Wolfgang Hochbruck (comp.)

"Forty-Eighters" in the Union Armies:
A Preliminary Checklist

"Achtundvierziger" in den Armeen der Union:
Eine vorläufige Liste


Die wenigsten der Revolutionsveteranen von 1848/49, die zwölf Jahre später im Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg (1861 - 1865) wieder für die Verteidigung der Prinzipien von Einheit und Freiheit gekämpft haben, sind auch nur namentlich bekannt. Die folgende Liste ist auf der Basis allgemein zugänglicher Forschungswerke erstellt; da diese Werke zum Teil veraltet und ungenau sind, erhebt sie keinesfalls Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit, sondern will lediglich als Ausgangspunkt weiterführender Arbeiten verstanden sein.

During the American Civil War, more than 180.000 German-born men fought in the Union armies East and West, plus tens of thousands of Austrians, Poles, Hungarians, and Czechs. Out of this number, possibly up to an estimated five thousand had previously served in the revolutionary armies and insurrections in Baden, the Palatinate, in Hungary, the Rhineland, Transsylvania, Poland, Bohemia, Berlin, or Saxony. They had taken active roles in the attempts to establish a democratic and unified German republic, they had fought to free their peoples from the oppression of the Habsburg Empire, or they had fought with Garibaldi in the Risorgimento. There was, at the time, a Europe-wide movement of republican revolutionism, and the failure of any one revolutionary attempt led to the emigration and exile of the fighters to other countries, and to renewed fighting alongside other democrats and revolutionists all over Europe. Polish and Bohemian legions fought with Sigel in Baden, many defeated German revolutionaries tried to join Bem and Kossuth in Transsylvania. Garibaldi's legions came from all over Europe and even North America. German-Americans returned to the land of their parents to fight in Schleswig-Holstein in 1848 and in the Palatinate in 1849, and French volunteers in August Willich's "Workers' Legion" charged the Prussian lines on the Murg river in June of 1849 with "En avant, en avant!" After the last of the European revolutions had been subjugated, many of these early internationalists fled or emigrated to the United States. After France had turned imperial again in 1852, they were joined by even more of their old comrades. The failure of their revolutionary hopes in Europe did not prevent them from taking arms again in 1861 to defend the very principles they had fought for in 1848 and 1849: Union, freedom, and democracy. Many of them made a conscious connection between the two wars: Fritz Anneke, formerly a lieutnant in the Prussian artillery and member of the Marx/Engels circle "Bund Deutscher Kommunisten" published a book under the programmatic title Der Zweite Freiheitskampf (The Second War for Liberty). The New Yorker 20th Regiment of Volunteers reportedly carried a German tri-color besides their National flag; and the first uniforms issued to the 3rd Regiment of Missouri Union Volunteers, raised in St. Louis by former General Franz Sigel, were cut to the design of the blouses worn by the revolutionary Freischaren of 1849. Many German soldiers, companies and regiments wore the gold, red and black cockade as they marched off to the war.

Despite the works by Faust, Kaufmann, Lonn, Rosengarten, Wittke, Rowan, Zucker, and others (see bibliography) to name the most important sources, a comprehensive history of the contribution of the "Forty-eighters", has yet to be written. To date, the tainted image of the "lop-eared", cowardly "Dutch" that the Anglo-American press created during and after the war remains very much intact. Due to the absence of other sources and the predominance of neo-confederate sympathies in popular history-writing, it has been repeated by every generation of American scholars. The fact that these veterans of the European revolutions were an early "International Brigade", and that their effort bridges the gap between European failures and American success of the world-wide democratic project, has been all but ignored.

The following is a preliminary checklist of names and ranks as they appear in the sources indicated. Where the status of a person is unclear, it has been marked by a (?). Some refugees of the Austro-Hungarian insurrection have also been included, also veterans of the Schleswig-Holstein war of 1848; members of Garibaldi's forces only if they were Germans. This list will be updated as more data become available.

Albert, Anselm Lt. Col., 3rd MO. Wounded and captured at Wilson's Creek. Later Chief of staff with Frémont in Virginia; disabled by wounds. S: Kaufmann 478; Rombauer 104.
Amsberg, Georg von (1817 - ) Colonel S: Zucker 272, Kaufmann 478
Anneke, Fritz (1817-1870), in Switzerland when the war started. Serves on McClellan's staff but is relieved of duties Mar. 1862. Later Col. 34th WI Inf., court-martial dismissal from the Army in 1863. S: Kaufmann 478f.; Wittke 1952, 229; Dobert 22f. (says 35th WI)
Arndt, Albert, Major, killed commanding 1st NY Independent Arty. Battalion (Brickel's) at Antietam. S: Kaufmann 479; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 273
Asboth, Sandor (Alexander) (1811-1868) a naturalized citizen by 1861, Asboth offered his services and was called to serve on Frémonts staff as a brigadier general (appr. March 1862). Wounded commanding a division at Pea Ridge. Later in command at Columbus, KY and in the District of W. Florida. Wounded again at Marianna FL in 1864; his death while serving as US minister to Argentina and Uruguay is attributed to late effects of these wounds. S: Kaufmann 479; Warner 11f.
