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Irene Creager Lawson

pp. 24-34


Son of Johann Casper Creager
Born � 1737 Frederick, Maryland
Died � September 4, 1805 Frederick, Maryland
Wife � Christinia Hoffert

1. Solomon Creager, born July 20, 1772
2. Christian Creager, born September 26, 1774
3. Peter Creager, born August 10, 1776
4. Catherine Creager, born July 12, 1779
5. Frederick Creager, born 1780
6. Anna Maria �Mary� Creager, born June 18, 1785
7. Wilhelm Creager, born June 19, 1788
8. John William (Johann Wilhelm) Creager, born November 24, 1790
9. Henrich Creager, Unknown
10. Casper Creager, Unknown


Adam Creager was the fifth child born to Casper and Christinah Creager. He was born in 1737, between the months of May and September, in Frederick County, Maryland. Adam was confirmed on May 20, 1753 aged 15 years, according to records at the Falckner Swamp Lutheran Church. He was married to Christinia Hoffert. They possibly had as many as 10 children, but, to date five sons and two daughters have been proven. Adam was the executor of his father�s-in-law will, Christian Huffert of Frederick County, Maryland, probated October 8, 1788, which can be found in Frederick County Will Book GM2, Folio 289. Adam and Christinia attended the Evangelical Lutheran Church and were witnesses for many baptisms and weddings as well as wedding held at Mr. Adam Creager�s place. Adam served in the Revolutionary War as an Ensign, in Captain Valentine Creager�s Company (Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. II, Page 163)

In records of the Circuit Court at the Frederick County Courthouse, there are more than sixty entries for land bought and sold by Adam Creager. Perhaps the Creager sense of humor has come down through this ancestor, having named his various tracts of land such as: Huckleberry Hills, Creagers Lots, Spring Garden, Adam�s Poor Chance, etc. according to his will, which is printed beginning on page 25 in its entirety.

Casper and Adam�s wills seem to acquaint us with more than just how they wished their property and land distributed and the names of their heirs. They justify their reason for making a will, manifest their faith in God, request a decent burial and the discharge of all their debts, which reveals a depth of character worthy of recognition. Adam died September 4, 1805. His will was made April 11, 1801 and probated November 2, 1805. Adam�s will can be fond in the Court Records in Frederick, Maryland � Book GMRB, No. 1, Page 146.

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From: �Eighteenth Century Emigrants from Germany � Speaking Lands of North America,� Volume I: The Northern Kraichgau, by Annette Kunselman Burgert, published by the Pennsylvania German Society, Breinigsville, Pennsylvania, 1983, pages 169 and 222. �Johann Georg Hoffert came over on the ship �Allen.� The passengers were: Jorick Hoffert, under 15; Christian Hoffert (Christinia�s father); females, Anna Margaret Hoffert and Anna Margaret Hoffert, Jr. (The �Allen� came over in 1729.).� Christian Hoffert�s first wife was Elizabeth, Christinia�s mother. His second wife�s name was not mentioned in his will, but seventeen children were named as follows: Christian and Christiania (Elizabeth�s two children); then Philip, Margaret, Daniel, John, Casper, Catherine, Elizabeth, Adam, Hannah, Jacob, Susanna, Magdalene, Rebecca, Barbara and George. Christinia was �confirmed May 12, 1768, Ascension Day, the daughter of Christian Hoffert, she was aged 18 years.� (Rocky Hill Records, Woodsboro, Maryland)

From �Pennsylvania Berichte,� February 1, 1756 �Christian Hoffert, Whitpain Township (Montgomery County), 18 miles from Philadelphia, offers part of his plantation for sale. Christian Hoffert, Whitpain, was naturalized in Philadelphia in April 1761.� (Strassburger and Hinke, pages 27, 29, and 30)


