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Lucas County, named from the Hon. Robert LUCAS who, Governor of Ohio from 1832 to 1836, was formed in June, 1835.  The surface is level, a portion of it covered by the black swamp, and the northern part a sandy soil. 


Area about 440 square miles.  In 1887 the acres cultivated were 67,552; in pasture, 8,659; woodland, 22,789; lying waste, 2,662; produced in wheat, 223,061 bushels; rye, 35,900; buckwheat, 3,834; oats, 338,045; barley, 14,034; corn, 582,549; broom-corn, 600 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 13,622 tons; clover hay, 5,779; flaxseed, 1,604 bushels; potatoes, 156,618 bushels; butter, 412,986 lbs.; sorghum, 766 gallons; maple sugar, 75 lbs.; honey, 4,835 lbs.; eggs, 298,618 dozen; grapes, 640,289 lbs.; wine, 25,126 gallons; apples, 90,136 bushels; peaches, 3,036; pears, 2,913; wool, 26,837 lbs.; milch cows owned, 4,968.  School census, 1888, 30,401; teachers, 372.  Miles of railroad track, 256. 




And Census





And Census





















Swan Creek





















Toledo (City)

















Port Lawrence






























Population of Lucas in 1840, 9,392; 1860, 25,831; 1880, 67,377, of whom 37,283 were born in Ohio; 4,263 in New York; 1,599, Pennsylvania; 762, Indiana; 237, Virginia; 225, Kentucky; 8,267, German Empire; 3,284, Ireland; 1,688, British America; 1,338, England and Wales; 419, France; 213, Scotland, and 73, Sweden and Norway.  Census of 1890, 102,296. 


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Battle of the Fallen Timbers.


This region of country - the Maumee valley - has been the theater of important historical incidents.  The greatest event, WAYNE'S victory, or "The Battle of Fallen Timbers," was fought August 20, 1794, within the limits of this county. 


On the 28 of July, WAYNE having been joined by General SCOTT, with 1,600 mounted Kentuckians, moved forward to the Maumee.  By the 8th of August the army had arrived near the junction of the Auglaize with that stream, and commenced the erection of Fort Defiance, at that point.  The Indians, having learned from a deserter of the approach of WAYNE'S army, hastily abandoned their headquarters at Auglaize, and thus defeated the plan of WAYNE to surprise them, for which object he had cut two roads, intending to march by either.  At Fort Defiance, WAYNE received full information of the Indians, and the assistance they were to derive from the volunteers at Detroit and vicinity.  On the 13th of August, true to the spirit of peace advised by Washington, he sent Christian MILLER, who had been naturalized among the Shawanese, as a special messenger to offer terms of friendship.  Impatient of delay, he moved forward, and on the 16th met MILLER on his return with the message, that if the Americans would wait ten days at Grand Glaize (Fort Defiance) they - the Indians - would decide for peace or war.  On the 18th the army arrived at Roche de Bouef, just south of the site of Waterville, where they erected some light works as a place of deposit for their heavy baggage, which was named Fort Deposit.  During the 19th the army labored at their works, and about 8 o'clock in the morning of the 20th moved forward to attack the Indians, who were encamped on the bank of the Maumee, at and around a hill called "Presque Isle," about two miles south of the site of Maumee City, and four south of the British Fort Miami.  From Wayne's report of the battle we make the following extract:


The Legion was on the right, its flank covered by the Maumee: one brigade of mounted volunteers on the left, under Brig.-Gen. TODD, and the other in the rear, under Brig.-Gen. BARBEE.  A select battalion of mounted volunteers moved in front of the Legion, commanded by Major PRICE, who was directed to keep sufficiently advanced so as to give timely notice for the troops to form in case of action, it being yet undetermined whether the Indians would decide for peace or war. 


After advancing about five miles, Major Price's corps received so severe a fire from the enemy, who were secreted in the wood and high grass, as to compel them to retreat.  The legion was immediately formed in two lines, principally in a close thick wood, which extended for miles on our left, and for a very considerable distance in front; the ground being covered with old fallen timber, probably occasioned by a tornado, which rendered it impracticable for the cavalry to act with effect, and afforded the enemy the most favorable covert for their mode of warfare.  The savages were formed in three lines, within supporting distance of each other, and extending for near two miles at right angles with river.  I soon discovered, from the weight of the fire and extent of their lines, that the enemy were in full force in front, in possession of their favorite ground endeavoring to turn our left flank.  I therefore gave orders for the second line to advance and support the first; and erected Major-General SCOTT to gain and turn the right flank of the savages with the whole force of the mounted volunteers by a circuitous route; at the same time I ordered the front line to advance and charged with trailed arms, and rouse the Indians from their coverts at the point of the bayonet, and when up, to deliver a close and well directed fire on their backs, followed by a brisk charge, so as not to give them time to load again. 


I also ordered Captain CAMPBELL, who commanded the legionary cavalry, to turn the left flank of the enemy next the river, and which afforded a favorable field for that corps to act in.  All these orders were obeyed with spirit and promptitude; but such was the impetuosity of the charge by the first line of infantry, that the Indians and Canadian militia and volunteers were drove from all their coverts in so short a time that, although every possible exertion was used by the officers of the second line of the legion, and by Generals SCOTT, TODD and BARBEE, of the mounted volunteers, to gain their proper positions, but part of each could get up in season to participate in the action; the enemy being drove, in the course of one hour, more than two miles through the thick woods already mentioned, by less than one-half their numbers.  From every account the enemy amounted to two thousand combatants.  The troops actually engaged against them were


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short of nine hundred.  This horde of savages, with their allies, abandoned themselves to flight, and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving our victorious army in full and quiet possession of the field of battle, which terminated under the influence of the guns of the British garrison. . . .  


The bravery and conduct of every officer belonging to the army, from the generals down to the ensigns, merit my highest approbation.  There were, however, some whose rank and situation placed their conduct in a very conspicuous point of view, and which I observed with pleasure, and the most lively gratitude; among whom I must beg leave to mention Brigadier-General WILKINSON and Colonel HAMTRAMCK, the commandants of the right and left wings of the legion, whose brave example inspired the troops.  To those I must add the names of my faithful and gallant aides-de-camp, Captains DE BUTT and T. LEWIS, and Lieutenant HARRISON, who, with the Adjutant-general, Major MILLS, rendered the most essential service by communicating my orders in every direction, and by their conduct and bravery exciting the troops to press for victory. 


The loss of the enemy was more than that of the federal army.  The woods were strewed for a considerable distance with the dead bodies of Indians and their white auxiliaries, the latter armed with British muskets and bayonets. 


We remained three days and nights on the banks of the Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the houses and corn-fields were consumed and destroyed for a considerable distance, both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within pistol-shot of the garrison, who were compelled to remain passive spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among which were the houses, stores and property Colonel MCKEE, the British Indian agent and principal stimulator of the war now existing between the United States and the savages. 


The loss of the Americans in this battle was 33 killed and 100 wounded, including 5 officers among the killed, and 19 wounded. 


One of the Canadians taken in the action estimated the force of the Indians at about 1,400.  He also estimated that about seventy Canadians were with them, and that Col. MCKEE, Capt. ELLIOTT and Simon GIRTY were in the field, but at a respectful distance, and near the river.  When the broken remains of the Indian army were pursued under the British fort, the soldiers could scarcely be restrained from storming it.  This, independent of its results in bringing on a war with Great Britain, would have been a desperate measure, as the fort mounted ten pieces of artillery, and was garrisoned by four hundred and fifty men, while WAYNE had no armament proper to attack such a strongly fortified place.  While the troops remained in the vicinity, there did not appear to be any communication between the garrison in the savages. 


The gates were shut against them, and their rout and slaughter witnessed with apparent unconcern by the British.  That the Indians were astonished at the lukewarmness of their real allies, and regarded the fort, in case of defeat, as a place of refuge, is evident from various circumstances, not the least of which was the well-known reproach of TECUMSEH, in his celebrated speech to PROCTOR, after Perry's victory.  The near approach of the troops brought forth a letter of remonstrance from Major CAMPBELL, the British commandant, to General WAYNE,.  A sharp correspondence ensued, but without any especial results.  The morning before the army left, General WAYNE, after arranging his force in such a manner as to show they were all on the alert, advanced with his numerous staff and a small body of cavalry to the glacis of the British fort, reconnoitring it with great deliberation, while the garrison were seen with lighted matches, prepared for any emergency.  It is said that Wayne's party overheard one of the British subordinate officers appeal to Major CAMPBELL for permission to fire upon the cavalcade, and avenge such an insulting parade under his majesty's guns; but that officer chided him with the abrupt exclamation, "Be a gentleman! be a gentleman!"  On the 27th Wayne's army returned to Fort Defiance, by easy marches, laying waste the villages and corn-fields of the Indians, for about fifty miles on each side of the Maumee: this was done with the hope that the fear of famine would prove a powerful auxiliary in producing peace. 


Jonathan ALDER, who was at this time living with the Indians, has given in his MS. autobiography the Indian account of the battle of Fallen Timbers.  He says, after describing the attack on Fort Recovery and the retreat to Defiance:


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We remained here (Defiance) about 2 weeks until we heard of the approach of WAYNE, when we packed up our goods and started for the old English fort at the Maumee rapids.  Here we prepared ourselves for battle, and sent the women and children down about three miles below the fort; and as I did not wish to fight, they sent me to Sandusky, to inform some Wyandots there of the great battle that was about to take place.  I remained at Sandusky until the battle was over.  The Indians did not wait more than three or four days, before WAYNE made his appearance at the head of a long prairie on the river, where he halted, and waited for an opportunity to suit himself.  The Indians are very curious about fighting; for when they know they're going into a battle they will not eat anything just previous.  They say that if a man is shot in the body when he is entirely empty, there is not half as much danger of the ball passing through the bowels as when they're full.  So they started the first morning without eating anything, and moving up to the end of the prairie, arranged themselves in order of battle at the edge of the timber.  There they waited all day without any food, and at night returned and partook of their suppers.  The second morning they again placed themselves in the same position, and again returned that night and supped.  By this time they had begun to get weak from eating only once a day, and concluded they would eat breakfast before they again started.  So the next morning they began to cook and eat.  Some were eating, and others, who had finished, had moved forward to their stations, when Wayne's army was seen approaching.  Soon as they were within gunshot, the Indians began firing upon them; but Wayne, making no halt, rushed on upon them.  Only a small part of the Indians being on the ground they were obliged to give back, and finding Wayne too strong for them, attempted to retreat.  Those who were on the way heard the noise and sprang to their assistance.  So some were running from and others to the battle, created great confusion.  In the meantime the light horse had gone entirely around, and came in upon their rear, blowing their horns and closing in upon them.  The Indians now found that they were completely surrounded, and all that could made their escape, and the balance were all killed, which was no small number.  Among these last, with one or two exceptions, where all the Wyandots that lived at Sandusky at the time I went to inform them of the expected battle.  The main body of the Indians were back nearly two miles from the battle ground, and WAYNE had taken them by surprise, and made such a slaughter among them that they were entirely discouraged, and made the best of their way to their respective homes. 


Plan Illustrating the Battles of the Maumee.


Explanations. - The map shows about 8 miles of the country along each side of the Maumee, including the towns of Perrysburgh, Maumee City and Waterville.  


Just previous to the battle of the Fallen Timbers, in August, 1794, Wayne's army was encamped at a locality called Roche de Bouef, a short distance above the site of Waterville.  The battle commenced at the Presque Isle Hill.  The routed Indians were pursued it to even under the guns of the British Fort Miami. 


Fort Meigs, memorable for having sustained two sieges in the year 1813, is shown on the east side of the Maumee, with the British batteries on both sides of the river, and above the British fort, the position of Proctor's encampment.  For a more full delineation of this last, see Wood County. 


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We insert below some anecdotes of the battle, the first three of which are derived from a published source, and the last second-hand from Gen. HARRISON. 