Backhoff, Franz (Francis) (1821 -?) Capt. and Battery commander in MO; later Major. Served at Wilson's Creek, Prairie Grove S: Zucker 274, Kaufmann 480
Balbach, Major at the beginning of hostilities, dies early in the war. S: Kaufmann 480
Bauer, Adolf, from Bernau/Brandenburg, 39th NY "Garibaldi Guard" (Sigel Company), captured / mustered out, S: Bacarella, 236
Bauer, John, from Mannheim, 39th NY "Garibaldi Guard", mustered out due to insanity., S: Bacarella, 235
Becker, August (1812-1875), called "Red" Becker, regt. Chaplain 8th NY Inf. S: Kaufmann 481 (s. 7th NY); Wittke 1952, 230; Frei 203 (s. Steuben-Regt.) Dobert 31 (id.); Zucker 276 (s. 1813-1872)
Becker, Gottfried, Lt. Colonel, 28th OH Inf. Later Colonel. S: Rosengarten 278; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 276
Behlendorf, Friedrich (1829 - ) Mobbed in New Orleans as a Union sympathizer in 1860, he went to St. Louis and enlisted; rose to major. S: Zucker 276
Bernays, Carl L. (1815 - 1879) Co-editor of the Anzeiger des Westens; 1861 consul in Zürich. Appointed paymaster by Lincoln S: Zucker 278; Rowan 109 (s. Colonel)
Best, Michael (1829 - ) Private in 1st MO, discharged as Capt. when regt. was mustered out in 1862. Reenlisted as private in 1864, promoted Lt. S: Zucker 278f.
Betz, Philipp, Turner from Davenport, IA. Served in the army (17th MO?) S: Zucker 279
Beyschlag, Carl (1816- ) Chaplain, 28th OH Inf. S: Dobert 33
Bien, Julius (1826-1909) Equipped a field map printing outfit for Sherman's forces. S: Zucker 279
Blandowski, Constantin (1828-1861) Captain, Co. F, 3rd MO Inf. Military instructor of the St. Louis Turner and Union vol. regiments. Wounded May 10th, 1861, by shots fired from an armed mob after the seizure of Camp Jackson; dies of complications May 25th. S: Kaufmann 483; Rombauer; S: Rosengarten 243; Winter 64f.
Blenker, Ludwig (Louis) (1812-1863) Colonel 8th NY Inf. ('Steuben Rifles'),apptd. Brig.-Gen. of Vols. in August 1861 after his brigade had maintained good order after First Bull Run. Ordered with a division to the Shenandoah, Washington forgot to feed and support his forces who had to live off the land, creating bad feelings against Germans. Fought well at Cross Keys, but was criticized for the pomp and splendor of his staff. Honourably discharged after all fall from his horse, March 1863, died of injuries six months later. S: Kaufmann 483f.; Rosengarten 200f.; Wagner, 323ff.; Warner 37; Wittke 1945, 252; Wittke 1952, 225, Zucker 280
Böbel, Hans, Lt. Col., 26th WI. Lost leg at Gettysburg and was discharged from the service. S: Kaufmann 484; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 280
Börnstein, Heinrich (Henry), 1805-1892. 1861 one of the organisers of pro-Union forces in St. Louis; elected Colonel of the 2nd MO Inf. When the regiment is reorganized for three-year duty in September 1861, Börnstein relinquishes command to Friedrich Schaefer (+ Stones River). S: Börnstein; Kaufmann 485; Dobert 34-39, Rombauer, Wittke 1952; Zucker 280
Bondi, August (1833-1907) After participation in a failed expedition to Cuba and a connection with John Brown in Kansas prior to the ACW, he enlisted in the 5th Kansas Cav. and became 1st Sgt. of Co. K. S: Zucker 281
Brickel, Michael, raised 1st NY Ind. Artillery Battalion in Buffalo, NY (later 29th - 32nd Ind. NY Batteries) S: Rosengarten 229f.; Kaufmann 486; Zucker 282 (s. Andrew)
Busch, Isidor (1822-1898) Capt., on Frémonts staff 1862. S: Dobert 41f.; Zucker 283
Corvin [-Wiersbitzky] (or Corwin), Otto von, Nominally Colonel; correspondent for German newspapers, assoc. Blenker's staff. Advocated plans to recruit veteran soldiers in Germany S: Kaufmann 490; Rosengarten 224, Wagner; Wittke 1952, 231, Dobert 47f.
