Haplogroup R1b (Atlantic Modal Haplotype) Part II

Haplogroup R1b (Atlantic Modal Haplotype)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype is the most common variation of R1b. It is defined by the

six basic marker values below.

(DYS # 19/388/390/391/392/393)

14-12-24-11-13-13

This and related R1b haplotypes originated in Europe during the Paleolithic. During the Ice Age,

the carriers of R1b wintered in the Pyrenees. When the Ice Age ended, these carriers radiated across

Western Europe. They became the pre-Roman population of Spain, France, the British Isles, and large

portions of the Rhineland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Northern Italy.

Although the Celtic language itself has roots in Asia, the indigenous people of Western Europe

became its primary speakers. They comprised the largest proportion of those people we know from history

as "Celtic", and remain so today. Traditional areas of Celtic settlement are Ireland, Wales, Scotland,

Cornwall, Brittany, and Galicia in Northern Spain. Celtic culture is epitomized archaeologically by the La Tene

settlement, which existed near Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland during the Iron Age.

The Paleolithic population of Europe also became one of the earliest components of the Spanish,

Italian and German peoples, and were among the first speakers of the the Romance languages and the

Teutonic languages, even though the Indo-European source of these languages, too, lay elsewhere.

The Basques, who are perhaps the purest "Paleolithic" population in Europe, do not speak a

Celtic language and are not Celts, even though they are ancestrally related to those who are.

R1b does not mean "Celtic". And, even though R1b is found everywhere in Western Europe,

no country in Western Europe is entirely R1b, or has been so for a very long time.

The Chart Above Shows The Distribution of R1b (alias HG1) In Green

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #25

This haplotype scored numerous single matches across Europe and the

Americas. It's impossible to say where it could have originated. However,

the presence of the Switzerland, Southwest Germany, Belgium, Italy and Iberia

does suggest two possibilities.

The haplotype may have originated in either Spain or the Celtic heartland

of Central Europe, and came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians or the

later pre-Roman Celts.

There is also a possibility that this haplotype originated in Iberia,

migrated to France or The Low Countries with the Sephardic Jews,

and came to England with the Normans.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 27 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Florida [European-American] 4.55
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 3.13
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Marche, Italy .93
Brussels, Belgium .80
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Latium, Italy .45
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Sweden .25
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #26

Two out of three matches for this haplotype occurred among the Basques.

It is clearly Iberian in origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 24 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #27

Half of the top ten frequencies fall among Iberian or Latin American

populations - including the Basques - two fall in northern Italy, and two fall

among European Americans. Since six of the next ten frequencies also fall

among Iberian or Latin American populations, it is fairly safe to conclude

that this haplotype came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] 1.59
New York City [Hispanic-American] 1.33
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Cape Town, South Africa [Xhosa] 1.01
Veneto, Italy .83
Choco, Colombia [African] .75
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Valencia, Spain .71
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Northern Portugal .55
Central Portugal .54
Sicily, Italy .50
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Leipzig, Saxony .30
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Finland .25

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #28

Although five out of nine of the matches for the haplotype fall in Iberia or Latin America,

two fall in Argentina - which means they may not necessarily be Spanish in origin.

The matches below also include Groningen (Frisia), Magdeburg (Saxony) and Sweden.

The hit in Groningen, in fact, represents the highest frequency.

This haplotype may well have come to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians, but it

might also have arrived with the Flemish or the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Groningen, Netherlands 2.08
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Choco, Colombia [African] .75
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
New York City [European-American] .65
Northern Spain [Basque] .59
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Argentina [European] .33
Sweden .25

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #29

The partial haplotype below has an extremely interesting match pattern. Among the

top ten frequencies, we have several areas well-known for Celtic settlement - Ireland,

Cantabria, Northern Portugal and Brussels. Yet at the same time, two of the top

ten frequencies fall in Sweden.

These may simply represent coincidental peak areas for an extremely

widespread haplotype. That would be the conservative assessment.

In that case, the haplotype most likely came to Britain with the

Iberians or the Celts.

Or we could speculate creatively. The presence of both

Scandinavia and Ireland in the highest frequencies could suggest

that the haplotype was spread by the Viking slave trade, which

might explain how a Celtic haplotype ended up in Syria.

