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LAKE COUNTY was formed March 6, 1840, from Geauga and Cuyahoga, and so named from its bordering on Lake Erie.  The surface is more rolling than level; the soil is good, and generally clayey loam, interspersed with ridges of sand and gravel.  This county is peculiar for the quality and quantity of its fruit, as apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, etc.  Its situation tends to the preservation of the fruit from the early frosts, the warm lake winds often preventing its destruction, while that some twenty miles inland is cut off.


Area about 215 square miles.  In 1887 the acres cultivated were 55,817; in pasture, 38,401; woodland, 18,181; lying waste, 2,221; produced in wheat, 81,789 bushels; rye, 14,942; buckwheat, 1,046; oats, 249,240; barley, 9,017; corn, 194,241; meadow hay, 15,949 tons; clover hay, 8,396; flaxseed, 5,321 bushels; potatoes, 59,562; tobacco, 7,830 lbs.; butter, 307,705; cheese, 166,372; sorghum, 19 gallons; maple sugar, 32,983 lbs.; honey, 6,762; eggs, 129,435 dozen; grapes, 1,169,435 lbs.; wine, 787 gallons; apples, 146,471 bushels; peaches, 15,674; pears, 3,042; wool, 68,023 lbs.; milch cows owned, 3,816.  School census, 1888, 4,387; teachers, 160.  Miles of railroad track, 118.



And Census





And Census
































Population of Lake in 1840 was 13,717; 1860, 15,576; 1880, 16,326, of whom 10,583 were born in Ohio; 1,905 New York; 549 Pennsylvania; 43 Virginia; 32 Indiana; 19 Kentucky; 649 Ireland; 481 England and Wales; 244 British America; 141 German Empire; 19 Scotland; 4 France, and 11 Sweden and Norway.  Census of 1890, 18,235.




Mentor, according to the statement of Mrs. TAPPAN, in the MSS. Of the Ashtabula Historical Society, was the first place settled in this county.  In the summer of 1799 two families were there.  Among the earliest settlers of Lake was the Hon. John WALWORTH, who was born at New London, Ct., in 1765.


When a young man he spent five years at sea and in Demerara, South America.  About the year 1792 he removed, with his family, to the then new country east of Cayuga lake, New York.  In 1799 he visited Cleveland, and after his return, in the fall of that year, journeyed to Connecticut, purchased over two thousand acres of land in the present township of Painesville, with the design of making a settlement.  On the 20th of February, 1800, he commenced the removal of his family and effects.  They were brought on as far as Buffalo, in sleighs.  At that place, after some little detention, the party, being enlarged by the addition of some others, drove in two sleighs on the ice of the lake, and proceeded until abreast of Cattaraugus creek, at which point they were about ten miles from land.  At dusk, leaving their sleighs and horses some 50 or 60 rods from shore, they made their camp under some hemlock trees, where all, men, women and children, passed an agreeable night, its earlier hours being enlivened by good cheer and social converse.  The next afternoon they arrived at Presque Isle (now Erie, Pa.), where, leaving his family, Mr. WALWORTH went back to Buffalo for his goods.  On his return to Erie, he, with his hired man and two horses and a yoke of oxen, followed the lake shore, and arrived in safety at his new purchase.  His nearest neighbors east were at Harpersfield, 15 miles distant.  On the west, a few miles distant, within or near the present limits of Mentor, was what was then called the Marsh settlement, where was then living Judge Jesse PHELPS, Jared WOOD, Ebenezer MERRY, Charles PARKER and Moses PARKS.  Mr. WALWORTH soon returned to Erie, on foot, and brought out his family and effects in a flat boat, all arriving safe at the new home on the 7th of April.  The



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the first fortnight they lived in a tent, during which period the sun was not seen.  About the expiration of this time Gen. Edward PAINE–the first delegate to the legislature from the Lake county, in the winter of 1801-2--arrived with seven or eight hired men, and settled about a mile distant.  Mutually assisting each other, cabins were soon erected for shelter, and gradually the conveniences of civilization clustered around them.


Shortly after the formation of the State government (states the Barr MSS.)  Mr. WALWORTH, Solomon GRISWOLD, of Windsor, and Calvin AUSTIN, of Warren, were appointed associate judges of Trumbull county.  In 1805 Judge WALWORTH was appointed collector of customs for the district of Erie.  In August he opened the collector’s office at Cleveland, and in the March ensuing removed his family thither.  He held various offices until his decease, September 10, 1812, and was an extensive land agent.  Judge WALWORTH was small in stature, and of weakly constitution.  Prior to his removal to the West it was supposed he had the consumption; but to the hardships and fatigue he endured, and change of climate, his physicians attributed the prolongation of his life many years.  He was a fearless man, and possessed of that indomitable perseverance and strength of will especially important in overcoming the obstacles in the path of the pioneer.


WILLOUGHBY is on the Chagrin river, 3 miles from Lake Erie and 11 miles southwest of Painesville, on the L. S. & M. S. R. R. and N. Y. C. & St. L. R. R.  Newspaper: Independent, Independent, J. H. MERRILL, editor and publisher.  Churches: 1 Congregationalist, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Episcopal, 1 Disciples, 1 Catholic.  Bank: Willoughby, S. W. SMART, president S. H. SMART, cashier.  Population, 1880, 1,001.  School census, 1888, 323.


Willoughby in 1846.–The village and township were originally callen Chagrin, and changed, in 1834, to the present name, in honor of Prof. WILLOUGHBY, of Herkimer county, N. Y.  It was settled about the year 1799, by David ABBOT (see page 579), Peter FRENCH, Jacob WEST, Ebenezer SMITH, Elisha GRAHAM, and others.  ABBOT built the first grist mill on the site of the WILLOUGHBY mills: SMITH was the first man who received a regular deed of his land from the Connecticut land company.  In 1796 Charles PARKER, one of the surveyors, built a house at the mouth of the river, and a number of huts for the use of the land company; the house was the first erected in the township, and probably the first in the county.  PARKER became a settler in 1802; in 1803 and 1804 John MILLER, Christopher COLSON, James LEWIS and Jacob WEST settled in Willoughby.  Dr. HENDERSON, the first regular physician, came in 1813, and the first organized town meeting was held April 3, 1815.  A bloody battle, says tradition, was fought at an early day between the Indians, on the spot where the medical college stands: human bones have been discovered, supposed to be of those who fell in that action.


The village of Willoughby contains 4 stores, 2 churches, 18 mechanic shops, 1 fulling mill, and in 1840 had 390 inhabitants.  The engraving shows, on the right, the Presbyterian church; on the left, the Methodist church, and in the centre, on a pleasant green, the Medical University, a spacious brick edifice.  This flourishing and well-conducted institution was founded in 1834: its number of pupils has been gradually increasing, and in 1846 its annual circular showed 174 students in attendance.–Old Edition.  This institution was removed, in 1846, to Columbus, and became the foundation for Starling Medical College.




Nine miles southwest from Painesville, on the east branch of Chagrin river, in a beautiful farming country, is the little village of KIRTLAND, so famous in the history of Mormonism.  We reproduce here from our old edition the account we then gave as to the origin of the sect and their position at that time.


Kirtland is widely known, from having formerly been the headquarters of the Mormons.  While here, in the height of their prosperity, they numbered nearly 3,000 persons.  On their abandoning it, most of the dwellings went to decay, and it now has somewhat the appearance of a depopulated and broken-down place.  The view taken shows the most prominent buildings in the village.  In the


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centre is seen the Mormon Temple; on the right, the Teachers’ Seminary, and on the left, on a line with the front of the temple, the old banking house of the Mormons.  The temple, the main point of attraction, is 60 by 80 feet, and measures from its base to the top of the spire 142 feet.  It is of rough stone, plastered over, colored blue, and marked to imitate regular courses of masonry.  It cost about $40,000.  In front, over the large window, is a tablet, bearing the inscription: “House of the Lord, built by the Church of the Latter Day Saints, A. D. 1834.”  The first and second stories are divided into two “grand rooms” for public worship.  The attic is partitioned off into about a dozen small apartments.  The lower grand room is fitted up with seats as an ordinary church, with canvas curtains hanging from the ceiling, which, on the occasion of prayer meetings, are let down to the tops of the slips, dividing the room into several different apartments, for the use of the separate collections of worshippers.  At each end of the room is a set of pulpits, four in number, rising behind each other.  Each pulpit is calculated for three persons, so that, when they are full, twelve persons occupy each set, or twenty-four persons the two sets.  These pulpits were for the officers of the priesthood.  The set at the farther end of the room are for the Melchisedek priesthood, or those who minister in spiritual concerns.  The set opposite, near the entrance to the room, are for the Aaronic priesthood, whose duty it is to simply attend to the temporal affairs of the society.  These pulpits all bear initials, signifying the rank of their occupants.