Dengler, Adolf, Capt., (1825-1884) Fought "mit Sigel" as Capt. of Co. G, 3rd MO Inf. at Carthage, Wilson's Creek. Lt. Col., later Col. of the German 43rd IL. S: Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 286
Dettweiler, Hermann Ignatz (1825-1878) Capt., 6th KY Inf. Served until disabled by wounds S: Wittke 1952, 228
Dietrich, Heinrich (1832 -) Capt. 39th NY Inf ("Garibaldi Guards"). Retook the 1st Battery, 5th US Arty at Gettysburg; in the picket line that first met Pickett's charge. Monument on G'burg battlefield commemorates his company's effort. Provost Marshal in Centerville, 1862-63. S: Kaufmann 492 Rosengarten 230; Wittke 1952, 229
Dietz, Oswald, Pressed into Confederate service in TX, Capt. of engineers at Galveston. Deserted in March 1864 and was killed fighting with the Union army near Petersburg. S: Zucker 287, Kaufmann 492.
Domschke, Bernhard, ( -1869) Lt. in "Sigel Regiment" WI, published a book after the war about his two years in Libby Prison. Turnerbund President 1866 S: Kaufmann 494; Wittke 1952, 224; Dobert 59f.; Zucker 287f.
Dreher, Ferdinand, Capt., commanded one of two German companies in the "Harvard Regt.", 20th MA. Died of wounds sustained at Antietam and Fredericksburg S: Dame
Eickhoff, Anton (1827-1901) Commissioner for supplies of the NY troops. S: Zucker 291
Eickemeyer, Rudolf (1831-1895) Converted his machine shop in Yonkers into a revolver factory, served a 30-day enlistment (1863 riots?) S: Zucker 291
Engelmann, Adolf (1825- ) Lt. Col., later Col. 43rd Illinois. Shiloh, Prairie Grove, Vicksburg, with Salomon in Arkansas. Mustered out as Bvt. Brig.-Gen. of Vols.
Essig, Christian, Capt., Battery commander under Sigel. Drowned in the Mississippi (Kaufmann 496, Sigel)
Fach, Heinrich, Lt. Col. of Artillery org. in New York S: Wittke 1952, 224.
Fähtz, Ernst F. M., Lt. Col., 8th MD Inf. S: S: Rosengarten 279 (s. Faltz); Kaufmann 497 (s. C.F.M.) Wittke 1952, 229; Dobert 78; Zucker 293
Fiala, Johann T., Lt. Col., 2nd MO Res.; Col., topographical engineer in Frémont's staff in MO. S: Kaufmann 497 (s. Fiola), Winter 45.
Flad, Henry (1824-1898) Served in the "Engineer Regiment of the West" from Private to Colonel. S: Zucker 294
Freudenberg, Carl Gottfried (1833-1885) Raised a company for the "Sigel Rifles" which were amalgamated into the 52nd NY Inf. Promoted Major in Nov. 1861; wounded at Fair Oaks. Lt.Col. from Nov. 1862, fought at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, where he was wounded again. Resigned his commission due to disability and was apptd. Major, then Lt. Col. 23rd Regt. US Veteran Reserve Corps. Worked in the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and abandoned Lands, as commandant at Milwaukee, and inspector-general, dist. of WI. Staid in the army as Capt., 45th Vet. Res. Regt. S: Kaufmann 500; Rosengarten 221f., Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 294
Gebrätz, Georg (1827-1881) Vol. as Pvt. in Wisconsin, rose to Lt. S: Zucker 295
Gerhardt, Joseph (1817-1881), org. the Washington 'Turner'- Company, Captain. Later Colonel 46th NY Inf. Mustered out as Bvt. Brig.-Gen. of Vols. S: Kaufmann 502; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 296
Gerwig, Adolf, Freethinker chosen as Reg. chaplain by 3rd (?) OH Inf., found dead 1862. S: Wittke 1952, 230
Gilsa, Leopold von, Col. 41st NY (de Kalb regt.) Notable service as Regt. and Brigade commander. Many of his soldiers are supposed to have been veterans of the Schleswig-Holstein war of 1848. S: Zucker 296f.; Kaufmann 503.
