Pickaway County 


Pickaway County was formed January 12, 1810, from Ross, Fairfield and Franklin; the name is a misspelling of Piqua, the name of the tribe of the Shawanese, for the significance of which see p. 517, Vol. II.  The name was immediately derived from the plains in the county.  The surface is level and the soil is generally very fertile and productive in grain.  In many places the eye will take in at a single glance five hundred acres of corn at one view.  The country has the four varieties of woodland, barren, plain and prairie.  The barrens were originally covered with shrub oak and were at first supposed to be valueless, but proved to be excellent for grass and oats.  The original settlers were mainly from Pennsylvania and Virginia.  The principal productions are corn, wheat, oats, grass, pork, wool and neat cattle. 


Area about 480 square miles.  In 1887 the acres cultivated were 144,968; in pasture, 80,135; woodland, 32,053; lying waste, 6,436; produced in wheat, 765,883 bushels; rye, 2,146; buckwheat, 600; oats, 64,584; barley, 11,671; corn, 2,088,965; broom corn, 21,500 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 11,355 tons; clover hay, 4,865; flax, 585 bushels seed; potatoes, 37,483; butter, 416,059 lbs.; sorghum, 611 gallons; maple syrup, 2,326; honey, 4,155 lbs.; eggs, 526,839 dozen; grapes, 9,750 lbs.; wine, 60 gallons; sweet potatoes, 790 bushels; apples, 6,797; peaches, 767; pears, 276; wool, 53,577 lbs.; milch cows owned, 5,465.  School census, 1888, 9,024; teachers, 209.  Miles of railroad track, 62. 


Township and




Township And
















Deer Creek



Salt Creek



































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Population of Pickaway in 1820 was 18,143; 1830, 15,935; 1840, 20,169; 1860, 23,469; 1880, 27,415, of whom 24,013 were born in Ohio; 861, Virginia; 604, Pennsylvania; 155, New York; 102, Indiana; 88, Kentucky; 471, German Empire; 283, Ireland; 89, England and Wales; 22, France; 20, British America; and 14, Scotland.  Census, 1890, 26,959. 


In my first edition of 1847, I stated: "Much of the land on the west side of the Scioto is formed by tenants, who received either a certain proportion of the profits, or pay stated rents.  The further remove the ownership of land from those who cultivate it, the worse it is for the development of the resources of the country.  Slavery is worse than the tenant system and actual ownership the best of all.  Hence it is that the Virginia Military District, much of which is held in large tracts by wealthy men, with tenants under them, does not thrive as well as some other parts of the state having a poor soil, but cultivated by those who both hold a plow and own the land."  Then I quoted from a writer of the time, as follows:


Within the county, on the west side of the river, is a territory of about 290 square miles, containing a population of 8,376, averaging a fraction less than thirty to the square mile; while the territory on the east side of the river, within the county, embracing only 209 square miles, sustains a population of 11,349, averaging almost fifty-five to the square mile.  This disparity in the density of population of the territory on the east and west sides of the river arises principally from four causes: 1st, the large surveys on which the land on the west side of the ridge at river was originally located.  This prevented persons of small means from seeking farms there; 2nd, the difficulty of finding a real owner of the surveys, who generally resided in some of the Southern Atlantic states, or Kentucky, and who frequently had no agent here to subdivide, show, or sell the lands; 3rd, the frequent interference of different entries and surveys there with each other, which rendered the titles insecure.  Though only a small portion of the lands were subject to this last difficulty, yet many persons were thereby deterred from purchasing and settling upon them; 4th, the greater disposition in the inhabitants there to engross large tracts of land, instead of purchasing smaller tracts, expending more upon their improvements.  This last continues to be the great obstacle in the way of increase in a population now on those lands. 