At the time Capt. CAMPBELL was endeavoring to turn the left flank of the enemy three Indians, being hemmed in by the cavalry and infantry, plunged into the river and endeavored to swim to the opposite side.  Two negroes of the army, on the opposite bank, concealed themselves behind a log to intercept them.  When within shooting distance, one of them shot the foremost through the head.  The other two took hold of him to drag him to shore, when the second negro fired and killed another.  The remaining Indian being now in shoal water, endeavored to tow the dead bodies to the bank.  In the meantime the first Negro had reloaded, and firing upon the survivor, mortally wounded him.  On approaching them, the negroes judged from their striking resemblance and devotion that they were brothers.  After scalping them they let their bodies float down the stream. 


Another circumstance goes to show with what obstinancy the conflict was maintained by individuals in both armies.  A soldier who had got detached a short distance from the army met a single Indian in the woods, when they attacked each other - the soldier with his bayonet, the Indian with his tomahawk.  Two days after, they were found dead; the soldier with his bayonet in the body of the Indian - the Indian with his tomahawk in the head of the soldier. 


Several months after the battle of Fallen Timbers a number of Potawatomie Indians arrived at Fort Wayne, where they expressed a desire to see "The Wind," as they called General WAYNE.  On being asked for an explanation of the name, they replied, that at the battle of the 20th of August he was exactly like a hurricane, which drives and tears everything before it. 


General WAYNE was a man of most ardent impulses, and in the heat of action apt to forget that he was the general - not the soldier.  When the attack on the Indians, who were concealed behind the fallen timbers, was commenced by ordering the regulars up, the late General HARRISON, then it aide to WAYNE, being lieutenant with the title of major, addressed his superior - "General WAYNE, I'm afraid you'll get into the fight yourself, and forget to give me the necessary field orders." "Perhaps I may," replied WAYNE, "and if I do, recollect the standing order for the day is, charge the d----d rascals with the bayonets!"


That this Indian war was in a great measure sustained by British influence admits of ample proof.  That they lent their aid in this campaign and battle is fully confirmed in the extract given from a letter from General HARRISON to Hon. Thomas CHILTON, dated North Bend, February 17, 1834:


That the Northwestern and Indian war was a continuation of the Revolutionary contest is susceptible of proof.  The Indians in that quarter had been engaged in the first seven years of the war as the allies of Great Britain, and they had no inclination to continue it after the peace of 1783.  It is to British influence that their subsequent hostilities are to be attributed.  The agents of that government never ceased to stimulate their enmity against the government of the United States, and to represent the peace which had been made as a temporary truce, at the expiration of which "Their great fathers would unite with them and the war, and drive long knives from the lands which they had so unjustly usurped from his red children."  This was the cause of the detention of the posts of Detroit, Mackinaw and Niagara so long after the treaty of 1783.  The reasons assigned for so doing deceived nobody after the failure of the negotiation attempted by General LINCOLN, Governor RANDOLPH and Colonel PICKERING, under British mediation voluntarily tendered. 


The bare suggestion of a wish by the British authorities would have been sufficient to induce the Indians to accept the terms proposed by the American Commissioners.  But at any rate the withholding the supplies with which the Indians had been previously furnished would have left no other alternative but to make peace.  From that period, however, the war was no longer carried on "in disguise."  Acts of open hostility were committed.  In June, 1794, the Indians assembled at the Miami of the Lake, and were completely equipped out of the King's store, from the fort (a large and regularly fortified work) which had been built there in the preceding spring, for the purpose of supporting the operations of the Indians against the army of General WAYNE.  Nor was the assistance limited to the supply of provisions and munitions of war.  On the advance of the Indians they were attended by a captain of the British army, a sergeant, and six matrosses, provided with fixed ammunition, suited to the caliber of to field pieces which had been taken from General ST.  CLAIR and deposited in a creek near the scene of his defeat in 1791.  Thus attended, they appeared before Fort Recovery (the advanced post of our army), on the 4th of July, 1794, and having defeated a large detachment of our troops, encamped under its walls, and would probably have succeeded in taking the fort if the guns which they expected to find had not been previously discovered and removed.  In this action Captain HARTSHORN, of the First Sub-legion, was wounded by the Indians, and afterwards killed in a struggle


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with Capt. McKee, of the British army.  [It is proper to state that Captain MCKEE asserted that he interfered to save HARTSHORN, but that he refused quarter and attempted to kill him (MCKEE), and would have succeeded if he had not been anticipated by his (MCKEE's) servant.]


Upon the advance of the American army in the following month, the British fort at the Rapids was again a point of rendezvous for the Indians.  There the deficiencies in arms, ammunition and equipments were again supplied; and there they were fed with regular rations from the King's stores, consisting of flour and Irish beef, until the arrival of General WAYNE with his army on the 20th of August.  In the general action of that day there were two militia companies from Amherstburg and Detroit.  The captain of the cutter (who was also the clerk of the court at that place) was found among the killed, and one of his privates taken prisoner.  These equivocal acts of hostility on the part of Great Britain did not pass unnoticed by our government, and although anxious to avoid a general war, the President determined that the aggression on our territory by the erection of a fortress so far within our acknowledged limits required some decisive measure. 


Authority was therefore given to General WAYNE to dispossess the intruders, if, in his opinion, it was necessary to the success of his operations against the Indians.  Although the qualification of this order, in its literal sense, might be opposed to its execution after the entire defeat of the Indians - the daring violation of neutrality which was professed, by the supply of food, arms and ammunition to the enemy on the very morning of the action, afforded, in the opinion of General WAYNE, a sufficient justification for its being carried into effect.  An accurate examination, however, of the defenses of the fort, made by the general at great personal hazard, showed but too clearly that our small howitzers, which had been transported on the backs of horses, our only artillery, could make no impression upon its massive earthen parapet, while the deep fosse and frasing by which it was surrounded afforded no prospect of the success of an escalade, but at an expense of valuable lives, which the occasion did not seem to call for. 


From my situation as aide-de-camp to the general-in-chief I mention these things from personal knowledge.  If, then, the relation I have given is correct, it must be admitted that the war of the Revolution continued in the western country until the peace of Greenville in 1795.


There were some individuals on both sides who took an active part, either in the battle or its connecting events, who demand more than a passing notice.  Among these were the faithful spies of WAYNE, whose exploits MACDONALD in his sketches thus provides:


General WAYNE, having a bold, vigilant and dexterous enemy to contend with, found it indispensably necessary to use the utmost caution in his movements to guard against surprise.  To secure his army against the possibility of being ambuscaded, he employed a number of the best woodsman the frontier afforded to act as spies.  Capt. Ephraim KIBBY, one of the first settlers at Columbia, who had distinguished himself as a bold and intrepid soldier, commanded the principal part of this corps. 


A very effective division of the spies was commanded by Captain William WELLS.  Attached to Wells' command were the following men: Robert MCCLELLAN, one of the most active men on foot that ever lived.  Next to him was Henry MILLER, who deserves here a passing notice.  He and a younger brother, named Christopher, had been made captives by the Indians while quite young, and adopted into an Indian family.  He lived with them until about 24 years of age, when, although he had adopted all their customs, he began to think of returning to his relatives among the whites.  His resolution continually gaining strength by reflection, he determined to make the attempt, and endeavored to induce his brother to accompany him in his flight, but to no purpose.  Christopher was young when captured; he was now a good hunter, an expert woodsman and a free and independent Indian.  Henry MILLER, however, escaped through the woods, and arrived safe among his friends in Kentucky.  Captain WELLS was familiar with MILLER during his captivity, and knew that he possessed that firm intrepidity which would render him a valuable companion in time of need.  To these were added HICKMAN, MAY and THORP, all men of tried worth in Indian warfare. 


Capt. WELLS and his four companions were confidential and privileged gentleman in camp, who were only called upon to do duty upon very particular and interesting occasions.  They were permitted a carte blanche among the horses of the dragoons, and when on duty always went well mounted; while the spies,  commanded by Captain KIBBY, went on foot and were kept constantly on the alert scouring the country in every direction. 


In June, 1794, while the headquarters of the army was at Greenville, WAYNE dispatched WELLS with his corps, with orders to bring an Indian into camp as prisoner.  Accordingly, he proceeded cautiously with his party through the Indian country.  They crossed the St. Mary's, and thence to the Auglaize, without meeting with any straggling parties of Indians.  In passing up the latter they discovered a smoke, dismounted, tied up their horses and cautiously reconnoitred. 


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They found 3 Indians encamped on a high, open piece of ground, clear of brush or any undergrowth, rendering it difficult to approach them without being discovered.  While reconnoitring they saw not very distant from the camp a fallen tree.  They returned and went round, so as to get it between them and the Indians.  The tree top being full of leaves would serve to screen them from observation.  They crept forward on their hands and knees with the caution of the cat, until they reached it, when they were within seventy or eighty yards of the camp.  The Indians were sitting or standing about the fire, roasting their venison, laughing and making merry antics, little dreaming that death was about stealing a march upon them.  Arrived at the fallen tree, their plans were settled.  MCCLELLAN, who was almost as swift of foot as a deer, was to catch the centre Indian, while WELLS and MILLER were to kill the other two, one shooting to the right and the other to the left.  Resting the muzzles of their rifles on a log of the fallen tree, they aimed for the Indians' hearts.  Whiz went the balls, and both Indians fell.  Before the smoke had risen two feet, MCCLELLAN was running with uplifted tomahawk for the remaining Indian, who bounded down the river, but finding himself likely to be headed if he continued in that direction, he turned and made for the river, which at that place had a bluff bank about twenty feet high.  On reaching it he sprang off into the stream and sunk to his middle in the soft mud at its bottom.  MCCLELLAN came after and instantly sprang upon him, as he was wallowing and endeavoring to extricate himself from the mire.  The Indian drew his knife, the other raised his tomahawk and bade him throw down his knife or he would kill him instantly.  He did so, and surrendered without further opposition. 


By this time WELLS and his companion came to the bank, and discovered the two quietly sticking in the mud.  Their prisoner being secure, they selected a place where the bank was less precipitous, went down, dragged the captive out and tied him.  He was sulky and refused to speak either Indian or English.  Some of the party went back for their horses, while the others washed the mud and paint from the prisoner.  When cleaned he turned out to be a white man, but still refused to speak, or give any account of himself.  The party scalped the two Indians whom they had shot, and then set off for headquarters.  Henry MILLER having some suspicions that there prisoner might possibly be his brother Christopher, whom he had left with the Indians years previous, rode up along side of him, and called him by his Indian name.  At the sound he started, stared around, and eagerly inquired how he came to know his name.  The mystery was soon explained.  Their prisoner was indeed Christopher MILLER! A mysterious providence appeared to have placed him in a situation in the camp by which his life was preserved.  Had he been standing either to the right or to the left, he would inevitably have been killed, and an even chance, too, if not by his own brother.  But that fate which appears to have doomed the Indian race to extinction permitted the white man to live. 


When they arrived at Greenville their prisoner was placed in the guard-house.  WAYNE often interrogated him as to what he knew of the future intentions of the Indians.  Capt. WELLS and his brother Henry were almost constantly with him, urging him to abandon the idea of ever again joining the Indians, and to unite with the whites.  For some time he was reserved and silky, but at length became more cheerful, and agreed that if they would release him from his confinement he would remain among them.  Capt. WELLS and Henry MILLER urged WAYNE to release him, who did so, with the observation that should he deceive them and return to the enemy they would be one the stronger.  He appeared pleased with his change of situation, and was mounted on a fine horse, and otherwise equipped for war.  He joined the company of WELLS, and continued through the war a brave and intrepid soldier. 


As soon as WELLS and his company had rested themselves, they were anxious for another bout with the red men.  Time without action was irksome to such stirring spirits.  Accordingly, in July they left Greenville, their number strengthened by the addition of Christopher MILLER, with orders to bring in prisoners. .  When on these excursions they were always mounted on elegant horses, and dressed and painted in Indian style.  They arrived in the country near the Auglaize, when they met a single Indian, and called upon him to surrender.  Not withstanding there were six against him, he refused, leveled his rifle, and as they approached him on horseback, fired, missed his mark and then ran.  The thick underbrush enabling him to gain upon them, Christopher MILLER and MCCLELLAN dismounted and pursued, and the latter soon overtook him.  Upon this he turned and made a blow at MCCLELLAN with his rifle, which was parried.  As it was MCCLELLAN'S intention not to kill, he kept him at bay until Christopher came up, when they closed in and made him prisoner without receiving injury.  They then turned about and arrived with him at Greenville.  He was reported to be a Pottawatamie chief of scarcely equaled courage and prowess.  As Christopher MILLER had performed his part on this occasion to the entire satisfaction of the brave spirits with whom he acted, he had, as he merited, their entire confidence. 


