Haplogroup R1b (DYS392=14)

Haplogroup R1b (DYS392=14)

While the vast majority of R1b signatures exhibit a DYS392 marker value of 13, a few

of the "Border Reiver" descendants have a value of 14. This may or may not be significant.

The Kayser study of 2000 demonstrated a mutation rate of zero for only DYS392

and DYS393. That does not mean that DYS392 never mutates, but it does suggest that

it mutates very rarely. Clearly, the value of this marker is stable enough that Oxford

Ancestors chooses to employ a DYS392 value of 11 as a benchmark indicator of a

classic "Viking" haplotype.

A DYS392 marker value of 14 may signify an as yet unidentified subclade of R1b,

or may simply be the result of a random mutation. We have obtained match patterns for the

haplotypes in our sample that exhibit this value, and will discuss them below.

The samples are all quite diverse, and appear to vary along a continuum defined by

changes in the DYS390 marker. Those haplotypes with a DYS390 value of 23 or 22 seem to be

more common among Germanic and Scandinavian populations. Those with a DYS390 value

of 24 appear to straddle Germanic zones and Southern Europe. And those with a DYS390

value of 25 are associated with high frequencies among Iberians and British Celts.

Since we have observed similar trends among R1b haplotypes whose DYS392 marker

has the modal value of 13, we are tempted to conclude that a DYS392 value of 14 has less

bearing on the geographical origin of these haplotypes than the DYS390 marker.

However, these additional trends must be noted:

1) When we search for YHRD matches with a wild card DYS385a, we often retrieve East Asian

and even Native American matches. This suggests to us that these DYS392=14 haplotypes,

although most likely R1b wherever the appear in the "Border Reiver" database, converge

readily with Q and other Asiatic haplogroups.

2) The DYS 392/393 combination of 14/13 is close to the corresponding haplogroup N

combination of 14/14. Therefore, high frequencies in eastern Scandinavia and the

Baltic should be viewed with skepticism.

3) The DYS390=25/DYS392=14 exhibits unusually high frequencies in the British Isles -

especially considering how poorly represented the British Isles are in YHRD. This

variation, of all the R1b partial haplotypes we have checked against YHRD, gives

the strongest suggestion of being indigenously British.

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #1

The partial haplotype below is very rare for an R1b, and in fact resembles haplotypes with higher DYS385a values found

in Mongolia, Singapore and Vietnam. Those haplotypes may well belong to haplogroup Q. The only match with a low

DYS385a value falls, not uncoincidentally, in England. This haplotype - as a "Border Reiver" profile - is most likely a

rare variation of a British aboriginal signature, or - considering the DYS390 value of 23 - a "North Sea Celtic" signature.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 23 10 14 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
London, England .35

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #2

This partial haplotype is also very rare, its scarcity probably due to the unusual DYS390 value of 22. It appears only once,

in Northern Germany.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 22 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Greifswald, Pomerania .48

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #3

Of the top three European frequencies for this haplotype, one each occurs in Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

The fourth occurs in Ireland. There are also many other matches in Western and Northern Germany, and all across

the Baltic region of Eastern Europe.

Only four Iberian locales appear. One of these is in Catalonia, once controlled by the Visigoths and the Alans,

and Central Portugal, which also was controlled by the Visigoths and Alans, as well as the Suevi.

This haplotype could have entered Britain with the Scandinavians or the Anglo-Saxons, with the numbers

favoring the former. The appearance of Ireland in the top five frequencies, along with the Scandinavian

hits, further suggests that this haplotype may have entered "Border Reiver" territory through the

Hiberno-Norse settlement of Galloway and Northwestern England.