Goldmark, Joseph (1819-1880) Brooklyn-based supplier of percussion-caps for the Union army. S: Zucker 298
Greiner, Ludvigh. Member of committee for relief of families of Germans in the Union army. S: Zucker 298
Grimm, Franz, Capt. 43rd IL Inf, killed at Shiloh. S: Kaufmann 505; Wittke 1952, 228
Gülich, Theodor (1829 - 1893) Lt., 1st Iowa Vols. S: Zucker 299
Haas, Emil, regt. surgeon for the 5th MO Inf. Res.; later major and M.D. in Boonville, MO S: Kaufmann 506; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 299
Hammer, Adam, (1818-1878) Organized his students at the St. Louis Humboldt-inst. into an armed guard for the military arsenal in March of 1861. When Lincoln called for three-months vols., he was elected Lt.Col. of the 4th MO Inf. Later worked as director of the St. Louis military hospitals. S: Kaufmann 507; Rombauer 197; Frei 203; Rowan 107; Zucker 300 (s. 1813)
Hartmann, Karl, regt. surgeon, 107th OH, killed at Chancellorsville when he tried to rally the regiment. Adorns the soldiers'monument in Cleveland OH. S: Kaufmann 508; Zucker 300
Hartung, Adolf von, Col., 74th PA Inf. Served with distinction at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. The 74th was the first regiment to enter Charleston, SC in 1865. S: Kaufmann 508; Rosengarten 279; Wittke 1952, 229
Hausen, Julius H. von, Regimental, later Brigade surgeon, Army of the Potomac. S: Kaufmann 509; Zucker 301
Hecker, Friedrich (1811-1881), Pvt., 3rd MO Inf.; raised "1st Hecker" - the 24th IL Inf. already in Summer of 1861; resigned commission in Dec. 1861 over problems with in the regt. Has the 82nd IL raised for himself as "2nd Hecker", incl. an all-Jewish comp. Is wounded at Chancellorsville; fights again in battles around Chattanooga. Resigned due to illness after the march to relieve Burnside at Knoxville. S: Wittke 1952, 226; Frei; Dobert 97ff.; Zucker 301f.
Heine, Wilhelm Peter (1817-1885), Officer in the engineers corps, promoted to Colonel in 1864, Bvt. Brig.-Gen. in 1864. Towards the close of the war commanding 103rd NY Inf. in Shenandoah Valley, at siege of Charleston and during Appomattox campaign. S: Kaufmann 495; Wittke 1952, 229, Dobert 102f.; Zucker 302
Heinrichs, Gustav Lt. Col., (1828-1874) First Lt., 3rd MO Inf.; transferred to Cavalry and major in the 5th, then 4th MO Cav. When Price invaded MO in 1864, H. was called to serve as Lt. Col., comm. 41st MO Inf. Mustered out as Bvt. Brig.-Gen. of Vols. S: Amann; Rosengarten 279; Winter 146
Henne, Robert (1822-1885) Even though he had lost an arm in a Turner Co. during the Schleswig rebellion, he enlisted in the 1st IA, later reenlisted in the 12th MO. Lost a leg at Pea Ridge and was forced to retire. S: Kaufmann 511, Zucker 303
Hexamer, Wilhelm (1825-1870) engineer, Capt., Battery A, 1st NJ Arty. Served on the Peninsula and with distinction on the left wing at Antietam. Died of an injury sustained in the war. S: Kaufmann 512; Rosengarten 249f.; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 304 Hilderbrand, Hugo, in Garibaldi's Hungarian Legion, rose from Sgt.-Maj. to Major in the 39th NY "Garibaldi Guard", S: Bacarella, 24
Hoffmann, Ernst F., Engineer with Garibaldi; Major, Chief of engineers, XI Corps, later same post Army of the Cumberland. S: Kaufmann 513; Zucker 305f.
Hofmann, Louis, Capt. of Hofmann's Independent MO battery under Sigel. Pea Ridge, Vicksburg. Monument at Vicksburg. S: Kaufmann 514; Wittke 1952, 227 (s. Hoffmann, Ernst F. , cf. Kaufmann 513)
Hohlfeldt (also Hohlfield), Dr. Johann F., enlisted 2nd Lt., Co. F, 3rd MO; Capt. at Wilson's Creek, where he was wounded by a cannonball. Died 15. 8. 61 in prison camp. S: Rowan 247, 282.
Huhn, Heinrich (1830-) adjutant 108th OH regt., taken prisoner and after exchange unfit for service until 1864, when he joined a MO regt. with which he served to the end of the war (41st?) S: Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 306 (s. 104th MO)
Jacobi, Abraham, Surgeon S: Kaufmann 515.
Jacobs, Wilhelm Heinrich ( -1882) Colonel 26th WI, wounded at Chancellorsville and again at Gettysburg. Resigned his commission because of the slanderous reports against Germans in the press. S: Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 307
Kämmerling, Capt. of Westfalian insurrectionists; Col. 9th Ohio
Kapff, Eduard, Colonel 7th NY Inf. S: Kaufmann 517
Kapff, Sixtus, Officer in 7th NY Inf., serving under his brother. S: Kaufmann 517
Kaufmann, Theodor (1814 -, enlisted as a Private at the beginning of the war, served at Forts Hatteras and Clark. Going West to join Frémont, he returned to civilian life. Writer and artist, one of his disciples was Thomas Nast. Paintings exhibited and sold at a St. Louis benefit fair for Union wounded brought his professional breakthrough S: Kaufmann 517f.; Zucker 309.
