Haplogroup R1b (DYS390=25 or 26) - Part III

Haplogroup R1b (DYS390=25 or 26)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype has many variants. Any basic haplotype that differs from

the AMH values of 14-12-24-11-13-13 by a single step, on any marker, in any direction, is

still considered part of AMH. The haplotypes here exhibit DYS390 values of 25 and

26, some with DYS19 values of 13 or 16, or DYS392 values of 11 or 12. These are all

quite deviant from the norm, but are still classed as R1b.

The Heyer study of 1997 recorded a mutation rate of zero for DYS390 and DYS393.

Although the DYS390 marker has not exhibited a mutation rate as consistently low as

DYS393 in other studies, the results of the Heyer study suggest that it is a relatively

stable marker. As such, particular values of DYS390 may be acquired less often by

random mutation, and therefore may be more likely to reflect a shared ancestry among

the haplotypes that exhibit them.

Because these haplotypes deviate from AMH in different ways, they suggest

a variety of origins, all of which are discussed below.

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #13

The highest frequencies for ths haplotype fall in Holland and Venice. It also occurs in

Germany and Latin America. R1b haplotypes with DYS390 values of 25 are not particularly

associated with Teutonic locales. The presence of Leiden and Venice, as well as parts of

Germany near the Polish border, suggest that this haplotype might have originated in Iberia

and spread across Europe with Sephardic emigration.

Nevertheless, the number of matches is too small for any conclusive judgment. We

advise examining the match patterns for the related haplotypes #14 and #15.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Leiden, Netherlands 2.08
Veneto, Italy .83
Rostock, Mecklenberg .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Munich, Bavaria .40
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #14

The top ten frequencies for this haplotype fall among Cajuns and African Americans, in The Netherlands,

Denmark, Northern Spain, Switzerland, Ireland and Germany. The African-American matches are probably

of Western European origin.

The strong presence of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands meets the criteria for a possible

Danish or Anglo-Saxon origin. It may also be of Central European Celtic origin. There is little to indicate that

this haplotype is primarily Iberian.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Oregon [African-American] 2.13
Limburg, Netherlands 2.00
Missouri [African-American] 1.79
Denmark 1.59
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Ireland .66
Muenster, Westphalia .51
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Madgeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Argentina [European] .33
Leipzig, Saxony .30
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #15

The European matches for the haplotype below fall exclusively in Sweden, so

it is hard not to conclude that it came to Britain with the Normans, the Danes or

the Norse Vikings.

It is interesting to note that the closest FTDNA Haplogroup matches,

for the "Border Reiver" haplotype for which this table was prepared, fall in

Greece and Macedonia. This may be yet another example of a "Scandinavian"

haplotype with a parallel range in Southeastern Europe, Anatolia or Western Asia.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 13 11 11

Geographical Locale

%
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
New York City [European-American] .65
Sweden .49

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #16

This haplotype is very widespread, with many matches, and should perhaps be the standard

by which closely related haplotypes are judged.

Of the top three European freqnencies, two fall in areas with a very strong "Celtic"

reputation - Ireland and Cantabria. Three of the top six fall in The Netherlands, two of

the top ten fall in Northern Italy, one in Poland and two in Portugal.

This haplotype may have, and probably did, find its way into several completely

different population groups. Its presence in Britain most likely has an origin in prehistoric

Iberia. However, there are other possibilities. The haplotype could have come to Britain with

Normans, Bretons or Flemish, of either Celtic or Sephardic origin. It might also have

come to Britain with the Frisians or the Anglo-Saxons - or with the pre-Roman Celts.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Emilia Romagna, Italy 3.37
Ireland 3.29
Virginia [European-American] 3.28
Antioquia, Colombia [European] 3.19
Cantabria, Northern Spain 2.97
Zeeland, Netherlands 2.21
Groningen, Netherlands 2.08
Limburg, Netherlands 2.00
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Krakow, Poland 1.87
Southern Portugal 1.79
Central Portugal 1.74
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Choco, Colombia [African] 1.49
Pyrenees, Spain 1.49
Valencia, Spain 1.43
Texas [Hispanic-American] 1.35
Tyrol, Austria 1.30
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland 1.19
Eastern Norway 1.18
Netherlands 1.15
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Lombardy, Northern Italy 1.10
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Muenster, Westphalia 1.02
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Athens, Greece .99
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Paris, France .92
Tuscany, Italy .92
El Salvador .83
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Warsaw, Poland .83
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Lyon, France .80
Tartu, Estonia .75
London, England .70
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .69
Madrid, Spain .68
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .67
Switzerland .67
Argentina [European] .66
New York City [European-American] .65
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Chemnitz, Saxony .61
Northern Spain [Basque] .59
Budapest, Hungary .52
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Sweden .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Munich, Bavaria .40
Northern Portugal .32
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #17

This haplotype has an unusual match pattern. Half of its top ten frequencies fall in Spain,

or among Hispanic samples in the U.S. Yet it also occurs in Northern Italy, Switzerland, and

in a fair variety of locales in the Baltic region.

This haplotype may have originated primarily in Iberia, and spread with the diaspora of

Iberian Sephardim to other parts of Europe known to have substantial Jewish settlements -

such as Northern Italy, Bern, Switzerland and the greater Baltic.

It may have come to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians or the Normans, among

other possibilities.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 25 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 4.76
Maryland [Hispanic-American] 3.85
Texas [European-American] 2.56
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Cantabria, Northern Spain .99
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Leipzig, Saxony .76
Valencia, Spain .71
Riga, Latvia .69
Madrid, Spain .68
Vilnius, Lithuania .64
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Budapest, Hungary .52
Finland .50
Sweden .49
Chemnitz, Saxony .37
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #18

Since the match pattern for this haplotype is focused on exclusively on Sweden,

it is hard not to conclude that it came to Britain with the Normans, the Danes or

the Norse Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 31 25 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Sweden .25

R1b DYS390=25 Haplotype #19

The haplotype below is a rare variation of another haplotype - call it the "Irish Sea" modal haplotype - that occurs

most commonly in Ireland, the Isle of Man, and along the western coasts of England and Scotland. It also occurs

occasionally in Scandinavia, perhaps as the result of the Celtic slave trade or of a Paleolithic affinity among the

peoples of Northern Europe. The top match frequency here is in Zeeland, which is most likely European

Celtic in origin.   Considering the closeness of this haplotype to another signature of known geographical range,

we believe that it may be native to Ireland and came to Britain with the Scotti or later Norse-Gaelic migrants.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 12 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Zeeland, Netherlands 2.17
Sweden .25