NOTE: The marker values for DYS 19/390/391/392/393 of 14/23/11/14/13 are perilously close to

N or N3 haplotypes with corresponding values of 14/23/11/14/14. Some of the Scandinavian hits -

perhaps most of those in Finland, Estonia and Latvia - may be convergent haplotypes belonging to

haplogroup N.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 23 11 14 13 11/12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Varmland, Sweden 2.35
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Denmark 1.59
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Finland 1.50
Ireland 1.32
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Bern, Switzerland 1.09
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Munster, Westphalia 1.02
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Latium, Central Italy .45
Lyon, France .80
Tartu, Estonia .75
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Riga, Latvia .69
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Taraz, Kazakhstan .57
Central Portugal .54
Antioquia, Colombia .49
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .44
Warsaw, Central Poland .42
Malaysia [Malay] .36
Sweden .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #4

This haplotype is clearly very rare, its scarcity probably due to the unusual DYS389i,ii values of 12 and 29.

Since the only hit is in Zaragoza, there is no reason to assume that this haplotype has anything other than an Iberian

or Celtic origin.

It is interesting to note that, as for Haplotype #1, high values for the DYS385a yield mostly

Asiatic matches, indicating convergence with haplogroup Q.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 29 24 10 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Zaragoza, Aragon .83

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #5

This haplotype is not overwhelmingly common in one area. Among the top ten European frequencies, two appear in

Scandinavia, one in Switzerland, two in West Germany, two two in Northern Italy, two in Spain, and one in Romania.

The YHRD matches exhibit very little obvious convergence even when the DYS385a value is wild

card. It appears close to the modal value for this variety of R1b, as attested by its broad range and its

general localization within Western Europe.

In theory, it could have come to Britain from anywhere in Western Europe, but is probably

in most cases of native Celtic or Iberian origin.

NOTE: The marker values for DYS 19/390/391/392/393 of 14/24/10/14/13 are perilously close to

N or N3 haplotypes with corresponding values of 14/24/10/14/14. Some of the Scandinavian hits

may be convergent haplotypes belonging to haplogroup N.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 10 14 13 10/11/12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 3.13
Blekinge, Sweden 2.38
Bern, Switzerland 2.19
Missouri [African-American] 1.79
Denmark 1.59
Greenland [Inuit] 1.43
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.18
Romania .98
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .69
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Munster, Westphalia .51
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
Munich, Bavaria .39
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Argentina [European] .33
Northern Portugal .32
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #6

The top ten frequencies here are predominantly Northern or Central Italian - with additional hits in Iberia, England,

The Netherlands and Switzerland.

Since these are all classic areas of Celtic or Celtiberian settlement, this haplotype may have entered Britain with the Celts

themselves, circa 500 B.C.E. - or with the Iberians in prehistoric times.

Considering the rare predominance of Italy among the top frequencies, another source may have been the Roman

settlement of Britain.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Limburg, Southern Netherlands 2.00
Umbria, Central Italy 1.96
Marche, Eastern Italy 1.85
Latium, Central Italy 1.35
Switzerland 1.34
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] 1.12
Central Portugal 1.08
Birmingham, England 1.03
Tuscany, Central Italy .92
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .88
Veneto, Northern Italy .83
Lyon, France .80
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Europeans] .79
Pyrenees, Spain .76
Tartu, Estonia .75
Cologne, Westphalia .74
Valencia, Eastern Spain .71
Bogota, Colombia .68
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Chemnitz, Saxony .49
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
London, England .40
Argentina [Europeans] .33
Sweden .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #7

The R1b haplotype below is quite unusual for the YHRD database due to its large proportion of hits in the British Isles.

Since the British Isles are underrepresented in this database, high frequencies among those samples are especially significant.

Most of the other areas with high frequencies fall in the United States, the South and the Southern Midwest in particular.

These are areas with a strong history of Anglo-American and Scots-Irish settlement, a background consistent with those

of the samples in the British Isles. There are also multiple matches in the Cape Town sample, possibly also of

British origin.

The next highest set of frequencies falls mostly among samples of Iberian origin. The general paucity of high frequencies

anywhere in Europe outside the British Isles and Iberia suggests that this haplotype came from Spain several millennia before

the arrival of Celtic culture. If one were to imagine the match pattern for a DNA profile descended from the Picts of Scotland

or the Cruithne of Ireland, it might look very much like this.

The one hit in Zeeland may superficially suggest an alternative origin among the Anglo-Saxons, but this also probably has

a Celtic or Iberian origin.

