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COLUMBIANA COUNTY was formed from Jefferson and Washington, March 25, 1803.  KILBOURN, in his “Gazeteer,” says: “Columbiana is a fancy name, taken from the Columbus and Anna.  An anecdote is told pending its adoption in the legislature, that a member jocularly moved that the name Maria should be added thereto, so as to have it read Columbiana-maria.”  The southern part is generally broken and hilly, and the northern level and undulating.  This is an excellent agricultural tract; it is well watered, abounds in fine mineral coal, iron ore, lime and free-stone.  The water limestone of this county is of the best quality.  Salt water abounds on Yellow and Beaver creeks, which also afford a great amount of water power.  Forty years ago it was the greatest wool-growing county in Ohio, and was exceeded by but three or four in the Union.  About one-third of the population are of Germanic origin, and there are many of Scotch-Irish extraction.  In 1885 the acres cultivated were 118,656; in pasture, 90,692; woodland, 45,065; lying waste, 14,603; wheat, 159,241 bushels; corn, 645,329; oats, 580,660; wool, 552,862 pounds; apples, 515,913.  School census, 17,060; teachers, 357.  Area, 540 square miles.  Miles of railroad track, 117.



And Census





And Census

















Elk Run




St. Clair










































Yellow Creek




The population of Columbiana in 1820 was 22,033; in 1830, 35,508; and in 1840, 40,394, which was greater than any other counties in Ohio, excepting Hamilton and Richland.  The number of inhabitants to a square mile was then 46.  In 1846 the county was reduced by the formation of Mahoning, to which the townships of Beaver, Goshen, Greene, Smith, and Springfield, formerly belonging to it, were added.  The population of the county in 1860 was 32,836, and in 1880, 48,602, of whom 34,945 were Ohio-born; 6,344 Pennsylvania-born; 3,711 English subjects born; 852 German; 44 French; 32 Scandinavians.


            Columbiana is one of the best fruit-producing counties in Ohio.  The township


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of Middletown is especially noted for its raspberries and fine quality of peaches, which last is said to be a rarely failing crop.  The fruit finds a near market in Pittsburg.


The first paper-mill in Ohio, and the second west of the Alleghenies, was erected in 1805-6 on Little Beaver creek, near its mouth, in this County. It was called the Ohio paper-mill; its proprietors were John BEVER and John COULTER.


This county was settled just before the commencement of the present century. In 1797 a few families moved across the Ohio and settled in its limits. One of them, named CARPENTER, made a settlement near West Point. Shortly after, Capt. WHITEYES, a noted Indian chief, stopped at the dwelling of CARPENTER. Being intoxicated, he got into some difficulty with a son of Mr. C., a lad of about seventeen years of age, and threatened to kill him. The young man upon this turned and ran, pursued by the Indian with uplifted tomahawk, ready to bury it in his brain. Finding that the latter was fast gaining upon him the young man turned and shot him, and shortly afterwards he expired. As this was in time of peace, CARPENTER was apprehended and tried at Steubenville, under the territorial laws, under the territorial laws, the courts being then held by justices of the peace, He was cleared, it appearing that he acted in self-defence. The death of WHITE-EYES created great excitement, and fears were entertained that it would provoke hostilities from the Indians. Great exertions were made to reconcile them, and several presents were given to the friends of the late chief. The wife of WHITE-EYES received from three gentlemen the sum of $300; one of these donors was the late Bezaleel WELLS, of Stubenville. This was the last Indian blood shed by white men in this part of Ohio.




Adam POE, who, with his brother Andrew, had the noted fight with the Indians, once resided in this county, in Wayne township, on the west fork of Little Beaver. The son of Andrew - Deacon Adam POE, was living late as 1846 in the vicinity of Ravenna, Portage county, and had the tomahawk with which the Indian struck his father.  The locality where the struggle occurred, he then told the author, was nearly opposite the mouth of Little Yellow creek. We annex the particulars of this affair from “DODDRIDGE’S Notes,” substituting, however, the name of Andrew for Adam, and vice versa, as he then stated they should be placed:


In the summer of 1782 a party of seven Wyandots made an incursion into a settlement some distance below Fort Pitt, and several miles from the Ohio river. Here, finding an old man alone in a cabin, they killed him, packed up what plunder they could find, and commenced their retreat.  Among their party was a celebrated Wyandot chief, who, in addition to his fame as a warrior and counselor, was, as to his size and strength, a real giant.


The news of the visit of the Indians soon spread through the neighborhood, and a party of eight good riflemen was collected, in a few hours, for the purpose of pursuing the Indians. In this party were two brothers of the names Andrew and Adam POE.  They were both famous for courage, size and activity.


This little party commenced pursuit of the Indians, with a determination, if possible, not to suffer them to escape, as they usually did on such occasions, by making a speedy flight to the river, crossing it, and then dividing into small parties to meet at a distant point in a given time.


The pursuit was continued the greater part of the night after the Indians had done the mischief. In the morning the party found themselves on the trail of the Indians, which led to the river. When arrived within a little difference of the river, Andrew POE, fearing an ambuscade, left the party, who followed directly on the trail, to creep along the brink of the river bank, under cover of the weeds and bushes, top fall on the rear of the Indians, should he find them in ambuscade. He had not gone far when he saw the Indian rafts at the water’s edge. Not seeing any Indians, he stepped softly down the bank, with his rifle cocked. When about half-way down, he discovered the large Wyandot chief


And a small Indian, within a few steps of him. They were standing with their guns cocked and looking in the direction of our party, who by this time had gone some distance lower down the bottom.  POE took aim at the large chief, but his rifle missed fired. The Indians, hearing the snap of the gun-lock, instantly turned around and discovered POE, who being too near to retreat, dropped his gun and instantly sprung from  the bank upon them, and seizing the large Indian by the


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cloths on his breast, and at the same time embracing the neck of the neck of the small one, threw them both down on the ground, himself being upmost. The Indian soon extricated himself, ran to the raft, got his tomahawk, and attempted to dispatch POE, the large Indian holding him fast in his arms with all his might., the better to enable his fellow to effect his purpose. POE, however, so well watched the motions of the Indian that when in the act of aiming his blow at his head, by a vigorous and well-directed kick, with one of his feet he staggered the savage and knocked the tomahawk out of his hand. This failure on the part of the small Indian was reproved by an exclamation of contempt from the large one.


In a moment, the Indian caught up his tomahawk again, approached more cautiously, brandishing his tomahawk, and making a number of feigned blows, in defiance and derision. POE, however, still on his guard, averted the real blow from his head by throwing up his arm and receiving it on his wrist, in which he was severely wounded, but not so as to lose entirely the use of his hand.


In this perilous moment, POE, by a violent effort, broke loose from the Indian, snatched up one of the Indian’s guns, and shot the small Indian through the breast, as he ran up the third time to tomahawk him.