On one of Captain WELLS' peregrinations through the Indian country, as he came to the bank of the St. Mary's, he discovered a family of Indians coming up the river in a canoe.  He dismounted from his horse and concealed his men, while he went to the bank of the river in open view, and called to the Indians to come over.  As he was dressed in Indian costume and spoke in that language, they crossed to him unsuspicious of danger.  The moment the canoe struck the shore WELLS heard the nicking of the cocks of his


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comrades' rifles as they prepared to shoot the Indians; but who should be in the canoe but his Indian father and mother with their children! The others were now coming forward with their rifles cocked and ready to pour in a deadly fire upon this family.  WELLS shouted to them to desist, informing them who the Indians were, solemnly declaring that the first man who attempted to injure one of them should receive a ball in his head.  "That family," said he to his men, "had fed him when hungry, clothed him when naked, and nursed him when sick, and had treated him as affectionately as their own children."  This short speech moved the sympathetic hearts of his leather-hunting-shirt comrades, who entered at once into his feelings and approved of his lenity.  Dropping their tomahawks and rifles, they went to the canoe and shook hands with the trembling Indians in the most friendly manner.  WELLS assured them they had nothing to fear; and after talking with them for some time, to dispel their anxiety he told them "that General WAYNE was approaching with an overwhelming force; that the best thing the Indians could do was to make peace, and that the whites did not wish to continue the war.  He urged his Indian father to keep for the future out of danger;" he then bade them farewell.  They appeared grateful for his clemency, pushed off their canoe, and paddled with their utmost rapidity down stream.  Captain Wells and his comrades, though perfect desperadoes in fight, upon this occasion proved that they largely possessed that gratitude and benevolence which does honor to human kind. 


While WAYNE'S army lay at the Indian village at the confluence of the Auglaize and Maumee, building Fort Defiance, the general wishing to be informed of the intentions of the enemy, dispatched Captain WELLS' party to bring in another prisoner.  They consisted of WELLS, MCCLELLAN, the MILLERS, MAY and MAHAFFY.  They proceeded cautiously down the Maumee until opposite the site of Fort Meigs, where was an Indian village.  This was on the 11th of August, nine days before the battle.  WELLS and his party boldly rode into this town as if they had come from the British fort, and occasionally stopped and talked with the Indians in their language.  The savages believed them to be Indians from a distance, who had come to take part in the expected battle.  After passing through the village they met some distance from it an Indian man and woman on horseback, who were returning to town from hunting.  They made them captives without resistance, and set off for Defiance. 


A little after dark they came near a large encampment of Indians, merely amusing themselves around their campfires.  Ordering their prisoners to be silent under pain of instant death, they went around the camp until they got about a half a mile above it.  They then held a consultation, tied and gagged their prisoners, and rode into the Indian camp with their rifles lying across the pommels of their saddles.  They inquired when they had last heard of General WAYNE and the movements of his army, and how soon and where the expected battle would be fought.  The Indians standing about WELLS and his party were very communicative and answered the questions without any suspicions of deceit in their visitors.  At length an Indian who was sitting at some distance said in an undertone in another tongue to some who were near him that he suspected the strangers had some mischief in their heads.  WELLS overheard it, gave the preconcerted signal, and each fired his rifle into the body of an Indian at not more than six feet distance.  The moment the Indian had made the remark, he and his companions rose up with their rifles in hand, but not before each of the others had shot their man.  The moment after WELLS and party had fired they put spurs to their horses, lying with their breasts on the animals' necks, so as to lessen the mark to fire at, and before they had got out of the light of the camp fires the Indians had fired upon them.  As MCCLELLAN lay in this position, a ball entered beneath his shoulder blade and came out at the top of his shoulder; WELLS' arm was broken by a ball, and his rifle dropped to the ground; MAY was chased to the smooth rock in the Maumee, where, his horse falling, he was taken prisoner. 


The rest of the party escaped without injury, and rode full speed to where their prisoners were confined, and mounting them upon horses, continued their route.  WELLS and MCCLELLAN being severely wounded, and there march slow and painful to Defiance, a distance of about thirty miles, ere they could receive surgical aid, a messenger was dispatched to hasten to the post for a surgeon and a guard.  As soon as he arrived with the tidings of the wounds and perilous situation of these heroic and faithful spies, very great sympathy was manifested.  WAYNE'S feeling for the suffering soldier was at all times quick and sensitive.  We can, then, imagine the intensity of his solicitude when informed of the sufferings and perils of his confidential and chosen band.  He instantly dispatched a surgeon and a company of the swiftest dragoons to meet, assist and guard these brave fellows to headquarters, where they arrived safe, and the wounded in due time recovered. 


MAY, who was taken prisoner, having formerly lived and ran away from the Indians, was recognized.  They told him the second day before the battle: "We know you; you speak Indian language; you not content to live with us; tomorrow we take you to that tree"-pointing to a very large burr oak at the edge of the clearing near the British fort - "We will tie you up and make a mark on your breast, and we will try what Indian can shoot nearest it."  Accordingly, the next day he was tied to that tree, a mark made on his breast, and his body riddled with at least 50 bullets.  Thus ended poor MAY!


This little band of spies, during the campaign, performed more real service than any other corps of equal number belonging to the


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army.  They brought in at different times and not less than twenty prisoners, and killed more than an equal number.  As they had no rivals in the army, they aimed in each excursion to outdo their former exploits.  What confidence, what self-possession was displayed by these men in their terrific encounters! To ride boldly into the enemy's camp, in full view of their blazing campfires, and enter into conversation with them without betraying the least appearance of trepidation and confusion, and openly commence the work of death, proved how well their souls were steeled against fear.  They had come off unscathed in so many desperate conflicts that they became callous to danger.  


Wm. WELLS was such an extraordinary man as to deserve a fuller notice.  When a child he was captured by the Indians, and became the adopted son of LITTLE TURTLE, the most eminent forest warrior and statesmen of his time. 


In the defeats of Harmar and St.Clair he took a distinguished part, commanding in the latter action three hundred young Indian warriors, who were posted immediately in front of the artillery, and caused such carnage among those who served it.  He arranged his party behind log and trees, immediately under the knoll on which the guns were, and thence, almost uninjured, picked off the artillerists, until, it is said, their bodies were heaped up almost to the height of their pieces.  After this sanguinary affair, his forecast enabled him to anticipate the final ascendancy of the whites, who would be aroused by their reverses to such exertions as must be successful with their preponderance of power, and he resolved to abandon the savages.  His mode of announcing this determination was in accordance with the simple and sententious habits of the forest life.  He was traversing the woods in the morning, which his adopted father, the LITTLE TURTLE, when, pointing to the heavens, he said, "When the sun reaches the meridian I leave you for the whites; and whenever you meet me in battle, you must kill me as I shall endeavor to do by you."  The bonds of affection and respect which had bound these two singular and highly gifted men together where not severed or weakened by this abrupt dereliction.  Capt. WELLS soon after joined WAYNE'S army, and by his intimacy with the wilderness, and his perfect knowledge of the Indian haunts, habits and modes of Indian warfare, became an invaluable auxiliary to the Americans.  He served faithfully and fought bravely through the campaign, and at the close, when peace had restored amity between the Indians and the whites, rejoined his foster father, the LITTLE TURTLE; and their friendship and connection was broken only by the death of the latter.  When his body was found among the slain at Chicago, in August, 1812, the Indians are said to have drunk his blood, from a superstitious belief that they should thus imbibe his warlike endowments, which had been considered by them as pre-eminent. 


The above paragraph respecting Wells is copied from the discourse of Henry WHITING, Esq., before the Historical Society of Michigan; that below, relating to his death, is from the MSS. of Col. John JOHNSTON. 


William WELLS, interpreter for the Miamies, and whose wife was of that nation, himself uncle to Mrs. Heald, the lady of the commandant at Fort Dearborn, Chicago, went from Fort Wayne with a party of 12 or 15 Miamies to that place, with a view of favoring the escape of the garrison to Fort Wayne.  Nothing could have been more unfortunate than this, for WELLS was peculiarly obnoxious to the Putawatimies, and especially to the chief, "THE BLACK BIRD," who was the leading warrior on the occasion.  The Putawatimies were alone in arms against us at the time, in that part of the country.  The presence of WELLS was fatal to the safety of the troops; the chief BLACKBIRD had often spoken to myself in very bitter terms against him.  On the 14th of August, 1812, a council was held between the officers and the chiefs, at which it was agreed that the whole garrison with their arms, ammunition sufficient for the journey and clothing should retire unmolested to Fort Wayne, and that the garrison, with all that it contained, should be delivered up to the Indians.  In the night preceding the evacuation all the power and whiskey in the fort were thrown into a canal, communicating from the garrison to the Chicago river.  The powder floated out and discovered the deception to the Indians; this greatly exasperated them and, no doubt, brought matters to a crisis.  On the morning of the 15th of August the troops marched out to commence their journey, and had proceeded but a very short distance when they were attacked by the Indians.  WELLS seeing that all was lost, and not wishing to fall into their hands, as he well knew that in that case a cruel and lingering death awaited him, wetted powder and blacked his face, as a token of defiance, mounted his horse and commenced addressing the Indians with all the opprobrious and insulting language he could think of.  His purpose evidently was to induce them to dispatch him forthwith.  His object was accomplished.  They became so enraged at last with his taunts and jeers, that one of them shot him off his horse, and immediately pouncing upon him, cut his body opened, took out his heart and eat it.  The troops were massacred, the commanding officer and wife were saved. . . .  Chicago means in Putawatimie, "the place of the polecat."


In the battle of the Fallen Timbers Wayne's army took a white man prisoner, by the name of LASELLE.  Col. John JOHNSTON says respecting him:


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Antoine LASSELLE I knew well: this man, a Canadian, was taken prisoner at Wayne's battle, painted, dressed and disguised as an Indian.  He was tried by a court-martial at Roche de Boeuf, and sentenced to be hung.  A gallows was erected and the execution ordered, when Colonel John F. HAMTRANCK - a native of Canada, who joined the American standard under MONTGOMERY, in the Revolutionary war, and was, in 1794, colonel of the 1st regiment of infantry, under WAYNE - interposed and begged the life of the prisoner.  General WAYNE afterwards granted to LASELLE license to trade at Fort Wayne, and he was there as such many years during my agency at the post.  He was a man of wit and drollery, and would often clasp his neck with both hands to show how near he had been to hanging by order of Mad Anthony. 


Colonel JOHNSTON also says, respecting Col. MCKEE and Capt. ELLIOTT, who were both alleged to have been in this action, and were notorious enemies of the Americans and the wars in the Northwest:


MCKEE and ELLIOTT were Pennsylvanians, and the latter, I think, of Irish birth.  They resided, at the commencement of the Revolutionary war, at Path Valley, Pa..  A brother and a brother-in-law of mine lived in the same neighborhood; I therefore have undoubted authority for the facts.  A number of tories resided in the township, MCKEE and ELLIOTT being leaders.  A large proportion of the inhabitants being whigs, the place became too warm to hold them.  They fled to the enemy, and leagued with the Shawanese Indians in committing depredations on the frontier settlers.  Both of these incendiaries had Indian wives and children, and finally their influence became so great among the savages that they were appointed agents for Indian affairs by the British government, and continued as such until their death.  Matthew ELLIOTT was an uncle, by his father's side, to the late, Commodore ELLIOTT, and had a son killed in the late war, by the Indians under LOGAN.  [See page 353.]  On the death of MCKEE, his son, a half-breed, was a deputy agent in Upper Canada,.  He was a splendid-looking man, and married an accomplished white lady.  He had too much of the Indian nature, and the marriage turned out somewhat unhappily. 