There is also the outstanding anomaly of the 25 percent frequency in Greece,

which does not appear to be the result of convergence. Possibly, this is skewing

due to the unusually small sample size, the result of 2 matches in a sample of 8.

We have yet no convincing explanation for this anomaly.

In Ysearch, this haplotype is most common among those with Irish surnames. It also occurs among persons of Gaelic

Scottish origin, and among certain families of Gallowegian, Manx or Cumbrian extraction. Interestingly, the relevant surnames

include many reputed to be of Norse-Gaelic origin - such as MacAulay, MacDowall, MacQueen, Macdonald, McLaughlin,

McLothlin, Salkeld, Wilson, Hetherington, Kennedy and others.

It occurs most frequently among the Irish samples in the Capelli data set, and it also appears in Helgason's Iceland data set.

This haplotype and its variants might almost be dubbed the "Irish Sea Haplotype", due to their strong orientation around the

Irish Sea. It is one of the most common non-AMH R1b haplotypes in the Border Reiver database. Considering that the

Border Reivers were not generally of Gaelic Scottish descent, this haplotype may have come to Southwestern Scotland

and Northwest England with Norse-Gaelic settlement - either from Dublin, the Isle of Man or southwards from the Western

Isles.

Another possibility, in view of the fact that many of the Border Reivers in our database are actually Scots-Irish, is that

this haplotype entered the Scots-Irish gene pool directly from a local Irish Gaelic source. More about this distinctive R1b

variation can be found at this link.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 25 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Crete, Greece 25.00
Ireland 6.58
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Texas [European-American] 2.56
Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 2.17
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 2.00
New York City [European-American] 1.94
London, England 1.75
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Birmingham, England 1.03
England-Wales [Afro-Caribbean] 1.02
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Madrid, Central-East Spain .65
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Tuscany, Italy .46
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Northern Portugal .32
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European-American] .22
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #8

This partial haplotype was taken from a "Border Reiver" descendant that was SNP-tested as R1b. The only hit that

makes any real sense is Freiburg, which could indicate either a Celtic or an Anglo-Saxon origin.

This is not a typical R1b haplotype at all, and frequently exhibits convergence with

Asiatic or Native American samples in YHRD when DYS385a is wild card.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 - 24 10 14 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [African-American] 2.70
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #9

The haplotype below exhibits its highest frequencies in the U.S., Northern Spain, France, Northern Germany and Ireland.

It is clearly Western European, and most likely Celtiberian in origin. Very typical of otherwise modal R1b haplotypes with

DYS392 values of 14.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pennsylvania [African-American] 2.33
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Paris, France .92
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Ireland .66
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Munster, Westphalia .51
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Northern Portugal .32
Chemnitz, Saxony .24

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #10

The highest frequencies for this haplotype occur in the Scots-Irish heartland of the U.S.A., and in Ireland, Northern Italy,

England, Galicia and Switzerland - all well-known Celtic regions. The Celtic or Celtiberian origin of this haplotype is quite

evident. It has probably been present in the British Isles for a very long time.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 10 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Ireland 2.63
Umbria, Italy 1.96
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Texas [African-American] 1.45
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Birmingham, England 1.03
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Switzerland .67
Munster, Westphalia .51
Antioquia, Colombia .49
Tuscany, Italy .46
Northern Portugal .32
Leipzig, Saxony .30
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #11

Half of the matches fall in Spain or Latin America, or among U.S. Hispanics. This suggests an Iberian origin. The inclusion

of a few locales in or near Poland and Italy may be the result of a connection with the Celts of Central and Eastern Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 14 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 1.92
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .49
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Argentina [European] .33
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Gdansk, Poland .18

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #12

This haplotype is not common. Nor is it easy to assess. Although the highest match frequency falls in Saxony,

the second highest falls among the Basques. The Basques are also the only group with multiple matches.

There are also several matches in Portugal and Latin America, as well as in other parts of Germany.