The large Indian was now on his feet, and grasping POE by a shoulder and leg, threw him down on the bank. POE instantly disengaged himself and got on his feet. The Indian then seized him again and a new struggle ensued, which, owing to the slippery state of the bank, ended in the fall of both combatants into the water.


In this situation, it was the object of each to drown the other. Their efforts to effect their purpose were continued for some time with alternate success, sometimes one being under the water, and sometimes the other. POE at length seized the tuft of hair on the scalp of the Indian, with which he held his head under the water until he supposed him drowned.


Relaxing his hold too soon, POE instantly found his gigantic antagonist on his feet again and ready for another combat. In this, they were carried into the water beyond their depth. In this situation, they were compelled to loose their hold on each other and swim for mutual safety. Both sought the shore to seize a gun and end the contest with bullets. The Indian being the best swimmer reached the land first. POE, seeing this, immediately turned back into the water to escape, if possible, being shot, by diving. Fortunately, the Indian caught up the rifle with which POE had killed the other warrior.


At this juncture Adam POE, missing his brother from the party, and supposing, from the report of the gun which he shot, that he was either killed or engaged in conflict with the Indians, hastened to the spot.  On seeing him, Andrew called out to him to “kill the big Indian on shore.” But Adam’s gun like that of the Indian’s was empty. The contest was now between the white man and the Indian, who should load and fire first. Very fortunately for POE, the Indian, in loading, drew the ramrod from the thimbles of the stock of the gun with so much violence, that it slipped out of his hand and fell a little distance from him; he quickly caught it up, and rammed down his bullet. This little delay gave POE the advantage. He shot the Indian as he was raising his gun to take aim at him.


As soon as Adam had shot the Indian, he jumped into the river to assist his wounded brother to shore; but Andrew, thinking more of the honor of carrying the big Indian home, as a trophy of victory, than of his own safety, urged Adam to go back, and prevent the struggling savage from rolling into the river, and escaping. Adam’s solicitude for the life of his brother prevented him from complying with this request.


In the mean time the Indian, jealous of the honor of his scalp, even in the agonies of death, succeeded in reaching the river and getting into the current, so that his body was never obtained.


An unfortunate occurrence took place during this conflict. Just as Adam arrived at the top of the bank, for the relief of his brother, one of the party who had followed close behind him, seeing Andrew in the river, and mistaking him for a wounded Indian, shot at him and wounded him in the shoulder. He however, recovered from his wounds.


During the contest between Andrew POE and the Indians, the party had overtaken the remaining six of them. A desperate conflict ensued, in which five of the Indians were killed. Our loss was three men killed, and Andrew POE severely wounded.


Thus ended this Spartan conflict, with the loss of three valiant men on our part, and with that of the whole of the Indian party, with the exception of one warrior. Never, on any occasion, was there a greater display of desperate bravery, and seldom did a conflict take place which, in the issue, proved fatal to so great a proportion of those engaged in it.


The fatal issue of this little campaign on the side of the Indians, occasioned an universal mourning among the Wyandot nation. The big Indian, and his four brothers, all of whom were killed at the same place, were among the most distinguished chiefs and warriors of their nation.


The big Indian was magnanimous, as well as brave.  He, more than any other individual, contributed by his example and influence to the good character of the Wyandots, for lenity towards their prisoners. He would not suffer them to be killed or ill treated.  This mercy to captives was an honorable distinction in the character of the Wyandots, and was well understood by our first settlers, who, in case of captivity, thought it a fortunate circumstance to fall into their hands.


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NEW LISBON IN 1846. – New Lisbon, the county-seat, is in the township of Centre, 155 miles northeast of Columbus, 35 miles from Steubenville and 56 from Pittsburg. It is on the line of the Sandy and Beaver canal, on the middle fork of Little Beaver, and is surrounded by a populous and well-cultivated country.  The town is remarkably compact and substantially built; many of its streets are paved, and it has the appearance of a small city. The view was taken from the southeastern part of the public square, and shows, on the left, the county buildings, and on the right, the market.  New Lisbon was laid out in 1802 by the Rev. Lewis KINNEY, of the Baptist denomination, and proprietor of the soil; a year or two after, it was made the county-seat. It contains 1 Friend’s meeting house, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal and 1 Reformed Methodist, 1 Disciples, 1 Dutch Reformed and 1 Seceder church, 3 newspaper printing offices, 2 woolen manufacturies, 2 foundries, 2 flouring mills, 14 mercantile stores, and about 1,800 inhabitants. Carriage making and tabbing are extensively carried on in this village. – Old Edition.


New Lisbon is on the north bank of Middle Beaver creek and Niles and New


Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.

Public Square, New Lisbon


Lisbon Railroad.  County officers in 1888: Auditor, Norman B. GARRIGUES; Clerk, Richardson ARTER; Commissioners, Elwood MILLER, Hugh McFALL, George D. FLUGAN; Coroner, Samuel BADGER; Prosecuting Attorney, P. M. SMITH; Probate Judge, James G. MOORE; Recorder, Abram MOORE; Sheriff, John W. WYMAN; Surveyor, Isaac P. FARMER; Treasurer, Jess. KEPNER.  Newspapers: Ohio Patriot, Democratic, Wilson Shannon POTTS, editor; Buckeye State, Republican, Ed. F. MOORE, editor; The Journal, Republican, George B. CORBETT, editor. Churches are Friends, Presbyterian, United Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist, German Reformed, Lutheran, Disciples, and Methodists. Banks: First National, J. F. BENNER, president, R. B. PRITCHARD, cashier; Firestone Bros., Daniel W. FIRESTONE, cashier; Lodge & Small. Principal industries are carriage-making, quarrying of building stone, sewer pipe, fire-brick, and iron-ore mining. Population in 1880, 2,028. School census 1886, 684; Superintendent, William H. Van FOSSAN.


The Ohio Patriot, now published in New Lisbon, is one of the oldest papers in Ohio, and, with the exception of the Scioto (Chillicothe) Gazette, is the oldest with the same continuous name. It was established in 1808, by William D. LEPPER, who brought the materials from Pittsburg. It was printed in a log-house on Beaver street. There were at the time only four newspapers published in the State, viz., one each at Chillicothe, Steubenville, Cincinnati, and at Marietta. The


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Paper was only about the size of an 8 x 10 pane of window glass, and the first year was printed in German, under the title of Der Patriot am Ohio. Until 1818 there was no newspaper printed in Cleveland, and the legal advertisements as well as the job-printing for Cuyahoga county were done in the office of the Ohio Patriot.


G. S. Moore, Photo., New Lisbon, 1886.

Street View in New Lisbon


[This view is on West Walnut street, looking easterly, and is very much like that of an English town. The cupola of the new court-house appears in the distance.]


About half a mile west of the fine court-house in New Lisbon, which has succeeded the structure shown in the old view, is the VALLANDIGHAM homestead. Here Clement Laird VALLANDIGHAM first appeared July 29, 1820, then an infant, who was destined to act a prominent part in the history of the Nation’s terrible struggle for existence; to become “the bold leader of the Ohio Democracy in the turbulent times of 1863.” It was with singular emotions in remembrance of his history that we stood in front of the place with the photographer, Mr. MOORE, and selected the spot from where we wished him to take the view which appears on these pages.