On the Melchisedek side are the initials P. E., i. e., President of the Elders; M. P. H., President of the High Priests; P. M. H., President of the High Council, and M. P. C., President of the Full Church.  On the Aaronic pulpits are the initials P. D., i.e., President of Deacons; P. T. A., President of the Teachers; P. A. P., President of the Aaronic Priesthood, and B. P. A., Bishop of the Aaronic Priesthood.  The Aaronic priesthood were rarely allowed to preach, that being the especial duty of the higher order, the Melchisedek.


We have received a communication from a resident of Kirtland, dated in the autumn of 1846.  It contains some facts of value, and is of interest as coming from an honest man, who has been a subject of the Mormon delusion, but whose faith, we are of opinion, is of late somewhat shaken.


The Mormons derive their name from their belief in the book of Mormon, which is said to have been translated from gold plates found in a hill, in Palmyra, N. Y.  They came to this place in 1832, and commenced building their temple, which they finished in 1835.  When they commenced building the temple they were few in number, but before they had finished it they had increased to two thousand.


There are in the church two Priesthoods–the Melchisedek and the Aaronic, including the Levitical, from which they derive their officers.  This place, which they hold to be a stake of Zion, was laid off in half acres for a space of one square mile.  When it was mostly sold, they bought a number of farms in this vicinity, at a very high price, and were deeply in debt for goods in New York, which were the causes of their eventually leaving for Missouri.  They established a bank at Kirtland, from which they issued a number of thousand more dollars than they had specie, which gave their enemies power over them, and those bills became useless.


They adhered to their prophet, SMITH, in all things, and left here in 1837, seven hundred in one day.  They still hold this place to be a stake of Zion, to be eventually a place of gathering.  There is a president with his two counsellors, to preside over this stake.  The president is the highest officer; next is the high priest, below whom are the elders–all of the Melchisedek priesthood.  The lesser priesthood are composed of priests, teachers and deacons.  They have twelve apostles, whose duty it is to travel and preach the gospel.  There are seventy elders or seventies, a number of whom are travelling preachers: seven of the seventies preside over them.  There were two seventies organized in Kirtland.  They ordain most of the male members to some office.  They have a bishop with two counsellors to conduct the affairs of the church in temporal things, and sit in judgment upon difficulties which may arise between members; but there is a higher court to which they can appeal, called the high council, which consists of twelve high priests.  The president and his council sit as judges over either of these courts.  There are, however, three presidents who preside over the whole in all the world–so termed.


The method of conducting worship among the Mormons is similar to other denominations.  The first ordinance is baptism for the remission of sins; they lay on hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost, and to heal the sick;


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Top Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846



Bottom Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846



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anoint with oil; administer the sacrament; take little children and bless them; they hold to all the gifts of the Apostolic church, believing there is no true church without them, and have the gift of speaking in different tongues; they sometimes interpret for themselves, but commonly there is some one to interpret for them.


A prophet has lately risen among the Mormons, viz., James J. STRANG of Wisconsin, who claims to be the successor of Joseph SMITH.  He has been with them only about two years, and was a young lawyer of Western New York.  He claims to have received communications from Heaven at the very hour of Smith’s death, commissioning him to lead the people.  He has established a stake in Walworth county, Wisconsin, called the city of Voree, by interpretation signifying, “Garden of Peace,” to which they are gathering from Nauvoo and other places.  He has lately visited Kirtland and re-established it as a stake of Zion, and organized the church with all its officers.  There are now here about one hundred members, who are daily increasing, and it is thought that the place will be built up.


STRANG is said to have found plates of brass or some other metal.  He was directed by an angel, who gave him a stone to look through, by which he made the discovery.  They were found three feet under ground, beneath an oak of a foot in diameter.  These he has translated: they give an account of a race who once inhabited that land and became a fallen people.  STRANG preaches pure Bible doctrine, and receives only those who walk humbly before their God.


The Mormons still use the temple at Kirtland.  This sect is now divided into three factions, viz.: the Rigdonites, the Twelveites, and the Strangites.  The Rigdonites are the followers of Sidney RIGDON, and are but a few in number.  The Twelveites–so named after their twelve apostles–are very fanatical, and hold to the spiritual wife system and the plurality of Gods.  The Strangites maintain the original doctrines of Mormonism, and are located at this place and Voree.


We derive, from a published source a brief historical sketch of Mormonism.


Joseph SMITH, the founder of Mormonism, was born in Sharon, Vermont, December 23, 1805, and removed to Manchester, Ontario county, N. Y., about the year 1815, at an early age, with his parents, who were in quite humble circumstances.  He was occasionally employed in Palmyra as a laborer, and bore the reputation of a lazy and ignorant young man.  According to the testimony of respectable individuals in that place, SMITH and his father were persons of doubtful moral character, addicted to disreputable habits, and, moreover, extremely superstitious, believing in the existence of witchcraft.  They at one time procured a mineral rod, and dug in various places for money.  SMITH testified that when digging he had seen the pot or chest containing the treasure, but never was fortunate enough to get it into his hands.  He placed a singular-looking stone in his hat, and pretended by the light of it to make many wonderful discoveries of gold, silver and other treasures, deposited in the earth.  He commenced his career as the founder of the new sect, when about the age of eighteen or nineteen, and apoointed a number of meetings in Palmyra for the purpose of declaring the divine revelations which he said were made to him.  He was, however, unable to produce any excitement in the village; but very few had curiosity sufficient to listen to him.  Not hqaving means to print his revelations he applied to Mr. CRANE, of the Society of Friends, declaring that he was moved by the Spirit to call upon him for assistance.  This gentleman bid him go to work or the State prison would end his career.  SMITH had better success with Martin HARRIS, an industrious and thrifty farmer of Palmyra, who was worth about $10,000, and who became one of his leading disciples.  By his assistance 5,000 copies of the Mormon bible (so called) were published, at an expense of about $3,000.  It is possible that HARRIS might have made the advances with the expectation of a profitable speculation, as a great sale was anticipated.  This work is a duodecimo volume, containing five hundred and ninety pages, and is, perhaps, one of the weakest productions ever attempted to be palmed off as a divine revelation.  It is mostly a blind mass of words, interwoven with scriptural language and quotations, without much of a leading plan or design.


Soon after the publication of the Mormon bible, one Parley B. PRATT, a resident of Lorrain county, Ohio, happening to pass through Palmyra, on the canal, and hearing of the new religion, called on the prophet, and was soon converted.  PRATT was intimate with Sidney RIGDON, a very popular preacher of the denomination called “Reformers,” or “Disciples.”  About the time of the arrival of PRATT at Manchester, the SMITHS were fitting out an expedition for the western country, under the command of COWDERY, in order to convert the Indians, or Lamanites, as they termed them.  In October, 1830, this mission, consisting of COWDERY, PRATT, PETERSON and WHITMER, arrived at Mentor, Ohio, the residence of RIGDON, well supplied with the new bibles.  Near this place, in Kirtland, there were a few families belonging to RIGDON’S congregation, who, having become extremely fanatical, were daily looking for some wonderful event to take place in


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the world: seventeen of these persons readily believed in Mormonism, and were all reimmersed in one night by COWDERY.  By the conversion of RIGDON soon after, Mormonism received a powerful impetus, and more than one hundred converts were speedily added.  RIGDON visited SMITH at Palmyra, where he tarried about two months, receiving revelations, preaching, etc.  He then returned to Kirtland, Ohio, and was followed a few days after by the prophet, SMITH, and his connections.  Thus, from a state of almost beggary, the family of SMITH were furnished with the “fat of the land” by their disciples, many of whom were wealthy.


A Mormon temple was erected at Kirtland, at an expense of about $40,000.  In this building there was a sacred apartment, a kind of holy of holies, in which none but the priests were allowed to enter.  An unsuccessful application was made to the Legislature for the charter of a bank.  Upon the refusal they established an unchartered institution, commenced their banking operations, issued their notes, and made extensive loans.  The society now rapidly increased in wealth and numbers, of whom many were doubtless drawn thither by mercenary motives.  But the bubble at last burst.  The bank being an unchartered institution, the debts due were not legally collectable.  With the failure of this institution the society rapidly declined, and SMITH was obliged to leave the State to avoid the sheriff.  Most of the sect, with their leader, removed to Missouri, where many outrages were perpetrated against them.  The Mormons raised an armed force to “drive off the infidels,” but were finally obliged to leave the State.