To an observing traveler passing directly through the county from east to west, the contrast is very striking.  While on the one ride he finds the land well improved, with fields of moderate size, well fenced, with a good barn and meet dwelling-house to each adjacent farm; on the other, he finds occasionally baronial mansion, "Like angel's visits, few and far between," with rarely a barn, and each field large enough for two or three good farms.  Between these mansions he will find the old pioneer log dwellings and the slovenly cultivation of the first settlers.  The prices of the same quality of land on the east side are generally about double those on the west side.  A part of this difference in the artificial appearance and cultivation of the country upon the opposite sides of the river results, no doubt, from the different origin of the inhabitants.  Those on the east side originated mostly from Pennsylvania; while those on the west side had their origin generally in the more northern slave States.  Habits brought with the first emigrants cannot be changed at once, though time and the operation of our laws will gradually modify them.  Already, in several neighborhoods west of the river, the plan of smaller farms and better improvements has commenced; and a few years of prosperous industry will produce the neat farm cottage and a well-stored barn, with the productive fields of variegated crops and delicious fruits, which render the pursuits of agriculture so desirable.  These are the blessings designed by a bountiful Benefactor to compensate for the toils, exposures and hardships incident to the pursuit of farming.  Without these comforts it would be the barren drudgery of the toil-worn slave. 


The Pickaway Plains. 


Three-and-a-half miles south of Circleville are the celebrated Pickaway Plains, said to contain the richest body of land in Ohio.  They are divided into two parts, the greater or upper plane and the lesser or lower one.  The soil was very black when first cultivated; the result of vegetable decomposition through a long succession of ages.  These plains are based on water-worn gravel and pebbles.  The upper plain is at least 150 feet above the bed of the river, which passes


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[Explanations,—A. Ancient works on which Circleville now stands.

B. Logan’s cabin at Old Chillicothe, now Westfall, four miles below Circleville;

from this place a trail led through Grenadier Squaw town, and from thence up the

Congo valley, and crossed to the opposite side of the creek, about 1½ miles

from its mouth.


C. Black mountain, a short distance west of the old Barr mansion.


D. Council house, a short distance northeast of the residence of Wm. Reneck, Jr.

The two parallel lines at the point represent the gauntlet through which prisoners

were forced to run, and O the stake at which they were burnt, which last is on a

commanding elevation.


F. The camp of Col. Lewis just south of the residence of Geo. Wolf.  The Logan elm

is about a mile north of the site of the camp of Lewis on Congo creek.


E. The point where Lord Dunmore met with and stopped the army of Lewis when on

their way to attack the Indians: it is opposite the mansion of Major John Boggs.


G. The residence of Judge Gills, near which is shown the position of Camp Charlotte.]



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about a mile west of them.  Their form is elliptical, with the longest diameter from northeast to southwest, being about seven miles by three and a half or four miles.  They were destitute of trees when first visited by the whites.  The fertility was such as to produce one hundred bushels of corn, or fifty of wheat, to the acre for many years, but they are now less productive.  These plains have but few trees or shrubs within reach of the eye, except along the distant borders.  The early settlers in the vicinity procured all their fodder, a coarse, natural grass, from the plains, which grew several feet above a man's head.  It was extremely difficult to break up, requiring the strongest teams.  The cultivation of corn, which grew up to a height of twelve or fifteen feet, weakened their natural fertility.  Originally the plains were adorned with a great variety of beautiful flowers. 


The and next map is reduced from one 20 1/2 inches by 17 1/2, made from the survey of P. N. WHITE, for Felix RENICK, of Ross.  The country represented is about seven miles square.  Of all places in the West, this preeminently deserves the name of "Classic Ground."  Here, in olden time, burned the council-fires of the red man; here the affairs of the nation in general council were discussed, and the important questions of peace and war decided.  On these plains the allied tribes marched forth and met General LEWIS, and fought the sanguinary battle at Point Pleasant.  Here it was that LOGAN made his memorable speech, and here, too, that the noted campaign of DUNMORE was brought to a close by a treaty, or rather a truce, at Camp Charlotte. 