[NOTE: Wills during this time period had few commas, periods and paragraph breaks. Capitalization often occurred for unknown reasons throughout the document. Many times even the person�s name was spelled differently throughout the document as were the names of the legatees. Other words were frequently misspelled or misused within the document. Margaret Myers appears to have recorded the document in its original form, while Irene Creager Lawson appears to have transcribed the will with commas, periods, and other breaks, so in this presentation, I have decided to show the document as transcribed by Margaret Myers in its original form, yet showing pagination as presented by Irene Creager Lawson. ICL names his wife as Christinia and other sources name her as Christina. Perhaps a better readable transcription can be found on the updated version of Adam Creager's Biography. ASH]

"In the name of God Amen. I Adam Creager of the County of Frederick in the State of Maryland, being weak in Body but in Perfect mind and Memory thanks be to God calling to mind the mortality of my Body and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to Die, do make and ordain this my last will and Testament to say Principally and first of all I Give and recommend my Soul into the hand of Almighty God that gave it and my Body I recommend to the Earth to be buried in Decent Christian Burial Manner at the Discretion and Disposal of my Executors nothing Doubting but at the General resurrection I shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God. As to the Worldly Estate wherewith it has pleased God to bless me with, in this life, I Give Devise and Dispose of in the following manner and form after all my lawful Debts and funeral Expenses are fully Discharged and paid, Viz.

Item, I give devise and bequeath unto my beloved Wife Christina Huffort Creager to be possessed and enjoyed by her for and during the Term of her Widowhood the front [Begins next: p. 26 of Lawson�s book] room in the West end of the Dwelling House, wherein we now reside with the full Privilege of the use of Part of Kitchen adjoining and Part of the Cellar under said House, the one fourth part of the Kitchen Garden front thereof. Likewise a full privilege of the use of the well now convenient thereto with her choice of the following Articles Viz. Two Rows of Apple Trees yearly and every Year in either of the Orchards on the farm, whereon, we now reside. Also the choice of one of my Mares, Sadle and Bridle, one Cow, three Sheep, the Bed and furniture whereon we now Lay. Exclusive of all and Singular the above mentioned and described bequeathments. I further will and bequeath to her the one third Part of all the personal Property now in my possession.

Item, I give Devise and bequeath unto my beloved son, Solomon, all that part of a Tract of Land Situate laying and being in the County of Frederick called Spring Garden lying near to Israel Creek known and Distinguished by No. 10, containing One Hundred and Twenty-five Acres more or less. Also two other Lots or Parcels of ground adjoinings. Tract and Distinguished by No. 73, containing fourteen and one fourth Acres more or less. The other No. 78 containing Twenty four acres more or less together with one other Lott or Parcel of Ground Laying on a branch of Grape Creek in said County being part of a Tract of Land call Huckleberry Hills and part of a Tract called Creagers Lots containing thirty Acres more or less the whole of said lands Valued to him at Five Pounds p. Acre. To be held possessed and enjoyed by him his heirs and Assigns forever under the following restrictions and Incumbrances. Viz. he is to pay unto my beloved Wife, Christina, the Sum of Ten Pounds specie and Ten Bushels of Merchantable wheat to be paid and Delivered to her Yearly and Every Year for and during the Term of her widowhood. I further order that he pay the Sum of Seven Hundred and thirty two Pounds Six Shillings and eight Pence Specie to my remaining Legatees in the following manner Viz. to pay the Sum of One Hundred Pounds Specie thereof unto my Daughter, Catharine, one Year after my Decease and the Sum of One Hundred Pounds thereof on the Second Year after my Decease and so on until he has paid her the sum of Five Hundred Pounds and the residue of the above described Sum of Seven Hundred and thirty two Pounds Six Shillings and Eight Pence to be paid by him in Yearly Payments of one Hundred Pounds each to my remaining Legatees in the manner herein after Described.