Knefler, Friedrich, Brig.-Gen. S: Wittke 1952, 228
Knoderer, Karl A. ( -1863) First served as Capt. of engineers on Sigel's staff; reenlisted as a Pvt. in the 11th PA Inf. but was elected Colonel, afterwards Colonel of the 168th PA Inf., killed at Chancellorsville S: Kaufmann 520; Rosengarten 208 (279 s. 167th PA); Wittke 1952, 228 (s. 167th PA)
Kozlay, Eugen Arthur, Col. 54th NY "Schwarze Jaeger" S: Kaufmann 521
Kraus, Albert, Libertarian thinker who served as Chaplain in the 12th MO Inf. S:
Kaufmann 521; Zucker 311
Krez, Conrad, Colonel, 27th WI Inf. Served in Vicksburg Campaign, in Arkansas and against Mobile. Mustered out as Bvt. Brig.-Gen. of Vols. S: Amann; S: Kaufmann 522; Wittke 1952, 317
Leser, Fritz, adjutant 17th MO Inf. ("Western Turner Regt."). Disabled in an accident and forced to quit the service S: Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 314
Leussler, Robert (1822-1873) Pvt., Co F, 2nd MO Inf. S: Zucker 314
Loes, Franz E. (1809-1883) Three months service at the beginning of the war in PA. S: Zucker 315
Lohmann, Heinrich (1820-1889) Fought throughout the war in a MD regt. (8th?) S: Zucker 316
Ludwig, Otto, regimental adjutant in Hecker's 24th IL. S: Frei 170 (s. 22 IL).
Mahler, Franz, Col., took over the 75th NY Inf. from Henry Bohlen. Participated in the march of Blenker's div. to the Shenandoah, fought at Cross Keys, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, where he was mortally wounded. S: Kaufmann 530; Rosengarten 280; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 317f.
Märklin, Edmund (1816-1892) served as pharmacist (Hospital Steward) with the 34th WI Inf. "Lied der deutschen Reiter", one of the favourites of German soldiers under Sigel. S: Kaufmann 531 (s. 35th), Wittke 1952, 228; Zucker 318 (s. Eduard)
Maisch, John Michael (1831-1893) In 1863 placed in charge of US Army Laboratory in Philadelphia, which supplied medical pharmaceutics to the troops. S: Zucker 318
Mersey (or Mercy), August, Division Cdr. in Baden 1849; Col., 9th IL Inf., Badly wounded at Shiloh, but recovered to lead the regiment in all its campaigns. Marching through Georgia, he commanded 2. Brig., 2. Div., XVI Corps. S: Kaufmann 531; Zucker 319
Metternich, Germain, ( - 1864) leading revolutionist in Baden. Lt.Col. 46th NY Inf. Killed in brawl by drunken soldiers near Savannah. S: Kaufmann 531 (s. accident); Rosengarten 280; Wittke 1952, 228; Zucker 319
Moschzisker, Franz A. von, Military surgeon (ophtalmologist) in Washington throughout the war. S: Kaufmann 534; Zucker 320
Müller, Jacob (1822- ) Organised several regiments in Northern Ohio S: Dobert 150; Zucker 321
Neuhaus, Rudolf. Medical officer with Sigel. Wounded while tending to casualties at 2nd Bull Run and discharged. S: Kaufmann, 535; Zucker 322
Neustaedter, Johann Albert, Capt. of artillery in MO under Lyon and Frémont. Later constructed forts and served on the staff of the Army of the Cumberland. S: Kaufmann 536; Wittke 1952, 228; Zucker 322f.
Nix, Jacob Commanded militia in defense of the Turner-settlement of Neu-Ulm, MN, against Dakota uprising in 1862. S: Zucker 323
Osterhaus, Peter Joseph (1824-1917) Enlists in the 2nd MO Inf. in April 1861 and is first listed as Capt., Co. B, then Major of the Regt.'s Rifle Battalion which he leads at Camp Jackson and Wilson's Creek. Forms and becomes first Colonel of the 12th MO Inf.; commands a division at Pea Ridge. Brig.-Gen. of Vols. in June 1862, commands 3rd, then 9th Div., Army of the Southwest. Fights in Vicksburg Campaign and is wounded at Big Black River May 17th, 1863. 1st Div., XV Corps at Chattanooga: battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, where his division plays a decisive role in capturing rebel positions. Ringgold Gap, Resaca, Kennesaw Mtn., Dallas. Maj.-Gen. of vols. in June 1864, temporarily in command of XV Corps. Canby's Chief of Staff at the surrender of Confederate forces under Taylor. Mustered out in Jan. 1866 after serving in military administration command in Mississippi. Brig.-Gen. of U.S. Army (ret.) in 1905. S: Amann, 11; DoAB, 88; Kaufmann 445ff.; Kleber; Lanier 220f.; Rombauer; Warner 352f.; Zucker 323
Pfänder, Wilhelm (1823 -) Lt. of Muench's (1st) MN Battery at Shiloh, saved some of its guns before Prentiss surrendered. Later Colonel of a regt. of MN mounted rifles. S: Zucker 326
Pleissner, Elias (1825-1863) Professor at Union College in Schenectady, NY, he raised the "Union College Zouaves" and commanded the 119th NY Inf. when he was killed at Chancellorsville. S: Dobert 157; Zucker 324f. (s. Peissner)
Poschner (Porchner?), Friedrich, Col. 47th OH Inf. S: Rosengarten 280; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 327
Ramming, Heinrich, enlisted in the Hecker Jaeger regt. (24th IL). Temporarily assigned duty as Colonel of 3rd MO Inf. during the reorg. of that regt. in the fall/winter of 1861 S: Zucker 328
Ritter, Louis, Commissary for Supply and Hospital Services in Ohio. S: Kaufmann 543
Rombauer, Robert Julius, Lt.Col., 1st MO Res. Inf. S: Kaufmann 543; Winter 110; Rombauer
Rombauer, Theodor (?) S: Rosengarten 234
Rosa, Rudolf von, Col., 46th NY Inf ("Frémont Rifles") Disabled by wounds in Peninsula Campaign, but returned in time to lead the regt. again at Gettysburg. S: Kaufmann 544; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 332
Roskoten, Robert (1816-1897) Apptd. by Lincoln to serve on board examining army surgeons. Brigade surgeon at Shiloh, where his shot horse fell on him, causing injuries that resulted in his discharge. S: Zucker 332
Rusch, Nicholas (1822-1864) Organized a German immigrant labor corps for the supply of the Union fleet on the Mississippi with fuel. Died in Vicksburg. S: Zucker 334.