In August, 1814, several letters were published in the National Intelligencer, from Col. MCKEE to Col. ENGLAND, the British commandant at Detroit during the campaign of WAYNE, the originals of which, the editor stated, were then in his possession.  MCKEE was at this time superintendent of the Indians under his majesty.  Some brief extracts below pile up the evidence already adduced of his hostility, and that of the English, to the Americans:


Rapids, July 5, 1794. Sir: - I send this by a party of Saginas, who returned yesterday from Fort Recovery, where the whole body of the Indians, except the Delawares, who had gone another route, imprudently attacked the fort on Monday, the 30th of last month. . . .  Everything had been settled prior to their leaving the Fallen Timber, and it had been agreed upon to confine themselves to taking convoys and attacking at a distance from the forts, if they should have the address to entice the enemy out. . . 


Rapids, August. 13, 1794.  Sir: - I was honored last night with your letter of the 11th, and am extremely glad to find you making such exertions to supply the Indians with provisions. . . .  Scouts are sent up to view the situation of the army [Wayne's,] and WE now muster 1,000 Indians.  All the Lake Indians, from Sagina downwards, should not lose one moment in joining their brethren, as every accession of strength is in addition to their spirits. 


Maumee City in 1846. - Maumee City, the county-seat, is one hundred and twenty-four miles northwest of Columbus, and eight miles south of Toledo.  It was laid out under the name of Maumee in 1817, by Maj. Wm. OLIVER and others within what had been the reservation of twelve miles square, at the foot of the rapids of the Maumee, granted to the Indians at the treaty of Greenville, in 1795.  The town is situated at the head of navigation on the Maumee, and on the Wabash and Erie canal, opposite Perrysburg and Fort Meigs. 


The river banks upon which Maumee City and its neighbor, Perrysburg, stand, are elevated near one hundred feet above the water level.  Both banks, at this point, curve gracefully inward, while the river above and below is somewhat contracted, thus forming a vast amphitheater of about two miles in length and nearly one in breadth, while a beautiful cultivated island of two hundred acres, and


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several small islets embosomed in its centre, enhanced the scene rich in picturesque effect. 


From a very early day this was a favorite point with the Indians.  As early as 1680 the French had a trading station just below the town, where, later in the spring of 1794, was built the British fort Miami, the ruins of which are still conspicuous.  Part of Wayne's battle was within the limits of the town; the action commenced two or three miles south.  At that point, by the road-side, is a noted rock of several tons weight, near the foot of Presque Isle hill, where it is said an Indian chief, and named TURKEY FOOT, rallied a few of his men and stood upon it fighting until his strength becoming exhausted from loss of blood, he fell and breathed his last.  Upon it have been carved by the Indians representations of turkeys' feet, now plainly to be seen, and it is said "the early settlers of and travelers through the Maumee valley usually found small pieces of tobacco deposited on this rock, which had been placed there by the Indians as devotional acts by way of sacrifice, to appease the indignant spirit of the departed hero."  During the siege of Fort Meigs, in the late war, the British encamped below the town, and erected several batteries within it, which played upon the American fort.  These having been stormed and taken by Col. Dudley, on the 5th of May, 1813, that officer pushed his victory too far, and was, in turn, attacked by the enemy, who had been reinforced from below, and defeated with great slaughter on the site of the town.  (See Wood County.)


The view of Maumee City, taken from the site of Fort Meigs, shows in front Maumee river and the bridge; beyond, on the left, the canal; and on the summit of the hill a small portion of the town, which is much scattered.  On the right is seen the Presbyterian church, on the left the Methodist, and between, the Catholic; the Episcopal church does not appear in this view.  Maumee City is a thriving town, and has an extensive water power, which, if fully approved, would be sufficient for 250 runs of stone.  It now contains sixteen dry-goods, eight grocery and three drug-stores; one or two newspaper printing-offices; four flouring, one oil and two saw-mills; one pale factory, one tannery, one wool-carding and cloth-dressing establishment, and had, in 1840, 840 inhabitants, since which it has much increased.  A number of vessels, steamboats, propellers and canal boats, have been built here.  A spirit of rivalry exists between the towns at the foot of the Rapids, Maumee City and Perrysburg, with Toledo.  While the latter has outstripped them in prosperity, there is, perhaps, but little question that if the navigation of the river was improved, Maumee City and Perrysburg would draw to themselves a vast accession of business, and be important points for the shipment and transshipment of freight.  The Maumee is navigable, in its present condition, for steamboats and schooners drawing seven feet of water; but since the construction of boats of a heavier draught, it is necessary that an improvement, by excavating the channel along what is called "the rock bar," should be made.  This bar, which is of blue limestone, commences about a mile and a half below Perrysburg.  At a common stage the water upon it is about six and a half feet deep.  To open a clear and unobstructed channel upon it for the largest lake boats, it has been estimated, would cost about $30,000.  Government has frequently but ineffectually been petitioned to make this improvement. - Old Edition. 


Maumee (formerly South Toledo) is nine miles southwest of Toledo, on the Maumee river, Miami & Erie Canal and W. St. L. & P. and T. St. L. & K. C. Railroads.  City officers, 1888: James M. WOLCOTT, Mayor; Frank D. CRAIN, Clerk; John A. MOLLENKOPF, Treasurer; Phillip HARTMAN, Marshal.  Newspaper: New Era, Frank D. CRAIN, editor and publisher.  Churches: one Presbyterian, two Methodist, one Catholic.  Bank: Union Deposit, R. B. MITCHELL, president, J. Henry WYMAN, cashier.  Population, 1880, 1,780.  School census, 1888, 592.  United States census, 1890, 1,645. 


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Top Picture



The view shows on the lest Maumee River; in front Presque Isle Hill; on the right by the roadside where the figures are standing is the noted Turkey Foot Rock.


Middle Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.



Bottom Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.



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Toledo is on the left bank of the Maumee river, and on the Wabash & Erie canal, 134 miles  northwest of Columbus, 246 by canal north of Cincinnati, about fifty south of Detroit, about 100 west of Cleveland, and thirty-three miles from Adrian, Michigan, where a railroad from Toledo intersects with the Southern Michigan Railroad.  Toledo stretches along the river bank for more than a mile, and has two points at which business concentrates, called respectively the upper and lower landing.  It was originally two distinct settlements - the upper, Port Lawrence, the lower, Vistula.  Between these two points Toledo is thinly settled; but at them, and particularly at the upper, the stores, warehouses and dwellings are densely packed together.  The view of the harbor from the upper landing is very fine - the eye takes in a distance of several miles of the river, bounded by well-defined projecting headlands, and often showing a large number of sails, presenting not only a scene of beauty, but evidence of the extensive commerce of which this place is the centre. 


Toledo covers of the site of a stockade fort, called Fort Industry, erected about the year 1800, near what is now Summit street.  A treaty was held in this fort with the Indians, July 4, 1805, by which the Indian title to the "fire-lands" was extinguished.  Charles JOUET was United States Commissioner, and the Ottawa, Chippewa, Pottawatomie, Wyandot, Shawanee, Munsee and Delaware tribes represented by their respective chiefs.  The insignificant settlements of Port LAWRENCE and Vistula were later formed, and have now lost their identity in Toledo, the history, present condition and prospects of which we annex, in a communication from a gentleman of the place. 


In the summer of 1832, under the impetus given it by Captain Samuel ALLEN, from Lockport, N.Y., and Maj. STICKNEY, Vistula made quite a noise as a promising place for a town.  People from various quarters were met by the writer in June of that year at the residence of Major STICKNEY.  All seemed sanguine of a sudden and large growth for the new town, and many made purchases in and about it.  At the time arrangements were being made by Major OLIVER and Micajah T. WILLIAMS, of Cincinnati, with Daniel O. COMSTOCK and Steven B. COMSTOCK, brothers, from Lockport, for the resuscitation of Port Lawrence, at the mouth of Swan creek.  The Comstocks took an interest, and became the agents for the Port Lawrence property, now known as Upper Toledo.  No sales of any importance were made before 1833.  In Vistula the first store was started by Mr. E. BRIGGS; W. J. DANIELS, now a leading man, was his clerk.  Soon after FLAGG & BISSELL opened a more extensive store of goods - probably the first good assortment for the use of white people.  In 1833 not much progress was made toward building a town in Vistula or Port Lawrence.  In the latter the first Toledo steamer was built, and called the "Detroit."  She was of 120 tons, and commanded by Captain BALDWIN, son of a sea captain of that name, who was one of the earliest settlers of Port Lawrence.  The best lots in Port Lawrence, sixty feet front by 120 deep, were offered by Stephen B. COMSTOCK for $50, coupled with a condition to make some little improvements.  Four of these lots, if they were now not built upon, would sell for $5,000 each.  Three of them are nearly covered by three-story brick buildings, and form the centre of business of Toledo.  They are corners on Monroe and Summit streets. 


In 1834 speculation in lots began, and with slight intermission continued until the spring of 1837.  Mr. Edward BISSELL, from Lockport, a man of enterprise and activity, became a part owner, and gave a great impetus to the growth of Vistula.  Through him and the Port Lawrence owners many men of influence became interested in the new towns.  Among these Judge MASON, from Livingston county, N.Y., deserves mention, as he became agent of BISSELL and the chief owners, and made Vistula his residence. 


In 1836 the Wabash & Erie Canal was located, having three terminations-one at Maumee, one at Toledo and at one at Manhattan.  Great exertions were made to induce the Commissioners to terminate it at the foot of the Rapids; and also to have it continued below, on the high bank.  All the points were accommodated, and the State has had a heavy bill to foot as the consequence.  In 1837 the canal was let and the contractors entered vigorously on its construction.  The Commissioners held out the opinion that it would be completed in two years.  Under the expectation of its early completion many of the inhabitants of Toledo, who had been brought there by the speculations of 1835 and 1836, and the business it gave, held on in order to participate in the business it was expected to furnish.  The seasons of 1838 and 1839 were uncommonly sickly, not only at Toledo, but along the entire line of the canal.  This kept back the work on the canal,


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and it was not completed, so as to make its business sensibly felt, before the season of 1845.  The Miami & Erie canal was opened through, from river to lake, the same season, and for a time had a great rush of business through it.  But it was so imperfect that great prejudice was excited against it as a channel of commerce.  During the season of 1846 it was kept in good order, and recovered a portion of its lost popularity. 


The productions of the south and southwest that reached Toledo by these two canals during the season of 1846 exceeded $3,000,000 in value, and more than doubled the receipts of the preceding year.  The value sent up from Toledo can scarcely have been less than $5,000,000.  The aggregate of breadstuffs exported exceeded 3,000,000 bushels, being greater than that of any other port around the lakes, except Cleveland, that shipped by lake.  It is expected that the business of these canals this year will very nearly double that of the season of 1846.  The Wabash & Erie Canal will then be extended forty-nine miles farther down the Wabash; and the country on the lines of both canals being new, is being opened to cultivation, and having the roads that bring trade to the canals every year extended farther from their borders, and made better.  By position and the aid of these canals, Toledo is evidently destined to be one of the greatest of the gathering points of agricultural productions in the country.  It's situation is equally favorable for the distribution over the lakes of southern productions - sugar, tobacco, etc..  The Miami & Erie Canal is the best channel for the goods destined from the Eastern cities to the great river valley below Cincinnati. 


The Wabash & Erie canal, when completed to Evansville, on the Ohio, will be four hundred and sixty miles in length, and control most of the external trade of Indiana and Eastern Illinois.  The Miami & Erie canal, connecting Toledo and Cincinnati is two hundred and forty-seven miles long.  This, it is believed, will one day become one of the most important canals in the world. 


Within the last two years Toledo has expended near one hundred thousand dollars in grading and other permanent improvements that tend to give facility to commercial operations.  Like all other towns on Lake Erie, it has suffered, during the early years of its life, from sickness; and, perhaps, it has suffered still more in its growth and prospects, from the exaggerations which public rumor has spread over the country, respecting its insalurity.  And yet it would be difficult to find a healthier looking city or a more vigorous set of men than are the first settlers of Toledo and other places on the harbor.  Toledo has had sickness, but not more than Cleveland or Sandusky and Monroe, at the same period of their growth.  The excavations for the canal and the grades have undoubtedly contributed to the prevalence of intermittents, which is the chief cause for complaint.  Every year will witness an improvement in this respect, until, like Cleveland, it will be forgotten as a place especially fruitful of malaria, and be spoken of chiefly for the activity and the extent of its commerce, and the rapidity of its progress towards the high density which reflecting men have long anticipated for it. 