On the other hand, this haplotype might have been Baltic or

Scandinavian in origin, and had achieved its broad range first through

the conquests of either the Visigoths or the Normans - or both.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 31 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Blekinge, Sweden 4.76
Cantabria, Northern Spain 3.96
Ireland 2.80
Zaragoza, Aragon 2.50
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 1.92
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Northern Portugal 1.65
Brussels, Belgium 1.60
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Texas [African-American] 1.45
Madrid, Central-East Spain 1.35
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Guinea 1.01
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Paris, France .92
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Southern Portugal .89
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Switzerland .67
Argentina [European] .66
New York City [European-American] .65
Central Portugal .54
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .45
London, England .40
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #30

The partial haplotype also has an extremely interesting match pattern. Of the

top ten frequencies, the two highest fall in Norway, one each falls in Greece,

France and the Rhineland, and three fall in Latin American or Iberian samples.

This may be another potential "Viking slave trade" haplotype. Or it

could be a Norman signature. The classic Norman was a Frenchman

of Norse ancestry, and the Normans were known to be active in Greece,

Ireland and Zaragoza.

The remaining matches include some among Latin American samples,

but most seem to be Germanic. A few, like the matches in Pomerania and

Sweden, reinforce the idea of an Scandinavian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 31 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Central Norway 2.08
Western Norway 1.56
Bogota, Colombia [European] 1.36
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Athens, Greece .99
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Ireland .93
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Lyon, France .80
London, England [Afro-Caribbean] .79
New York City [African-American] .67
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Budapest, Hungary .51
Munster, Westphalia .51
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Tuscany, Italy .46
Tyrol, Austria .44
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Sweden .25
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Chemnitz, Saxony .12
Virginia [European-American] ..64

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #31

The two highest frequencies for this haplotype fall in France, which is unusual for a

YHRD match pattern. Most of the rest fall in Latin America, with one each in Tuscany,

Swabia and Berlin.

This haplotype could have come to Britain with the Normans or their Breton

allies, but it might also be of earlier Celtic or Iberian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 13 11 11

Geographical Locale

%
Strasbourg, Alsace 2.13
Paris, France .92
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Tuscany, Italy .46
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #32

The haplotype below has a fairly typical match pattern for an AMH. The Low Countries and Iberia vie for the top

frequencies, with additional matches in Northern Italy and the Rhineland. The one anomaly is the presence of Syria

as the second highest match frequency. This may be a function of how widespread the haplotype is, or it may be

a case of convergence with an ht35 haplotype whose DYS393 value has mutated upward from 12 to 13, or it may

simply be a coincidence. It does bolster the impression that this haplotype does have a largely Southern European

orientation, and could have expanded into the Eastern Mediterranean.

The general verdict on a "Border Reiver" haplotype like this is that it came to Britain with the Iberians, whether

during prehistoric times or later on.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Groningen, Netherlands 4.17
Syria 2.65
Zaragoza, Aragon 2.50
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.78
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Argentina [Guarani Amerindian] 1.47
Barcelona, Catalonia 1.34
Andulacia, Spain 1.23
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Cantabria, Spain .99
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Tuscany, Italy .92
Latium, Italy .90
Brussels, Belgium .80
Cologne, Westphalia .74
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Budapest, Hungary .52
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Argentina [European] .33
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Sweden .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #33

The haplotype below has a classic match pattern for a native Briton, with the hits falling almost exclusively in

England, Spain, Portugal and Latin America. This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Birmingham, England 1.03
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Cantabria, Spain .99
Central Portugal .41
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #34

The haplotype below appears to have an Iberian or Central European Celtic origin. The predominance of Northern Italy

among the few European matches is interesting, but should not be interpreted to suggest a Roman origin. Northern Italy -

along with the Low Countries, the Rhineland, Switzerland and Austria - was one of the home regions of the Central

European Celts.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 24 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 1.92
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Lombardy, Italy .55
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Leipzig, Saxony .12

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #35

The haplotype below appears in such typical AMH areas as the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and Northern Italy.

It also appears in Germany and Denmark. It could easily be either Anglo-Danish or native British "Celtic" in origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 24 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Caccamo, Italy 5.26
Greifswald, Germany 1.44
Reunion Island [Kaf] 1.37
Netherlands 1.15
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Strasbourg, France 1.01
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Switzerland .67
Reunion Island [Creole Blanc] .51
Tyrol, Austria .43
Denmark .40
Bydgoszcz, Poland .24
Freiburg, Germany .23

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #36

The haplotype below is a rare variant of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype which may converge with I1a haplotypes.