The mansion is on the Canton road, on the margin of the town, on a knoll well elevated from the street.. We felt as we looked that it was one of the most quaint old-style, home-like appearing spots we had seen for many a day. The grounds, ample with the surroundings that seem vital to the culmination of the happiest sort of life, garden, orchard, shrubbery, forest trees and grassy lawn, with a grand outlook upon not far distant bold-wooded hills. Personally we should prefer living in such a spot than in a regal city mansion, with its adjuncts of house and stone-walled prison-like streets, and rattling, deafening vehicles, and tides of surging, worrying, care-laden, conflicting and never-to-be-satisfied, ever-complaining humanity. In these rural homes it is the nature woos the spirit with her gentle influences of trembling, dancing leaves and opening flowers and care-free animal life; where, too, morning comes on in smiling beauty and evening gently closes the scene for calm repose.


The 17th of September, 1853, was a proud day for the inmates of the mansion. It was in the midst of the exciting VALLANDIGHAM campaign when was witnessed the tremendous outpourings of the Democracy in every part of the State to bring back “their exiled hero” from Canada as Governor of Ohio. On that day one of those wild, surging, enthusiastic political processions passed by the place.


“Over the gateway,” said the Wellsville Patriot, “was a plain white muslin, bearing the simple inscription, ‘VALLANDIGHAM’S Birthplace,’ and upon the grassy lawn, near the old homestead, now rendered dear to every freeman, stood the aged mother of Hon. C. L. VALLANDIGHAM, the great apostle and champion of human rights during the reign of terror and high-handed usurpations of the Lincoln Administration. What must have been her feelings when that great procession of freemen as they passed sent forth


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their hearty huzzas in honor of her exiled and persecuted son! . . . ‘VALLANDIGHAM’S birthplace’ is now consecrated and classical ground, and the present century will not have passed into eternity until pilgrimages will be made from every spot where the fire of liberty is unquenched and sages and patriots will revere the spot and love to look upon it as every freeman does the hallowed grounds of Mount Vernon, Monticello, the Hermitage or Ashland.”


The family still occupy the old home, and ere we left the place we obtained a pamphlet containing the lecture of Mr. VALLANDIGHAM upon the Bible, of which he was a close student, and a book, as he once wrote in a letter to his brother James, “without an intimate and constant study of which no man’s education can be finished and no man’s character can be complete.”


The ancestors of Mr. VALLANDIGHAM were on the paternal side Huguenots and on the maternal Scotch-Irish. The family came from French Flanders and the original name was VAN LENDEGHEM. It was under that name that his ancestors came to Stafford county, Virginia, in 1690. These were Michael VAN LENDEGHEM and Jane, his wife. A son of these, who had become a lessee in Fairfax county under Lord Fairfax, for more agreeable sound and easier pronunciation, changed his family name from Van LENDEGHEM to VALLANDIGHAM. His father, Clement VALLANDIGHAM, was born in Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, was an Old School Presbyterian clergyman and came to New Lisbon in 1807, where he was ordained pastor and commenced preaching the Gospel under a tent. His congregation were largely Scotch-Irish people who had settled in and around the place. He died in 1839 and is remembered as a small man, who, though not a great preacher, was a most exemplary character, to whom his congregation were strongly attached, and he thus filled the very excellent role of a much-beloved village pastor.


His salary being insufficient for his support, he, to make up the deficiency and to prepare his four sons for college, established a classical school in his own house, which is here shown by the engraving. This school was later continued by his two oldest sons. Here were taught the ARMSTRONGS, the BEGGES, the BLOCKSOMES, the BROOKES, the GRAHAMS, the HARBAUGHS, the HISSINS, the McCOOKS, the McKAIGS, the McMILLANS, the RICHARDSONS and others who have occupied high positions in the professions and in business. Among them was the late General Wm. T. H. BROOKES, a gallant officer in the Mexican war and in the late civil War, and Col. Geo. W. McCOOK, who was in 1871 the Democratic candidate for governor of Ohio.


His son, Clement, here began his education, and before he was two years old acquired the alphabet and was ready for college years before he was old enough to enter. All through his early life he was a great reader and an untiring student.


Mr. VALLANDIGHAM graduated at Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, and began the practice of the law at New Lisbon. In 1845 he was elected to the Legislature, and, although the youngest member, became the leader of the Democratic party in the House, but voted against the repeal of the Black Laws, preferring to submit the question to popular vote, declaring that he so voted because the “measure would result in the most effectual putting down of this vexed question for perhaps twenty years to come. It would probably fail as the question of negro suffrage in New York, where the people had voted against it by a majority of 50,000.”


In 1847 he removed to Dayton, where he became part owner and editor of the Western Empire and continued the practice of his profession. In his salutatory address he said: We will support the Constitution of the United States in its whole integrity, “protect and defend the Union,” “maintain the doctrine of strict construction” and “stand fast to the doctrine also of STATES RIGHTS, as embodied in Mr. MADISON’S Virginia report and Mr. JEFFERSON’S Kentucky resolutions of 1798.” He also advocated “free trade,” “a fixed tenure to every office under the Federal Government that will properly admit it” and “popular education.”


The newspaper was not a satisfying scope for his larger ambition. He was a thoughtful, studious writer, but his pen was not adapted to the lighter but no


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less important details necessary for successful editorship. In 1852 he made a strenuous effort to secure the Democratic nomination for Lieutenant-Governor, but was defeated by Wm. MEDILL, and over this result he felt very bitter. In 1856 he was nominated by the Democracy of his district for Congress, his competitor being Col. Lewis D. CAMPBELL, called the “Butler County Pony.” The latter was declared elected. The election being contested, VALLANDIGHAM was rewarded the seat. He continued a member until March, 1863, he having been defeated in his canvass for re-election in the State election the year before but Gen. Robert L. SCHENCK. While in Congress he was adjudged one of the ablest debaters and best parliamentarians on the floor of the House and as honest in his purposes and sincere in his convictions. He opposed the war because he believed that it was impossible to conquer the South.


Having returned home, Mr. VALLANDIGHAM engaged with his usual boldness to denounce the war, the draft then pending and, as Whitelaw REID expresses it, “stirred up the people with violent talk and particularly excited them over alleged efforts on the part of the military authorities to interfere with freedom of speech and the press, which he conjured them to defend under any circumstances and at all hazards.”


It was then a most gloomy period in the progress of the war and Gen. BURNSIDE, who had just been put in command of the military department of the Ohio, under date of April 13, 1863, issued from his headquarters at Cincinnati the famous “General Order No. 38,” wherein he proclaimed that henceforth


“. . .All persons within our lines who commit acts for the benefit of the enemies of our country will be tried as spies or traitors, and if convicted will suffer death . . . The habit of declaring sympathy for the enemy will not be allowed in this department. Persons committing such offences will be at once arrested, with a view to being tried as above stated or sent beyond our lines into the lines of their friends. It must be distinctly stated that treason expressed or implied will not be tolerated in this department.”