This haplotype is unquestionably of Western European Paleolithic origin, and probably came to Britain with the

prehistoric Iberians. Nonetheless, an Anglo-Saxon origin is also possible, and cannot be ruled out.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 24 11 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Tuscany, Italy .46
Central Portugal .43
Munich, Bavaria .39
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Northern Portugal .32
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #13

The haplotype below scored hits only in Ireland and among Latin Americans. It is most likely came to Britain with

the prehistoric Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 26 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Ireland 1.87
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .74

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #14

The haplotype below is rare. However, the one match that it scored in Denmark is entirely consistent with the range

of DYS390=23 R1b or "North Sea Celtic" haplotypes. The DYS392=14 value in this context seems almost

incidental.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 23 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Denmark 1.59

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #15

The haplotype below is rare. Moreover, it includes a DYS390/391/392 combination of 23/10/14, which may

cause it to converge with Haplogroup N haplotypes. That may be what we're seeing with the matches in Finland

and Lithuania. Otherwise, this haplotype appears Iberian or Western European Celtic in origin. Unlike many R1b

haplotypes whose DYS390 value is 23, its geographical range is not biased towards the Teutonic nations of the

North Sea.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 23 10 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Paris, France .92
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .69
Northern Portugal .64
Vilnius, Lithuania .64
Latium, Italy .45
Warsaw, Poland .42
Finland .25

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #16

The haplotype below is another problematic one. Most of the matches in YHRD fall among Han Chinese and South

Asians, which is a highly inappropriate match pattern for a haplotype that is reportedly an R1b. Hence, we have filtered

out the Asian matches, and retained only those in Europe.

This haplotype is not common in Europe, falling only in the circum-Baltic region. There may well reflect additional

convergence with "N" haplotypes, so not even this match pattern can be trusted.

Taken on face value, however, it suggests a Germanic or Anglo-Saxon origin, which is not inconsistent with

an R1b DYS390 value of 23.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 23 10 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Chemnitz, Saxony .37
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Vilnius, Lithuania .64

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #17

The haplotype below is a variation of the "Irish Sea Haplotype" and, true to form, its European matches are in Ireland

and Portugal. It is most likely of Celtiberian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 24 11 14 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Ireland .66
Reunion Island [Creole Blanc] .51
Central Portugal .20

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #18

The haplotype below is rare, but its appearance in Switzerland and Spain could suggest a Celtic or Iberian ancestry,

consistent with the pre-Roman population of Britain.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 14 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Lausanne, Switzerland .88
Madrid, Spain .66
Bialystok, Poland .55

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #19

Two of the top three European matches for the haplotype below fall in England, which is highly unusual for

any haplotype in the YHRD database, even an R1b. This suggests that this is simply a variant of the "Ui Niall"

haplotype - or what on the Border Reivers DNA Project we like to call the "Irish Sea Modal Haplotype" - and as

such may have originated in the British Isles. Nonetheless, as we often find with variants of this haplotype, there is

also a strong presence in the Northern Germanic portions of Europe. This suggests that haplotypes of this sort are

merely endemic to Northwest Europe as a whole, and could have come to Britain with Frisians or Anglo-Saxons

as well as with the prehistoric Celts and Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 - 25 11 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon [African-American] 2.13
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Birmingham, England 1.03
Brescia, Italy .94
London, England .70
New York City [African-American] .67
Hamburg, Germany .36
Northern Portugal .18
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] .15
Leipzig, Germany .12

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #20

The top Old World match frequencies for the haplotype below fall in Spain and Ireland, but there are also

several matches in Germany and one in Italy. It more closely resembles the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype

in its broad range, and may not necessarily have come to Britain with the Iberians or the Celts. It may even have

arrived with the Anglo-Saxons - who, after all, were Western Europeans, too.

The fact that both the Anglo-Saxons and the "Celts" came from Western Europe means that their descendants

cannot always be distinguished from one another genetically - and that, my friends, is the key source of frustration for

many R1b Anglo-Americans who are trying to pin down their "deep ancestry". The solution, for some, is simply

to attribute their ancestry to the Western European tribe they prefer to identify with.