From the "Remarks" appended to this map by Mr. RENICK, we extract of following:


Among the circumstances which invest this region with extraordinary interest is the fact that to these towns were brought so many of the truly unfortunate prisoners who were abducted from the neighboring states.  Here they were immolated on the altar of the red man's vengeance, and made to suffer to the death all the tortures savage ingenuity could invent, as a sort of expiation for the aggression of their race.  Strange does it seem that human beings, on whom Nature had bestowed such riches of intellect, could be brought by force of habit, not only to commit, but to delight in committing, such enormous cruelties as they often practiced on many of their helpless victims-acts which had the direct effect of bringing down retaliation, in some form or another, on their own heads.  But that they should contend to the last extremity for so delightful a spot, will not be wondered at by the most common observer on the view of the premises.  For picturesqueness, fertility of soil, and other concomitants to make it desirable for human habitation, it is not surpassed by any other locality in the Western country, or perhaps in the world.  The towns were well supplied with good spring water; some of the adjacent bottom-lands where susceptible of being made to produce, as nature has left them, one hundred bushels of Indian corn to the acre and all of the grains and vegetables in proportion. 


The Black Mountain, represented on the map by C (so called by the natives, but why so named tradition hath not informed us), is a ridge somewhat in the shape of an inverted boat, elevated from 130 to 150 feet above the bottom of the prairie immediately in its vicinity, and commands from its summit a full view of the high plains and the country around it to a great extent.  This facility the natives enjoyed, for they were in the practice yearly of burning over the country, which kept down the undergrowth, while the larger growth was so sparse as to not materially intercept the view.  This elevated ridge answered the Indian some valuable purposes.  No enemy could approach in daytime, who could not from its summit be descried at a great distance; and by repairing thither the red man could often have a choice of the game in view, and his sagacity seldom failed him in the endeavor to approach it with success. 


The Burning Ground, in the suburbs of Grenadier Squawtown, represented on the map, was also situated on an elevated spot, which commands a full view of all the other towns within the drawing, so that when a victim was at the stake and the flames ascending, all the inhabitants of the other towns who could not be present, might, in a great measure, enjoy the scene by sight and imagination.  The burning-ground at Old Chillicothe was somewhat similar, being in full view of the burning-ground at Squawtown, the Black Mountain and two or three other small towns in other parts of the plains. 


The Grenadier Squaw, whose name the above town bore, was a sister to CORNSTALK.  She was represented as being a woman of great muscular strength, and, like her brother, possessed of a superior intellect. 


SLOVER'S Escape. - From accounts most to be relied on, it was to Grenadier Squawtown


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that SLOVER, who was taken prisoner at CRAWFORD'S defeat, in 1782, was brought to suffer a similar death to that which Crawford, his commander, had undergone a few days before, but from which, through providential aid, he was relieved and enabled to make his escape.  The circumstances of his escape have been previously published; but as they seem to be inseparably connected with the history of this spot, I hope to be excused for repeating them here.  After his capture on his way thither, he had been very much abused at the different towns he passed through, beaten with clubs, etc..  On his arrival here he had a similar punishment to undergo.  A council was held over him and he was doomed to die the death that CRAWFORD had suffered.  The day was appointed for the consummation of the horrid deed, and its morning dawned without any unpropitious appearances to mar the anticipated enjoyments of the natives collected from the neighboring towns to witness the scene.  At the appointed time SLOVER was led forth, stripped naked, tied to the fatal stake, and the fire kindled around him. 


Just as his tormentors were about to commence the torture, it seemed that the Great Spirit look down, and said: "No! This horrid deed shall not be done!"  Immediately the heavens were overcast; the forked lightnings in all directions flew; in mighty peals the thunder rolled and seemed to shake the earth to its centre; the rain in copious torrents fell and quenched the threatening flames before they had done the victim much injury - continuing to a late hour.  The natives stood dumbfounded - somewhat fearing that the Great Spirit was not pleased with what they were about to do.  But had they been ever so much inclined, there was not time left that evening to carry out their usual savage observances.  SLOVER was therefore taken from the stake and conducted into an empty house, to the upper log of which he was fastened by a buffalo-tug tied around his neck, and his arms were pinioned behind him by a cord.  Two warriors were set over him as a guard to prevent his escape in the night.  Here again Providence seemed to interfere in favor of SLOVER, by causing a restless sleep to come over his guard.  Until a late hour the Indians sat up, smoking their pipes and talking to SLOVER - using all their ingenuity to tantalize him, asking "How would he like to eat fire," etc.  At length one of them lay down and soon fell asleep.  The other continued smoking and talking to SLOVER some time.  After midnight a deep sleep came upon him.  He also lay down, and soon thought of nothing save in dreams of the anticipated pleasure to be enjoyed in torturing their prisoner next day. 


