Haplogroup R1b (DYS390=21 or 22)

Haplogroup R1b (DYS390=21 or 22)

The haplotypes below exhibit the basic marker values 14-12-22-11-13-13 or

14-12-21-11-13-13, which puts them two and three steps away, respectively,

from the Atlantic Modal Haplotype.

The Heyer study of 1997 recorded a mutation rate of zero for DYS390 and DYS393. Although the DYS390 marker

has not exhibited a mutation rate as consistently low as DYS393 in other studies, the results of the Heyer study suggest

that it is a relatively stable marker. As such, particular values of DYS390 may be acquired less often by random

mutation, and therefore may be more likely to reflect a shared ancestry among the haplotypes that exhibit them.

The sense we get from these AMH variations is that they occur predominantly among the

Celts of continental Europe and their Teutonic brethren along the North Sea coast.

R1b DYS390=21 Haplotype #1

This haplotype is rare, and it is difficult to make judgments without sufficient data. Nonetheless, two of the three

European hits are Iberian. Moreover, both Galicia and the Strasbourg area have a history of Celtic settlement.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 21 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Barcelona, Catalonia .45

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #1

This haplotype is also rare, but is concentrated in the Germanic-speaking portions of Central Europe.

Because there are no hits in The Netherlands, Denmark or Northern Germany, there is no reason to believe that

this is necessarily an Anglo-Saxon signature.

It may very well represent the genetic legacy of the Celts. In that case, it may have

entered Britain with the introduction of Celtic culture circa 500 B.C.E.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 22 11 13 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Tyrol, Austria .87
Munich, Bavaria .39
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #2

This haplotype is rare. The only hit is in the Alpine region of Central Europe. It may have originated with the original Celtic

population, and found its way into Britain with the introduction of Celtic culture circa 500 B.C.E.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 22 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Tyrol, Austria .87

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #3

The match pattern for this haplotype falls predominantly in, or near, the Germanic areas of Western Europe.

Among the top five frequencies, the highest falls in Sweden, followed by two locales in The Netherlands, and then

Alsace and Switzerland. There are additional matches in Germany and Belgium.

Iberian matches are few, and they seem exclusively Portuguese.

Since many of the Germanic matches fall in areas settled by Suebians, such as Alsace and Switzerland, the Portuguese

matches may have a similar origin. The Suevi, as the Suebi were known in Iberia, controlled much of Portugal for 175 years.

However, Belgium, Switzerland and the Rhineland also have a Celtic past.

Although his haplotype may have come to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons or the Danes, it may also have arrived with

the Celts of Central Europe circa 500 B.C.E.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 22 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Limburg, Netherlands 2.00
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Southern Portugal .89
Brussels, Belgium .80
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Budapest, Hungary .51
Munster, Westphalia .51
Latium, Italy .45
Chemnitz, Saxony .37
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #5

The match pattern for this haplotype is almost exclusively Teutonic. The only hit in a Romance language country

falls in a part of Italy that was controlled by the Ostrogoths, and then the Lombards, for several centuries.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 22 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Netherlands 1.15
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Cologne, Westphalia .74
New York City [African-American] .67
Munster, Westphalia .51
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .45
Munich, Bavaria .40
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #6

The match pattern for the haplotype below is largely Teutonic. The match in Macedonia is probably also Germanic in

origin, reflecting the movements of Goths, Heruls, Gepids or other Germanic nomads. This haplotype may have come

to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons or the Danes.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 22 10 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Uppsala, Sweden 1.75
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Macedonia .67
Switzerland .67
New York City [African-American] .67
Munster, Westphalia .51
Chemnitz, Saxony .24

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #7

The haplotype below is extremely rare, but its single hit in Saxony is consistent with an Anglo-Saxon origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 22 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #8

Two out of three matches fall in the British Isles, which is unusual for any haplotype in YHRD, and generally suggests

an origin among the aboriginal population of that region. However, the presence of both England and Germany in

this match table could also suggest Anglo-Saxon origins, making this match pattern consistent with those of other

DYS390=22 R1b haplotypes.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 22 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Birmingham, England 1.03
Ireland .66
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #9

The haplotype below has few matches, and they are all low frequency. Consequently, it is difficult to venture an estimate of

where it came from. Nevertheless, the matches in Saxony and Northern Portugal - with its history of occupation by the Suevi

and the Visigoths - is not inconsistent with a Germanic or "North Sea Celtic" origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 22 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Argentina [European] .33
Northern Portugal .18
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #10

All the Old World matches for the haplotype below fall in Northeastern Germany - including two in Saxony.

It falls in the category of "North Sea Celtic", and could have come to Britain with the Angles and the Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 22 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Louisiana [European-American] 3.23
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Leipzig, Saxony .24

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #11

The haplotype below is found at low levels in Ireland and Germany. An Anglo-Saxon origin is certainly possible,

but a generalized Western European origin is the safest bet.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 22 10 13 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Ireland .66
Hamburg, Germany .36
Berlin, Germany .18

R1b DYS390=22 Haplotype #12

The haplotype below is found in Russia and Saxony. A Northern Germanic origin - whether it be Anglo-Saxon,

Danish or Norwegian - is most likely.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 22 13 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Novgorod, Russian Federation [Russian] .79
Chemnitz, Germany [German] .12