R1b is the "Rorschach Ink Blot" of Y-DNA haplogroups. It is found everywhere in Europe, and those

who belong to it make of it what they will.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Pennsylvania [African-American] 2.33
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Asturias, Spain 1.11
Ireland .66
Verona, Italy .65
Muenster, Germany .51
Barcelona, Spain .45
USA [African-American] .39
Hamburg, Germany .36
Chemnitz, Germany .12

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #21

The haplotype below appears at small frequencies mostly among Southern Europeans, but the highest frequency by far

falls in Romania. This haplotype could be of predominantly Southern or Eastern European origin, and may have come

to Britain with Roman troops or settlers - or perhaps with later merchants of Mediterranean descent.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 24 11 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Moldavia, Romania [Romanian] 7.14
Val Marrecchia, Italy [Italian] 1.54
Leiden, Netherlands [Dutch] 1.03
Madrid, Spain [Spanish] .66
Ravenna, Italy [Italian] .52
Reunion [Creole Blanc] .51
Central Porugal [Portuguese] .25
Antioquia, Colombia [Mestizo] .08
United States [European American] .08

R1b DYS392=14 Haplotype #22

The European matches for this haplotype fall in Sweden, England and in multiple sites in Spain,

Italy and Germany. In theory, it could have come to Britain from anywhere in Western Europe.

However, the fact that two of the top three frequencies fall among Basques and in England itself

suggests that it arrived with the prehistoric Iberians and was essentially native to Britain.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Jokkmokk, Sweden [Saami] 2.63
Biscay, Spain [Basque] 1.15
Birmingham, England 1.03
Cantabria, Spain [Spanish] .99
Modena, Italy [Italian] .77
Verona, Italy [Italian] .65
Valencia, Spain [Spanish] .50
Ravenna, Italy [Italian] .26
Freiburg, Germany [German] .23
Cologne, Germany [German] .14
Rostock, Germany [German] .13
Stuttgart, Germany [German] .09

R1b DYS392=15 Haplotype #1

The haplotype below is rare, most likely just a variant of a similar haplotype whose DYS19 marker value is 14,

but which is otherwise very close to the Atlantic Modal Haplotype. The highest frequency matches fall largely in

Iberia or in parts of Central Europe where the Celtic culture originated.

There is no reason not to believe that this haplotype came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians, or with

Celtic immigrants of a later period. Either way, it would have been associated with the Celtic-speaking natives

of pre-Roman Britain.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 15 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Romania .98
Switzerland .67
Tuscany, Italy .48
Central Portugal .43
Argentina [European] .33
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .35

R1b DYS392=15 Haplotype #2

The haplotype below is very uncommon, and its match pattern is too scattered to strongly suggest any particular origin.

The presence of Denmark and Saxony hints of an Anglo-Danish origin - even the "Irish Sea Haplotype" has one of its

highest frequencies in the Netherlands - but a Celtiberian origin is also possible.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 10 15 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [European-American] 3.28
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Denmark .40
Leipzig, Germany .12

R1b DYS392=15 Haplotype #3

The haplotype below is uncommon, but what few matches there are suggest a Germanic or Central European origin.

This is more typical of R1b haplotypes with a DYS390 value of 23, than of R1b haplotypes with high DYS392 values.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 23 10 15 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Ploesti, Romania 2.78
Munich, Germany .71
Switzerland .67

R1b DYS392=15 Haplotype #4

The haplotype below has only one Old World, in Northeastern Germany. Curiously, most of the R1b haplotypes we have

posted thus far on this page with DYS392 values of 15 show some bias towards the German-speaking regions of Europe.

This may or may not be a coincidence, but it does indicate that R1b haplotypes with high values of DYS392 are not

found exclusively along the Celtic fringe of the British Isles.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 15 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Greifswald, Germany .48

R1b DYS392=15 Haplotype #5

The haplotype below has two matches in Poland, but no matches anywhere else. This is consistent with other R1b haplotypes

with DYS392 values of 15, whose geographical range is centered around the Baltic. The problem is that YHRD haplotypes

are not SNP-tested, so these matches might actually be the result of convergence with other haplogroups, such as N3.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 23 12 15 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] 1.55