Item, I give Devise and bequeath unto my beloved Son Christian all of the following Parts of Tracts or Parcels of a Land Situate laying and being Frederick County Viz. Part of a Tract or Parcel of Land called Mount Pleasant, Second, a part of a Tract of Land called Rynharts First Choice, Third, a Part of a Tract of Land called Creagers Lotts. Fourth, a part of a Tract of land called Adam's Poor Stance. Also Part of Lott No. 81 the whole of said Lands containing four Hundred and Six Acres more or less Valued to him at four [Begins next: p. 27 of Lawson�s book] pounds per acre to be held possessed and enjoyed by him his heirs assigns forever under the following restrictions and encumbrances Viz. he is to pay and procure for my beloved Wife, Christina yearly and every year for and during the Term of her Widowhood the following Articles. Viz. First he is to pay the Sum of five Pounds Specie Second he is to cut and deliver convenient to her a Sufficient quantity of firewood. Third he is to procure and deliver to her One Hundred pound of Good Pork Fourth to deliver to her five Bushel of mercantile Wheat Fifth to feed and pasture the before mentioned Stock or like number for her in the same manner as if they were his own property. Sixth he is to plough and prepare one fourth Acre of Land and sow it with flaxseed for her use he is to let her have full privilege to pass to and from her Ass. Appartment at pleasure and without Interruption or Molestation. I further order that he or his heirs or Assigns Shall pay unto my remaining Legatees the Sum of Eleven Hundred and twenty Six pounds Six Shillings and Eight pence Specie to be paid them in the following manner Viz. the Sum of One Hundred Pounds thereof to my beloved Son Frederick one Year after my Decease and the Sum of One Hundred Pounds the two Years after my Decease and so on untill he has Paid him the Sum of Three Hundred and Sixty eight Pounds Specie and the Residue of the above Described Sum of Eleven Hundred and Twenty Six Pounds Six shillings and eight pence to be paid by him in Yearly Payments of One Hundred Pounds each to my remaining Legatees in manner herein after Specified.

Item I give and devise and bequeath to my beloved son Frederick all those Parts Tracts or Parcels of Land Situate laying and being in Frederick County ass. on branch of Cabbage Run which include a part of a Tract called Adam's Poor Chance part of Mt. Pleasant and part of a resurvey on Pleasant Mount containing in the whole Forty four Acres of Land or less Valued and Appraised to him at three Pounds per Acre to be held and enjoyed by him his heirs and Assigns forever under the Following Restrictions Viz. He is to keep or cause to be kept open and in good Passable Order the Road where it now Runs through said Land forever. If he at any time hereafter Offer for Sale the whole or any Part of the above mentioned, and his Brother Christian should have a desire to become the Purchaser he is to give him the Prefference to any Other Person Provided he Agree to give him as much as he can have from another.

Item I give Devise and bequeath to my Daughter Mary the Sum of five Hundred pounds Specie her heirs or assigns to be paid to her by my Executors in the following manner Viz. The Sum of One Hundred Pounds thereof one Year after the before mentioned Legacies bequeathed to her Sister Catherine and Brother Frederick's are fully Discharged and paid and the Sum of one Hundred Pound the Second Year after and so on Yearly Payments untill she receive the ass. Sum of Five Hundred Pounds exclusive of said legacy I [Begins next: p. 28 of Lawson�s book] bequeath to her a mare to be worth Twenty Pounds also sadle and bridle. Also bed and beding. Also to have Household furniture equal to one of my other Legatees.

Item I give devise and bequeath to my beloved son John William the Sum of Five Hundred Pounds Specie to him his heirs and Assigns to be paid him by my Executors in the following manner Viz. the sum of One Hundred Pounds thereof to be paid one year after the before mentioned Legacies of his sister Cathrine and Brother Frederick is paid off and the sum of One Hundred Pounds thereof the second year and so on in Yearly Payments until he receive the Sum of Five Hundred Pounds Exclusive thereof I order that my Executor give him furniture to the Amount of my other Legatees when he arrive to the age of Twenty years. Previous thereto I order that he be sent by my Executors to School for the Term of One Year and if he make choice of beginning any Mechanical Art he is to be bound by my Executors thereto. When he arrive to the age of Eighteen and to be Supported by my Executors in boarding washing and apparel. Whereas I have given unto my son Peter a proportional Share of my Estate Real and Personal, therefore I order that he is not to have any Part of my Estate hereafter.

