Nauvoo collapses
     The Newberry Family - Nauvoo

Joseph Smith dies - Nauvoo Collapses

From 1839 until June of 1844, Nauvoo became a shining beacon on the Mississippi River.  Joseph Smith and his people
had built and extraordinary city that rivaled Chicago of the time.  Things began to go awry with some of the practices
instituted by Joseph Smith. Old animosities from Missouri had crossed the river and snaked their way into the hearts
of the Illinoisans.  Dissident factions arose to cause trouble among the brethren. 

Polygamy had taken root, as rumor soon became known as a fact.  Smith had also instituted some of the older practices
from the Kirtland period that lost support among the old rank and file Mormons who knew him well.  The final straw came
the day
Joseph Smith ordered a printing press destroyed, owned by a group of non-Mormons and apostates who continued
to live in Nauvoo, he and several others, including his brother Hyrum were jailed over this infraction of Constitutional Rights.

It was June of 1844 when Hyrum and Joseph Smith were murdered at the hands of an angry mob. With Smith out of the
picture, many factions of belief sprang up and clamored to be recognized. Dissident factions took upon themselves the
responsibility of trying to continue what they believed to be the "true church". A power struggle ensued, leaving many
devout members wondering what the path of the church would be without their leader.  Brigham Young and others
stepped up to the job.  In the end Brigham Young won his bid of leadership.

It was the beginning of the end of old time Mormonism, when the leadership was in question and the dissident factions
were looking for approval of the masses. Brigham Young took up the helm and two years later announced that it was
time to fulfill the dreams of Joseph Smith and move to the shining mountains of the west.  By March of 1846 conditions
had deteriorated in Nauvoo to the point that once again, the Saints found themselves running for their lives. Governor
Ford, withdrew the city charter and the collapse began. Mobs began to hound the Mormons again, hunting leaders of
the church. Exodus was the only solution.

James was among those fleeing, however without the companionship of his beloved Mary who had succumbed to black
canker in Nov. of 1842.  In 1843 he remarried to Nancy Brown, sister of Captain James Brown, who as a colorful,
flamboyant character, who would follow Brigham Young to Utah, and become part of his circle. 

Before leaving Nauvoo, James also married Elizabeth Haskins.  The Mormons didn't believe in  divorce, so this was to
be a polygamous relationship for James. It is entirely possible that James took Nancy Brown as a second wife before
Mary died, as she is mentioned in the Missouri Redress petitions both with  her maiden name and with her married name. 
Joseph Smith was preaching polygamy before Nauvoo even in Far West, but only to those who were considered trustworthy.
In Kirtland, he had encouraged missionaries to marry Indian women.  It is believed that all of the women, with possibly the
exception of Sybil Pulsipher were of native descent. Could James have been held to a different standard at some point?

1846 - Leaving Nauvoo heading to SW Iowa
The government  had moved the territorial Indians to the southwest corner of Iowa before the 1840's but  most of Iowa
remained part of Indian Territory until then. Council Bluffs was populated by the Pottawattamie Indians, who possessed
varying degrees of education. Some had been to schools in the east and others remained with the tribe.  They were
progressing to some extent, but the white culture still called the shots on their choices of homes.  Within 2-5 years of the
Mormons arriving at Council Bluffs, the Indians would again be required to move to a new and less attractive locale. 

By June of 1847, the Mormons followed their Indian brethren to the new boundaries of the frontier. They would make
treaties with the Iowa and Omaha against the wishes of the U.S. Indian Agents. After leaving Nauvoo and Lee Co. Iowa,
James chose to reside at Trader's Point, among the Pottawattamie..  This  Trading post/Indian reserve was not completely
vacated by the Indians until as late as 1855. Between 1846-47 James A. Newberry joined them, later making his residence
in Kanesville, (Council Bluffs)  Indian Creek, and Wheelers Grove toward the end of his life. He was a farmer. The country
was divided into two counties, Pottawattamie and Mills County. The National Archives shows that in 1840 two thirds of the
western land was Indian Territory. The counties were not subdivided until later.

All total, James owned three or four pieces of land in several counties in Iowa. Montgomery Co. Mills County, Lee County,
and Pottawattamie County between 1838 and 1880.

On to Family separations  or choose the fork in the road and follow Hannah and George to Utah

Other Topics and Destinations:

Newberry Researcher's Corner - BRICK WALLS  This page is dedicated to the continuing research of the family and the
 researchers who continue with me to sift through the ancient records of the New England and New York.

All pages
Stage 1
/Connecticut / New York / More Newberry's in New York Samuel Smith / Smith Farm / Revolution /
Old School Baptists
/Native people in New England / Stage 2 / Ohio / Missouri / Illinois & Iowa / Nauvoo /
Flight to SW Iowa
/ The Half Breed Tract / Cutlerite membership / dissidence in NauvooDeath of James Newberry /
Wives and Family
/ Children who Went west /Stage 3 /Exodus to Utah / Utah Morrisites / Hannah's Children /
Hannah's Necklace
/ genealogy table / Addenda /Newberry Brick WallsWhispers - beginning the search /
/ Family Album / Jonathan Newberry Bible /