The last stand taken by the Mormons was at Nauvoo, Ill., a beautiful location on the Mississippi river.  Here they erected a splendid temple, one hundred and twenty feet in length by eighty in width, around which they built their city, which at one time contained about 10,000 inhabitants.  Being determined to have their own laws and regulations the difficulties which attended their sojourn in other places followed them here, and there was constant collision between them and the surrounding inhabitants.  By some process of law, Joseph SMITH (the prophet) and his brother Hyram were confined in the debtor’s apartment in the jail at Carthage, in the vicinity of Nauvoo, and a guard of eight or ten men were stationed at the jail for their protection.  While here, it appears a mob of about sixty men, in disguise, broke through the guard, and firing into the prison, killed both Joseph SMITH and his brother Hyram, June 27, 1844.  Their difficulties still continued, and they determined to remove once more.


In 1840 a work was published at Painesville, by E. D. HOWE, called a “History of Mormonism,” which gives almost conclusive evidence that the historical part of the book of Mormon was written by one Solomon SPALDING.  From this work we derive the following facts:


Mr. SPALDING was born in Connecticut, in 1761; graduated at Dartmouth, and having failed in mercantile business, removed in 1809 to Conneaut, in the adjoining county of Ashtabula.  About the year 1812 his brother John visited him at that place.  He gives the following testimony:


He then told me that he had been writing a book, which he intended to have printed, the avails of which he thought would enable him to pay all his debts.  The book was entitled the “Manuscript Found,” of which he read to me many passages.  It was an historical romance of the first settlers of America, endeavoring to show that the American Indians are the descendants of the Jews, or the lost tribes.  It gave a detailed account of their journey from Jerusalem, by land and sea, till they arrived in America, under the command of NEPHI and LEHI.  They afterwards had quarrels and contentions, and separated into two distinct nations, one of which he denominated Nephites, and the other Lamanites.  Cruel and bloody wars ensued, in which great multitudes were slain.  They buried their dead in large heaps, which caused the mounds so common in this country.  Their arts, sciences and civilization were brought into view, in order to account for all the curious antiquities found in various parts of North and South America.  I have recently read the “Book of Mormon,” and to my great surprise, I find nearly the same historical matter, names, etc., as they were in my brother’s writings.  I well remember that he wrote in the old style, and commenced about every sentence with “and it came to pass,” the same as in the “Book of Mormon,” and according to the best of my recollection and belief, it is the same as my brother Solomon wrote, with the exception of the religious matter.  By what means it has fallen into the hands of Joseph SMITH, Jr., I am unable to determine.



Mr. Henry LAKE, of Conneaut, also states:


I left the State of New York late in the year 1810, and arrived at this place the 1st of January following.  Soon after my arrival I formed a copartnership with Solomon


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Top Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846


The Public Buildings on the left face the south end of the Public Square.


Bottom Picture

Geo. W. Barnard, Photo., Painesville, 1886


The Public Square and Soldiers’ Monument are shown in the distance.


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SPALDING, for the purpose of rebuilding a forge which he had commenced a year or two before.  He very frequently read to me from a manuscript which he was writing, which he entitled the “Manuscript Found,” and which he represented as being found in this town.  I spent many hours in hearing him read said writings, and became well acquainted with its contents.  He wished me to assist him in getting his production printed, alleging that a book of that kind would meet with a rapid sale.  I designed doing so, but the forge not meeting our anticipations, we failed in business, when I declined having anything to do with the publication of the book.  This book represented the American Indians as the descendants of the lost tribes, gave an account of their leaving Jerusalem, their contentions and wars, which were many and great.  One time, when he was reading to me the tragic account of Laban, I pointed out to him what I considered an inconsistency, which he promised to correct: but by referring to the “Book of Mormon,” I find to my surprise that it stands there just as he read it to me then.  Some months ago I borrowed the Golden Bible, put it into my pocket, carried it home, and thought no more of it.  About a week after, my wife found the book in my coat pocket, as it hung up, and commenced reading it aloud as I lay upon the bed.  She had not read twenty minutes till I was astonished to find the same passages in it that SPALDING had read to me more than twenty years before, from his “Manuscript Found.”  Since that, I have more fully examined the said Golden Bible, and have no hesitation in saying that the historical part of it is principally if not wholly taken from the “Manuscript Found.”  I well recollect telling Mr. SPALDING that the so frequent use of the words “And it came to pass,” “Now it came to pass,” rendered it ridiculous.  SPALDING left here in 1812, and I furnished him means to carry him to Pittsburg, where he said he would get the book printed, and pay me.  But I never heard any more from him or his writings, till I saw them in the “Book of Mormon.”



The testimony of six other witnesses is produced in the work of Mr. HOWE, all confirming the main facts as above given.  As Mr. SPALDING was vain of his writings, and was constantly showing them to his neighbors, reliable testimony to the same general facts might have been greatly multiplied.


The disposition SPALDING made of his manuscripts is not known.  From Conneaut SPALDING removed to Pittsburg, about the year 1813, remained there a year or two, and from thence went to Amity, in the same State, where he died in 1816.  His widow stated that, while they resided at Pittsburg, she thinks that the “Manuscript found” was once taken to the printing office of PATTERSON & LAMBDIN, but did not know whether it was ever returned.  We again quote verbatim from the work of Mr. HOWE:


Having established the fact, therefore, that most of the names and leading incidents contained in the Mormon Bible originated with Solomon SPALDING, it is not very material, as we conceive, to show the why and manner by which they fell into the hands of the SMITH family.  To do this, however, we have made some inquiries.


It was inferred at once that some light might be shed upon the subject, and the mystery revealed, by applying to PATTERSON & LAMBDIN, in Pittsburg.  But here again death had interposed a barrier.  That establishment was dissolved and broken up many years since, and LAMBDIN died about eight years ago.  Mr. PATTERSON says he has no recollection of any such manuscript being brought there for publication, neither would he have been likely to have seen it, as the business of printing was conducted wholly by LAMBDIN at that time.  He says, however, that many manuscript books and pamphlets were brought to the office about that time, which remained upon their shelves for years, without being printed or even examined.  Now, as SPALDING’Sbook can nowhere be found, or anything heard of it after being carried to this establishment, there is the strongest presumption that it remained there in seclusion, till about the year 1823 or ‘24, at which time Sidney RIGDON located himself in that city.  We have been credibly informed that he was on terms of intimacy with LAMBDIN, being seen frequently in his shop.  RIGDON resided in Pittsburg about three years, and during the whole of that time, as he has since frequently asserted, abandoned preaching and all other employment, for the purpose of studying the Bible.  He left there, and came into the county where he now resides, about the time LAMBDIN died, and commenced preaching some new points of doctrine, which were afterwards found to be inculcated in the Mormon Bible.  He resided in this vicinity for about four years previous to the appearance of the book, during which time he made several long visits to Pittsburg, and perhaps to the Susquehanna, where SMITH was then digging for money or pretending to be translating plates.  It may be observed also, that about the time RIGDON left Pittsburg, the SMITH family began to tell about finding a book that would contain a history of the first inhabitants of America, and that two years elapsed before they finally got possession of it.


We are, then, led to this conclusion:–that LAMBDIN, after having failed in business, had


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recourse to the old manuscripts then in his possession, in order to raise the wind, by a book speculation, and placed the “Manuscript Found,” of Solomon SPALDING, in the hands of RIGDON, to be embellished, altered, and added to, as he might think expedient; and three years’ study of the Bible we should deem little time enough to garble it, as it is transferred to the Mormon book.  The former dying, left the latter the sole proprietor, who was obliged to resort to his wits, and in a miraculous way to bring it before the world; for in no other manner could such a book be published without great sacrifice.  And where could a more suitable character be found than Jo SMITH, whose necromantic fame of arts and of deception had already extended to a considerable distance?  That LAMBDIN was a person every way qualified and fitted for such an enterprise we have the testimony of his partner in business and others of his acquaintance.  Add to all these circumstances the facts, that RIGDON had prepared the minds in a great measure of nearly a hundred of those who had attended his ministration, to be in readiness to embract the first mysterious ism that should be presented–the appearance of COWDERY at his residence as soon as the book was printed–his sudden conversion, after many pretensions to disbelieve it–his immediately repairing to the residence of SMITH, 300 miles distant, where he was forthwith appointed an elder, high priest, and a scribe to the prophet–the pretended vision that his residence in Ohio was the “promised land,”–the immediate removal of the whole SMITH family thither, where they were soon raised from a state of poverty to comparative affluence.  We, therefore, must hold out Sidney RIGDON to the world, as being the original “author and proprietor” of the whole Mormon conspiracy, until further light is elicited upon the lost writings of Solomon SPALDING.