This may be the reason for the match in Central Norway. Disregarding that possibility, this haplotype could possibly

be either Scandinavian or Celtiberian in origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 14 15

Geographical Locale

%
Central Norway 2.08
Santiago de Compostela, Spain .97
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .13

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #37

The haplotype below has a predominantly Iberian match pattern, and most likely came to Britain with the Celts or the

prehistoric Iberians. However, it must be noted that the second highest frequency falls in Norway. This is interesting

because this match pattern was prepared for a "Border Reiver" participant whose only other clan member thus far

exhibits a slightly different haplotype which also has a top match frequency in Norway. The clan in question is

supposedly Norman in origin, which is consistent with either a Celtiberian or a Norwegian DNA signature.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 29 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Louisiana [European-American] 3.23
Zaragoza, Spain 1.67
Eastern Norway 1.18
Bern, Switzerland 1.01
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Santiago de Compostela, Spain .97
Barcelona, Spain .89
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Stuttgart, Germany .44
USA [European-American] .39
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Leipzig, Germany .12

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #38

The haplotype below differs from the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype only by an unusual pair of high values

on DYS389i,ii. These differences appear to be insignificant, because the geographical matches fall among Latin

Americans, in the British Isles, in Spain and in Tyrol, Austria. All of these areas are known places of Celtic or

Iberian settlement. This haplotype could easily be of native British origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 32 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Ecuador [Mestizo] 1.96
London, England .70
Barcelona, Spain .45
Tyrol, Austria .43
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #39

The match pattern for the haplotype below is almost entirely Iberian or Latin American. It most likely came to

Britain with the prehistoric Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 9 14

Geographical Locale

%
Antioquia, Colombia [European] 1.16
Maedira, Portugal 1.02
Reunion Island [Creole Blanc] 1.01
Southern Portugal .89
Mendoza, Argentina [European] .78
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
USA [European-American] .39
Central Portugal .20

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #40

The haplotype below displays in miniature the widespread geographical range of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype.

It may have come to Britain with either the Iberian Celts or the Anglo-Saxons, but it is clearly Western European

in origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 13 10 15

Geographical Locale

%
Valencia, Spain .71
Chemnitz, Germany .12

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #41

The haplotype below has only one match. That falls in Germany, and as such it certainly does not rule out

an Anglo-Saxon origin, although other origins are also possible.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 29 24 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Hamburg, Germany .36

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #42

The haplotype below is found among areas of Europe settled by Celts - Northern Italy, the Rhineland, Austria,

parts of Spain. It may have come to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians or with later Celtic migrants.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 24 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Verona, Italy .65
Lombardy, Italy .55
Budapest, Hungary .52
Cologne, Germany .43
Tyrol, Austria .43
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .41
USA [European American] .28

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #43

The haplotype below is widely dispersed. The top match frequencies seem to occur in Hispanic and Mediterranean

samples however. This might indicate an origin in Iberia or elsewhere in Southern Europe, but is most likely a coincidental

artifact of its wide range.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Guajira, Colombia [Mestizo] 5.56
Qena, Upper Egypt 1.92
Mendoza, Argentina [European] 1.55
Puglia, Italy 1.43
Quito, Ecuador [Mestizo] .84
Veneto, Italy .83
Lyon, France .80
Ireland .66
Muenster, Germany .51
Latium, Italy .45
Western Norway .33
USA [African American] .28
Andulacia/Extremadura, Spain .26
Leipzig, Germany .25
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #44

The haplotype below appears at low levels over a wide area. It is clearly indigenous to Western Europe,

but its specific origin is anyone's guess. Although the highest frequencies occur in Iberia and North Africa,

the majority of the matches fall in Germany, Belgium and England, suggesting an Anglo-Saxon origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 13 13 12 15

Geographical Locale

%
Madeira, Portugal [Portuguese] 1.01
Rabat, Morocco [Arabs] .77
Munich, Germany [German] .36
Antwerpen, Belgium [Belgian] .36
London, United Kingdom [English] .33
Berlin, Germany [German] .15
Leipzig, Germany [German] .09