SLOVER then resolved to make an effort to get loose, and soon extricated one of his hands from the cords.  He then tried to unloose the tug around his neck, but without effect.  He had not long been thus engaged before one of the Indians got up and smoked his pipe.  While he was thus engaged SLOVER kept very still for fear of a discovery; but the Indian being again overcome with sleep, again laid down.  SLOVER then renewed his exertions, but for some time without effect, and he resigned himself to his fate.  After resting a while, however, he resolved to make another and a last effort.  He put his hand again to the tug, and, as he related, he slipped it over his head without difficulty.  He then got out of the house as quietly as possible, sprang over a fence into a cornfield.  While passing through the field he came near running over a squaw and her children, who were sleeping under a tree.  To avoid discovery he deviated from a straight track and rapidly hurried to the upper plain, where, as he had expected, he found a number of Indian horses grazing.  Day was then fairly breaking,.  He untied the cord from the other arm, which by this time was very much swelled.  Selecting, as he thought, the best horse he could see, he made a bridle of the cord, mounted him, and rode off at full speed.  About ten o'clock the horse and gave out.  SLOVER then had to travel on foot with all possible speed; and between mosquitos, nettles, brush, briars, thorns, etc., by the time he got home he had more the appearance of a mass of raw flesh than an animated being.  


DUNMORE'S Expedition. 


The history of the expedition of Lord DUNMORE against these towns on the Scioto, in 1774, we derive from the discourse upon this subject delivered by Charles WHITTLESEY, Esq, before the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, at Columbus, in 1840. 


In August, 1774, Lord DUNMORE collected a force of 3,000 men, destined for the destruction of their towns on the Scioto, situated within the present limits of Pickaway county.  One half of the corps was raised in Botetourt, Fincastle, and the adjoining counties, by Colonel Andrew LEWIS, and of these 1,100 were in rendezvous at the levels of Green Briar on the 5th of September.  It advanced in two divisions; the left wing, commanded by LEWIS, struck the great Kenhawa and followed that stream to the Ohio.  The right wing, attended by DUNMORE in person, passed the mountains at the Potomac gap, and came to the Ohio somewhere above Wheeling.  About the 6th of October a talk was had with the chiefs of the Six Nations and the Delawares, some of whom had been to the Shawanese towns on a mission of peace.  They reported unfavorably. 


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Battle of Point Pleasant. - The plan of the campaign was to form a junction before reaching the Indian villages, and LEWIS accordingly halted at the mouth of the Kenhawa on the 6th of October for communication and orders from the commander-in-chief.  While there he encamped on the ground now occupied by the village of Point Pleasant, without entrenchments or other defenses.  On the morning of the 10th of October he was attacked by 1,000 chosen warriors of the Western Confederacy, who had abandoned their towns on the Pickaway plains to meet the Virginia troops, and gave them battle before the two corps could be united.  The Virginia riflemen occupied a triangular point of land, between the right bank of the Kenhawa and the left bank of the Ohio, accessible only by their rear.  The assault was therefore in this quarter.  Within an hour after the scouts had reported the presence of the Indians a general engagement took place, extending from one bank of one river to the other, half a mile from the point. 


Colonel Andrew LEWIS, who seems to have been possessed of military talent, acted with steadiness and decision in this emergency.  He arrayed his forces promptly and advanced to meet the enemy, with force equal to his own.  Col. Charles LEWIS, with 300 men, forming the right of the line, that the Indians at sunrise and sustained the first attack.  Here he was mortally wounded in the onset, and his troops, receiving almost the entire weight of the charge, were broken and gave way.  Col. FLEMING with a portion of the command had advanced along the shore of the Ohio, and in a few moments fell in with the right of the Indian line, which rested on the river. 