When the main body of the Mormons left Kirtland the family of Mr. and Mrs. STRATTON held the key of the temple and claimed to have a title to it.  A few years since a body calling themselves the “Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints” returned to Kirtland and laid claim to the old deserted temple.  Mr. George A. ROBERTSON, writing of this society, says:


This new body is aggressive, dogmatical, earnest.  Its missionaries go forth into all regions and preach the gospel to the lowly.  They returned four years ago [1883] and laid claim to the old deserted temple.  Mrs. Electa STRATTON still held the key.  A few dollars expended in renovating made the old building a presentable structure, as good or better than the ordinary country church.  The “Reorganized” branch laid claim to the property and have obtained at length a clear title to it.  Kirtland, which for fifty years has been stranded away from the beaten routes of travel, is again having a “boom.”  It is the Mecca of a church.  It is the centre of a conference, and here resides one of the principal bishops.


The conference which has just closed its sessions here is the largest ever held by the denomination.  Its deliberations were participated in by all the prominent men of the church, and near its close Joseph SMITH II., the son and heir of the prophet, on whom the prophetic mantle fell, delivered an important revelation from the spirit. 


These anti-polygamous Mormons are growing in the estimation of the public.  Barring their alleged fanaticism and their faithful belief in Joseph SMITH as a prophet, they do not differ materially from other Christian sects.  They very strenuously oppose the use of liquor or tobacco, and are particular about the observance ordinances of the New Testament as they understand them.  They are certain to take no mean place, so far as membership goes, in the denominations of the world.


Painesville in 1846.–Painesville, the county-seat, and the largest village between Cleveland and Erie, Pa., is thirty-one miles east of Cleveland, and one hundred and seventy miles northeast of Columbus.  The Grand river skirts the village on the east, in a deep and picturesque valley.  Painesville is one of the most beautiful villages in the West: it is somewhat scattered, leaving ample room for the cultivation of gardens, ornamental trees and shrubbery.  A handsome public square of several acres, adorned with young trees, is laid out near the centre of the town, on which face some public buildings and private mansions.  The view represents the principal public buildings in the place.  The first on the left is the Methodist church; the building next, without a spire, tower or cupola, is the Disciples church; the one beyond, the Presbyterian church, and that most distant, the court-house: these last two front the west side of the public square.  Painesville is a flourishing town, containing 1 Episcopal, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Disciples and 1 Methodist church, 14 mercantile stores, 1 flouring mill, 1 bank, 1 newspaper printing office, and has increased since 1840, when it had 1,014


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inhabitants.  The Painesville Academy is a classical institution for both sexes, and in fine repute: a large brick building is appropriated for its uses.  Near the town is the Geauga furnace, which employs a heavy capital.


Painesville was laid out about the year 1805, by Henry CHAMPION, and originally named Champion: it was afterwards changed to that of the township which derived its name from Gen. Ed. PAINE, a native of Connecticut, an officer of the Revolution, and an early settler: he died only a few years since, at an advanced age, leaving the reputation of a warm hearted and excellent man.


Among the aborigines familiarly known to the early settlers at Painesville, was a fine specimen of manhood, called by the whites, Seneca; by the Indians Stigwanish, which being rendered in English, signifies the Standing Stone.  Says an old pioneer, in the Barr MSS:


Whoever once saw him, and could not at once perceive the dignity of a Roman senator, the honesty of Aristides and the philanthropy of William PENN, must be unacquainted with physiognomy.  He was never known to ask a donation, but would accept one exactly as he ought, when offered.  But it was not suffered to rest there; an appropriate return was sure to be made, and he would frequently be in advance.  He drank cider or Malaga wine moderately, but was so much of a teetotaller, as to have abjured ardent spirits since the time when, in a drunken frenzy, he aimed a blow with his tomahawk at his wife, which split the head of the papoose on her back.  He seldom wanted credit in his trading transactions, and when he did, there was no difficulty in obtaining it, as he was sure to make punctual payment in specie.  Once, when himself and wife dined with us at Painesville, he took much trouble to instruct her in the use of the knife and fork.  Vain attempt!  his usual politeness forsook him, and bursts of immoderate laughter succeeded, in which we were all compelled to join.  The last time I saw Seneca–the fine old fellow–was at Judge WALWORTH’S in Cleveland, a short time before hostilities commenced with Great Britain.  He expressed to me a fear that war was inevitable, and that the Indians, instigated by the British, would overwhelm our weak settlements; but gave the strongest assurances that if it should be possible, he would give us seasonable notice.  If he was not prevented by age or infirmities from redeeming his pledge, he was probably killed by his own people while endeavoring to leave their lines, or by some of ours, through a mistake of his character.


The Hon. Samuel HUNTINGTON, who was Governor of the State from 1808 to 1810, resided at Painesville in the latter part of his life, and died there in 1817.  Prior to his removal to Painesville, he resided at Cleveland.  One evening, while travelling towards Cleveland from the east, he was attacked about two miles from the town, by a pack of wolves, and such was their ferocity that he broke his umbrella to pieces in keeping them off, to which, and the fleetness of his horse, he owed the preservation of his life.–Old Edition.


PAINESVILLE, county-seat of Lake, is 150 miles northeast of Columbus, twenty-nine miles northeast of Cleveland, on the L. S. & M. S., N. Y. C. & St. L. and P. P. & F. Railroads.  Fairport Harbor is about two miles north of the city.


County Officers: Auditor, Walter C. TISDEL; Clerk, John C. WARD; Commissioners, Charles A. MOODEY, Stephen B. BAKER, Henry C. RAND; Coroner, Henry M. MOSHER; Infirmary Directors, Benjamin H. WOODMAN, John W. CROCKER, Charles M. THOMPSON; Probate Judge, George H. SHEPHERD; Prosecuting Attorney, Homer HARPER; Recorder, Henry B. GREEN; Sheriff, Albert BUTTON; Surveyor, Horatio N. MUNSON; Treasurers, Harcy ARMSTRONG, William D. MATHER.–State Report, 1888.


City Officers: S. K. GRAY, Mayor; H. P. SANFORD, Clerk; A. D. CROFUT, Marshal; S. L. THOMPSON, Treasurer; S. T. WOODMAN, Chief of the Fire Department; Horace ALVORD, Solicitor.  Newspapers: Advertiser, Republican, Robert N. TRAVERS, editor and publisher; Democrat, Democratic, D. G. MORRISON, editor; Northern Ohio Journal, Democratic, James E. CHAMBERS, editor; Telegraph, Republican, J. F. SCOFIELD, editor.  Churches: 1 Catholic, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Disciples, 1 Methodist.  Banks: Lake County, Aaron WILCOX & Co.; Painesville


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National, I. P. AXTELL, president, C. D. ADAMS, cashier; Painesville Saving and Loan Association, H. STEELE, president, R. K. PAIGE, cashier.


Manufactures and Employees.–COE & WILKES, machine work, 21 hands; The Paige Manufacturing Co., machine work, 48; Solon Hall, iron castings; R. LAROE, sash, doors, etc.; Painesville Manufacturing Co., window shade rollers, 26; Moody & Co., flour, etc.; S. BIGLER & Co., flour, etc.; SWEZEY & JOHNSON, butchers’ skewers, 43; Geauga Stove Co., stoves.–State Report, 1888.


Population in 1880, 3,841.  School census, 1888, 1,121.  G. W. READY, school superintendent.  Capital invested in industrial establishments, $232,000.  Value of annual product, $340,500.–Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.


Census, 1890, 4,612.


An interesting fact in connection with Painesville is that here is located the “LAKE ERIE FEMALE SEMINARY,” an institution of high repute.  Its site is on the border of the town, in the midst of its finest residences.  The seminary buildings are large and imposing, and placed on an attractive lawn of noble trees.


Fairport in 1846.–Three miles below Painesville, at the mouth of Grand river, is Fairport, laid out in 1812, by Samuel HUNTINGTON, Abraham SKINNER, Seymour and Calvin AUSTIN, and Simon PERKINS.  The first warehouse in this region, and perhaps on the lake, was built about 1803, on the river, two miles above, by Abraham SKINNER, near which in the dwelling of Mr. SKINNER, the first court in the old county of Geauga was held.  Fairport has one of the best harbors on the lake, and so well defended from winds and easy of access that vessels run in when they cannot easily make other ports.  The water is deep enough for any lake craft, and about $60,000 has been expended in improving the harbor by the general government.  Lake steamers stop here and considerable commerce is carried on.  Fairport contains eight forwarding houses, several groceries, from twenty to forty dwellings and a light-house, and a beacon to guide the mariner on the fresh water sea.