Item I further order that my Executors appoint two Reputable freeholders to Appraise and Value all and Singular my Personal Property afterwards to offer the same at Public Sale then to Deduct the one third of the amount thereof out which I have bequeathed to my beloved Wife Christena the Residue to be Equally Divided among my remaining Legatees namely Solomon, Christian, Catherine, Frederick, Mary and John William if any of them die without Issue all the Property hereby Vested in them I shall return to the Surviving Legatees and be Equally Divided amongst them.

I further fully invest the Power in one or both of my Executors to convey and make Over by Lawful Deeds of Conveyance any Lands already Sold or may hereafter be sold belonging to my Estate and not conveyed previous to my Decease all the property in Woodsberry belonging to my Estate. I order that my Executors dispose of to the best Advantage and the monies arising therefrom Shall be appropriated to the Payments of the Debts due on my Estate and the Overplus money if any arising from the sale of said Property shall be considered as part of my Personal Property and be Divided as before directed. If my wife Christena should at any further Period marry and not be so fortunate as to live happy with the person she make choice of she shall have it in her power to return and enjoy all and Singular the before mentioned bequeathments if she thinks proper but no other person in Partnership or in behalf of her shall be entitled to these privileges.

Likewise I constitute nominate and appoint my beloved Sons Solomon and Christian to be my sole Executors of this my last will and Testament and I do hereby utterly disallow revoke and anul all and every other former Testaments Wills [Begins next: p. 29 of Lawson�s book] Legacies bequests and Executors by me in any Wise before named willed and bequeathed Ratifying and confirming this and no other to be Last will and Testament In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and Seal this Eliventh day of April Dom. Eighteen Hundred One.

Adam Crieger
("Adam Creager's signature as copied from records in Frederick, Maryland in 1952 by Mrs. Stella Risinger of Eaton, Ohio." ICL)

Signed Sealed Published and Pronounced and Declared by the said Adam Creager as his last will and Testament in his presence and in the presence of each of us have hereto Subscribed our names.
Henry Creager
Peter "X" Creager
Henry Reich (in German Script)

(Source: Lawson, Irene Creager, The Creager History,   pp.25-29)



Solomon Creager was the first born to Adam and Christinia. He was born July 20, 1772 in Frederick County, Maryland and baptized August 16,1772 with Valentine Creager and Christina as sponsors. According to the Evangelical Lutheran Church records on �March 29, 1793 � Solomon Creager, aged 20, brother of Christian, confirmed.� (Christian was also confirmed on this date.) On April 19, 1801, Solomon and Anna Maria �Mary� Schmidt were married by license in the presence of witnesses, George Creager, Frederick Schenck and Christian Creager in the house of Mr. George Creager. Anna Maria was born March 31, 1776 and baptized August 27, 1776. She was the daughter of Regina Nusbaum and Adam Smith (Schmidt). Anna Marie (Mary) Smith�s sister, Barbara Smith, married Casper Creager, son of Johann Christian and Mary Creager (see page 9). The will of Adam Smith was dated March 26, 1823 and was probated December 13, 1824 and is filed in Frederick County Court House, Frederick, Maryland in Vol. HS 3, Folio 292 which states: Wife Rachel (Regina?), son, John Smith; son, Philip Smith; daughter, Mary Creager; daughter Catherine Creager; daughter Barbara Creager; daughter Eve Smith; daughter Magdelene Smith; daughter Elizabeth Smith; daughter Sarah Smith; son-in-law, Solomon Creager. Executors: son-in-law, Solomon Creager and son, John Smith. (At this time, I have no knowledge as to the Creager that Catherine Smith married.) Solomon died October 16, 1826 and Anna Maria on March 14, 1847. They are buried in the Link-Creager Cemetery, Daysville, Frederick County, Maryland (see map of Frederick County, MD Cemeteries on page 7.)