Toledo was incorporated as a city in 1836, and has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Catholic, 1 Methodist, 1 Episcopal and 1 Lutheran church, 37 of mercantile establishments - including 3 drug and 2 book stores - 9 forwarding and commission houses, 2 banks, and its population is estimated at 2,400; in 1840 it had 1,322 inhabitants.  A daily steamboat line connects Toledo with Buffalo, and another with Detroit.  A railroad has been chartered and surveyed between Toledo and the west line of Indiana, in the direction of the Falls of Illinois, or towards Chicago. 


Toledo was the centre of the military operations in the "Ohio and Michigan War," so called, which at the time threatened serious results, but was accompanied with so much of the ludicrous as to be usually adverted to with emotions of merriment.  In the language of "an actor in the scene which he depicts" the narrative below is given:


The dispute of Ohio and Michigan, about the line of division between them, originated in this wise.  The ordinance of 1787 provided for the division of the Northwestern Territory into not less than three nor more than five States; and, if into five, then the three southern were to be divided from the two northern, by a line drawn east and west through the southern point of Lake Michigan, extending eastward to the territorial line in Lake Erie.  The constitution of Ohio contained a provision, that if the said line should not go so far north as the north cape of the Maumee bay, then the northern boundary of Ohio should be a line drawn from the southerly part of Lake Michigan to the north cape of the Maumee bay.  With this constitution, Ohio was admitted into the Union.  The line of the ordinance was an impossible line, inasmuch as it would never touch the territorial line by extending it eastward, but would, on the contrary, leave north of it a considerable portion of that part of Ohio known as the Western Reserve. 


When Michigan became a Territory, the people living between the two lines - that claimed by Michigan, known as the Fulton line, and that claimed by Ohio, as the Harris


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line - found it more convenient to be attached to Michigan, and agreeably to their wish, the territorial laws were extended over the disputed territory.  In 1833 it appeared important that the boundary should be settled, and at the suggestion of J. W. SCOTT, Esq, of Toledo, Senator TILDEN, of Norwalk, Ohio, brought the matter before the Legislature, which passed a resolution asking Congress to act upon the subject, for the purpose of quieting the claim of Ohio. 


In 1835 the matter came before Congress, and J. Q. ADAMS made an elaborate report against the claim of Ohio.  Through the exertions of A. PALMER, S. B. COMSTOCK, W. P. DANIELS and others, the former was immediately dispatched to Columbus, with a petition from most of the inhabitants, to the legislature of Ohio, then in session, asking the extension of the laws of Ohio over the disputed territory.  An act was soon after passed for that purpose, and the disputed territory was attached to the counties of Wood, Henry and Williams.  This occasioned a counteraction on the part of Michigan.  A double set of officers were created at the spring election, and war became inevitable.  The inhabitants were mostly for the Ohio claim, but enough sided with Michigan to fill all the offices.  These soon needed the aid of their neighbors of Monroe county, who were organized, and made some inroads under the sheriff's posse, and carried off to Monroe some of the would-be citizens of Ohio.  


Thereupon, Ohio levied troops, and Governor LUCAS came on at their head, early in the spring of 1835.  In the meantime Governor MASON mustered troops from Michigan; and while Governor LUCAS was encamped at old Fort Miami, eight miles above Toledo and four miles above the disputed territory, MASON marched into Toledo, overrun all the water-melon patches, made fowls very scarce, and demolished utterly the ice-house of Major Stickney, burst in the front door of his residence, and triumphantly carried him off a prisoner of war to Monroe. 


Many amusing incidents are related of the actors of in this war.  Dr. RUSS, of New York, was with the forces of MASON on their march from Monroe to Toledo, and gave to the writer a vivid description of the mixture of frolic and fear among the new soldiers.  Reports were constantly being circulated of the great number of sharp-shooting Buckeyes who were ready, was poised rifles, to greet their arrival at Toledo, and so terror-stricken were the warriors by the stories of the wags, that nearly half of those who marched boldly from Monroe availed themselves of the bushes by the road-side to withdraw from the dangerous enterprise. 


About this time appeared from the court of Washington two ambassadors, with full powers to negotiate with the belligerents, for an amicable settlement of difficulties.  These were Richard RUSH, of Pennsylvania, and Colonel HOWARD, of Maryland.  They were successful in their mission, chiefly because Michigan was satisfied with the laurels won, and Ohio was willing to stand on her dignity - eight miles from the ground in dispute.  At the next court holden in Wood County the prosecuting attorney presented bills of the indictment against Gov. MASON and divers others, in like manner offending; but the bills were thrown out by the grand jury.  Thus was Ohio defeated in her resort to law, as she had been in her passage at arms.  At the next session of Congress the matter was taken up, and able arguments in favor of Ohio where made in the House by Samuel F. VINTON, and in the Senate by Thomas EWING.  Here Ohio carried the day.  Michigan, instead of the narrow strip, averaging about eight miles wide on her southern border, received as an equivalent the large peninsula between Lake Huron, Michigan and Superior, now so well known for its rich deposits of copper and other minerals.  The chief value to Ohio, of the territory in dispute, was the harbor at Toledo, formed by the mouth of the Maumee, essential, as her public men believed, to enable her to reap the benefit of the commerce made by her canals to Cincinnati and Indiana.  The result has shown that they judged correctly.  Toledo has proved to be the true point for the meeting of lake and canal commerce. - Old Edition. 


Toledo, county-seat of Lucas, is a port of entry on the map Maumee river, five miles from its mouth in Maumee bay, eight miles from the western extremity of Lake Erie, ninety-two miles west of Cleveland, fifty-three southwest of Detroit, Mich., and 120 miles northwest of Columbus.  It has the finest harbor on the lakes, with nineteen miles of completed docks; is in the natural gas and oil regions; has large manufacturing and railroad interests; is a great market for lime, plaster and cement; and a shipping point for large quantities of provisions, livestock, wheat, whisky, iron, hides, tobacco, wool, lumber and coal.  Its railroads are the C. H. & D.; C. J. & M.; C. H. V. & T.; F. & P. M.; L. S. & M. S.; M. C; N. W. O.; T. A. A. & N. M.; T. C. & S.; W. St. L. & P.; W. & L. E.; T. S. & M., and T. & O. C.  County officers, 1888: Auditor, Charles A. VORDTRIEDE; Clerk, John P. Bronson; Commissioners, John RYAN, Warren W. COOKE, Jacob ENGLEHARDT; Coroner, Charles F. ROULET; Infirmary Directors, George W. REYNOLDS, George MACK, William W. CODER; Probate Judge, Joseph W. CUMMINGS; Prosecuting Attorney, James H. SOUTHARD; Recorder, William


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V. MCMAKEN; Sheriff, John S. HARBECK, Jr.; Surveyor, Henry W. WILHELM; Treasurer, Horace J. POTTER.  City officers, 1888; J. K. HAMILTON, Mayor; W. T. WALKER, Auditor; George H. COLE, Clerk; Guy W. KINNEY, Solicitor; Thos. R. WICKENDON, Civil Engineer; William Kirby, Superintendent Infirmary; John BAYER, Street Commissioner; James MCNEELY, Harbor Master.  Newspapers: Bee, Democratic, Elmer WHITE, editor; Blade, Republican, Robinson LOCKE, editor; Commercial, Republican, Toledo Commercial Co., editors and publishers; Evening News, Independent, News Publishing Co., editors and proprietors; Express, German, Independent Republican, Julius VORDTRIEDE, editor; Freie Presse, German, Toledo Freie Press Co., editors and publishers; American, Democratic, American Printing and Publishing Co., editors and publishers; Sunday Herald and Times, Democratic, R. SELLNER & Co., editors and publishers; Sunday Journal, Independent, C. C. PACKARD, editor; Volksfreund, German, Democratic, E. V. E. RAUSCH, editor and publisher.  Besides these there are about twenty other journals devoted to medicine, agriculture, railway service, fraternities, etc.  Churches: in 1886 these numbered 55 and 11 missions; in many of them services were in German.  Baptist, 5; Congregational, 4; Lutheran, 9; Methodist Episcopal, 13; Presbyterian, 4; Protestant Episcopal, 3; Roman Catholic, 10; United Brethren, 1; German Evangelical Reformed, 1; Christian, 1; Jewish, 1.  The city has a manual training school, the "Toledo University of Arts and Trades," and a public library of 24,000 volumes.  Banks: First National, V. H. KETCHAM, president, S. D. CARR, cashier; Merchants' National, Reed V. BOICE, president, C. C. DOOLITTLE, cashier; Merchants' and Clerks' Savings Institution, John A. MOORE, president, O. S. BOND, treasurer; Northern National, W. CUMMINGS, president, W. A. EGGLESTON, cashier; Second National, George W. DAVIS, president, Charles F. ADAMS, cashier; Toledo National, Samuel L. YOUNG, president, E. H. VAN HOESON, cashier; Toledo Savings Bank and Trust Co., Richard MOTT, president, John J. BARKER, cashier; KEELER, HOLCOMB & Co.; J. B. KETCHAM, F. S. TERRY, cashier; SPITZER & Co.. 


Manufacturers and Employees (where numbering 40 hands and over). - The CONANT Brothers, furniture, 72; WITKER Manufacturing Co., sash, doors and blinds, 87; W. H. H. SMITH & Co., saw and lath mill, 57; Toledo Foundry and Machine Co., engines, excavators, etc., 70; Western Manufacturing Co., sash, doors and blinds, 70; The SHAUSS Manufacturing Co., furniture, 52; Vulcan Foundry and Machine Co., general machine work 64; Toledo Carriage Woodwork Co., 60; ROTH & FREEDMAN, hosiery and mittens, 197; LELAND, SMITH & Co., 38; the B. F. WADE Co., printing and binding, 49; E. C. SHAW & Co., clothing, 53; Blade Printing and Paper Co., printing, etc. 99; The GIOULET Manufacturing Co., sash, doors, etc., 45; SHAW, KENDALL & Co., general machinery, etc., 156; J. L. CRISWELL, galvanized iron cornice, 66; The Toledo Bolt and Nut Co., bolts and nuts, 152; Diamond Planing Mill Co., sash, doors, etc., 59; William PETER, sash, doors, etc., 250; GRASSER & BRAND Brewing Co., lager beer, 40; H. B. MILMINE & Co., foundry work, 105; George W. THOMAS & Co., wheelbarrows, 37; Herbert BAKER, foundry work, etc., 68; The C. H. SCHROEDER Co., sash, doors, etc., 82; N. HOUGHTON Foundry and Machine Co., 33; Toledo Brewing and Malting Co., lager beer, 60; Union Manufacturing Co., sewing machines, etc., 186; B. A. STEVENS, refrigerators, etc., 79; John S. ECK & Co., sash, doors, etc., 42; E. P. BRECKENRIDGE, tin packages, 110; Toledo Knitting Co., knit goods, 96; Toledo Tinware Co., tinware, 35; Buckeye Brewing Co., lager beer, 54; A. BLACK & Co., cloaks, 160; Toledo Moulding Co., picture frames, etc., 220; GLENDON Iron Wheel Co., children's carriages, 213; C. Z. KROH & Co., carriages, etc., 42; Toledo Cot and Wringer Manufacturing Co., cots, wringers, etc., 66; SMITH Bridge Co., 90; Consolidated Rolling Stock Co., railroad cars, 71; Great Western Pin Co., pins, 41; LADUE & MOORMAN, oars, skulls, etc., 72; CHASE, ISHERWOOD & Co., tobacco, 50; Amos BONNER Co., brushes, 95; Toledo Bending Co., carriage woodwork, 75; Northwestern Elevator and Mill Co., flour, etc., 54 etc.; FINLAY


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Brewing Co., lager beer, 85; MILLBURN Wagon Company, carriages, etc., 632; Toledo Overall Co., pants and overalls, 72; MITCHELL & ROWLAND Lumber Co., planing mill, 365; Wabash Railroad Shops, railroad repairs, 300; Jewel Manufacturing Co., sewing machines, etc., 93; Toledo Window Glass Co., window glass, 81; W. L. LIBBEY & Son Co., glassware, 165; Maumee Rolling Mill Co., rolling mill, 260. 


