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Margaret Cameron, author of this article, is a gt-gt-granddaughter of it's subject, Susan Mackenzie. She notes it was originally printed on pages 21-30 of "Our Female Ancestors discovered and remembered" by TFHS Inc. Hobart Branch Writers group, published by Tasmanian Family History Society Inc. Hobart Branch 2007, ISBN 1921090 24 3

This file is one of many that link from my website that focusses on genealogy and history of Coigach, including others from other authors and sources on the emigration from Scotland aboard the Sir Alan McNab Susan was part of, see;


Any suggestions for additions or edits please email me,

Donald MacDonald-Ross

Memorial to Susan Mackenzie
Evandale Presbyterian Church 2006

I am intrigued by my great-great-grandmother, Susan Mackenzie. My family knew little of her life other than that she was a widow who, with her four children emigrated to Van Diemen’s Land as an assisted emigrant from Ullapool, Scotland. Susan was reportedly a governess at Clarendon, Evandale, home of the Cox family. She died at Clarendon on 12 April 1876 and was buried in the Presbyterian Cemetery at Evandale. The inscription on her tombstone noted she was aged 58 years and was from Ross-Shire, Scotland.(1)

It was serendipitous that just before my trip to Scotland in 1987 my mother found an old copy of The English Reader in the desk of my father, the late James Muirhead. Inside the cover was written the following:

Murdock Mackensie Inverneƒs May 26th 1811-; Miƒs Mackenzie Achnahaird; John McKenzie, 1820 Leckmelm; Murdock Mckenzie, Achnahaird, March 12th 1822; Donald Mackensie; Miƒs Margaret Anne Mackensie Achnahaird; Alex; Kenneth; Roderick; Tain; and Dingwell.(2)

From this information, my daughter and I found the little town of Achnahaird about 22 miles north west of Ullapool and adjacent to a sandy beach with spectacular mountains in the background. We discovered the local cemetery on the foreshore at nearby Achiltibuie, the main township, and we found a number of headstone inscriptions with Mackenzie names similar to those in the reader. From this visit, I began delving into the history of this area hoping to find some connection with my ancestor.

The town of Achnahaird is in the Barony of Coigach which occupies about 145,000 acres in the Parish of Lochbroom in the County of Ross and Cromarty. This isolated area was the dowry of Margaret MacLeod when in the early 17th century she married her cousin, Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Tarbat, younger brother of the Earl of Kintail. It then became part of the Cromartie Mackenzie lands. It was not accessible by road until 1790, after the British Fisheries Society created the fishing port of Ullapool.(3)

In the 1841 Census for Scotland, Susanna Mackenzie, 20, was recorded as living on the farm of Achnahaird with three farmers: Murdo aged 45, George and Donald Mackenzie, both 35. There were two young children, Kenneth, 4 and Margaret Mackenzie, 3 and six servants. All were born at Lochbroom, except Susanna whose birthplace and occupation were not recorded.(4) From the age given at her death Susan, must have been 24 in 1841, making her birth year 1818.(5)

In the 1851 Census of Scotland, Susan was shown to be 34, a widow, head of the household, a farmer of 51 acres and born in Tain, Ross-shire. Kenneth, 14 and Maggie, 13 were still at home with another two children, Roderick, 9 and Catherine, 7. The children were recorded as Susan’s sons and daughters.(6)

At this stage I presume that Susan was the widow of George who was joint tenant with his father Roderick of Achnahaird, tacksman,(7) the principal tenant, from 1833 until 1848, and then sole tenant from 1848 until his death in May 1850. It seems Susan was then the tenant until replaced in 1852.(8)

George’s father and therefore Susan’s father-in-law Roderick Mackenzie wrote the following letter on 30 May 1825, to the court in Dingwell. The address on the back of envelope was Achnahaird.