Solomon and Mary had eight children. Catherine Creager was born December 15, 1802. She married Christian Cramer and they moved from Frederick County, Maryland around 1840 to Tiffin, [Seneca County], Ohio. Rebecca Creager was born August 8, 1804, baptized September 23, 1804 and died October 4, 1804. Adam Creager was born November 25, 1805. Adam first married Sophia Cramer and later was married second to Eliza Toop. This family is buried in Glade Cemetery, Walkersville,

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Maryland (see map of Frederick County, MD Cemeteries on page 7). Jacob Creager was born January 14, 1808. He married Ann Margaret Shank. Anna Maria Creager was born July 25, 1809. She married Adam Link. Lidia Creager was born June 8, 1811. Lidia married Daniel Burrier. Solomon Creager was born April 18, 1813. He first married Susanna Barrick. At the age of 73 years, Solomon was a widower and on November 30, 1886 he married Susan R. Lugenbeel, age 30. Sophia Creager was born July 29, 1815 and was married to John H. Lechlider.

Christian Creager was the second born to Adam and Christinia. He was born September 26, 1774 and was our direct ancestor. (See page 35 for Christian�s biography.)

Peter Creager was the third born of Adam and Christinia. Peter was born in Frederick County, Maryland on August 10, 1776. He was confirmed into the Evangelical Lutheran Church on April 6, 1798 and married Eve Albaugh on November 9, 1799. In 1812, Peter, along with his brothers, came to Ohio. The trip proved to be too much for Peter�s wife, Eve, and she died soon after arriving in April 1812. Peter married Elizabeth Rike in November of 1812. In November of 1836, he moved his family to South Whitley, Whitley County, Indiana. Peter died Mrch 16, 1849 and is buried in the Old Cleveland Cemetery, South Whitley, Indiana. His will was made January 12, 1849 and probated on April 16, 1849. Since the �History of the Creager Family of Ohio and Indiana,� by Stella Risinger and Harriet F. Wright of Richmond, Indiana, is no longer available, we are including the lineage of Peter Creager.

Peter and Eva had five children and all were baptized in the Rocky Hill Lutheran Church in Frederick, Maryland. They were: Charlotte, born October 11, 1800 and died January 4, 1802; Sophia, born in 1801, married Benedict Ridgly and lived on a farm in Montgomery County, Ohio (no record of their family); William Henry, born October 19, 1803, married Mary Ann Ridgly (note: William H. and Sophia married brother and sister) and had nine children: Peter, Mary E., Sarah E., William O., John R. and Sophia Jane Creager; Catharina, born April 6, 1805 and married a Mr. Newman (no further information); and Samuel, born November 3, 1809, married Mary Jane Leslie and had seven children: Lydia Margaret, Lucinda, Elizabeth Jane, Delilah, Mary, �Tody,� and Rueben H. Creager.

Peter and Elizabeth, his second wife, had seven children: [1] Ezra, born November 18, 1813, married Delilah Ford and had nine children: Elizabeth Ann, Lydia Margaret, John Rueben, Mary Ann, Levi Anderson, Catharine Margaret, Angeline, Joseph Franklin and Sarah Jane Creager. [2] Adam was born 1815; [3] Levi, born in 1817. [4] Christian Henry, born in 1821, married Susannah Obenchein and had ten children: Samuel, Catherine, Mary Ann, William R., Lydia, Martha, John H., Malvina and two who died in infancy. [5] Lydia

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Margaret, born in 1824, married Phineas Burwell and had three sons: Peter, Anderson Levi, and Adam R. Burwell. [6] Peter II, born in 1829 married Melissa J. Williamson and had three children: Victoria, Lydia A. and Joseph L. Creager; and [7] John Rueben, born in 1832, married Julia Banfill and had three children: Joseph A., Alice J. and John Oscar Creager.