VALLANDIGHAM, angered at this order, expressed his determination to defy it and to assert his constitutional right to discuss the policy of the administration in the conduct of the war, and announced that he would speak at a Democratic mass-meeting to be held at Mount Vernon on Friday, the 10th of May, which he did, and to a large audience.


Beginning with an allusion to the American flag, which was flying over them, he said, “that was the flag of the Constitution; that it had been rendered sacred by Democratic Presidents;” claimed that the Union could have been saved if the plans he had proposed had been sanctioned and adopted; he declared that he abided by the Constitution; that he “was a freeman;that he did not ask Dave TOD, Abraham LINCOLN or Ambrose E. BURNSIDE for his right to speak as he had or was doing; that his “authority for so doing was higher than General Order No. 38; it was General Order No. 1 - the Constitution!” that “the only remedy for all the evils was the ballot box.”


Some of his more intemperate remarks having been reported to Gen. BURNSIDE, on the Monday following he despatched a company of the 115th Ohio, under Capt. Hutton, by a special train to Dayton to arrest him, which was effected that night and he returned immediately to Cincinnati with his prisoner. A scene of wild excitement the next day ensued in Dayton; the streets were crowded with his friends and adherents and that night the office of the Republican newspaper was burnt by a mob. Gen. BURNSIDE sent up an ample military force and, proclaiming martial law, quelled all further disturbance.


The day after his arrest Mr. VALLANDIGHAM issued the following address:


To the Democracy of Ohio: I am here in a military bastile for no other offence than my political opinions, and the defence of them and the rights of the people, and of your constitutional liberties. Speeches made in the hearing of thousands of you, in denunciation of the usurpation of power, infractions of the Constitution and laws, and of military despotism, were the causes of my arrest and imprisonment. I am a Democrat; for Constitution, for law, for Union, for liberty; this is my only crime. For no disobedience to the Constitution, for no violation of law, for no word, sign or gesture of sympathy with the men of the South, who are for disunion and Southern independence, but in obedience to their demand, as well as the demand of Northern Abolition disunionists and traitors, I am here today in bonds; but

“Time, at last, sets all things even.”


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Meanwhile Democrats of Ohio, of the Northwest, of the United States, be firm, be true to your principles, to the Constitution, to the Union, and all will yet be well. As for myself, I adhere to every principle and will make good, through imprisonment and life itself, every pledge and declaration which I have ever made, uttered or maintained from the beginning. To you, to the whole people, to time, I again appeal. Stand firm! Falter not an instant!



Mr. VALLANDIGHAM was arraigned before a court presided over by Gen. R. B. POTTER, who finding him guilty on some of the specifications, sentenced him to close confinement during the war, and Fort Warren, in Boston harbor, was designated. Mr. Lincoln changed this to his conveyance through our military lines into the Southern Confederacy, and in the event of his return that the original sentence of imprisonment be carried out. Judge LEAVITT, of the United States District Court, was applied to for a writ of habeas corpus to take the prisoner out of the hands of the military. The application was ably argued by Hon. Geo. E. PUGH and Hon, Aaron F. PERRY and the United States District Attorney, Hon. FLAMEN Ball, in behalf of Gen. BURNSIDE. Judge LEAVITT briefly took the case under advisement and denied the writ, in a calm and carefully considered opinion. The Democratic party bitterly assailed this decision, and some of the points of the learned judge were, after the war, decided adversely by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of the Indiana conspirators. The sentence for Mr. VALLANDIGHAM’S conveyance under military escort to within the lines of the Confederacy was then carried out.


The widely known Ohio journalist, Mr. W. S. FURAY, now (1888) of Columbus, was then correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette, and in Murfreesboro on the arrival of Mr. VALLANDIGHAM. He was with the party who took him into the Southern lines. His account, as written at the time, here follows.


Among the transactions which during the war it has been my fortune to witness I shall not soon forget the conveyance of the Hon. Mr. VALLANDIGHAM beyond the lines of our army and his delivery into the hands of the rebels; which I consider an event fraught with the greatest interest to the patriot, giving evidence as it does of a final determination on the part of the government to save the nation at all hazards: the first distinction of the right to protect itself against insinuating and cowardly copperheadedism of the North, more dangerous and malignant than the open and armed treason of the South.


VALLANDIGHAM at Murfreesboro. – It was about ten o’clock on Sunday night (May 24) that the somewhat suppressed whistle of a locomotive announced that an extra train with Mr. VALLANDIGHAM on board had arrived. He had been sent from Cincinnati in charge of Capt. MURRAY with a squad of the Thirteenth regular infantry. He was at once taken in custody by Maj. WILES, provost marshal-general of the department, in accordance with an order from headquarters to take him to a point near our outposts, keep him there until morning, and then under cover of a flag of truce to pass him within lines of the enemy.


None saving those immediately surrounding Gen. ROSECRANS knew of his arrival. Had it been known through the camp all sense of disciple and restraint would have been lost, and a crowd of ten thousand men would have instantly collected around the provost marshals, swayed by the wildest and most ungovernable excitement which could have found no vent but in slaying him on the spot. So intense and burning is their hatred for the man who by every speech made in and out of Congress the last two years had tended to encourage the rebels, to render more difficult and dangerous the task of their subjugation, and to put far off the happy period when in the midst of peace the soldiers may return to home and friends.


Starts for Dixie. – It was two o’clock in the morning when VALLANDIGHAM stepped into a spring wagon and started for that Dixie, which, notwithstanding it was now night, began to loom up most distinctly before him. Not one of those who accompanied Mr. VALLANDIGHAM that night will ever forget it.



Col. McKIBBEN, senior aid to ROSECRANS, assisted by Lieut.-Col. DUCAT, had the general charge. Col. McKIBBEN had once sat in Congress with this same VALLANDIGHAM, and although differing on many points they had fought together against the iniquity of the BUCHANAN administration. When taking his seat in the wagon the prisoner remarked to Col. McKIBBEN in a jocular manner: “Colonel, this is worse than Lecompton!” This was true in a deeper sense than he intended it, for the offense against the nation for which he was to be punished was much worse than the infamous attempt of BUCHANAN to fasten Negro slavery upon the outrages inhabitants of Kansas.


The prisoner himself was in charge of Major WILES, the able provost marshal-general of the department, efficiently assisted by Capt. GOODWIN of the Thirty-seventh Indiana.


Capt. DOOLITTLE and Lieut. KELLY of the


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Fourth regular cavalry commanded the two companies of cavalry forming the escort of Gen. ROSECRANS, but which, for this occasion, were the escort of VALLANDIGHAM.  A second small wagon, with a trunk and some other baggage, followed the vehicle containing the prisoner. Major WILES and Capt. GOODWIN rode in the wagon, Col. McKIBBEN and Col. DUCAT preceded, and the escort followed. Your correspondent, who was kindly permitted to form one of the party, went loosely and ad libitum.