The effect of the first shock was to stagger the left wing as it had done the right, and its commander, also, was severely wounded at an early stage of the conflict; but his men succeeded in reaching a piece of timber land and maintained their position until the reserve under Col. FIELD reached the ground.  It will be seen by examining LEWIS'S plan of the engagement and the ground on which it was fought, that an advance on his part and the retreat of his opponent necessarily weakened their line by constantly increasing its length, if it extended from river to river, and would eventually force him to break it or leave his flanks unprotected.  Those acquainted with Indian tactics informed us that it is the great point of his generalship to preserve his flanks and over-reach those of his enemy.  They continued, therefore, contrary to their usual practice, to dispute the ground with the pertinacity of veterans along the whole line, retreating slowly from tree to tree, till one o'clock p.m. when they reached a strong position.  Here both parties rested, within rifle-range of each other, and continued a desultory fire along a front of a mile and a quarter, until after sunset. 


The desperate nature of this fight may be inferred from the deep-seated animosity of both parties towards each other, the high courage which both possessed and the consequences which hung upon the issue.  The Virginians lost one-half their commissioned officers and fifty-two men killed.  Of the Indians, twenty-one were left on the field, and the loss in killed and wounded is stated at 233.  During the night the Indians retreated and were not pursued. 


Having failed in this contest with the troops while they were still divided into parties, they changed their plan and determined at once to save their towns from destruction by offers of peace. 


Soon after the battle was over a reinforcement of 300 Fincastle troops, and also an express from Lord DUNMORE arrived, with an order directing this division to advance towards the Shawanese villages without delay.  Notwithstanding the order was given in ignorance of the engagement, and commanded them to enter the enemy's country unsupported, Col. LEWIS and his men were glad to comply with it and thus complete the overthrow of the allied Indians. 


The Virginians, made eager with success, and maddened by the loss of so many brave officers, dashed across the Ohio in pursuit of more victims, leaving a garrison at Point Pleasant.  Our next information of them is, that a march of eighty miles through an untrodden wilderness has been performed, and on the 24th of October they are encamped on the banks of the Congo creek, in Pickaway township, Pickaway county, within striking distance of the Indian towns.  Their principal village was occupied by Shawnees, and stood upon the ground where the village of Westfall is now situated, on the west bank of the Scioto and on the Ohio canal, near the south line of the same county.  This was the headquarters of the Confederate tribes, and was called Chillicothe; and because there were other towns, either at that time or soon after, of the same name, it was known as Old Chillicothe.  On one of them was located at the present village of Frankfort, in Ross County, on the north fork of Paint creek and others on the waters of the Great Miami.  In the meantime Lord DUNMORE and his men had descended the Ohio to the mouth of the great Hockhocking, established a depot and erected some defenses called Fort Gower.  From this point he probably started the expressed directed to LEWIS, at the mouth of Kenhawa, about fifty miles below, and immediately commenced his march up the Hockhocking into the Indian country.  For the next that is known of him he is in the vicinity of Camp Charlotte, on the left bank of Sippo creek, about seven miles southeast of Circleville, where he arrived before LEWIS reached the station on Congo, as above stated.  Camp Charlotte was situated about four and one-half miles northeast of Camp Lewis, on the farm now [1840] owned by Thos. J. WINSHIP, Esq., and was consequently farther from the Chillicothe villages and the position occupied by the left wing.  There has been much diversity of opinion and statement


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respecting the location of the true Old Chillicothe town, and also in regard to the positions of Camp Charlotte and Camp Lewis.  The associations connected with those places have given them an interest which will never decline.  This is probably a sufficient excuse for presenting here, in detail, the evidence upon which the positions of these several points are established. 