Dear Sir

Leckmelm May 30th

                Please know that it was such a mistake of Mr. MacIvor the sheep master to have named my son Geo. from Achd for he made not the smallest concern there. When he left that place I made it over to Mur, and when he went to America he sold his flock to Don who is now and since the tenant perhaps when I couch [catch] up on Geo. he would pas sometimes at Strathpollie and Achd and I will thank you for stating this to the Court & till then I remain yours

      Rod Mackensie.(9)

This letter not only helped sort out the relationships of the family living at Achnahaird but it also suggested some legal action against the Mackenzie family, their tack being placed under ‘sequestration for rents’ which is a Scottish form of bankruptcy. An advertisement appeared in the Inverness Advertiser 12 May 1826, for the sale of sheep, cattle and horses at Achnahaird and Strathpollie. This is possibly a clue to the difficulties being experienced by the middle classes in the clan system. Susan’s husband, George, ‘effectively died bankrupt in May 1850. His eldest son and heir was Kenneth Scobie Mackenzie, aged 14’(10)

The book, Cromartie Highland Life, 1650-1914 highlights the events leading up to the resistance of the crofters to the re-organisation of the land ownership, which led to migration and large-scale evictions. Clearances occurred throughout the Highlands between 1800 and 1860. The Cromartie heiress, recently married to the Marquess of Stafford, was keen for her factor(11) and manager, Andrew Scott, to carry out improvements thus raising the rental value at Coigach. The tacksmen had difficulty in maintaining authority as the poverty of the tenants increased. Rents were in arrears and some people were choosing to opt out of their leases.

Susan would have been at Achnahaird in March 1851 when a sheep farmer made an offer for the farm, at a higher rent than the eleven subtenants were paying. Scott was of the opinion that if the land were cleared of subtenants ‘the farm would make an excellent Ewe farm and would keep 600 as good Cheviot ewes as any in the district’.(12)

George Macleod, from Assynt, North of Coigach, rented at the old rate and was willing to keep the tenants on condition they paid their rents and ‘conducted themselves in an orderly peaceable manner.’(13)

Refusing to pay their rent in 1852, the Achnahaird tenants received the following threat by the factor, Scott:

Foolish men! Do you imagine you can remain in your allotments and not pay rent? Whoever so counsels you is your enemy not your friend. Take my advice and settle with Mr MacLeod. If you do not you will repent, when you will be driven forth of the Estate, and no one will receive you from the Character you will have made for yourselves. At least the Marchioness will not.(14)

Scott’s efforts to clear other land of tenants for sheep farming and for shooting led to a tenant rebellion against the management of the estate. Scott and the Sheriff’s party sailed around to the Bay of Achnahaird to serve summons of removal to a number of sub-tenants who had not paid their rents. The men and woman acted as on an earlier occasion which occurred nearby on the 18 March 1852. 'The woman rushed in upon the party, tore open their clothes and searched every one in succession for the summonses’ and then burnt them ‘This period of tenant rebellion against the estate management became known as the Coigach Insurrection.(15)

Andrew Scott wrote: ‘It was a distinguished triumph of brute force over law and order and while it continues in the ascendant the rights of proprietors must remain in abeyance’.(16)

It is not known whether or not Susan was involved in the riots. It is clear Susan and her children were resident at Achnahaird, Coigach, at a time of major change in old loyalties. The possibility of a new life in another land must have been very attractive to her, especially as they were still recovering from a famine.

In February 1852, the Highland and Island Emigration Society (HIES) was set up in London under the chairmanship of Sir Charles Trevelyan, Assistant Secretary at the Treasury. It owed its origins to the ‘poverty and destitution’ which ravaged the West Highlands in the wake of the tragic potato famine of 1846-47. It ‘recommended assisted voluntary emigration as a remedy’ with the result that 5,000 men woman and children from Scotland were assisted to immigrate to Australia under the HIES scheme between 1852-1858.(17)

At the same time as the Coigach troubles, transportation of convicts to Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) was nearing its end. Many people were migrating to Victoria to the recently discovered goldfields and the pasturelands. Pressure was put on the VDL Legislative Council to establish an ‘immigration fund’ to attract emigrants from the United Kingdom. After a circular was received from Trevelyan,(18) the Legislative Council of Van Diemen’s Land, at their meeting on Thursday 6 January 1853, recommended that the Council sanction the appropriation of a sum of money not exceeding £3000, for the introduction of immigrants to the Colony through the Society for assisting Emigration from the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.(19)

Earlier in 1853, Andrew Scott, was asked by the HIES if the Coigach people were interested in emigrating to Australia with the result fifteen family groups comprising sixty-seven men, women and children departed Coigach for Ullapool in October 1853.