The Procession of the Way. - Such was the remarkable procession which at this silent hour passed along the streets of Murfreesboro, through the quiet and slumbering camps, and down the Shelbyville turnpike towards rebellious Dixie. Guard after guard, picket after picket, sentinel after sentinel, was passed, the magic countersign opening the gates in the walls of living men which, circle behind circle, surrounded the town of Murfreesboro.


The men on guard stood looking in silent wonder at the unwonted spectacle, little thinking that. they were gazing on the great copperhead on his way through the lines. Stone river was passed, and several miles traversed when your correspondent began to wonder where the mythical “front” so often spoken of might be.


An Hours Rest. - Just as the first faint dawn appeared in the east the party stopped at the house of Mr. BUTLER, in order to wait for daylight: for we were now near our outposts. The family stared about them in great surprise when they were wakened up, but made haste to provide whatever conveniences they could for enabling the party to take an hour’s repose.


Here, for the first time, I was introduced to VALLANDIGHAM, and as none of us felt like sleeping we commenced what to me was an extremely interesting and profitable conversation. Mr. VALLANDIGHAM talked with entire freedom; told me with the greatest apparent frankness his views of the policy of the administration; discussed dispassionately the circumstances of his arrest and trial and stated clearly what he supposed would be the ultimate result of his punishment. He manifested no bitterness of feeling whatever, seemed inclined to do full justice to the government in reference to its dealing with himself, and spoke very respectfully of Gen. Burnside. In spite of my fixed opinion of the bad and dangerous character of the man I could not but entertain for him a sentiment of personal respect which I had never felt before.


An Apt Quotation. – After an hour passed in conversation there was an effort made to obtain a little sleep, and Mr. VALLANDIGHAM himself had just fallen into a doze when Col. McKIBBEN waked him, informing him that it was daylight and time to move. Some poetical remark having been made about the morning, Mr. VALLANDIGHAM raised himself up on his elbow and said, dramatically:


“Night’s candles are burnt out,

And jocund day stands tip-toe

on misty mountain tops.”


He had evidently forgotten the remaining line of the quotation, but it seemed so applicable to his own case, in view of the wrathful feelings of the soldiers towards him, that I could not forbear adding aloud,


“I must be gone and live, or stay and die.”


I indulge in no vanity when I say that the extreme appositeness of the quotation startled every one that heard it, including Mr. VALLANDIGHAM himself.


Again Upon the March. - The cavalcade again set forth, and just as the first rays of sun tinged with gold the trees upon the western hills we reached our remotest outposts. Major WILES and Col. McKIBBEN now went forward with a flag of truce toward the enemy’s videttes, who could be plainly seen stationed in the road, not more than half a mile off. The rest of the party halted, and Col. DUCAT, Capt. GOODWIN, Lieut. KELLY, Mr. VALLANDIGHAM and myself took breakfast at the house of a Mr. ALEXANDER, just on the boundary line between the United States and Dixie. After all were seated at the table Col. DUCAT informed Mrs. ALEXANDER, who presided, that one of the gentlemen before her, pointing him out, was Mr. VALLANDIGHAM.


Immediately the woman turned all sort so colors, and exclaimed, “Can it be possible? Mr. VALLANDIGHAM! Why I was reading only last night of your wonderful doings! I must introduce you to the old man, shure!”


The “old man” is understood to be much more than half “Secesh.” and he and not a remarkably handsome daughter united in giving the prisoner a warm welcome.


VALLANDIGHAM in Dixie. – After breakfast was over, and while waiting for the return of the flag of truce, I had another long and interesting conversation with Mr. VALLANDIGHAM, which I shall again have occasion to refer to.


The flag at length returned, and Col. WEBB of the Fifty-first Alabama having signified his willingness to receive the prisoner, Major WILES and Capt. GOODWIN alone accompanied him a short distance within the rebel lines and handed him over to a single private soldier sent to take him in charge.

By nine o’clock the whole matter was over, and the party mounting their horses galloped back upon the now heated and husky turnpike to Murfreesboro.


The bearing of Mr. VALLANDIGHAM throughout the whole affair was modest, sensible and dignified, and so far as the man could be separated from his pernicious principles won him respect and friends.

In conversation with your correspondent he candidly admitted that the dealings with himself were necessary and justifiable if the Union was to be restored by


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war. He admitted that in that case the government would be obliged to use all the physical force of the loyal states and could tolerate no opposition. This, however, he declared would be at the expense of the free principles of the constitution; whereas he thought by the adoption of his plan, not only might these principles be conserved, but the Union of the States ultimately restored.


The life of Mr. VALLANDIGHAM by his brother, Rev. James L. VALLANDIGHAM, gives some interesting items. His interview with Gen. ROSECRANS lasted about four hours. At first ROSECRANS was disposed to lecture him for his opposition to the war and concluded by remarking, “Why, sir, do you know that unless I protect you with a guard, my soldiers will tear you in pieces in an instant?” To this Mr. VALLANDIGHAM in substance replied, “That, sir, is because they are just as prejudiced and ignorant of my character and career as yourself; but, General, I have a proposition to make. Draw your soldiers up in a hollow square tomorrow morning and announce to them that VALLANDIGHAM desires to vindicate himself, and I will guarantee that when they have heard me through they will be more willing to tear Lincoln and yourself to pieces than they will VALLANDIGHAM.” The General shook his head, saying, “he had too much regard for the life of his prisoner to try it.” The genial manner of his prisoner won upon him, and when he arose to go he put his hand on Mr. V’s shoulder and said to Col. McKIBBEN, of his staff, “He don’t look a bit like a traitor, now does he, Joe?” and on parting shook him warmly by the hand.


When he was left in charge of the Confederate sentinel, hours elapsed before word could be sent and returned from Gen. BRAGG, whose headquarters at Shelbyville were some sixteen miles a way. “They were hours,” said Mr. VALLANDIGHAM, “of solitude, but calmly spent - the bright sun shining in the clear sky above me, and faith in God and the future burning in my heart.” He was kindly received by General BRAGG in Shelbyville, where he remained a week, mostly in seclusion, and then was directed to report on parole to General WHITING at Wilmington, from which place he took, on the 17th of June, a blockade-runner to Nassau and thence by steamer to Canada, where he arrived early in July and awaited events. The Ohio Democratic Convention which had met in June at Columbus had by acclamation nominated him for Governor.


The banishment of VALLANDIGHAM and sentence by court martial created a profound sensation throughout the country, and a large Democratic meeting held at Albany, presided over by Erastus CORNING, passed a series of resolutions condemnatory of the “system of arbitrary arrests,” and asking President LINCOLN to “reverse the action of the military tribunal which has passed a cruel and unusual punishment upon the party arrested, prohibited in terms of the Constitution, and restore him to the liberty of which he had been deprived.