It was at the Chillicothe towns that LOGAN delivered his famous speech.  It was not made in council, for he refused to attend at Camp Charlotte where the talk was held, and DUNMORE sent a trader, by the name of John GIBSON, to inquire the cause of his absence.  The Indians, as before intimated, had made propositions to the governor for peace, and probably before he was aware of the result of the action at Kenhawa.  When GIBSON arrived at the village LOGAN came to him, and by his (LOGAN'S) request they went into an adjoining would and sat down.  Here, after shedding abundance of tears, the honored chief told his pathetic story.  GIBSON repeated it to the officers, who caused it to be published in the Virginia Gazette of that year.  Mr. JEFFERSON was charged with making improvements and alterations when he published it in his notes on Virginia; but from the concurrent testimony of GIBSON, Lord DUNMORE, and several others, it appears to be as close a representation of the original as could be obtained under the circumstances.  The only versions of the speech that I have seen are here contrasted, in order to show that the substance and sentiments correspond, and that it must be the production of LOGAN, or of John GIBSON, the only white man who heard the original. 


Williamsburg, Va., Feb. 4, 1775. 


The following is said to be a message from Captain LOGAN, an Indian warrior, to Governor DUNMORE, after the battle in which Colonel Charles LEWIS was slain, delivered at the treaty:


"I appeal to any white man to say that he ever entered LOGAN's cabin, but I gave him meat; that he ever came naked, but I clothed him. 


"In the course of the last war, LOGAN remained in his cabin an advocate for peace.  I had such an affection for the white people, that I was pointed at by the rest of my nation.  I should have ever lived with them had it not been for Col. CRESAP, who, last year, cut off, in cold blood, all the relations of LOGAN, not sparing my women and children.  There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any human creature.  This called upon me for revenge.  I have sought it.  I have killed many, and fully glutted my revenge.  I am glad there is a prospect of peace on account of the nation; but I beg you will not entertain a thought that anything I have said proceeds from fear.  LOGAN disdains the thought.  He will not turn on his heel to save his life.  Who is there to mourn for LOGAN? No one."


New York, Feb. 16, 1775. 

Extract of a letter from Virginia:


"I make no doubt the following specimen of Indian eloquence and mistaken valor will please you, but you must make allowances for the unskillfulness of the interpreter. 


"I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered LOGAN's a cabin hungry and I gave him not meat; if ever he came cold or naked and I gave him not clothing. 


"During the course of the last long and bloody war, LOGAN remained in his tent an advocate for peace.  Nay, such was my love for the whites, that those of my own country pointed at me as they passed by and said 'LOGAN is the friend of white men.' I had even thought to live with you, but for the injuries of one man.  Colonel CRESAP, the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, cut off all the relatives of Logan; not sparing even my women and children; there runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any human creature.  This called on me for revenge.  I have sought it.  I have killed many.  I have fully glutted my vengeance.  For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace.  Yet, do not harbor the thought that mine is the joy of fear.  LOGAN never felt fear.  He will not turn on his heel to save his life.  Who is there to mourn for LOGAN? Not one."


The right hand translation is literally the same as the copy given in Jefferson's Notes, page 124, and is doubtless the version given out by himself at the time. 


It was repeated throughout the North American colonies as a lesson of eloquence in the schools, and copied upon the pages of literary journals in Great Britain and the Continent.  This brief effusion of mingled pride, courage and sorrow, elevated the character of the native American throughout the intelligent world; and the


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place where it was delivered can never be forgotten so long as touching eloquence is admired by men. 


Camp Charlotte was situated on the southwest quarter of section 12, town 10, range 21, upon a pleasant piece of ground in view of the Pickaway plains.  It was without permanent defenses, or, at least, there are no remains of entrenchments, and is accessible on all sides.  The creek in front formed no impediment to approach from that quarter, and the country is level in the rear.  Camp Lewis is said to be upon more defensible ground on the northeast corner of Section 30, same township and range.  The two encampments have often been confounded with each other. 