Richmond, one mile above Fairport, on the opposite and west side of the river, was laid out about ten years ago in the era of speculation.  A large village was build, a steamboat was owned there, and great things promised.  Not having the natural elements of prosperity it soon waned; some of its dwellings were removed to Painesville, while many others, deserted and decaying, are left to mark the spot.–Old Edition.


In 1835 the Painesville and Fairport Railroad Company was chartered, and in 1837 was running horse cars over hard wood rail.  In 1836 the Fairport and Wellsville Railroad Company was chartered, and in fifteen days $274,800 stock subscriptions were made.  Other railroads were projected and Fairport’s prospects were booming, when the panic of 1836-37 came on and the boom burst.  At one time Fairport, with contiguous towns and territory, was considered a rival of Cleveland, but the latter secured the terminus of the Ohio canal, early railroad connections, and Fairport ceased to be a rival at a very early day.


The wonderful development, however, of the lake commerce within the past few years has again attracted attention to the natural advantages of Fairport as a shipping point to and from the great Northwest.  In view of this a communication from Mr. George E. PAINE, setting forth the present condition of affairs, with a prediction for the future, will be of interest:


“Before December, 1889, over 8,000 feet of new docks will be completed at Fairport and Richmond, equal to the best on the lakes, and equipped with the very best machinery for handling ore and coal; and elevators for handling Duluth wheat, with warehouses for the rapidly growing Northwestern trade, will soon be built, to be used by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the distance by rail from Fairport via Pittsburg to Baltimore being less than the distance by rail from Buffalo to New York.


“Grand river, with its old river bed extending westward five miles, affords in all sixteen miles of water front, with flats and bayous, into which slips can be cut to any desired extent, making hundreds of acres of land accessible alike to vessels and cars, avail-


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Top Picture

John Garfield


Bottom Picture

Barnard, Photo., 1887.



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able for ore and coal docks, lumber yards, warehouses and elevators, iron mills and factories of all kinds, which require large quantities of iron, steel and wood.  And this harbor, with its wonderful natural advantages, can be reached by railroads from the Mahoning valley at Niles, Ohio, and from the Shenango valley, just above Sharpsville, Pa., on maximum grades not to exceed thirty feet per mile either way, with no costly bridges or earthwork.  There is no other direct route for a railroad from the Shenango and Mahoning valleys to any other lake port at less than seventy-eight feet maximum grade per mile.


“Many now living will see Grand river valley, from ‘New Market” to ‘Mentor Marsh’ (the mouth of the old river bed), a distance of eight miles, covered with ore, coal and lumber docks, iron mills, elevators and warehouses, and crowded with steamers, vessels and tugs.


“And the prediction is now made that the Grand river valley, including the old river bed in Mentor, will become the centre of the greatest iron and steel manufacturing district in the world, within the next hundred years, as the best iron ores in the world and the best fuel of all kinds will meet there at the cheapest average rates; and when made into iron and steel, and the ten thousand forms of finished goods required by the civilized world, the shipping facilities by water and by railroad to all parts of the globe, taken altogether, will be surpassed by no other manufacturing locality, domestic or foreign.”




JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD, twentieth president of the United States, was born in Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, Nov. 19, 1831, and died in Elberon, N. J., Sept. 19, 1881.  His father, Abram GARFIELD, was a native of New York and of English Puritan ancestry.  His mother, Eliza BALLOU, was born in New Hampshire and was of Huguenot descent.


In 1830 Abram GARFIELD removed to the “Western Reserve,” to found a home for himself and family in the then “wilderness.”  Shortly after settling here he died of a sudden attack of fever, and left his wife with four small children.  With grand courage and fortitude, the self-sacrificing mother fought against poverty and privation, impressing upon her four children a high standard of moral and intellectual worth.


At three years of age James GARFIELD commenced his education in a log hut.  From this time on he attended such schools as the district afforded, working at manual labor betimes at home and on the farms of neighbors.  He seized with avidity upon all books that came within his reach, and early developed a habit of voluminous reading that remained with him through life.  The Bible and American history were especially familiar to him.  One book of sea tales, which he read while a boy, filled him with an intense desire for the sea, and at sixteen years of age he tried to ship as a sailor on a Lake Erie schooner at Cleveland, but failing in this, he drove for a canal boat for some months, from the coal mines of Governor TOD at Brier Hill to Cleveland.


At this time Governor TOD, having occasion to visit the boat one Sunday, found all the hands playing cards, except young GARFIELD, who was seated in the forward part of the boat studying United States history.  An anecdote of one of his canal boat experiences shows that at this time he was, as in after life, of strong physique, courageous, manly and generous.  He had offended one of the canal boatmen, a great hulking fellow, who started to thrash him.  Dave rushed upon him, with his head down, like an enraged bull.  As he came on, Garfield sprang to one side, and dealt him a powerful blow just back of and under the left ear.  Dave went to the bottom of the boat, with his head between two beams, and his now heated foe went after him, seized him by the throat, and lifted the same clenched hand for another buffet.  “Pound the d–d fool to death, Jim,” called the appreciative captain.  “If he haint no more sense than to get mad at an accident, he orto die.”  And as the youth hesitated, “Who don’t you strike?  D–n me, if I’ll interfere.”  He could not.  The man was down, helpless, in his power.  Dave expressed regret at his rage.  GARFIELD gave him his hand, and they were better friends than ever.


In the winter of 1849-50 he attended Geauga Seminary at Chester, Ohio practicing the trade of carpenter during vacations, helping at harvesting, teaching


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school, and doing whatever came to hand to pay for his schooling.  At Chester he first met Miss Lucretia RUDOLPH, a school teacher, who became his wife, Nov. 11, 1858, at which time he was President of Hiram College.  Of this marriage four sons and one daughter were living in 1887.


His early training was strongly religious, his mother being a staunch Campbellite, and while at Chester he was baptized and received into that denomination. 


In 1851 he entered Hiram College; three years later entered Williams College, from which he graduated in 1856 with the highest honors of his class.  He than returned to Ohio as a teacher of Latin and Greek at Hiram College and a year later was made its president.


While acting in the capacity of a very successful educator, he entered his name as a student-at-law in the office of Williamson & Riddle, of Cleveland, Ohio, although studying in Hiram, and in 1858 was admitted to the bar.  A year later, without solicitation on his part, he was elected to the Ohio Senate.


In this new field his industry and versatility were conspicuous.  He made investigations and reports on geology, education, finance and parliamentary law; and although at this time it was not believed that the South would take up arms, he was somewhat apprehensive, and gave especial study to the militia system of the State.


The war came, and in August, 1861, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in the Forty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry.


We give a chronological record of GARFIELD’S career; to give anything like a full sketch would exceed the limitations and scope of our work.  His life, however, is such a remarkable example of what may be accomplished by honest, persistent endeavor, by those of the most humble origin and surroundings, that it should be studied in its details by every child in the land:


1831.Nov.. 19, born at Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio.


1848.      Drives for a canal boat.


1849-50 Attends Geauga Seminary, where he meets Miss Lucretia RUDOLPH, his future wife.  Is baptized and received into the Disciples Church.


1851.      Enters Hiram College as a student.


1854.      Enters Williams College.


1856.      Graduates from Williams College with the highest honors of his class.  Returns to Ohio, to teach Greek and Latin in Hiram College.


1857.      Is made president of Hiram College.  Preacher in the Disciples Church.


1858.      Nov. 11, is united in marriage with Miss Lucretia RUDOLPH, at Hudson, Ohio.


1859.      Admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court at Columbus.  Elected to the Ohio Senate.


1861.      In August commissioned lieutenant-colonel in the Forty-second Ohio Volunteers.  In December reports to Gen. BUELL, in Louisville, Ky.


1862.      Out-generals Gen. MARSHALL and, re-enforced by Generals GRANGER and SHELDON, defeats MARSHALL at Middle Creek, Ky., January, 10.  In recognition of this service is commissioned brigadier-general.  April 7, takes aprt in the second day’s fight at Shiloh.  Engaged in all the operations in front of Corinth.  In June rebuilds bridges on Memphis and Charleston Railroad.  July 30, returns to Hiram from ill health.  Sept. 25, on court-martial duty at Washington, and on Nov. 25, assigned to the case of Gen. Fitz-John PORTER.


1863.      In Feb. returns to duty in the Army of the Cumberland, and made chief of staff under Gen. ROSECRANS.  At the battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19, GARFIELD volunteered to take the news of the defeat on the right to Gen. Geo. H. THOMAS, who held the left of the line.  It was a bold ride, under constant fire; but he reached THOMAS and gave the information that saved the Army of the Cumberland.  For this was made major-general.  Dec. 3, resigns from the army to take seat in Congress, to which he had been elected fifteen months previously.