To this request Mr. LINCOLN made a full, frank reply, putting in it some of his characteristic, homely touches of humor, for instance saying: “I can no more be persuaded that the government can constitutionally take no strong measures in time of rebellion, because it can be shown that the same could not be lawfully taken in time of peace, than I can be persuaded that a particular drug is not good medicine for a sick man, because it can be shown not to be good food for a well one.” He closed by stating that when he felt that the public safety would not suffer thereby he should with great pleasure accede to their request.


The Ohio Democratic Convention, which met in June in Columbus, after nominating Mr. VALLANDIGHAM for Governor, passed resolutions strongly condemning his banishment as a palpable violation of four specified provisions of the Federal Constitution, and appointed a committee, largely ex-Congressmen, to go to Washington and intercede for his release. This committee, as will be seen by their names appended, were gentlemen of high character, a majority of whom are yet living, though some quite aged and feeble: Mathias BURCHARD, formerly a Judge of the Supreme Court; George BLISS, member of Congress from the Akron District; ex-Governor Thomas W. BARTLEY; Hon. W. J. GORDON, of Cleveland, a wealthy retail merchant; Hon. John O’NEIL, late President pro tem. of the Ohio Senate; George S. CONVERSE, of Columbus; Louis SHAEFER, of Canton; Abner L. BACKUS; Congressmen George H. PENDLETON, Chilton A. WHITE, W. P. NOBLE, Wells A. HUTCHINS, F. C. LeBLOND, William E. FINCK, Alexander LONG, J. W. WHITE, J. F. McKINNEY and James R. MORRIS.


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In the correspondence which ensued, Mr. Lincoln offered to accede to their request provided they would agree, as individuals, to certain specified things in aid of the forcible suppression of the rebellion. To this they would not agree, regarding the proffer as involving an imputation upon their sincerity and fidelity as citizens of the United States, and stating that they had asked for Mr. VALLANDIGHAM’S release as a right due the people of Ohio.


“At this point,” says Mr. GREELEY in his History of the American Conflict,” “the argument of this grave question concerning the right in time of war of those who question the justice or the policy of such war to denounce its prosecution as mistaken and ruinous, was rested by the President and his assailants - or rather it was transferred by the latter to the popular forum where, especially in Ohio, it was continued with decided frankness, as well as remarkable pertinacity and vehemence. And one natural consequence of such discussion was to render the Democratic party more decidedly, openly, palpably anti-war than it had hitherto been.”




A vivid and interesting sketch of VALLANDIGHAM and the celebrated campaign of 1863 was published in the Cincinnati Enquirer a few years since. It consisted of personal reminiscences from the pen of the veteran Ohio journalist, W. W. ARMSTRONG, who was Secretary of State for Ohio from 1863 to 1865. It has a peculiar interest from being from a fellow-townsman and a personal and political friend of Mr. VALLANDIGHAM, though not in sympathy with his extreme views.


After the adjournment of Congress in March, 1863, and while I was Secretary of State, VALLANDIGHAM came to Columbus. He visited my office and there informed me that he was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for Governor. As I was originally from his home county and our families had been friends, he counted upon my support for the position. I said to him very frankly:


“Colonel, this is not your time to run for Governor.  I think Hugh J. JEWETT ought to be nominated.”


As usual, he gritted his teeth and said he was astonished that I of all other all men in the State should be opposed to his nomination. I replied that JEWETT, by party usage, was entitled to a renomination if he would take it; that his candidacy in 1861 had been judiciously managed; that his speeches and letters had been patriotic and conservative, and that, being a “war” Democrat, or not so radical as he (VALLANDIGHAM), that he would poll a greater vote, and with the then dissatisfaction existing with the State administration he could be elected; but he had made up his mind to be a candidate and could not be swerved from his purpose. . . . . .


The Convention. – The conservative Democrats of Ohio did not desire to nominate VALLANDIGHAM for Governor, but his attest, trial by Military Commission and his banishment excited every radical and ultra peace Democrat in the State, and they rallied in their strength at all the county conventions and captured the delegates. One radical can always be counted upon to do more work than ten moderate men. The day of the convention approached, and it soon became evident that it would be the largest ever held in the State, and would partake of the character of a mass-meeting more than of an assemblage of cool and collected delegates.


The day before the convention assembled the city of Columbus was invaded by thousands of Democrats, bitter, assertive and defiant in their determination that. come what would, they would defy “Order No. 38” and exercise what they claimed to be their constitutional right of free speech. Convention day came, and with it delegation after delegation, with bands of music, flags flying, hickory bushes waving, from every section of the State. Great processions with men on horseback and in wagons crowded the streets, and the sidewalks were black with excited men. No hall in the city was large enough to contain one-tenth of the bold Democracy present who desired to attend the convention. It was held on the east front of the State House, in the open air.


Ex-Governor MEDILL, of Lancaster, Ohio, once a leading and very active Democratic politician, an old, good-looking bachelor, was chosen President of the Convention. No useless time was spent in the preliminaries. They were hurried through. The radicals soon ran away with the convention, and MEDILL, always a good presiding officer, could hold no check on the extravagant demonstrations in favor of the Man in Exile. A vote by counties was demanded, and under the rules the demand was sustained. The name of Hugh J. JEWETT was presented before that of VALLANDIGHAM. The announcement of JEWETT’S name was heard with almost grim silence, and from his own county a tall delegate arose and declared that Muskingham was for VALLANDIGHAM, and asked that JEWETT’S name be withdrawn. The delegate who presented it declined to accede to the request. Then VALLANDIGHAM’S name was mentioned. The roar and noise of that crowd in his favor could be heard for miles.


The vote by counties began. Allen, Ashland


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Auglaize and even old Ashtabula answered “VALLANDIGHAM!” The B’s followed the same way unanimously. When the Secretary reached the C’s Cuyahoga county responded solidly for JEWETT and her vote was most. vigorously hissed. And after that, until Seneca county was reached, there was no vote for JEWETT.


VALLANDIGHAM Nominated. - The people became impatient, and it was moved and seconded by thousands that the rules be suspended and VALLANDIGHAM be nominated by acclamation. MEDILL put the motion, and it was carried amidst the wildest shouts, the swelling notes of the crowd reminding one of the fierce roar of the ocean in its most turbulent moments. In a moment VALLANDIGHAM was proclaimed the unanimous nominee of the convention, and then was witnessed a scene of enthusiasm among “Val’s” friends that exceeded anything ever before known in the political history of the United States. The jubilee continued for at least on hour. The next step was the

Nomination of George E. PUGH for Lieutenant Governor. – The game little Senator did not want the nomination, but he could not resist the demand made for his acceptance, and on that night in front of the Neil House made one of the most fiery and eloquent speeches that ever fell from the lips of this ever great and ready orator. It was defiant and audacious.