Before Lord DUNMORE reached the vicinity of the Indian towns, he was met by a flag of truce, born of by a white man named ELLIOTT, desiring a halt on the part of the troops, and requesting for the chiefs and interpreter with whom they could communicate.  To this his lordship, who, according to the Virginians, had an aversion to fighting, readily assented.  They furthermore charged him with the design of forming an alliance with the Confederacy, to assist Great Britain against the colonies in the crisis of the revolution, which everyone foresaw.  He, however, moved forward to Camp Charlotte, which was established rather as a convenient council ground, than as a place of security or defense.  The Virginia militia came here for the purpose of fighting, and their dissatisfaction and disappointment at the result amounted almost to mutiny.  Lewis refused to obey the order for a halt, considering the enemy as already with his grasp, and of inferior numbers to his own.  DUNMORE, as we have seen, went in person to enforce his orders, and it is said drew his sword upon Colonel Lewis, threatening him with instant death if he persisted in further disobedience. 


The troops were concentrated at Camp Charlotte, numbering about 2,500 men.  The principal chiefs of the Scioto tribes had been assembled, and some days were spent in negotiations.  A compact or treaty was at length concluded, and four hostages put in possession of the Governor to be taken to Virginia.  We know very little of the precise terms of this treaty, nor even of the tribes who gave it their assent, it is said the Indians agreed to make the Ohio their boundary, and the whites stipulated not to pass beyond that river.  An agreement was entered into for a talk at Pittsburg in the following spring, where a more full treaty was to be made; but the revolutionary movements prevented. 


When the army returned, they took the route by Fort Gower, at the mouth of the Hocking, in what is now Athens county, where, on the 5th of November, and 10 days after the arrival of LEWIS at Camp Charlotte, the officers held a meeting "for the purpose of considering the grievances of British America: an officer present addressed the meeting in the following words:"


Gentlemen: - having now concluded the campaign, by the assistance of Providence, with honor and advantage to the Colony and ourselves, it only remains that we should give our country the stronger assurance that we are ready at all times to the utmost of our power, to maintain and defend her just rights and privileges.  We have lived about three months in the woods, without any intelligence from Boston, or from the delegates at Philadelphia.  It is possible, from the groundless reports of designing men, that our countrymen may be jealous of the use such a body would make of arms in their hands at this critical juncture.  That we are a respectable body is certain, when it is considered that we can live weeks without bread or salt; that we can sleep in the open air without any covering but that of the canopy of heaven; and that we can march and shoot with any in the known world.  Blessed with these talents, let us solemnly engage to one another, and our country in particular, that we will use them for no purpose but for the honor and advantage of America and of Virginia in particular.  It behooves us, then, for the satisfaction of our country, that we should give them our real sentiments by way of revolves, at this very alarming crisis. 


Whereupon the meeting made choice of a committee to draw up and prepare resolves for their further consideration; who immediately withdrew, and after some time spent therein, reported that they had agreed to and prepared the following revolves, which were read, maturely considered, and agreed to nem. con. by the meeting, and ordered to be published in the Virginia Gazette:


Resolved, that we will bear the most faithful allegiance to his Majesty KING GEORGE the Third, while his majesty delights to reign over a brave and a free people; that we will, at the expense of life and everything dear and valuable, exert ourselves in the support of the honor of his crown and the dignity of the British empire.  But as the love of liberty and attachment to the real interests and just rights of America outweigh every other consideration, we resolve, that we will exert every power within us for the defense of


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American liberty, and for the support of her just rights and privileges, not in any precipitous, riotous, or tumultuous manner, but when regularly called forth by unanimous voice of our countrymen. 


Resolved, That we entertain the greatest respect for his excellency the Rt. Hon. Lord DUNMORE, who commanded the expedition against the Shawanese, and who, we are confident, underwent the great fatigue of this singular campaign from no other motive than the true interests of the country. 


Signed by order and in behalf of the whole corps. 

Benjamin ASHBY, clerk. 


Notwithstanding the evidence above produced, derived from the American Archives, it is said that the troops, who had wished to give an efficient blow, reached Virginia highly dissatisfied with the governor and the treaty: the conduct of the governor could not be well explained by them, "except by supposing him to act with reference to the expected contest with England and her colonies - a motive for which the colonist regarded as little less than treasonable." - Perkin's Annals. 


Of the feeling in camp towards DUNMORE at the time of the treaty, we have some evidence in the statement of the late venerable Abrm. THOMAS, one of the early settlers of Miami County, published in the Troy Times, in 1839. 