1864.      Jan. 14, delivers first speech in Congress.  Placed on Committee on Military Affairs.


1865.      Jan. 13, discusses constitutional amendment to abolish slavery.  Changed from Committee on Military Affairs to Ways and Means Committee.


April 15, delivers from the balcony of the New York Custom House, to a mob frenzied by the news of President LINCOLN’s death, the following speech:


“Fellow-citizens: Clouds and darkness are around him; his pavilion is dark waters and thick clouds; justice and judgment are the establishment of his throne; mercy and truth shall go before his face!  Fellow-citizens: God


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Barnard, Photo, 1887


The room and its objects are just as left by him where last there.


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reigns, and the Government at Washington lives!”


1866.      In March made his first speech on public debt, foreshadowing resumption of specie payments.


1867.      Made Chairman of Committee on Military Affairs.


1869-71.                Chairman of new committee of Forty-first Congress on Banking and Currency.


1871-75.                Forty-second and Forty-third Congresses, Chairman of Committee on Appropriations.


1875.        Member of Ways and Means Committee.  (House Democratic, Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth Congresses.)


1877.      Chosen member of Presidential Electoral Commission.


1880.      January 13, elected to United States Senate.  April 23, delivers last speech in House of Representatives.  June 8, nominated for the presidency.  Nov. 2, elected President.


1881.      March 23, nominates William H. ROBERTSON to be Collector of the Port of New York.  May 5, withdraws all New York nominations.  May 16, Senators CONKLING and PLATT resign.  May 18, Collector ROBERTSON confirmed.  July 2, shot by GUITEAU.  Sept. 6, taken to Elberon, N. J. Sept. 19, died of blood-poisoning from pistol-shot wound.  Sept. 21, remains carried to Washington.  Sept. 22 and 23, remains lie in state in rotunda of Capitol.


1882.      Sept. 26, remains placed in Lake View Cemetery at Cleveland, Ohio.


“GARFIELD’S tragic death,” writes a biographer, “assures to him the attention of history.  It will credit him with great services rendered in various fields, and with a character formed by a singular union of the best qualities, industry, perseverance, truthfulness, honesty, courage; all acting as faithful servants to a lofty and unselfish ambition.  Without genius, which can rarely do more than produce extraordinary results in one direction, his powers were so many and well trained that he produced excellent results in many.  If history shall call GARFIELD great, it will be because the development of these powers was so complete and harmonious.”


The speeches of GARFIELD are almost a compendium of the political history of the stirring era between 1864 and 1880.  Said ex-President HAYES: “Beyond almost any man I have known, he had the faculty of gathering information from all sources and then imparting it to an audience in instructive and attractive oratory.”






The home of the murdered President will always be a place of melancholy interest.  Lawnfield is near the village of Mentor, twenty-two miles east of Cleveland, about seven west of Painesville and three from the lake.  It is a level, grassy region, from which it derives its name.


On Tuesday morning, Sept. 28, 1886, I left Painesville by the cars.  Lawnfield is over a mile from the Mentor depot, and, on arriving, I started directly thither on foot, in a pouring rain and with no umbrella.  I soon reached the Mentor school-house; a plain brick building standing back from the road, with a grove in front.  Half a dozen boys were in the doorway, like so many flies, to get out of the rain.  I went in for shelter and to inquire my way.




It was the noon recess.  Some dozen boys and girls were in the room and had disposed of their noon lunch, and seeing I was wet from the rain, put in more wood in the box-stove and set a chair for me.  As I was drying myself mid the roarings of the burning wood, I looked around upon the children, who were full of glee.  One boy, dancing after a girl, said, “I’ll put a head on you!”  This seemed entirely superfluous; she had a good head already.  Another called out, “To-morrow is Wiggins day–the world is going to be destroyed!  This was from a weather prediction of WIGGINS, a Canadian crank.


Prophecies of the end of the world, coming at certain dates, have been common in the past centuries.  The most notable prophet of our time was William MILLER,


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a Baptist preacher, who began his predictions in 1831 and had over 50,000 converts, who were called Millerites.  They eventually formed a religious denomination known as “The Second Adventists,” who believed that the second appearance of Christ was then near at hand.  In my town, about the time of the expected fulfilment of one of the prophecies, one winter night, in the midst of a heavy fall of snow, the heavens were lighted up with an ominous glow, and every snow-flake came down lighted like a flake of fire; the like had not been seen before, and many cheeks grew pale; not those of Black Milly, a pious old negress, a great shouter at Methodist meetings.  Next day, in telling of it, she said, “I felt sure my blessed Jesus was a coming, and I got up and put on my best clothes, and lighted my candles, and set my house in order and waited, singing and praying, to give him a welcome; and oh, I was so happy!”


This unusual phenomena was occasioned by the burning of paper-mills three miles away, and the snow-flakes being large and moist reflected the light.  In a term of years, prior to each of these dates, several different times were set by the prophet, as others had failed of being correct.  Some of his adherents sold their property, to get the free use of cash for the short time they felt they were to stay here below.  One of these went to a neighbor to sell a young pig.  The latter demurred; “too young.”  “No,” rejoined the Millerite, “he’ll grow.”  “Not much; for, according to your belief, he will be roasted pig altogether too soon for my use.”


Well dried and warmed, I arose to leave the gleeful group, and as I opened the nearest door, an urchin behind me called out, “You are going into the girls’ closet!”  Sure enough, a little room, with bonnets and wraps, opened to my vision.  Female paraphernalia is always interesting; and this sight of the clothing of the innocents was not an exception.




I inquired the way to Mrs. GARFIELD’S, when one of the boys called out, “She’s got lots of money.”  “Yes, I knew about how that came;” but did not pause to tell the lad what I tell here.


The death of President GARFIELD was a sad shock to the nation, and as it was understood the widow and young family were left in restricted circumstances, Cyrus W. FIELD, of Atlantic cable fame, originated a popular subscription in their behalf.  Happening to call upon him at that juncture, I found this man of millions in a plainly furnished office, in a back room on Broadway; a rather tall, slender old gentleman of sixty years; quick, nervous, agile as a youth, kindly in manner, a rapid, voluble talker, bending over to one as he talked, with the manner, “no matter who you are, I’ll hear you; your wants are as great to you as mine are to me.”  With him was a confidential clerk, advanced in life, evidently a fossil from old England, for he had the cockney dialect; and then at a side table sat a plainly-dressed boy of twelve, apparently a German lad, and he attracted me.  Before him was perhaps a half peck of letters, just in by the mail, with contributions for the GARFIELD FUND.  These the lad was opening, taking the names of the donors, with the amounts from each, for publication in the next day’s papers, and piling up the bills and checks.  In a few days the fund amounted to over $360,000, in sums from single contributors, varying from the single dollar to the thousands; it came some from working people; some from millionaires.  The money poured in so bounteously that Mr. FIELD had to shut down receiving, and he so published.


It was about this time or a little later that Mr. FIELD erected a monument to the British spy, Major-Andre, on American sooil.  He did this out of his exuberance of good feeling to those “bloody Britishers;” for they had allowed him to fasten one end of his big wire rope around their tight little island, and then, what was more, loaned him their biggest ship, the “Great Eastern,” to stow away the remainder when she started for our shores, paying it out as she steamed until she


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reached our side.  Whereupon their great man, John BRIGHT, for his success, had called Cyrus the “Columbus of modern times, who, by his cable, had moored the new world alongside the old.”


That compliment and fact made no difference, and so one dark night some enterprising people, who had no stomachs yawning to glorify the memory of a British spy, put under the monument on the North river at least half an ounce of gunpowder, set a match to it; so, when the sun arose next morning, it failed to catch any of its glowing rays.  But the big rope still remains at the bottom of the ocean, continually wagging at both ends, telling people on both sides “what’s up.”  In this respect it is like old Mother Tucker, of Tuckerton, on the Jersey coast, a great talker, of whom it was said, “her tongue hung in the middle, and she talked with both ends.”  This was the story I heard in my youth, but I never believed so wonderful a thing could be done until this demonstration of the cable of Cyrus.




I write the above for the benefit of the Mentor children who may read it.  Five minutes after leaving them I was at the Garfield place.  It is on a level spot, with broad green fields in front and around, and an orchard in the rear.  The buildings occupy much ground.  The old GARFIELD home which fronts the cluster is a wooden building; its entire front a vine-clad porch of say fifty feet in length.  Behind the cluster is a small barn-like structure called the “Campaign Building.”  During the GARFIELD campaign a bevy of clerks were kept there busy mailing campaign documents, and from it telegraphic wires extended over the Union up to the night of the election and victory.