The Republican Convention. – The Democratic State Convention was held in the second week of June, and two weeks after the Republican State Convention convened. Governor TOD was confident of a renomination, but SMITH of the Cincinnati Gazette, HALSTEAD, of the Commercial, and COWLES, of the Cleveland Leader, and others were afraid of his defeat were he renominated. They conspired to nominate John BROUGH, and, although he asserted he was not a candidate for nomination, his friends were at work secretly and efficiently.


 Governor TOD and his supporters were thrown entirely off guard by the loud assertions of BROUGH that he was not in the field for the nomination. To the surprise and the mortification of Governor TOD he was beaten for a renomination by a small majority. To do him justice, however, I may safely say that had TOD worked personally with the delegates as he was advised to do, he would have outflanked the BROUGH managers. He stood upon his dignity, his right for an indorsement, and went down. The personal relations between TOD and BROUGH were never friendly after this convention. Governor Tod had very many weaknesses, but he was kindhearted and generous to a fault. “My brave boys,” as he styled the Ohio volunteers, never had a better friend.


John BROUGH. - BROUGH was a great popular orator. He had a sledge-hammer style about him that made him powerful. He used vigorous English, and had a directness about him which always told with the people. Like TOD, he was originally a Democrat: was at one time one of the editors and proprietors of the Cincinnati Enquirer; was Auditor of State, retiring from that office to go into the railroad business.  He was not a tall man, but was very fleshy and never very cleanly in his personal appearance. He chewed enormous quantities of tobacco, did not believe in prohibitory laws, and could not be labeled as the exemplar of any particular purity. Of him some campaign poet wrote:


“If all flesh is grass, as people say,

Then Johnnie BROUGH is a load of hay.”


The Campaign. - Both parties having placed their candidates in the field there opened a campaign which, for excitement, for rancor and for bitterness will, I hope, never again be paralleled in this country. VALLANDIGHAM in exile in Canada, the command of his forces was given George E. PUGH, while BROUGH led in person the Republican cohorts. Every local speaker of any note joined in the battle of words, and “Order No. 38” was “cussed and discussed,” by night and by day, from the Ohio River to the lake and from the Pennsylvania to the Indiana line, before great assemblages of people. The great political meetings of 1840 were overshadowed in numbers by the gathering of both Democrats and Republicans in 1863. It was the saturnalia of politics.


The Democratic meetings were especially notable for their size and enthusiasm. Every where in the State were they very largely attended, but particularly in the northwest, the Gibraltar of the Ohio Democracy then as now, and in the famed counties of the wheat-belt region, Richland, Holmes, Crawford, et al., it was no unusual sight to see a thousand men, and sometimes half as many women, mounted on horseback, forming a cavalry cavalcade and escort body, and in each procession were wagon-loads of girls dressed in white, each one representing a State of the “Union as it was.” Glee clubs were numerous and the song of


“We will rally ‘round the flag,

Shouting VALLANDIGHAM and freedom.”


was as common with the Democrats as was the other song with the Republicans:


“Down with the traitors,

Up with the stars,

Hurrah, boys, hurrah,

The Union forever.”


Intense Excitement. – The excitement became so intense in many communities that all business and social relations between Democratic and Republican families were sundered. Fights and knock-downs between angered people were an every-day occurrence, and the wearing of a butternut pin or an emblem of any kind by a Democrat was like water to a mad dog before the irritated and intensely-radical Republicans. The women wore VALLANDIGHAM or BROUGH badges, just as their feelings were enlisted, and if there is intensity in politics or religion it is always among the sisters of the different flocks.


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Ludicrous Incidents. - I was an eyewitness, on the occasion of a Democratic mass-meeting at Kenton, to a lively scrimmage between several Democratic and Republican girls, in which there was pulled hair, scratched faces and demoralized wardrobes, and, strange to say, the surrounding crowd of men interfered only to see fair play between the combatants. Another instance, and a ludicrous one, I recollect. At McCutcheonville, Wyandot county, on one of the brightest of autumnal days, there was a Democratic meeting in a grove adjacent to town.  Judge LANG, of Tiffin, and myself were the speakers of the day.


While the Judge was addressing the people, a gaunt, tall young lady, wearing a BROUGH badge, stepped up behind a fat, chunky little girl, who was sitting on a log, and snatched from her dress the VALLANDIGHAM badge she was wearing. The little girl turned around, eyed the trespasser but a moment, and then made one lunge, and with the awkward blow that a woman delivers, hit the BROUGH girl under the chin and brought her to the ground. With her eyes snapping fire, and her cheeks aflame, she put her arms up akimbo, and like a little Bantam rooster, spreading his wings, hissed out, “I can whip any ---- BROUGH girl on the ground.” Such occurrences were frequent, and all manner of tricks, by both parties, were played upon speakers and orators. The only wonder is, thinking of the bitter feeling engendered, that more bodily harm was not done.


The Orators, etc. – Colonel “Dick” MERRICK, of Maryland, who died a few months ago in Washington City, ex-Governor HENDRICKS, Hons. J. E. McDONALD and D. W. VOORHEES, of Indiana, were among the many distinguished speakers from other states who participated in the Ohio canvass. MORTON, of Indiana, HARRISON of the same State, Secretary CHASE and leading Republicans from the East assisted BROUGH and the local Republican orators. One of the most effective Republican speakers on the stump was Colonel “Bill” GIBSON, of Seneca county, and one of the most sought after orators in Northern Ohio was Hon. H. M. JACKSON, of Bucyrus, whose “heavenly tone” made him conspicuous in the battle for “free speech.”


“Sunset” Cox. - Sam COX, then representing the Columbus district in Congress, had frequent opportunities to air his eloquence and show his pluck. On a September day he had had a meeting near Camp Chase, in Franklin county. The soldiers there announced that he would not speak.  The Democrats declared that he should and must, so “Sunset” was accompanied to his meeting by a hundred city Democrats armed with revolvers, while the country Democrats came in loaded down with rifles and shotguns. The soldiers, seeing that they would be promptly met with their own weapons, concluded that Cox might expound at will without interruption.  COX then made a good speech; and when or where was there the occasion that he ever made a poor one? In his old district in Ohio he is as popular now as he was then. Hundreds of little “Sam COXES” are named after him, and the old Democracy remember his sunshiny and cheery ways and are jealous of the Turk who has him now within his boundaries. Every Democratic orator in Ohio in 1863 acquitted himself with credit and was busy from the beginning to the closing of the fight.


The Result. - The strain on the public mind was intense. All men of all parties and all classes were anxious for the strife to be over. The Democrats in the last few weeks of the campaign felt that they were beaten, but the splendid discipline of the Democratic organization was manifested by their determined effort to the very last hour of election day. The vote cast for VALLANDIGHAM showed what a hold he had over people, being the highest vote then ever cast for a Democrat in the State. BROUGH’S majority on the home vote was 61,297, but the vote of the soldiers in the field ran his majority up to over 100,000, or a little over.  Only about 3,000 votes were cast for VALLANDIGHAM by soldiers in the field. The law, however, was very defective and admirably calculated to give unlimited opportunities for duplication of votes. It was crude and unsatisfactory, but as a war measure “it served the purpose for which it was passed.