Salomon, Carl Eberhard, Col., 5th MO Inf. Fought at Wilson's Creek; Pea Ridge, Sarcoxia, and Prairie Grove. In 1864 he served under his brother Friedrich in AR. Bvt.-Brigadier. S: Kaufmann 545; Zucker 334f. (s. 3rd MO)
Salomon, Friedrich (1826-1897), Capt. 5th MO Inf., went on to become Col., 9th WI Inf. which he comm. in MO and AR. Apptd. Brig.-Gen. of Vols. in July 1862, comm. a brigade in Kansas. Victor at Helena, AR, comm. a div. of the XIII Corps. Also served with dist. at Pine Bluff and Jenkins Ferry. Mustered out August 1865 as Bvt. Maj.-Gen. of Vols. S: Kaufmann 545; Warner 417f.; Wittke 1952, 227; Zucker335
Schadt, Otto, Capt. of Rifle Co. A, 2nd MO (3 months); Lt. Col., 12th MO Inf. discharged for medical reasons, but in 1863-4 Col., 31st MO Inf. An old acquaintance of Peter Osterhaus, with whom he served throughout.
Schimmelfennig, Alexander (1824-1865) 1861 Colonel 74th PA Inf.; due to illness and injury no action before 2nd Bull Run. Comm. 1st Brig. of Schurz's Div., Sigel's Corps. At Chancellorsville, his brigade was routed. At Gettysburg, he was overrun when Schurz's div. had to fall back through the town. Suffered from malaria; still, he joined Sherman's army. His forces took Charleston SC, and S. commanded the city until Apr. 1865. Died of Tuberculosis five months later. S: Warner 423f.; Kaufmann 549; Zucker 337 (conf. him with R. Schimmelpfenning, killed 1848).
Schlund, Fidel, Member of the German 1848 parliament; served with four sons in the Union army. S: Kaufmann 550; Zucker 337
Schmidt, Ernst (1830-1900) Joined the regt. of Col. Osterhaus at outbreak of war, discharged due to illness (prob. 12th MO) S: Zucker 337f. (s. 3rd MO)
Schnepf, Engelbert, Major, later Lt. Col. of the "Turner" regt. 20th NY Inf. S: Rosengarten 218, 281.
Schöpf, Albin Francisco (1822-1886) In Sept. 1861 Brig.-gen. in the War Dept. Fought against Zollikoffer in KY; at Perryville comm. a div. of Gilbert's corps. For the rest of the war, he headed the Federal prison camp of Fort Delaware. S: Warner 425.
Schüttner, Nikolaus, Col. 4th MO Inf. S: Rosengarten 242
Schuhmacher, Adam, 9th OH Inf. S: Wittke 1952, 229
Schurz, Carl (1829-1906) Was chosen Colonel of the first German regt. of cavalry raised in NY but appointed minister to Spain before hostilities commenced. Returning to the US from Spain, S. was commissioned Brig.-Gen. of vols. in April 1862 and assigned to command one of FrÇmont's divisions. Fought under Sigel at 2nd Bull Run; at Chancellorsville, his better judgement of the situation was overruled by Howard and Hooker - with disastrous results. His division could not stem the Conf. assault on July 1st at Gettysburg, but held on July 2nd. Transferred to TN with the XI Corps, S. fought creditably at Chattanooga, but was assigned to a recruit depot in Nashville TN after the battle. Campaigned for Lincoln again in 1864. S: Kaufmann 466ff. ; Rosengarten 224; Warner 427f.; Dobert 178ff.; Zucker 341
Senges, Adam, Col. 15th NY Art, served with distinction at Fort Pulaski. S: Kaufmann, 552; Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 342
Siber, Eduard, Colonel 37th OH, resigned due to ill health after the fall of Vicksburg. S: Kaufmann 553; Zucker 342f.