A statement was sent to Lieutenant-Governor Denison dated 5 October 1853, informing him that:

180 persons who are about to embark to Van Diemen’s Land through the agency of the Highland Emigration Society … they come from the Barony of Coigach and from Rothiemurchus and Kintyre, and that they include of 32 Married couples and 21 marriageable females ... Mr Chant, who selected these Emigrants, reports them to be of very superior class – healthy, robust people - and most of them speak English tolerably well. If this body of Highlanders are satisfied with their condition in their adopted country they may become precursors of many others and an important connection may be established through their means between the Highlanders of Scotland and Van Diemen’s Land …They have all entered into legal obligations to remain at least three years.(20)

The Coigach people emigrated under the auspices of the HIES and were given family group numbers 517-529 for identification. The family group of interest to this story, number 524, consisted of Murdo Mackenzie aged 49, from Achindrean, Susan 36 and her four children, Kenneth 14, Margaret, 12 Roderick, 9 and Catherine 7. They were noted as ‘very good family.’ The children noted as Murdo’s nieces and nephews.(21)

This group of emigrants gathered at the Free Church school-room Ullapool, between six and seven am, 31 September 1853, to say farewell to their friends and neighbours. They were addressed by ‘their excellent and beloved minister, Mr Macleod … many were in tears.’(22)

The first part of the voyage, from Ullapool to Glasgow was clearly not a happy experience for the emigrants as their boat was towed into Glasgow two days late after being partially disabled in stormy weather. A report from the local factor, Kenneth Mackenzie to Scott dated 11 October 1853, gives an account of the event:

I parted with the Emigrants on Saturday afternoon, they were in very bad spirits; independent of the weather, I never had a more disagreeable trip in my life, there was no pleasing them, they were mostly all seasick by the way when their families were thus distressed they thought that I could command the Boat to return or run into some harbour, they were again too ill to please in their food, and so very troublesome to the hands on Board the Steamer. At parting I got the greatest insolence and abuse from some of them for not paying Porters for putting their luggage on Board them to Liverpool, while they were going themselves with their hands in their pockets. Several of them were most anxious to return home from here [Glasgow], I am certain if I had not been with them, that one half of them would not have come this length.(23)

The group left Glasgow for Liverpool on the 8 October and on reaching Liverpool found ‘that the vessel intended to carry them to their destination was condemned’(24) Accommodation was provided in the emigration depots at Birkenhead until they left on board the new 840-ton Sir Allan McNab. A total of 298 emigrants left Liverpool, 28 October 1853, under the Regulations of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commission with Surgeon, James John Evans, and Master, Mr Ralf Renner. Susan Mackenzie was appointed matron for the voyage and was probably responsible for the 109 single women, half of who were Scots and the other half Irish. For her services, Susan was paid a gratuity of £5.0.0. During the voyage Murdo took over the teaching duties and received a gratuity of £5.0.0. Another five of the emigrants were noted as constables.(25)

Photo: Charles Woolley Hobart
The provenance of this photo, from the Muirhead album, suggests it may be of Susan Mackenzie c1860s

On 2 February 1854, John Loch, Immigration Office, Hobart Town, advertised the arrival of the 302 emigrants aboard the Sir Allan McNab, which included four babies born since leaving Liverpool. … ‘for engagement on board the vessel on Monday 6th instant and the following days between the hours of 11 and 2’… 32 married men, 21 single men, and 41 single women are sent out by the Highland Emigration Society’…(26) Susan assisted with the hiring of the single women for which she received £2.0.0.(27)

Loch’s report, dated 11 February 1854, to the Colonial Secretary, included the following comments:

Judging from the appearance and demeanor of the Scotch Emigrants that they will prove trustworthy and serviceable.