A serving-man answered my ring.  He had the exquisite suavity common to his class–they outdo their lords.  I laid my card on his waiter.  He bowed and left, and soon returning, I was ushered into a sort of double room.  It was dark there; the overhanging portico and the rainy, murky sky outside uniting to that end.  The room and ceilings were low and I could discern but little.  Pictures were on the walls, apparently old family portraits; but I could not tell male from female, the place and day were so dark.  The rooms around opened into each other, and the interior seemed comfortable, old-fashioned and home-like.


As I sat there musing in the gloom, I suddenly felt the presence of some one by my side.  I looked up, and there stood a young man of say twenty-five; slender, reticent, dark-eyed, hollow cheeks, olive complexion–looked like a thinker.  It was Harry A. GARFIELD, the eldest of the sons.  His mother was occupied with guests, and Grandmamma GARFIELD was away.  No matter, it was business I was upon, and I arranged with him for my sending a photographer to take some views, which are given.  He subsequently gave me by letter the items in the following paragraph:


The Mentor farm was purchased by Mr. GARFIELD about the year 1877.  His idea was to eventually run the farm into cattle, raising good stock upon it, etc.; and this is what the family are now trying to carry out.  The house was originally a story and a half high.  In 1880 a story and a larger piazza were added.  In 1885 Mrs. GARFIELD added to the modest frame house of her husband a palatial “Queen Anne structure of stone.”  It was in accordance with an intent expressed by Mr. GARFIELD while living, as a repository for his extensive collection of books.


To the foregoing items I annex a published description of that period, by a visitor who had a facile pen with which to write, and a bright day in which to observe:


“The new part of the GARFIELD mansion is behind and wholly subservient to the old house in which the President lived.  This still remains the head and front of the GARFIELD home, although remodelled to conform with the addition.  There are probably thirty rooms in both old and new houses.  They are all furnished in modern style and with considerable elegance.  Although the house is far in the country it has all the conven-


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iences of a city home, in plumbing, gas-fitting and steam-heating.  A natural gas well has been bored on the farm and the yard is kept lighted day and night.  The main entrance is through the old house.  In the hall facing the door is an old wall-sweep clock.  To the left is the smoking-room.  To the right is the old parlor, now a reception-room.  Bibles and other books are upon the tables, and the furniture is much the same as when the family left for Washington.


To the left is a modest little room occupied by the aged “Grandma” GARFIELD.  She is eighty-five, but a vigorous old lady yet, who reads her Bible every day.  Her room is modestly but richly furnished, and the face of her son looks upon her from every side.  A handsome fire-screen, with a transparency of the dead, stands before the hearth.  A half dozen other portraits of him hang where the eye meets them at every turn.  Over the mirror of the dresser is a picture of him as a young man, taken in 1852.  On an opposite wall is a picture in colors of the old pioneer home of the GARFIELD family.  But the great relic of this room is the last letter of the son to his mother, of which so many thousand fac-simile copies were sold.  Here is the original:


WASHINGTON, Aug. 11, 1881.


DEAR MOTHER: Do not be disturbed by conflicting reports of my condition.  It is true I am still weak, but am gaining every day, and need only time and patience to bring me through.  Give my love to all the friends and relatives, and especially Aunt Hetty.


                Your loving son,

                                JAMES A. GARFIELD.


There is less simplicity in other parts of the great house.  The paintings in the parlors are works of art.  But the one great idea in this home is GARFIELD the father, GARFIELD the statesman.  Pictures and busts of him are everywhere.  On the stairway leading to the library is an oil portrait of him, made in 1862, when he came from the war.  Above it hang his swords.  The library is the refuge-room.  It is in the upper story of the new part, and an ideal spot for rest or literary labor.  There are about 2,000 volumes here arranged for convenience.  The tables are loaded with art, books and magazines.  Where there are walls above the books, pictures of authors with their autographs attached are hung.  The autographic portraits of BISMARCK and GAMBETTA occupy prominent places.


With Mrs. GARFIELD live her father, Mr. RUDOLPH, a brother and his family.  A half dozen men are employed on the farm, which consists of 160 acres.”




On leaving the mansion it was still raining, and I sought shelter in the post-office opposite the school-house.  It was a small place.  The postmaster, an elderly personage, was behind the letters in his cage.  Three old men were seated out in front of the cage talking: the business of life about wound up with them.  I told them where I had been, and then they were loud in the praises of the GARFIELDS.  Mrs. GARFIELD paid generously the people who worked for her on her place; and as for Mr. GARFIELD, in his lifetime, he was one of the most social, genial of spirits.  One of them said, “He got me to build him a manger, and he came down and watched the job; and I found he knew more than I did about mangers.  He talked with everybody about their business; learned all they knew; added it to what he knew, and then knew more than all the rest of us put together.”


I got back to the depot at three o’clock.  The cars were to return at six.  There was no tavern.  A sign, “Boarding House,” was over the door of a two-story dwelling.  I knocked and entered.  Two ladies well along in the afternoon of their earthly pilgrimage were there, with “their things on,” ready to go out.  I made known my wants.  One, a bright, cheery soul, threw off her wraps, saying to her friend, “You go on; I’ll join you soon; I’ll get his dinner.  I’m a money-grabber–I want the two shillings.”  Soon I heard the stove roaring in the adjoining room, and in a trice my dinner was ready–stewed chicken (poultry of her own raising), cold pork, vegetables, fruits, apples, pears, grapes, pie and hot coffee, and on my part a relishing appetite.


While I was at table she started the fire in the box-stove in the room I was in, and it roared for my drying; for I was wet through from knees down.  Then she left me to dry and cogitate; and hanging myself over two chairs, I smoked my cigar and meditated, while the old clock ticked away the hours from its wall-perch.


To the young waiting is dreary; action and acquisition is their occupation.  To the old the passing of time is as nothing.  The leaves of the book of life are full, when memory glides in and turns over to their vision page after page of the mor-


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tal panorama, made sacred in the dim hallowed light of the vanished years.  And when the life has been imprinted with blessing thoughts and deeds, these retrospective hours are as calming to the spirit as the mellow suffusing glow of an autumnal sunset.




The cars came.  My cigar was in ashes, my clothes dry; and I was done with Mentor.  Three hours later I was seated ruminating in a chair on the pavement in front of the Stockwell House, Painesville.  The storm had passed; the stars looked down with their silent eyes, and my ears were open.  Two old men were sitting near me in the darkness, sounding the praises of the Western Reserve; and they both agreed.  One of them was a retired general officer of our army, over seventy years of age.  He had lived in every part of our country; at the far East and the far West; in Kansas and California; was familiar with Canada and every part of the Mississippi valley.  “Elsewhere,” said he, “in places they produce larger single crops, some in corn, some in wheat, and some grow more hogs; but here the soil is rich and of the nature that it give a a wonderful variety of everything; grain, fruit, vegetables, etc., which, with the climate, makes it the choicest spot of our land.”


And he might have added a word more upon the people, their general thrift and intelligence, fortified with the truthful statement that the Reserve exceeds all other populations of equal number in the amount of domestic correspondence, and books magazines and newspapers received through the mails.  This old veteran who spake with such enthusiasm, was General R. B. POTTER, President of the Military Commission before whom C. L VALLANDIGHAM was tried for treason.  The old soldier has since that night answered his last roll-call.




JOHN FLAVIAL MORSE, born in Massachusetts in October, 1801, removed with his father to Kirtland in 1816.  He was a third time member of the Ohio legislature in 1848, when, in connection with Dr. N. S. TOWNSHEND, he was instrumental in the election of Salmon P. CHASE to the United States Senate, and in the repeal of the Black Laws.  (See Vol. I., page 100.)  In 1851 he was Speaker of the Ohio house of representatives; in 1860 elected to the State senate.  In 1861 was captain of the Twenty-ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry.  In 1862 Secretary CHASE offered him employment on the public buildings, in which service he continued until 1876.  Mr. MORSE died January 30, 1884.


WILLIAM H. BEARD was born in Painesville, April 13, 1825.  He is famous for his caricatures of the vanities and the foibles of men through the portrayal of their prototypes in the animal kingdom.  He began his professional career about 1846 as a travelling portrait painter.  In 1856 visited and studied in Europe.  In 1860 settled in New York city, and two years later was elected a member of the National Academy.


His brother, JAMES H. BEARD, was born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1814, and then in infancy was brought to Painesville, where he spent his boyhood days.  Later was for a number of years engaged in portrait and other painting in Cincinnati.  In 1870 he settled permanently in New York, and two years later was elected a full member of the National Academy, of which he had been an honorary member since 1848.  Of late years he has devoted himself to animal painting, and has attained great eminence as an artist.