Population in 1880, 50,137.  School census, 1888, 24,413; H. W. COMPTON, school superintendent.  Capital invested in industrial establishments, $15,517,600.  Value of annual product, $23,018,800. - Ohio Labor Statistics, 1887.  Census of 1890, 81,434. 


Toledo has 134 daily passenger trains; yearly receipts of grain, 45,000,000 bushels; ditto, of lumber and staves, 459,000,000 feet; ditto, of coal, 2,500,000 tons; ditto, of iron ore, 250,000 tons, and the city has 750 manufacturing establishments. 


MISCELLANIES (Historical, Biographical, etc.).


The first known white settlers of the Maumee valley work Gabriel GODFREY and John Baptiste BEAUGRAND, who established a trading post at the foot of the Maumee rapids about 1790.  Other French settlers came, including LAPOINT, MOMENEE, and PELLETIER.  James CARLIN, a blacksmith, and his son, Squire CARLIN (now of Hancock County), came from Monroe about 1807.  At that time six American families were there.  David HULL, a nephew of the scout of General HARRISON, General Isaac HULL, resided at Maumee.  Near the mouth of the Maumee river, and opposite Manhattan, a small French  settlement was established about 1807.  It was near to a village of Ottawa Indians, which is said to have existed from the time of the Pontiac conspiracy (1763), and the widow of Pontiac, which her son (KAN-TUCK-EE-GUN), and his son (OTUSSA), were yet there.  MESH-KEE-MA, a cousin of OTUSSA, was a chief of the west side of the river, where he was prominent as an orator.  A-BEE-WA, a young chief, was poisoned, and died while young.  At this time there were in this region about 8,000 Ottawas, living chiefly by fishing and hunting.  Of these, the remnant, made up largely of vagabonds, were removed to the West in 1837.



                   PETER NAVARRE.


No name is more prominent among the early settlers of the Maumee valley than is that of Peter NAVARRE.  He was said to be a grandson of a French army officer, who visited this section in 1745.  Peter was born at Detroit in 1785, where his father before him was born.  In 1807, with his brother Robert, he erected a cabin near the mouth of the Maumee (east side), which continued to be his residence while he lived.  Besides Canadian French he could speak the Pottawatomie Indian dialect, and partially those of other tribes.  In woodcraft and Indian methods he was very skillful, while his bearing was ever that of a "born gentleman."  For several years he was employed by a Detroit house in buying furs of the Miamis near Fort Wayne, Indiana, where he made the acquaintance and friendship of chief LITTLE TURTLE.  The war of 1812-15 closed the fur


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trade when Peter and his three brothers-Robert, Alexis and Jaquot (James) - tendered their services to General HULL.  He also besought General HULL to accept the services of the Miamis, which were declined, and they afterwards took part with the British.  Before seeing active service, the NAVARRE'S were included in the surrender of General HULL, and paroled, although they denied the right to treat him as a prisoner of war, and at once took an active part for the United States; whereupon General PROCTOR, the British commander, offered a reward of $1,000 for Peter's head or scalp. 


Until the close of the war he acted as scout for General HARRISON.  He used to say that the worst night he ever spent was as bearer of a despatch from General HARRISON, then at Fort Meigs, to Fort Stephenson (now Fremont).  Amid a thunderstorm of great fury and fall of water, he made the trip of over thirty miles through the unbroken wilderness, and the morning following delivered to General HARRISON a reply.  Because his name was not on an enlistment role, the law provided no pension for his great service, but by special act of Congress his last days were made more comfortable by pecuniary relief.  At the close of the war he returned to his home near the mouth of the Maumee river, where he spent the balance of his life, dying in East Toledo, March 20, 1874, in his eighty-ninth year.  For several years previous to his death he served as president of the Maumee Valley Pioneer Association. 


The foregoing sketch of Peter NAVARRE is from Clark WAGGOONER'S History of Toledo and Lucas County.  Colonel D. W. HOWARD (see vol. 1, page 662) has given us the following sketch of another interesting character in the person of Uncle Peter MANOR. 


Uncle Peter MANOR was one of the last representatives of his class, a French trader, now only found in the northern and northwestern wilds of the Upper Canada.  When quite a young man he entered the employ of the Northwestern Fur Company, then carrying on the fur trade with the Indian tribes of the Northwest.  This trade was a very laborious and to some extent a dangerous one, and none were employed but the most robust and intelligent of their class.  Goods were transported by bark canoes and on the backs of men for hundreds of miles, and in the winter season on snow-shoes, over fields of ice and snow, to the far regions of the Lake of the Woods and Hudson's bay. 


Mr. MANOR served several years is this lucrative trade, but left it about the breaking out of the war of 1812, came to the Maumee, opened a trading-house and commenced the fur trade with the tribes in this region, consisting of Pottawattamies, Ottawas, Shawnees, Delawares and Miamies. 


I simply desire to give in this sketch the character of this good and brave man - for he was both good and brave.  His trade-house was located under the hill on the Maumee just east of the CLAFLIN Paper Mill in Maumee City, and immediately on the trail traveled by the Indians when passing up and down the river. 


During the early days of the war of 1812 Uncle Peter proved his bravery and his kindness to his fellow-men.  There were a number of white families settled on the south side of the river, near Fort Meigs, the SPAFFORDS, Capt. PRATT and his family, WILKINSON and some others, who had not heeded the warning of Uncle Peter to take their families to a place of safety, for the Indians were many of them friendly to the British, and it was only a question of time when they would strike the white settlers.  Finally, one evening, just at dark, an Indian scout, a friend of MANOR, made his appearance at the cabin of Uncle Peter, and after feasting on Uncle Peter's venison and hominy, and smoking his tobacco, told him in an Indian's quiet way, that in four days 1,000 Pottawattamies would be there to scalp the pale-faces, and would come to see him, but, as he was the Indian's friend and had been made a chief and adopted into the tribe, that he and his family would be safe. 


Uncle Peter had been looking for this news for some time, and as soon as the Indian scout had rolled himself in his blanket and gone to sleep, he crossed the river in the dark, and notified the white settlers to leave that night, for the Indians would surely come. 


But after all he could urge of the necessity of leaving at once they did not go.  On the morning of the fourth day, at daylight, the friendly scout made his reappearance at the cabin of MANOR, and told him that the Indians would be there at 10 o'clock, pointing to the place where the sun would be at that hour.  MANOR was anxious, knowing that all would be massacred that could be found when the Indians should arrive.  He urged his wife to feed the scout bountifully, while he made an excuse to the Indian and hurriedly crossed the river, arousing his still sleeping neighbors, many of whom were women and children, who joined MANOR in entreaties to fly at once. 


They succeeded in getting started a little after sunrise, the route running through the Black Swamp in the direction of Fort Findlay and passing through a small prairie, where MANOR and others had been cutting hay. 


The chiefs at once demanded to know where the white men were, and were told that they had been gone several days.  A chief drew his tomahawk and demanded of MANOR to tell the truth or he should die.  MANOR knew the Indian well and knew that


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Map of Ohio 1805

Constructed by Rev. Henry Bushnell, A. M. for his History of Granville.


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he did not jest, and if they found out that the whites had just gone he would not be spared.  His situation was critical in the extreme, for the Indian scouts just come in from the south side of the river had seen the fresh tracks of the cattle and wagons of the flying refugees.  As quick as thought MANOR pointed to the fresh-mown hay in his stack, and said that the tracks they saw were those of his men drawing hay, and after consulting with the scouts this explanation seemed to satisfy the chiefs, who did not follow the helpless families, but contented themselves with feasting on beef and green corn.  They killed the cattle and destroyed the crops of MANOR, as well as those of the other settlers, and burned most of the houses, plundered his store and took his ponies; in fact, plundered and destroyed everything within reach, but did not molest MANOR or his family. 


After the war closed a petition was signed by all who had lost property by this raid, and the government paid them for their losses.  Strange as it may seem, after risking his life and the loss of all his property to save them, Mr. MANOR was not requested to sign the petition for redress, and, in fact, knew nothing of it until long after (as I have heard him relate the circumstances many times), and he never received one cent for all his risk and loss. 


The Indians, more generous than the whites, gave Uncle Peter a section and a half (nine hundred and sixty acres) of land for his many kindnesses to them.  This grant was located at the head of the Rapids, most of which was very fine land; it also covered a splendid and valuable water-power, which is now well improved. 


Mr. MANOR laid out the village of Providence, and it was at one time, during the flourishing days of the canal, a lively business place, but the decline of the canal destroyed its business.  Fire and the cholera of 1850-52 destroyed the town and its inhabitants, and today there is but one house, the old brick residence of Uncle Peter, standing to mark the spot of this once flourishing village. 


Uncle Peter lies buried on the farm, taking his last long sleep in the bosom of this historic soil.  I shall ever remember the kind-hearted Frenchman for his universal deeds of kindness to our family and the settlers in the dark days of the early pioneers.  His wife was equally noble and generous with himself, and was a great help to the women of the pioneers.  She, too, has been dead many years. 


Uncle Peter and his good wife left quite a large family, the eldest, Frank MANOR, now living on the old grant at the Rapids; John J. MANOR, in the city of Toledo; the daughter in Defiance; one son, Joseph, a farmer in Indiana, near Fort Wayne; and 2 sons in California, Alexander and Louis, Alexander being a large wheat farmer of that State. 


Legend of Roche be Boeuf.


The following legend of the Roche de Boeuf, was told by Peter MANOR, the celebrated Indian scout and guide.  Evidences of its truth are found in the many relics and skeletons found in this vicinity;


"At the time when the plum, thorn-apple and wild grapes were the only products, and long prior to the advent of the pale-faces, the Ottawas were camped here, engaged in their games and pastimes, as was usual when not clad in war-paint and on the lookout for an enemy.  One of the young tribe, engaged in playing on Roche de Boeuf (Rock in the River), fell over the precipice and was instantly killed.  The dusky husband, on his return from the council fires, on being informed of the fate of his prospective successor, at once sent the mother in search of her papoose, by pushing her over the rocky sides into the shallow waters of the Maumee.  Her next-of-kin, according to Indian law, executed the murdering husband, and was in turn executed in the same manner, until the frantic passions were checked by the arrival of the principal chiefs of the tribe.  This sudden outburst cost the tribe nearly two-thirds of its members, whose bodies were taken from the river and buried with full Indian honors the next day."


The Great Drouth of 1838.


One of the greatest drouths in the history of the State was that which occurred in the summer of 1838, in that area south of the lake bounded by the rivers Raisin and Huron.  No rain fell from May until the middle of October; disease was never so prevalent as during that year and the mortality was very great.  Some peculiar natural phenomena occurred which have been recorded by Dr. Daniel DRAKE. 


"All the smaller streams throughout the whole region were exhausted and their beds became dusty.  Wild animals of every kind found in that region collected on the banks of the larger rivers, and even approached the towns.  Deer and raccoons were numerous between Toledo and Maumee City; quails passed over the town plot; and frogs of the shallow and sedgy waters of the old bed of Swan creek, now dried up, migrated in countless numbers through the streets of Toledo to the Maumee river.  The wet prairies of the interior were dried, and the grass of the dried ones withered; the marshes and pools of the post-tertiary


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uplands, even those of the Black Swamp, from the Maumee to the Sandusky river, were evaporated, their bottoms cracked open from the shrinking, the leaves of many of the trees growing in them perished, and, in some instances, the trees themselves were killed. 


Pioneer Railroad of the West.