We are indebted to Mrs. Stella Risinger for much of the Adam and Casper Creager research. Her husband, Harry L. Risinger, was of the Ezra and Delilah Ford Creager lineage. Their daughter, Angeline Creager, married Cornelius Risinger and had five children: William Edward, Mary, Frank C., Harry Lester and Anne L. Risinger. Harry Lester married Stella Eikenberry. He was a lawyer in the offices of Abel and John Risinger in Eaton, Ohio. He also served as Mayor of Eaton. Harry and Stella had two daughters: Mary Catherine, who married Judge Don Ziegel; and Jean Angeline, who married Malvern Huff.

Catharine Creager was the fourth born and first daughter of Adam and Christinia. She was born July 12, 1779. Catharine was married to Daniel Link on February 14, 1801. They had two daughters, Marian and Sophia. In the records of the Frederick County receipts and releases, Vol. R.B.P. 9, is the following: �Received September 8, 1810 of Solomon Creager the sum of 100 pounds being the 5th and last payment coming from him agreeably to the last will and testament of Adam Creager, late of Frederick County deceased � as ordered by the testator to be paid to his daughter Catharine, wife of Daniel Link.� Catharine died October 20, 1833 at the age of 54 years. Daniel, who was born August 6, 1772, died June 5, 1854. His will was written November 30, 1853 in the State of Maryland, Frederick County, and probated July 7, 1854. Catharine and Daniel Link are buried on the Dinlerman Farm off the Walkersville Liberty Road, Frederick County, Maryland.

Frederick Creager was the fifth born of Adam and Christinia. He was born in 1780 in Frederick County, Maryland. According to the Evangelical Church records, on April 15, 1802, Frederick was a communicant. Frederick and Margaretha Schrupp were married in Mr. George Creager�s tavern on April 20, 1806. The Parish Registers (1803-1861) of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Woodsboro, Frederick County, Maryland, indicates that Frederick and Margaretha (Anna Mary in the church records) had twins born on March 20, 1807 and baptized on March 29, 1807. One was Henrietta, sponsored by Peter Creager and his wife Eva; and the other was William, sponsored by Christian (Krieger) Creager and wife, Anna Mary. Church records also show one of Frederick and Mary�s children being born September 28, 1811. That was their daughter, Elizabeth, who was also baptized on February 6, 1812 with her parents as sponsors.

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Frederick Creager and wife, Margaretha, and their children came to Ohio in 1812 withhis brothers. The 1830 census of Fairfield County, Clear Creek Twp. (Lancaster, Ohio) listed Frederick as having six children, three girls and three boys. On the 1840 census it listed one son and five daughters still at home. He evidently had two more daughters after 1830. Have been unable to find any trace of this family.

Anna Marie �Mary� Creager (in church records) or Mary (in Adam�s will) was the sixth born to Adam and Christinia. She was born June 18, 1785 and baptized July 17, 1785. According to the Evangelical Lutheran Church records, Anna Marie was confirmed into the church April 16, 1802. A marriage license was issued April 26, 1811 (Frederick Co., MD Marriage License) to Anna M. and Philip Reich. They were married May 5, 1811.

John William Creager was born November 24, 1790 and baptized December 12, 1790 with Johann Kalbfleisch and wife Catharina as sponsors (Rocky Hill Records). He was married November 16, 1822 to Christiana Cramer (Frederick Co., MD Marriage License) Christiana Cramer was the daughter of Jacob Cramer and the granddaughter of George Cramer.

It is on records by some historians that John William came to Ohio in 1812 with his three brothers, Peter, Christian, and Frederick. Have been unable to find any records of a John William in Montgomery County, [OH] or any nearby counties. He would have been a young man of twenty-two in 1812. If he indeed came with others to Ohio, he later returned to Frederick, Maryland where he was married as verified by his Frederick County Marriage License.