The women are accustomed to farming pursuits, and have not, so far as I have observed, manifested the anxiety too common among female Emigrants to obtain high places -

I should … consider it very undesirable to put any considerable number of Highlanders and Irish in the same ship – the least religious event tending to cause disturbance among them, and it requires constant care and attention on the part of the Superintendent to hinder the most serious consequences.(28)

Robert Kermode of Mona Vale Ross hired Susan with keep and a salary of £40 per annum and about 15 February 1854, she travelled north to commence her new life. Kermode hired Kenneth as ‘a farm labourer and apprentice with rations and clothing’ and the two younger children were also hired by him to stay with mother. Daughter, Margaret, my future great grandmother, was hired by Mr F Hatton of Hobart Town for one month at a wage of £14 with keep.’(29) Murdo was not hired out but 'travelled North of his own accord.’, and departed in the "Clarence" from Launceston 24 June 1854 to return to England.(30)

Mona Vale situated near the fork formed by the Blackman and Macquarie Rivers was the large landholding at Ross inherited by Robert Kermode from his wealthy father, William, who received his first grant in 1823. By March 1854, Susan and family, no doubt, were settled into the second home built of brick for William Kermode in the 1834. Colonel Mundy describes what he saw in 1851.


Originals images held in State Library of Tasmania

The first image shows the Mona Vale house seen by Colonel Mundy in 1851. Robert Quayle Kermode inherited it from his father, William in 1853. The second image shows the present Mona Vale house planned by William Archer and built for Robert Kermode in the 1860s containing the section for the housekeeper on the left.

Mona Vale house is excellent. There are pleasant gardens and green houses full of fruit and flowers … a rare feature in Australian home scenery — a clear and rapid stream running across the lawn and forming a large pool beyond it … Both houses, in and out of doors, gardens and stables and offices and even in the bedrooms upstairs, are all provided, at a turn of the finger, with a copious supply of water … A patriarchal profusion and a good old-fashioned hospitality reign at Mona Vale.(31)

We can only speculate how Susan and her family fared in their new environment. A copy of a letter written by Robert Kermode, to his cousin John in the Isle of Man on 21 July 1853, sheds some light on his own family situation about this time. It reads:

Apologizing for being so long in communicating his news having been quite ill myself … for several days after my father’s death [1852] we were kept in a sad state of suspense and distress. Heavy rains came down for days and rivers throughout the country became so flooded that the oldest inhabitants of the place never remembered a season like it. Our roads and bridges were so covered that we were unable to remove and inter my father’s body for a fortnight after his death … within five months I was called to give up and carry to the grave both my beloved parents and my beloved wife … I am left with four boys. Willie is 7; Bobby 6; Tommy 5 and the baby, Lewis, nearly 10 months.(32)

Before Robert’s wife, Martha, died his widowed mother-in-law, Susannah Archer of Woolmers, Longford, moved to Mona Vale to live and then fill the position of her late daughter as ‘mistress of a family responsible to a certain extent for all beneath her roof’.(33) No doubt her ‘primary task was management’ in this home of the ‘landed gentry’. Susan Mackenzie’s responsibilities as housekeeper may have included ‘taking charge of all other female servants and managing the house in the absence of the family. She would also be responsible for the servants’ deportment and keep order amongst them’.(34) ‘A housekeeper planned the work which was written on a board and hung in the kitchen’:

The servant was expected to rise at 6am (5am on washing days), serve lunch at 1pm and 4pm commence cooking. Dinner was served at 6 and by 8, the coffee tray [was] to be in by 10pm in order to retire early. Kitchen, halls passages and dining room were to be cleaned every day before breakfast, except washing day. Sundays brought many visitors to middle class households. Setting house to right on Monday mornings, Tuesday was the recommended day for washing, with ironing on Wednesday. Thursday and Friday heavy house cleaning, and Saturday devoted to preparation for Sunday only to make the beds and cook the meals for a weekly total of sixty eight hours … [the] governess had a significantly shorter week, often being required to work as few as five hours a day. With Saturday and Sunday free(35)