In the winter of 1832-33 Dr. Samuel O. COMSTOCK projected the "Pioneer Railroad of the West," viz.: the Erie & Kalamazoo.  The charter was granted by the State of Michigan "on the ground that it was a mere fanciful object, out of which could come no harm, and it would greatly please the COMSTOCKS of Toledo."  The company was organized in 1835, and the next year the road was built to Adrian, Edward BISSELL, of Toledo and George CRANE, of Adrian, being the most active agents in locating and constructing the road.  The original plan was to use oak rails four inches square and draw the cars by horses, but before the road was completed it was decided to lay "strap-rail" and use steam-power.  The "strap-rails" were iron five-eighths of an inch thick and two and a half inches wide, fastened to the wooden rail with spikes. 


The road opened for business in the fall of 1836 with horse-power.  The passenger rate from Toledo to Adrian (thirty-three miles) was $1.50, with fifty pounds of baggage allowed.  Freight charges were fifty cents per hundred and a trip and a half was made every twenty-four hours.  In June, 1837, the first locomotive was put on the route, and the following October a contract was made with the United States Government for carrying the mails.  The rate of speed at this time was less than ten miles per hour, but it was confidently stated that a speed of twenty miles per hour could be attained.  This same year "the accommodations of the road were increased by the arrival of a new passenger car pretty, though singular and fanciful model."  It was called the "Pleasure Car."


The "Pleasure Car" shown in the picture was about the size of a street railway car of the present day.  When full it held twenty-four passengers, eight in each compartment.  The lower middle door opened from a place for stowing baggage. 


The original projectors of the road had an experience not unknown at the present day, for, after fighting great obstacles and placing the road in good running condition, they were levied upon by the sheriff in June, 1842, and the road subsequently became a part of the Michigan Southern system. 


Value of Ohio Railroads.


The history of transportation in Ohio is marked by three areas: the first, that of the stage-coach and freight-wagon; the second, the canal; the third, the railroad.  The opening of the canals at once brought a wonderful improvement in the material progress of the State.  The introduction of railroads was more gradual, but vastly more important in its effects. 


The first railroad chartered and constructed in the State of Ohio was the Mad River & Lake Erie (Sandusky to Dayton).  Its charter was granted in 1832, and the road opened to Bellevue (16 miles) in 1839; and through to Dayton in 1844. 


The first road constructed in Ohio was the Erie and Kalamazoo, under a charter from the State of Michigan, and opened from Toledo to Adrian, Mich., in 1836. 


Since then, the railroad system of Ohio has developed until, in 1889, there is within the State a total of 10,144 miles of track, valued at $101,273,801. 


As an illustration of the far-reaching beneficial results accruing from railroads, we quote from an excellent address on the "History of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway," which was delivered in 1887 before the Civil Engineers' Club of Cleveland. 


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Mr. C. P. CLEVELAND, the author of the address, is the auditor of the L. S. & M. S. R. R., and during the thirty years he has been connected with this road has given much study and research into the history of the development of railroads in this country.  He says:


"When next you hire an express-wagon to haul a load of stuff a mile, paying therefor a dollar, which is cheap enough, just remember this fact, that the average pay received by this road in 1886 for transporting one hundred tons one mile (about 6 large car-loads) was sixty-four cents.  Small as this was, it was nine cents more than the average of 1885. 


"What was the result of this slight improvement which hurt nobody? It was the signal of the dawn of better times, after the long night of depression, and, instantly, fires were started in idle rolling mills, locomotive and car works, and every industry in this great land, even gas and oil and real estate booms, felt the improvement in the trade barometer.  This little improvement gave the long-suffering four thousand stockholders of the L. S. & M. S. R. R. a little dividend of two percent, or a million dollars, to be poured into the arteries of trade. 


"As this road operates only a little more than one per cent. of the railroad mileage of the United States, I leave it to your imagination to estimate the aggregate benefit of a little more pay for this mighty torrent of freight. . . . 


The Pioneer Railroad of the West


"There are on the pay-rolls of the L. S. & M. S. R. R. the names of 10,400 men, among whom were distributed $510,000 in March.  Then there is another large army of men working for the company indirectly - making steel rails, building locomotives and cars, mining the 1,250 tons of coal consumed every day, and manufacturing the many supplies used.  It is safe to say that one-tenth of the large population of the United States gain a livelihood by working for railroads, either directly or indirectly. 


"The introduction of the Bessemer steel rails brought about a great reduction in the rates for freight; the rate for 1887 being but 30 percent of the rate for 1886, and every dollar of this benefit has been enjoyed by the consumer and not by the railroads. 


"The L. S. & M. S. R. R. earned in 1886 $15,859,455, and it has averaged for seventeen years $16,006,161 per annum.  Now, it is my opinion, after considerable thought and research, that the aggregate earnings of all the craft trading upon this great chain of lakes, from the St. Lawrence to the heads of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, never in the most prosperous year enjoyed earned ten million dollars, which is considerably less than this road earned from freight alone in 1886, even at the low rates I have given."


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Memorial Building.


The Soldiers' Memorial Association was organized in 1879, for the purpose of securing the erection of some suitable memorial to the memory of the soldiers who lost their lives in the Civil War. 


Toledo Soldiers' Memorial Building.


It was resolved to erect a building, the first of its kind in the country, to be not only a beautiful memorial to the honored dead, but of material benefit to the city. 


The corner-stone of the building was laid with Masonic ceremonies on July 4, 1883.  The means necessary for the construction of the building were largely voluntary contributions from the citizens of Toledo, but there not being a sufficient amount raised to properly complete the work, it was turned over to the city in June, 1884, and city bonds issued to the sum of $30,000 to provide for its completion. 


The building was formally opened with appropriate ceremonies on Washington's Birthday (February 22), 1886.  At the close of the ceremonies it was dedicated by Mayor FORBES, in the following words: "On behalf of the citizens of Toledo, I hereby dedicate this building to the honor of the soldiers and sailors of Lucas county in the late war, and in memory of those who gave up their lives in the maintenance of our country, and to be the home of the military of our city forever.  And may the God of battles smile auspiciously upon this momento of patriotism and loyalty."


Memorial Hall is situated on the corner of Adams and Ontario streets, in the heart of the city.  It is constructed of brick with Berea stone trimmings.  Internally the building is arranged to meet the requirements of a Memorial Hall and military establishment.  The basement is set apart for artillery and infantry companies.  On the upper floors are the headquarters of the Memorial Association, the Library, Memorial and Memorial Annex Halls; also, on the third story, a large Military Hall, 64 by 103 feet, with reception-rooms and side-rooms for companies.  This room is the largest and finest assembly and drill hall in the State. 


The cost of the building complete, exclusive of site, was $65,000. 


Morrison Remick WAITE was born in Lyme, Conn., November 29, 1816, and died in Washington, D.C., March 23, 1888.  He was descended from a long line of eminent jurists; his Pilgrim ancestor was a son of one of the judges who condemned King Charles I.  His father was a Justice of the Supreme Court of Connecticut.  Morrison R. graduated at Yale in 1837, a classmate of William M. EVARTS and Samuel J. TILDEN.  He first studied law in his father's office, but emigrated to Maumee City, Ohio, in 1839; was admitted to the bar and formed a partnership with Samuel M. YOUNG.  In 1849-50 he was a member of the Legislature.  In 1850 he removed to Toledo, and three years later the


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firm of YOUNG and WAITE was dissolved, and Mr. WAITE formed a partnership with his younger brother Richard. 


His studious habits, sincere love for his profession, legal acumen, upright character and quiet, unostentatious manner, won for him a leading position at the Ohio bar.  His assertions on questions of law were said to be indisputable.  Before the days of the Republican party he was a Whig, but on the organization of the former he became a staunch Republican and remained one through life.  After his defeat in 1862 as Representative for Congress, he would not accept candidacy for office, although repeatedly offered State and Federal positions. 


The first position in which his abilities attracted the attention of the whole country, was that of counsel for the United States in the tribunal of arbitration which met at Geneva in 1871-72.  He was associated in the matter with Caleb CUSHING and William M. EVARTS, and their skill terminated the difficulty arising out of the civil war between the United States and the United Kingdom. 


In 1874, while presiding over the Ohio Constitutional Convention, he was nominated to the high office of Chief Justice of the United States.  A telegram was brought to Rufus KING, a member of the convention, who arose and read the announcement of Mr. WAITE'S appointment, whereupon the convention burst into vociferous applause.  The nomination was unanimously confirmed, and on March 4, 1874, Justice WAITE took the oath of office and at once entered upon its duties. 


This nomination was brought about on the occasion of President GRANT'S visit to Toledo, when Mr. WAITE made the address of welcome to GRANT.  This address was so full of good sense, and so free from adulation, that GRANT was delighted with it.  He had been pleased with WAITE'S action at Geneva, and he knew WAITE to be a man of the utmost probity and no political aspirations.  He extended his inquiries, and concluded that he was the man to be appointed Chief Justice of the United States, and sent in his name to the Senate.  WAITE accepted it, and the country gained by his act. 


The most important of Justice WAITE'S decisions were in the civil rights cases, 1878; polygamy cases, 1879; the constitutional amendments, 1880, and 3 decisions in 1881.  These were-one regarding the power of removal by the President, one on polygamy cases, and one on the Virginia bond case.  In 1883 two important decisions were given, covering the civil rights act.  In 1884 came the decision in the Alabama claims, the legal tender act, and the Virginia claim cases.  The decision in the noted Chicago anarchist case attracted considerable attention from the interest attaching to their execution.  The last of Justice WAITE'S most important decisions was in the Bell telephone case. 


The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Yale and by Kenyon in 1874, and by Ohio University in 1879.  "Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography" describes his person as follows: "Chief Justice WAITE was of medium height, broad-shouldered, compactly built and erect.  His step was light and firm, and all his movements were quick and decisive.  His well-poised, classically shaped head was massive and thickly covered with handsome grayish hair.  His manners were graceful and winning, but unassuming.  He was one of the most genial of men, and his whole bearing commanded instant respect.  His private character was singularly pure and noble.  Judge WAITE was a member of the Protestant Episcopal church and a regular attendant on its services."


James Barrett STEEDMAN was born of Scotch descent in Northumberland county, Pa., July 29, 1817, and died at Toledo, Ohio, October 18, 1883.  At the age of fifteen he entered the printing office of the Lewisberg Democrat.  A few years later he came West and acquired control of the Northwestern Democrat, at Napoleon, Ohio.  He also engaged in contract work, and gave proofs of great executive ability in the construction, in connection with General GIBSON, of the Toledo, Wabash & Western Railroad.  In 1847-48 he was a member of the Ohio Legislature.  In 1849 he was one of the "argonauts of '49" going to California, but returned to Ohio shortly after. 


In 1857 he was Public Printer under Buchanan's administration, and in 1860 was a delegate to the Charleston National Democratic Convention. 


At the outbreak of the war he became colonel of the Fourth Ohio Regiment.  He was promoted brigadier-general, July 17, 1862, for valuable services at Perryville.  In July, 1863, he was given command of the First Division of the Reserve Corps of the Army of the Cumberland.  For his services at the battle of Chickamauga he was promoted to major-general, July 24, 1864.  The following account of these services is quoted from the Toledo Blade:


"But it was at the battle of Chickamauga that General STEEDMAN'S true character as a general and a commander shines out.  His division was posted at "Red House bridge," over the Chickamauga river, and he was ordered to 'hold it at all hazards.'  The battle commenced; he knew there was no enemy in front; he also knew that THOMAS was hard pressed.  LONGSTREET'S corps, from Richmond, had reinforced BRAGG'S army, and early on that Sunday morning in September the battle was renewed with fierce and relentless ardor.  The right and left of the Union forces were both broken and flying from the field.  ROSECRANS had given up all hope of reorganizing the disordered forces.  Gen. THOMAS and his brave Fourteenth corps, though driven from the position they occupy early in the morning, had rallied and stood like a wall of fire by repelling assault after assault of the whole rebel line.  But they were worn by the force of superior numbers and their ammunition was almost exhausted.  To this field


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STEEDMAN marched his men by the sound of cannon and no other guide.  He came just in time to turn a defeat into a glorious victory.  The news that STEEDMAN had come to the rescue inspired the worn-out, half dis-spirited veterans with fresh ardor and courage. 


