It was coined for trade with Africa.

The guinea was often used in prestigious contexts, such as the prices of expensive goods and clothes, horse-racing prizes, and fees. The value of the golden guinea was fixed at 21 shillings in 1717. The coin was last minted in 1813.

Charles II introduced a two guinea coin in 1664, a five guinea coin in 1668, a half guinea worth 10s/6d in 1669. A quarter guinea worth 5s/3d was introduced in 1762, and a third guinea worth 6s/8d in 1797

An heraldic term referring to the colour red

Gules of August
The 1st of August


© Malcolm Bull 2017 / [email protected]
Revised 21:19 on 7th December 2017 / b113_g / 71