Robert, and Susannah Archer and some of their families, left for England in 1858 leaving five-year-old Lewis at home ‘with a governess.’ Was this Susan?(36) Whilst in England, Robert married Emily Addenbroke on 16 June 1859,(37) and their daughter, Emily Louisa, was born 14 April 1860.(38) In the same year, they returned to Mona Vale on the Percy with their animals, which included ‘six fine woolled German rams, three horses, one Durham cow, two white swans and some sheep dogs’.(39)

Also on board the Percy was James Muirhead aged 26, from a farm called Croftside near Stirling, Scotland. An assisted emigrant, James cared for Kermode’s animals on board ship and, on arriving in Hobart Town was hired as ‘a farm servant’ at Mona Vale to work with the merino stud, which was commenced by William Kermode in 1829.(40)

Two years later on 25 November 1862, James Muirhead married Susan’s daughter Margaret Mackenzie. The ceremony was held in the Mona Vale house. Adam Turnbull was the minister and Catherine Mackenzie and Robert Turnbull were the witnesses.(41)

Six of Susan’s grandchildren were born at Mona Vale. James and Margaret followed the Scottish tradition of naming their children as follows:

Susan Taylor Muirhead
Jessie Muirhead
Thomas Muirhead
George Mackenzie Muirhead                       
Margaret (Peg) Muirhead
Isabella Muirhead
born 2 October 1863 (after the mother’s mother)(42)
born 28 May 1865 (after the father’s mother)(43)
born 17 May 1867 (after the father’s father)(44)
born 7 March 1869 (after the mother’s father)(45)
born 21 August 1871(46)
born 28 July 1873 (after the father’s sister)(47)

On 26 March 1869, Susan’s daughter, Catherine Mackenzie aged 24, married William Duncan aged 29, at the Mona Vale home of Mr and Mrs James Muirhead. This family was most likely living in one of the stone cottages built in 1861 for employees. William was a stonemason and builder and probably met Catherine (Kate) whilst building the Mona Vale mansion. The minister was William Quick and the bride’s brother, Roderick, and Lucy Cootes were witnesses.(48)

William and Kate’s first five children were born while the family was living at Cascade Brewery. For the sixth child the address was Harrington Street, Hobart.

The children were:

Susan Kate Duncan
James Duncan
George Mackenzie Duncan
Alexander Scott Duncan
Elspeth Jane Duncan
Roderick Mackenzie Duncan                        
born 13 January 1870(49)
born 25 October 1871(50)
born 9 December 1875(51)
born 29 August 1877(52)
born 25 February 1880(53)
born 23 September 1881(54)

I have not yet researched Susan’s sons, Kenneth and Roderick Mackenzie. In the early 1860s, they apparently moved to New Zealand to work on the large land holding opened up by Robert’s cousin, George Moore in North Canterbury in 1853 on behalf of a company, that included Robert Kermode, and Dr John Lillie, George Moore and his son William. The Company sent about 6000 merino sheep across to New Zealand in three voyages of the William Hyde.(55)

In 1865, the third Mona Vale home was commenced. William Archer’s entries in his diary are interesting: June 1865 ‘Inspected new house … foundation of kitchen and housekeeper’s rooms carried up to same height as the dining room’, 21 August 1866, ‘visit to top floor of tower. Splendid view of surroundings’, and 20 November 1867, ‘glad to hear that he is to have the Royal Duke, Prince Alfred, the Duke of Edinburgh at Mona Vale’.(56)

William Archer’s masterpiece, a mansion, four stories high, twelve entrances, fifty-two rooms and 365 windows was completed in time for the visit of the Royal Duke in January 1868.(57)

Susan and her family no doubt would have been saddened by the sudden death of Robert Kermode on 4 May 1870,(58) and by 1875 the Muirhead family had moved to another estate, Clarendon, near Evandale where James was employed as a labourer.(59) Two more children were born at Clarendon:

Jane Ross Muirhead
Roderick Mackenzie Muirhead      
born 15 December 1875(60)
born 10 June 1878(61)

  The family were at Forden Nile, for the birth of their sixth daughter and ninth child:

Kate Muirhead

born 4 July 1882(62)

It seems unlikely Susan was ever a governess at the large home at Clarendon because James Cox (Junior) inherited Clarendon after the death of his stepmother in 1869.(63) He married Elizabeth Thirkell 6 May 1875,(64) and their first baby, John Claude, was born 7 April 1876,(65) just five days before Susan died. Dr Oldmeadow, from Evandale, recorded She died of softening of the brain on 12 April 1876 and that she was the widow of a Farmer.(66)

A notice in the local paper announced, ‘the Funeral of the late Mrs Mckenzie will take place at the Presbyterian Burying ground Evandale on Friday 14 April leaving Clarendon at one o clock’.(67)

Researching this almost forgotten ancestor has been interesting and intriguing and at times frustrating in not knowing anything of her personal life. She left her home in the Western Highlands during a period of unrest between the landowners and their tenants. Her position as Matron on the emigrant ship, and her position as housekeeper in palatial homes envisages to me a strong courageous and resourceful lady of her time in history.

My English reader records names of the last Mackenzie tacksmen of Achnahaird.(68)

Susan’s life was intriguing and interesting – not an important person in history but a poor widow and farmer who left her country at a time of social unrest between the landowners and their tenants. Fortunately she and her family had a free passage to Van Diemen’s Land paid for by the government of the time. They were given employment, shelter and keep in the palatial home of Robert Kermode, an affluent wool baron. Susan was a brave and resourceful woman who has great-great-great- great-grandchildren, at least on my side of the family.

  1. Ismay Stennard, Susan Mackenzie’s great granddaughter, provided oral information in the 1980s. Mackenzie is also written as: MacKenzie, McKenzie, [family Bible] and Mackensie.

  2. Lindley Murray, The English Reader 0r Pieces in Prose and Poetry, Twelfth edition 1813, printed by Thomas Wilson and sons. York.

  3. Internet: http://frreepages.history.rootsweb.com/~coigach/corrie.htm (10 June 2000) Donald MacDonald-Ross [Donald has collected information from Coigach descendents including that of Hugh Campbell "There is Corn in Egypt: Get You down Thither. The Highlands and islands Emigration Society And Van Diemens Land, 1853-4, volume 4 June 1987, pp.37-50.}

  4. 1841 Census of Scotland, Enumeration District 13, Achnahaird

  5. AOT ("Archive Office of Tasmania"), RGD 35 1876 (Morven) No. 389. As yet no evidence of her birth has been located.

  6. 1851 Census of Scotland, Enumeration District 13, Achnahaird.

  7. Tacksman – a principal tenant, who leased land from the landowner, part of which he farmed himself and the remainder he let to small tenants.

  8. John Baldwin, Peoples and Settlements of North-West Ross. Scottish Society for Northern Studies; University of Edinburgh 1994, p.381

  9. The copy of this letter was sent from Ullapool Museum and Visitor Centre by Pauline Ward 23 April 2001

  10. Email correspondence www.scotland.gsi.gov.uk Malcolm Bangor-Jones, [Scottish Historian] 20/08/2006

  11. Factor – a manager of a property often with a legal or agricultural background

  12. Eric Richards and Monica Clough, Cromartie Highland Life, 1650 - 1914. Aberdeen University Press, 1989 ISBN 08 – 037732 – 7, p. 237

  13. Eric Richards and Monica Clough, p.237

  14. Eric Richards and Monica Clough, p.238

  15. Eric Richards and Monica Clough, p. 241

  16. Eric Richards and Monica Clough, p.241

  17. Roderick A C Balfour, The Highland and Island Emigration Society: 1852 – 1858, 5 November 1986. Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness Volume LV11 1990-92, pp. 429-56. My appreciation to Rod Balfour from Inverness, and Bill Clarke, from Bicheno Tasmania for their assistance.