"It was at a critical moment in this engagement that STEEDMAN ordered his men to advance in the teeth of a tempest of bullets.  His men hesitated.  Up he rode to the color-sergeant and, grasping the flag, shouted, 'Go back if you like, boys, but the colors can't go back with you.'  Onward he spurred his horse into the thickest of the fight.  The column at once closed up, grew firm, and the soldiers charged with a hearty cheer, sweeping everything before them. 


"Then and there the soldier boys gave him the title of 'Old Chickamauga.'  His conduct called forth the warmest admiration and eulogy, and led to his promotion to the rank of major-general. 


"General Steadman took active and prominent part in the campaign of Atlanta, and when Sherman started out on the "march to the sea," STEEDMAN was left in command of the "district of Etowah."  At the battle of Nashville General STEEDMAN displayed his usual dash and vigor.  On the next day he aided General WOODS in storming Overton Hill."


He resigned from the army July 19, 1866, after serving as provisional governor of Georgia, and was appointed collector of internal revenue at New Orleans.  Later he returned to Ohio and was elected to the State Senate in 1879.  He was elected chief of police in Toledo in May, 1883; was editor and owner of the Toledo Democrat. 


A fine monument to his memory was unveiled in Toledo May 26, 1887 - a gift to the city from his life-long friend, Colonel William J. FINLAY. 


The credit for ordering General STEEDMAN'S movement at Chickamauga is sometimes given to General Gordon GRANGER; but undoubted testimony proves that to General STEEDMAN, and to him alone, does this honor belongs. 


General H. V. BOYNTON, in a letter to the Cincinnati Commercial-Gazette, written at the time of the unveiling of the STEEDMAN monument, said:


"Every soldier who knew General STEEDMAN, whether present or absent, will unite with those at Toledo who are to do suitable honor to his memory.  No better soldier went into the field.  No city in the land has more reason to be proud of the valorous deeds which any one of their citizens performed under the flag.  Others rose to a higher rank, and, in the ordinary sense, achieved greater renown; but within the limits which were given him to serve, none was more active, none more alert, none more daring, and none more successful, none more worthy of remembrance for soldierly bearing and for soldierly deeds, than he. 


"It was worth a lifetime of the ordinary emotions of these quiet days to see him at the head of his troops in action.  No one ever saw him elsewhere when they were engaged.  In energetic action and reckless daring he was the John LOGAN of the Ohio troops."


A few years after the close of the war General DEPEYSTER asked General THOMAS, "Who was the best division commander you had under you, most trustworthy, most efficient?" Thomas answered, "STEEDMAN."


Besides General STEEDMAN, Toledo furnished a number of most efficient officers for the Union cause.  Prominent among these are General John W. FULLER who was born in England, came to this country when five years of age, and during the war gave such a valuable service that at its close he had attained the rank of brevet major-general, well earned by very gallant service.  From 1874 to 1878 he served as Collector of Customs at Toledo.  Isaac R. SHERWOOD enlisted as a private the day after President Lincoln's call for volunteers.  His faithful service brought repeated promotion, until, at the close of the war, he was mustered out with rank of brigadier-general.  A notice of his talented wife, Kate B. SHERWOOD, will be found in the chapter of the county of her birth, Mahoning.  Charles W. HILL rendered valuable service early in the war in West Virginia, and as adjutant-general under Gov. TOD, most efficiently organized Ohio's volunteer forces.  Through injustice on the part of General MCCLELLAN he did not receive, until 1865, his well-deserved promotion of major-general.  Charles L. YOUNG was said to have been the youngest man in the Union army in command of a regiment.  He was a very gallant officer.  At Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864, in response to a call for volunteers, these three only answered, viz., General J. H. Hobart WARD, Assistant Inspector-General YOUNG, and Assistant Adjutant-General AYRES (of General MOTT'S staff), and galloped upon the breastworks at the "bloody angle."  Generals WARD and YOUNG returned; AYRES fell, riddled with bullets.  His wife, Mrs. YOUNG, has been actively engaged in various benevolent and charitable works. 


Jesse Wakeman SCOTT was born in Ridgefield, Conn., in 1789, and died at Toledo in 1874.  He was the earliest journalist of this region.  In 1833, while engaged in the practice of law, he started the pioneer paper of the Maumee valley - the Miami of the Lake, that then being the appellation of the Maumee river.  In 1844 he first made Toledo his residence, and for years edited the Toledo Blade.  As early as 1828, while living in the south, he formed his views upon the ultimate results of population and trade in respect to interior cities, and especially his belief that the future great city of the world would be found, not on the seaboard, but in the interior.  This belief led him to emigrate, and finally to settle in Toledo, which he felt would be the great city of the future.  And this conviction he promulgated through life, thereby attracting wide-spread notice from


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JAS. B. STEEDMAN,                                              MORRISON E. WAITE.

General U. S. V.                                             Chief Justice U. S. Supreme Court.


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J. W. Scott.

the boldness of his statement and the ability with which he presented facts in its support.  In his day, Mr. SCOTT was a great power in all matters appertaining to the public welfare.  He supplied some original material for the first edition of this work.  His son, Frank J. SCOTT, is a literary gentleman, a resident of Toledo.  He is the author of an elegantly illustrated work, published by the APPLETONS, on the art of beautifying suburban homes. 


David Ross LOCKE was born in Vestal, N.Y., September 20, 1833, and died in Toledo, February 15, 1888.  He learned the printer's trade in the office of the Cortlandt Democrat.  As a traveling journeyman printer he drifted from point to point.  From 1852 to 1860, he was connected, either as reporter, editor or publisher, with the Plymouth Advertiser, Bucyrus Journal, Mansfield Herald, Bellefontaine Republican and Findlay Jeffersonian.  It was while editor of the latter that he commenced the development of the character of Petroleum Vesuvius Nasby," a whisky-drinking, illiterate Kentucky politician who wanted to be postmaster, and desired the perpetuation of slavery.  The first letter appeared in the Jeffersonian, April 21, 1861; later they were continued in the Toledo Blade, of which Mr. Locke became proprietor and editor. 


These political satires sprang at once into tremendous popularity.  They were copied into newspapers everywhere, quoted in speeches, read around camp-fires of Union armies and exercised an enormous influence in holding public opinion in the north in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war.  Secretary BOUTWELL declared in a speech at Cooper Union, New York, at the close of the war, that the success of the Union arms was due to three causes - "the army, the navy and the Nasby letters."


Among other publications of Mr. LOCKE are "Ekkoes from Kentucky," "About Ben Adhem," "Struggles of P. V. Nasby," "Swingin' Round the Cirkle," "A Paper City," and "Nasby in Exile," the latter written during an extended trip in Europe.  


James Monroe ASHLEY was born in Pennsylvania, November 14, 1824; entered the drug business in Toledo in 1851, but was burned out in 1857, without insurance.  He had studied law and been admitted to the bar, and in 1856 was a delegate to the National Republican Convention which nominated Fremont.  Turning his attention to politics, he was for five successive terms elected to Congress, serving from 1859 to 1869.  He was an active supporter of Lincoln's administration, strongly opposed to slavery and early in proposing reconstruction measures. 


In 1869 he was appointed by President GRANT Governor of Montana Territory.  Later, he returned to Toledo, where he practised law.  He achieved a reputation as a fine public speaker and politician. 


Clark WAGGONER, journalist and historian, was born in Milan in 1820; was educated at what Dr. FRANKLIN termed the "Poor Boy's College," the printing-office, and as a trophy of his life-work shows fifty bound volumes of newspapers of which he was publisher and editor.  They cover an aggregate of thirty-five years, and include twelve years of weekly and twenty-three years of daily journals: among them are the Blade and the Commercial.  In the administration of Mr. HAYES he was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for this district.  Through his efforts largely, and against strong opposition, the public schools of Toledo were opened to colored children.  Mr. WAGGONER'S last achievement is a history of Toledo and Lucas county, a work of immense labor, wherein is embraced much valuable historical material that otherwise would have been lost. 


Sylvania is ten miles northwest of Toledo, on the L. S. & M. S. R. R.  Population, 1880, 523.  School census, 1888, 138. 


Whitehouse is seventeen miles southwest of Toledo, on the W., St. L. & P. R. R. Population, 1880, 554.  School census, 1888, 158. 


Richard MOTT was born of Quaker parentage at Mamaroneck, N.Y., in July, 1804, and died in Toledo, O., January 22, 1888.  At sixteen he began school teaching to put himself through college, but failed in this, and in 1824 accepted a clerkship in the bank


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of New York.  In 1836 he removed to Toledo, where he engaged in the commission and grain business until 1860.  He built the first grain warehouse in Toledo.  He had charge of the large landed interests of Gov. Washington HUNT and the HICKS family; was president from March, 1838, to April, 1839, of the pioneer railroad of the West (Erie and Kalamazoo).  In 1844 he was elected Mayor of Toledo and re-elected in 1846; was a member of Congress for two terms, from 1854 to 1858, when he declined a renomination and retired from active participation in politics. 


His inclinations were for literary purposes.  He was a man of high intellectual attainments and averse to active participation in political and official life.  Until 1848 he was in sympathy with the principles of the Democratic party, but his strong Anti-Slavery sentiments carried him into the Free-Soil party, in which he became an active worker. 


His pronounced views and unwavering allegiance to the Anti-Slavery cause led to his being classed by Southern slave-holders with Wm. Lloyd GARRISON, Horace GREELEY and other Abolitionists by placing a price on his life. 


In early life he began to take an interest in the Woman's Rights reform movement, and Mrs. Lucretia MOTT, the illustrious wife of his elder brother, found in him a hopeful and encouraging coadjutor.  In 1869, on the formation in Toledo of an association for the political enfranchisement of women, Mr. MOTT tendered the association a permanent home in his Fort Industry BLOCK. 


Mr. MOTT had been so largely identified with the social, moral, educational and humanitarian interests of Toledo that his name and labors have been important factors in almost every enterprise that in a long term of years have inured to the welfare and progress of his fellow-citizens.  At that time of his decease he was probably the most venerated character of the Maumee valley. 


John S. KOUNTZ was born in Richfield Centre, Lucas county, O., March 25, 1846.  At fifteen and a half years of age he enlisted as a drummer-boy in the 37th O. V. I.  In the army he showed great courage; in one instance, at the imminent risk of his own life, he rescued from drowning a soldier who had broken through the ice of the Kanawha river.  He took part in a number of battles.  In the charge at Mission Ridge he was hit in the thigh by an English explosive ball, rendering necessary imputation of the limb. 


When at Mission Ridge the order came to charge the enemy's works the boy, KOUNTZ, threw away his drum, and seizing a musket from one of the slain, charged with the men and fell under the enemy's works.  This incident furnished the subject of a descriptive poem from Mrs. Kate B. SHERWOOD, entitled "The Drummer-boy of Mission Ridge," of which we annex two verses:



He pressed to the front our lad so leal and
the works were almost won;

A moment more, and our flags had swung
o'er muzzle of murderous gun;

But a raking fire had swept the van, and he
fell 'mid the wounded and the slain,

With his wee and wan face turned up to Him
Who feeleth His children's pain. 


. . . . . . . . . . .


O glory of Mission Ridge! stream on like
the roseate light of morn,

On the sons that now are living, on the sons
that are yet unborn!

And cheers for our comrades living, and
tears as they pass away, -

And three times three for the Drummer-boy,
who fought at the front that day!





John S. Kountz,
The Drummer Boy of Mission Ridge.At the age of twenty-five he was elected county treasurer, and later recorder.  Retiring from political life in 1877, he entered the fire insurance and real estate business. 


He has ardently devoted himself to the interests of the Grand Army of the Republic, occupying various positions with such marked efficiency that in July, 1884, he was chosen its Commander-in-Chief, being the only private soldier who has been called to that eminent position. 


He was one of the originators of the Soldiers' Memorial Building in Toledo, and has occupied many positions of trust. 


Of Gen. KOUNTZ it has been justly said, "He is a man of fine natural abilities, energetic and industrious, and most faithful in the discharge of any duty assigned to him.  In his Grand Army work he has few equals and no superiors.  It was his work as Commander of the Department of Ohio that gave the organization its great impetus in this State, and started it on its upward march to become the banner department of the order.  As Commander-in-Chief his work was equally as great."



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