The works of the brothers are largely permeated with the spirit of humor.  James H. has several sons, all artists of fine capacity.  When in Cincinnati James H. designed the engraving, for distribution by the Western Art Union, entitled “Poor Relations.”  A family of aristocratic dogs, consisting of a mother dog, with her plump, well-fed pups, are in their parlor receiving their poor relations, consisting of a mother dog, with her pups, lean and of a half-starved look, who


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have just entered the door.  The expressions of contempt and pride on the faces of the first are in marked contrast with those of the visitors, whose abject, crouching forms are pitiful to behold.


While in Cincinnati BEARD painted his celebrated picture, “The Last Man,” which for a long term of years has been hanging on the walls of the Burnet House there, and has been the admiration of thousands of the guests of that famous hostelrie.  The last man is the last victim of the ancient flood, who awaits, on a crag, the closing in upon him of the angry waters.  His wife has perished, and floats in the surges at his feet.  The rain still beats down from the black wind-tossed sky.  The storm-pelted man knows his fate, and awaits it with a stern sadness and a grand fortitude.  Few paintings equal this as a dramatic conception, and few arouse the same deep feeling by suggestion.


In the American Magazine for December, 1889, is an article upon Mr. BEARD, by Leon ADAMS, from which the following is derived.  It is entitled “The Apprenticeship of an Academician.”  Mr. MEAD begins with an extraordinary fact:


“James H. BEARD has devoted more than sixty years to the art of painting, and has long been a member of the National Academy of Design.  He has painted the portraits of some eminent personages, and, both as portrait





painter and animal painter, has had numerous admirers that have paid good prices for his productions; and yet, he has never had any instruction in either drawing or color, has never studied the anatomy of either man or beast, and has not had more than a year’s schooling in his life.  This career is a noteworthy instance of how a strong natural bent will assert itself in spite of very discouraging obstacles.”


Mr. BEARD was born in Buffalo.  His father, James BEARD, a shipmaster on the lakes, commanded the first brig that sailed on Lake Erie.  His wife was the first white woman that visited the post where Chicago now stands.  The subject of this sketch began to draw when he was a small boy, and grew to manhood in Painesville, Ohio, and Cleveland.  At sixteen he met at Painesville a wandering sign and portrait painter, and concluded to try his own luck with the brush.  He found sitters who were not very critical, and painted them in red, white and brown–the only colors he could find at a cabinet-maker’s.  He made his own implements, except the brushes, and prepared his own canvas.  There was something about his pictures that rendered them a success, and insured his popularity.  At length he visited Ravenna and painted a full-length portrait for ten dollars, a sum that he considered munificent, for it cost him but $1.25 a week for his board, lodging and washing at the Ravenna hotel.


From this time until he was eighteen BEARD was a wanderer chiefly, and experienced many hardships.  He reached Pittsburg, and saw for the first time in his life a paved street and the wonders of an early Western museum.  A keelboat, on which he worked his passage, brought him to this city.  At Cincinnati he was paid off with the rest of the hands, and within an hour after landing he parted with his friend, the sign-painter, having determined to take a trip to Louisville.  The deck passage was two dollars, but no one came to collect his fare, and so he enjoyed a free sail, though it was not his intention to defraud the steamboat company.  Not knowing but that he was entitled to them, he took his meals regularly in the cabin.  At night, together with a young man who had two blankets, he slept on a pile of pig iron.  He spent a week wandering about Louisville, adding several unimportant experiences to his budget, and then returned to Cincinnati with about eight dollars in his pocket.


Putting on a bold face, BEARD obtained work in Cincinnati as a chair painter who had had “experience.”  No one ever discovered that he was not an experienced chair painter.  During his leisure time he used to make pencil drawings at the house where he boarded, of different things, and drop them carelessly on the floor so that they would attract attention.  The landlord possessed a strong, char-


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acteristic face, and BEARD drew him in uniform, he being a colonel in the militia.  The young artist also dropped this drawing on the floor of his chamber.  His chief ambition was to get to painting portraits again. He thought this drawing would please the colonel, and it did.  In short, it led to BEARD’S receiving a commission to paint the portraits of the colonel and his entire family, consisting of five members, at five dollars a piece.  With this work to occupy him, BEARD left the chair factory and resumed his portrait painting.  But the income was precarious, and he was often “hard up.”


The article concludes as follows: Mr. BEARD was about twenty-two when he married Miss Mary Caroline CARTER.  Her father, Colonel CARTER, was a river-trader.  Soon afterwards he went down the river, taking charge of one of the boats of his father-in-law.  Before reaching New Orleans he confronted many dangers, and passed through many adventures with the river pirates and dishonest traders.


On one of his trips to New Orleans Mr. BEARD stopped at Baton Rouge, and painted a three-quarter length life-size portrait of Gen. TAYLOR.  At this time it was generally conceded that TAYLOR would be nominated for the Presidency.  One day, while at work on the portrait, the artist said to his distinguished sitter, “General, I will vote for you, but under protest.  I never knew you as a statesman, and I am not certain that a military man is qualified for the office.”  TAYLOR replied, “You are right.  I am no more fit to be President than you are.  Don’t vote for me.”  Afterward Mr. BEARD made a copy of this portrait of Gen. TAYLOR, and sold it to a gentleman who presented it to the city of Charleston.  In 1840 he painted for the city of Cincinnati a full-length portrait of Gen. Wm. Henry HARRISON.


Since 1863 he has devoted himself principally to animal painting.  His animal pictures appeal to popular taste, being generally intended to tell a story, humorous or pathetic, and the intention of the painter is easily discernible.  There is no better example of his work in that line than “The Streets of New York,” which he sold for $3,000.


Mr. BEARD, with a studio in New York, resides at Flushing, L. I., where he is passing a serene old age, delighting his visitors with some of the incidents of his varied experience.  Well preserved, tall, erect, with a yellowish grey beard and abundant white curly hair flowing down his shoulders, wherever he appears he is a striking figure, picturesque and patriarchal.


We have spoken of the great suggestion in Mr. Beard’s “The Last Man.”  One of his most recent paintings, “It’s Very Queer, Isn’t It?”  Is almost equal to a dissertation on Darwinian theory.  No one could ever tire of a picture marked by such concentrated humor and philosophy.  The contrasted skulls of the man and of the monkey are a powerful illustration–but who can say of what?


This picture shows an old monkey, with the face of a sage, seated in a chair in a meditative mood.  On one side of him is the skull of a man, on the other that of an ape.  It is evident that they have been a subject of study, and he is pondering whether man came from the monkey or the monkey from the man.


GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD was born in Painesville, Ohio, Jan. 19, 1842; graduated at Western Reserve College in 1864.  He preached in Edinburgh, Ohio, for two years.  In 1879 was professor of moral and intellectual philosophy in Bowdoin College.  In 1881 was called to the chair of philosophy in Yale College.  The same year the Western Reserve College conferred on him the degree of D. D.  He is the author of “Doctrine of Sacred Scripture” (New York and Edinburgh, 1883) and other publications.


THOMAS W. HARVEY was born in New Hampshire in 1821, and removed to Lake county when twelve years of age.  He early developed a strong desire for a good education, made a beginning under adverse circumstances, and through life has been a hard student and able worker in the development of education in Ohio.  Prof. HARVEY is recognized as one of the leading educators of the State.  He was for fourteen years superintendent of schools in Massillon, and has served many years in a similar capacity at Painesville.  He was three years State commissioner of common schools.  As a lecturer and instructor he has a widespread reputation, and a number of valuable text-books bear testimony to his ability as an author.


MADISON is eleven miles east of Painesville, on the L. S. & M. S. R. R., and on the old stage route from Cleveland to Buffalo, and a station on the Underground Railroad.  The George HARRIS of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” was arrested here and rescued at Unionville.  Newspaper: Monitor, Independent, F. A. WILLIAMS, editor and publisher.  Bank: Exchange, L. H. KIMBALL, president; A. S. STRATTON, cashier.  Churches: 1 Baptist, 1 Congregational, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Catholic.  Population, 1880, 793.  School census, 1888, 197.


MENTOR is near Lake Erie, six miles west of Painesville, on the L. S. & M. S.


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and N. Y. C. & St. L. Railroads.  It has 1 Methodist Episcopal and 1 Catholic church.  Population, 1880, 540.  School census, 1888, 218.


Little Mountain is said to be about the highest point of land on the Western Reserve.  It is seven miles south of Painesville; a small and abrupt eminence of about 200 feet in height above the surrounding country, and can be seen from a far distance.  It is much visited, and commands a beautiful prospect of the adjacent country and Lake Erie, distant ten miles.  A cool breeze generally blows from the lake to brace the nerves of the visitor, while around and below the earth is clad in beauty.



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