  18. Sir Charles Trevelyan – administrative head of the Treasury, in the Colonial Government.

  19. CSO 24/213/8064, Champ to S. Walcott, Esq., Land & Emigration Commissioner, 19 January 1853

  20. AOT, CSO 24/213/8064, Trevelyan to Denison, 5 October 1853

  21. Scottish Record Office: Ref. HD 415 – copy of list of emigrants assisted by HIES , and embarked on ship Sir Allan McNab, sailed from Liverpool 28 October 1853


  23. Eric Richards and Monica Clough p.233

  24. Copy of letter to the editor The Inverness Advertiser 1 November 1853. Donald MacDonald-Ross

  25. AOT, CSO /24/243/9609 contains much information on arrival of Sir Allan McNab 1 February 1854 plus promissory notes, hiring list, inward and outward correspondence.

  26. Hobart Town Daily Advertiser, Friday February 1854

  27. AOT, CSO 24/243/9609, attachment 3 – The hiring list

  28. AOT, CSO 24/243/9609 Report to Colonial Secretary 11 February 1854

  29. AOT, CSO 24/243/9609. The hiring list

  30. AOT, CSO 24/243/9609. The hiring list. Murdoch Mackenzie departed in the "Clarence" from Launceston 24 June 1854 to return to England.[McNab Po/220/1/3 p 608]

  31. K R von Stieglitz, A Short History of Ross with some Tales of the Pioneers, Telegraph Printers, Launceston 1949 p.41

  32. Jane Riess, Family History, unpublished manuscript in private hands

  33. B W Higman, Domestic Service in Australia, Melbourne University Press Published May 2002

  34. B W Higman, p.135

  35. B W Higman, p.135

  36. Neil Chick, The Archers of van Diemen’s Land, Published 1991 p.184

  37. Neil Chick, p 186, c.1

  38. Neil Chick, p.186

  39. Neil Chick, p.184

  40. Vera C Taylor, Winton Merino Stud 1835-1985, Neptune Press Geelong 1985 p.54

  41. AOT RGD 33/49 1862 (Campbell Town) No. 5273

  42. AOT RGD 33/42 1863 (Campbell Town) No.1467

  43. Family Bible [Unable to find registration record]

  44. AOT RGD 33/48 1867 (Campbell Town) Not found in index - ditto

  45. AOT RGD 33/48 1869 (Campbell Town) No. 2065

  46. AOT RGD 33/49 1871 (Campbell Town) No. 138

  47. AOT RGD 33/51 1873 (Morven) No. 37

  48. AOT RGD 37 1869 (Campbell Town) No. 32

  49. AOT, RGD 33/10 1870 (Hobart) No. 892

  50. AOT, RGD 33/11 1871 (Hobart) No, 2211

  51. AOT, RGD 33/11 1875 (Hobart) No. 1686

  52. AOT, RGD 33/11 1877 (Hobart) No. 3036

  53. AOT, RGD 33/12 1880 (Hobart) No. 1537

  54. AOT, RGD 33/12 1881 (Hobart) No. 2964

  55. Internet:
    Gardner, George Henry Moore 1812 -1905 Run holder

  56. Neil Chick, The Archers of Van Diemen’s Land

  57. Neil Chick, The Archers of Van Diemen’s Land

  58. AOT, RGD 35 1870 (Campbell Town) No.30

  59. M J Maddock, Clarendon and its People, Regal Publication 1996. p.60

  60. AOT RGD 33/11 1875 (Morven) No.1037

  61. AOT RGD 33/12 1878 (Morven) No.1194

  62. AOT RGD 33 1882 (Campbell Town) No.843

  63. M J Maddock p.13

  64. AOT RGD 31 1876 (Launceston) No377

  65. AOT RGD 33 (Launceston) 1876 No 2431

  66. AOT RGD 35 (Morven) 1876, No. 389

  67. Launceston Examiner Thursday 13 April 1876

  68. Donald MacDonald-Ross, Mackenzie of Corry pp1-17 http//free pages genealogyrootsweb.com/~coigach/corrie.htm

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