Sigel, Albert, First in New Jersey, then Col., 5th MO Regt. Home Guards. Later post commander at Rolla. S: Wittke 1952, 229; Zucker 343
Sigel, Franz (1824-1902) Organizes and musters into service a regiment (3rd MO) and a battery (Backhoff's) in St. Louis in April 1861; Colonel 3rd MO, leads a brigade at Carthage and Wilson's Creek. His two divisions score the decisive victory at Pea Ridge in Mar. 1862. Made first Brig.-Gen., later Maj.-Gen., but constantly quarreling with superiors over real and imagined insults and slights. Resigns several times throughout his military career, the first time in Nov. 1861. After transfer to AoP he ably commands a Corps during the 2nd Bull Run Campaign, resigns again just before the desaster at Chancellorsville. Poor performance in 1864 in Shenandoah Valley, when Sigel is beaten at New Market and later has to abandon his position before Early, which leads to his recall. Resigns for the last time May 1865. S: Kaufmann 449ff. Wagner 319f.; Dobert 199ff.; Engle; Rowan; Winter; Warner; Zucker 343
Spraul, Karl, Badenian officer who fought with Garibaldi, Aide-de-Camp to Carl Schurz, S: Bacarella, 24
Stahel-Szamwald, Julius (1825-1912) Lt. Col. and, after Blenker's promotion, Col. of the 8th NY. Brig.-Gen. in November 1861, under Frémont in the Shenandoah, then Div. Cdr. in Sigel's Corps. Maj.-Gen. in 1863, Cavalry Cdr. under Sigel and Hunter, poor performance under both but victorious at Piedmont, June 3, 1864, for which he receives a Congressional Medal of Honor. Resigns Feb. 1865 S: Kaufmann 475f.; Warner 469f.
Starkloff, Hugo (1830- ) Surgeon, 12th MO Inf., S: Kaufmann 554; Zucker 344 (s. service in LA)
Steinwedel, Wilhelm (1827 -) On the outbreak of the war organized a Co. of volunteers, fought in MO. S: Zucker 344
Stengel, Wilhelm (182?-1879), chaplain 9th OH Inf., resigned to become Capt. S: Wittke 1952, 230; Zucker 345
Stifel, Charles G., Col. 5th MO Inf. Res. (Home Guards) S: Rosengarten 234, 245; Rowan 277f.
Struve, Gustav, Capt. in Blenker's 8th NY inf., resigned when Prince von Salm-Salm became commander of regt. S: Kaufmann 554f.; Wittke 1952, 227; Dobert 208ff.; Zucker 346
Tafel, Gustav. Enlisted with the Cincinnati "Turnverein" and served in the 9th OH, later also as Col. of the 106th OH. Kaufmann 557; Zucker 347
Thielemann, Christian, Col., 16th IL Cav. S: Rosengarten 234, 281
Trau, Johann Philip, Hospital steward in Blenker's Div. S: Kaufmann 556; Zucker 348f.
Ulffers, Hermann (1824-1879) Engineer; serves at Pea Ridge, Corinth, Perryville, Stones River. Afterwards Lt. Col. on Sherman's staff. Captured, he escapes from Andersonville and manages to reach the Union lines again. S: Kaufmann 558; Wittke 1952, 229 (s. Adam); Zucker 349
Vogt, Wilhelm (1823-1871) Vol. civilian nurse in Union hospital in Cincinnati. S: Zucker 350.
Wagner, Louis (1838- ) Refugeed with his father; became 1st Lt. of 88th PA Inf. Wounded and captured at 2nd Bull Run; exchanged. Again with the 88th at Chancellorsville, rose to colonelcy. Transferred to command of Camp William, PA. 1865 commanding a brigade in the V Corps, was mustered out as Bvt. Brig.-Gen. One of the leading men in the GAR. S: Kaufmann 560; Rosengarten 217 (s. 68th).
Walsters, Peter, teacher from Messkirch/Baden, 39th NY "Garibaldi Guard", S: Bacarella, 255
Walter, Fred (Friedrich), Lt. of the Westfalian insurrectionists; enlisted man in Co. F, 2nd MO Inf. (3 months), S: Rombauer
Weber, Max (1824-1901), former Badenian officer; Col. 20th NY Inf. "Turner Regiment". The 20th NY allegedly carried a black, red and golden German Republican flag besides the American nationals. First stationed at Fortress Monroe because Weber refused to serve under Blenker. Commanded brigade during the Peninsula Campaign and at Antietam, where he held the position after Sedgwick's left had been flanked. Badly wounded in this action. 1864 under Sigel in the Shenandoah. Resigns his commission May 1865, following Sigel S: Kaufmann 562; Wittke 1952, 227; Zucker 352f.; Warner 545f.