Three other children thought to be Adam and Christinia�s are: Wilhelm Creager, born June 19, 1788, baptized June 29, 1788, sponsors George Creager and Catherine (Rocky Hill Records); Henrich Creager and Casper Creager.

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We cannot realize the privations and difficulties of those early pioneers who came with very little besides their energy, courage and willingness to undergo the hardships, trials, and dangers of this virgin land. Their first concern after arriving was to find a spot they liked and to erect a cabin. Trees were cut for building material as well as to make a clearing in the wilderness. The ends of the logs were notched with a hand ax and laid one upon the other to make the size room needed. The spaces between the logs were filled with chips and sticks and plastered with clay mud. The roof was made of hand hewn clapboards held in place by long poles laid upon them as weights. Windows were made by cutting the logs out for the needed space and then covered with greased paper or cloth. The door was a slab split off of a log and nailed to cross pieces and hung on wooden pegs for hinges. It was fastened with a wooden latch, which was raised and lowered with a rawhide string. A fireplace, made of stone with an outside chimney made of split laths laid in clay mud, was built in one end for heat as well as for cooking. (Our large farm home near West Alexandria was built onto just such a little one-room cabin which had a fireplace, stone floor and a ladder to the bedroom above. I.L.)

The women made the clothes for the family after spinning, weaving, and dyeing the wool and flax. The trials and difficult circumstances of life in which these young wives found themselves are almost impossible to comprehend. Raising large families, the prevalence of disease and sickness with little or no medical aid, along with their rigorous household chores, fear of the Indians and animals and seldom hearing from families they left behind. (For some years, the only mail in Dayton was carried by a post-rider leaving Cincinnati once a week.) The histories in the libraries seldom mention how hard and difficult life was for these pioneer women and children, but the tombstones speak for themselves.

Bridle paths which finally became the roads were almost impassible in rainy or winter weather. The mud holes were laid with poles that would float and the horse�s feet would sink through causing much difficulty and delay. In the 1880 �History of Dayton and Montgomery County,� page 575, it lists wagon rates in 1815 as follows: trip to Cincinnati �75cents (50 miles), two-horse load of wood 37 � cents, two-horse load of gravel- 25 cents.

During the summer of 1818, the stage coach was started between Cincinnati and Dayton. It took two days for the trip, staying overnight at Hamilton. Fare was 8 cents a mile, with fourteen pounds of luggage allowed for each passenger. Flat-boats pulled by horses were used to send produce, grain, flour, etc. south. This method was used

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until the late 1820�s. The first canal boat powered by steam arrived in 1829 from Cincinnati, but not from Lake Erie until 1845.

But these courageous and intrepid settlers prospered and progressed. They built new roads and improved the old with gravel from the creek beds. (The roads were not greatly improved until 1837.) They learned to harness the current of the rivers and taught it to run under huge water wheels. These turned the stones to grind the corn into meal, the looms which converted their wool into yarn, and the saws which made boards out of logs.

Their log houses had served their purpose. Sawmills were built and homes were made of board construction or the old log house was covered with board siding and the interiors remodeled. Later, homes were made of brick.

When there became talk of the railroad going through, they were well on their way to overcoming many of the hardships of their former life. This community of people had welded together with a common purpose, and had turned the wilderness into a home for themselves, their children, and their children�s children.

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Irene Creager Lawson


Pages i. to vi.

Title Page
1 to 10

10 to 23

24 to 34

35 to 43

44 to 47

48 to 53

54 to 64

65 to 72

73 to 80

81 to 88

89 to 107

as given in Irene (Creager) Lawson's Manuscript/Book
will not be presented in the online text,
but they will be incorporated and accessible within the
An attempt will be made to list those living as "LIVING" without vital information being presented.

Webpage by:   Audrey (Shields) Hancock of Portage, Michigan

Created: 01 July 2006

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