VALLANDIGHAM in Exile. – While the great fight I n his behalf in Ohio was being waged, VALLANDIGHAM, like a caged lion, was fretting and worrying, was “watching and waiting across the border.” He made his headquarters most of the time in a little hotel in Windsor, Canada, a small town opposite Detroit. From the windows of his room he could see a gun-boat, with the American flag flying, which had been detailed to protect the Detroit river. His sarcastic remarks in reference to his prosecutors, and to his political opponents who were preventing him from leading his own campaign in Ohio, were heralded throughout the land, and spies were numerous, keeping vigil that he should not return.


It was about agreed upon at one time that VALLANDIGHAM should come to Lima, Ohio, and make a speech, in defiance of his sentence and the authorities, but the more conservative Democratic leaders were satisfied an attempt would be made to rearrest him, which would bring about riot and bloodshed, and in deference to their wishes, VALLANDIGHAM did not return, although he could easily have escaped from Canada, as he did in 1864, when he crossed to Detroit in disguise, entered a sleeping car, and the next morning appeared at a Democratic Convention at Hamilton, Ohio, where he was chosen unanimously as a delegate to the Chicago Convention. He was enthusiastically received by the Democratic people, and remained unmolested by the civil and military authorities.  VALLANDIGHAM was prompted to return by political friends in his own district, who had


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Vainly labored to have him nominated for delegate-at-large to the Chicago Convention, Judge Rufus P. RANNEY, of Cleveland, was the choice over him by a small majority in a very excited convention.


The End. - After 1868 VALLANDIGHAM pursued the profession of the law with ardor, and to his enthusiasm in the defense of a client he met with the accident that deprived him of life. His last appearance in the political arena was at the Democratic State Convention in Columbus in the first part of June, 1871. He was a delegate, and, I think, chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, and secured the passage in the convention of what is known in Ohio politics as the “new departure” resolutions, pledging the Democracy to the recognition and validity of all the amendments to the constitution, including the fourteenth.  A week or two after this convention he came to his death in a room at a hotel in Lebanon, Ohio, by the accidental discharge of a pistol. He died as he lived, courageously, but sensationally.


Had VALLANDIGHAM survived to this date (1886) he would have been but thirty-six years of age, younger than THURMAN, younger than PAYNE, and about the same age as Durbin WARD, George H. PENDLETON, George W. MORGAN, John O’NEIL, Frank LEBLOND and other prominent Ohio Democrats.


He had not been called away I think that by his eloquence, by his logic and his high order of talent he would have worn out and dissipated that bitter prejudice which existed against him. He had a good personal presence, a pleasant smile, and agreeable and resonant voice, a dignified bearing and those faculties which enabled him to have a magnetic power over the people. The prize which he always looked forward to as a reward for his party services was a seat in the United States Senate, and he was chagrined to the heart when it escaped him in 1867. In his private and domestic circle he was charming, and, although there will always be a discussion as to the right and policy of the position he assumed during the war, no one will deny that he had a profound love for the constitution of his country and was unwavering and unswerving in adhering to any position that he deemed right.


SALEM IN 1846. - Salem is 10 miles north from New Lisbon in the midst of a beautiful agricultural country, thickly settled by Friends, who are industrious and wealthy. This flourishing town was laid out about 1806 by Zadock STREET, John STRONG and Samuel DAVIS members of the Society of Friends, from Redstone, Pa. Until within a few years it was an inconsiderable village. It now contains two Friends meeting-houses, 2 Baptist, 1 Methodist and 1 Presbyterian church, a classical academy, in good repute, under the charge of Rev. Jacob COON, 24 mercantile stores, 2 woollen factories, 3 foundries, 1 grist-mill, 2 engine shops and about 1,300 inhabitants. There are 4 newspapers published here, one of which is the American Water Cure Advocate, edited by Dr. John P. COPE, principal of a water cure establishment in full operation in this village. The engraving shows the principal street of the town, as it appears on entering from the east. Street’s woolen factory is seen on the left. – Old Edition.


Salem is on the line of the P. Ft. W. & C. Railroad, 67 miles from Pittsburg, and contains about 6,000 inhabitants, with a post-office business of over $10,000 annually. It is on high land, about 60 feet above the railroad station and on one of the most elevated points of land in the State. Newspapers: Salem Republican, Rep., J. K. RUKENBROD, editor; Salem Era, E. P. RUKENBROD, editor; Buckeye Vidette, Greenback, J. W. NORTHRUP. Churches: 2 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Disciples, 1 Episcopal, 3 Friends, respectively of the Guerney, Wilbur and Hicksite divisions. Banks: Framers’ National, Furman GEE, President, Richard POW, cashier; City, Boone & Campbell, proprietors; H. GREINER & Son.


Manufacturers and Employees. – J. WOODRUFF & Sons, stoves, 72; Victor Stove Co., stoves, 52; W. J. CLARK & Co., stepladders, screens, etc., 12; Boyle & Carey, stoves, 26; Bakewell & Mullins, sheet metal works, 100; W. J. Clark & Co., sheet metal works, 32; Purdy, Baird & Co., sewer pipe, 6; Salem Lumber Co., sash doors, etc., 10; J. B. McNABB, canned goods, 16; Salem Steel Wire Co., steel wire, etc., 350; Silver & Deming Manufacturing Co., pumps, feed-cutters, etc., 170; Buckeye Mills, 4; S. L. Shanks & Co., steam boilers, 17; Buckeye Engine Co., engines, etc., 181; Salem Plow Co., 12; M. L. Edwards Manufacturing Co., butchers’ and blacksmith’s tools, 15; Stanley & Co., flour, etc., 6; Carl BARCHHOFF, church organs, 35. – State Report for 1887.


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Population in 1880, 4,041. School census, 1886, 1,464; George N. CARUTHERS, superintendent.

The following sketch of Salem’s late history is from the pen of an old resident:


Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.

Eastern Entrance Into Salem.


Salem has an interesting history in connection with important national events. Being originally settled by Quakers they instilled into the minds of the people the true ideas of human freedom, and it early became the seat of a strong ant-slavery sentiment. “The Western Anti-Slavery Society” had its headquarters in this city before the war of the Rebellion, and their organ, The Anti-Slavery Bugle, was published here and ably conducted Benj. S. JONES, Oliver JOHNSON


Hewitt & Hewitt, Photo., Salem, 1887.

Central View In Salem


and Marius R. ROBINSON, editors, who waged an incessant, fearless and aggressive warfare upon institution of human slavery, its aiders and supporters, including among the latter the National Constitution is interpreted by acts of Congress, as well as most of the churches of the country.


In consequence the contest grew hot and hotter as the “Disunion Abolitionists,” “Covenanters” and “Infidels,” as they were termed, became more aggressive.



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