Weekey, (Vekey) Anthony, in Garibaldi's Hungarian Legion, joined German Co. of the 39th NY "Garibaldi Guard" as Lt., S: Bacarella, 24f.
Weigel, Philipp Franz (1814-1895) Capt., raised two companies of Union Reserves, later served as Surgeon General for Missouri. S: Frei 205
Weydemeyer, Joseph (1818-1866), personal friend and correspondent of Friedrich Engels. Served first as Lt. Col. of the 2nd MO Arty., in the Ozarks; resigned. In 1864 Col., 40th MO Inf. S: Kaufmann 564; Rosengarten 237, 245; Rowan 31; Zucker 354
Wiedinger, Bernhard Maria (1826-1894) Capt. and Co. commander in "1st Hecker", resigned because of poor eyesight. S: Wittke 1952, 228; Zucker 354
Wilhelmi, Franz, Major, 17th MO. S: Kaufmann 563; Zucker 355
Willich, August (1810-1878), commanded a Freischar in Baden 1849, Enlisted in 9th OH and used as adjutant and drill master; then transferred to Colonelcy of the 32nd IN, which he leads at Rowlett's Station and Shiloh. Brevetted Brigadier for gallantry. Captured and exchanged at Stones River, fighting with Thomas at Chicamauga. Willich is for all probability responsible for the assault on the crest of Missionary Ridge, Nov. 25th 1863. Wounded at Resaca and afterwards in command of the Cinncinati military district. Mustered out as Bvt. Maj.-Gen. of Vols. S: Amann, 16; S: Kaufmann 472; Rosengarten 255; Zucker 355; Warner
Wratislaw, Edward C. Lt.Col. 45th NY Inf. at 2nd Bull Run. S: Kaufmann 565; Zucker 356
Wörner, 1st Lt. in Hexamer's Battery A, 1st NJ Arty, later Major. S: Rosengarten 250
Wutschel, Franz, Colonel 8th NY. After Cross Keys discharged for indiscretion. S: Zucker 356; Kaufmann 565
Zagonyi, Karoly, Major, Cav. commander of 'Frémont's Body Guard' S: Rowan 274, Miller.
Zink, Xaphir (Xaver), from Mahlberg/Baden, Schwarz German Co. of 39th NY "Garibaldi Guard", S: Bacarella, 256
Zipperlen, Adolf, Surgeon, 108th OH Inf, 1862, later Brigade Surgeon with Sherman's "bummers" in Georgia. S: Kaufmann 566
Zitzer, Johann (1826-1883) Surgeon General of the State of PA. S: Kaufmann 566.


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Bacarella, Michael (1996) Lincoln's Foreign Legion. The 39th New York Infantry, The Garibaldi Guard, Shippensburg, PA: White Mane
Börnstein, Heinrich (1986; [1881]), Fünfundsiebzig Jahre in der Alten und Neuen Welt. Memoiren eines Unbedeutenden, ed. Patricia A. Herminghouse, Ny / Frankfurt / Bern: Lang [Leipzig: O. Wigand]
Dame, Bob (1997) Personal Communication.
Dictionary of American Biography (1934) [ed. Dumas Malone] NY: Scribner
Dobert, Eitel Wolf (1958) Deutsche Demokraten in Amerika. Die Achtundvierziger und ihre Schriften, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Rupprecht
Frei, Alfred G. ed. (1993) Friedrich Hecker in den USA. Eine deutsch-amerikanische Spurensicherung, Konstanz: Stadler,
Kaufmann, Wilhelm (1911) Die Deutschen im amerikanischen Buergerkriege, München: Oldenbourg.
Kleber, Hans-Peter (1992) "Peter Joseph Osterhaus - ein deutsch-amerikanisches Leben" Koblenzer Beitraege zur Geschichte und Kultur, N.S., Vol. 2, 87-129
Lanier, Robert S., ed. (1911) The Photographic History of the Civil War, Vol. 10: Armies and Leaders, NY: Review of Reviews.
Miller, Robert E. (1982) "Zagonyi", Missouri Historical Review 76, 174-192.
Rombauer, Robert J. (1909) The Union Cause in St. Louis in 1861
Rosengarten, Joseph G. (1890) The German Soldier in the Wars of the United States, Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Rowan, Steven (1983) Germans for a Free Missouri. Translations From the St. Louis Radical Press 1857 - 1862. Columbia: U. of MO Press.
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Winter, William C. (1994) The Civil War in St. Louis. St. Louis: MO Hist. Soc. Press.
Wittke, Carl (1945) We Who Built America. The Saga of the Immigrant. New York: Prentice Hall
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Zucker, A. E. (1950) "The Biographical Dictionary of the Forty-eighters, in: Id., The Forty-Eighters. Political Refugees of the German Revolution of 1848, New York: Columbia UP, 269-357


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