We (Dunmore's army) lay at the mouth of the Hocking for some time.  One day, as I was going down to the boats, I met DUNMORE just leaving them.  He expressed his fears that General LEWIS was attacked by the Indians.  The men had noticed DUNMORE for several days with his ear close to the water, but did not suspect the reason.  He told me he thought he heard roaring of guns upon the water, and requested me to put my ear to it, and although it was 10 or 12 [28] miles distant, I distinctly heard their roar of musketry.  The next day we took up the line of march for Chillicothe, up the Hockhocking.  On the second or third day, some Indians came running into the camp, beseeching DUNMORE to stop LEWIS's division, which had crossed the Ohio and was in full pursuit of the Indians; to use their own words, "Like so many devils, that would kill them all."  This was the first certain information our men had of that battle.  On the solicitation of the savages, DUNMORE twice sent orders to check the progress of LEWIS, but he refused to obey them, until DUNMORE himself took command of the division and led them back to the Ohio.  The troops were indignant at the conduct of DUNMORE, and believed his object was to give up both divisions of the army to the Indians.  It was thought he knew the attack would be made at Point Pleasant about the time it took place, calculated on the defeat of LEWIS, and lead our army into the defiles of the Hocking, that they might the more easily become the prey of the infuriated savages, flushed with recent victory.  An incident occurred here, showing the state of feeling among the men.  At the time the Indians who came into the camp were sitting with DUNMORE in his tent, a backwoodsman passing observe them and stepped around the tent.  When he thought he had them in range, he discharged his rifle through the canvas, with the intention of killing the three at once.  It was a close cut - it missed: the man escaped through the crowd and no one knew who did it.  From this time until he left the camp, DUNMORE tried to conciliate what he could by indulgence and talking; but this would not have availed him had he not taken other precautions, for many in the camp believed him the enemy of their country and the betrayer of the army.  


The chief, CORNSTALK, whose town is shown on the map, was a man of true nobility of soul and a brave warrior. 


At the battle of Point Pleasant he commanded the Indians with consummate skill, and if at any time his warriors were believed to waver, his voice could be heard above the din of battle, explaining in his native tongue, "Be strong! Be strong!"  When he returned to the Pickaway towns, after the battle, he called a council of the nation to consult what should be done, and upbraided them in not suffering him to make peace, as he desired, on the evening before the battle.  "What," said he, "will you do now? The Big Knife is coming on us, and we shall all be killed.  Now you must fight or we are done."  But no one answering, he said, "Then let's kill all our women and children, and go and fight until we die."  But no answer was made, when, rising, he struck his tomahawk in a post of the council house and exclaimed, "I'll go and make peace," to which all the warriors grunted "Ough! ough!" and runners were instantly despatched to DUNMORE to solicit peace. 


In the summer of 1777, he was atrociously murdered at Point Pleasant.  As his murderers were approaching, his son ELINIPSICO trembled violently.  "His father encouraged him not to be afraid, for that the Great Man


Page 409





     The above is a view of the Logan Elm commonly called the Treaty Elm as

photographed by J. H. Nugent of Chillicothe in 1876.  It is on the farm of

James Boggs, about six miles south of Circleville, two and a half miles east of

the Scioto, and one mile west of the Scioto Valley Railroad.

     Congo Creek is shown in the foreground.  James Boggs stands on the left and

Nelson Kellenberger on the right.  The cabin on the left, it is said, was built

in 1798 and was the residence of the Boggs family, and when taken down, about

1882, had been in use as a tool house.  Dimensions of the tree are: girth, 20 feet

height, 79 feet, spread of brances, in diameter, 120 feet.



Page 410


above had sent him there to be killed and die with him.  As the men advanced to the door, the CORNSTALK rose up and met them: they fired, and seven or eight bullets went through him.  So fell the great CORNSTALK warrior - whose name was bestowed upon him by the consent of the nation, as their great strength and support. "Had he lived, it is believed that he would have been friendly with the Americans, as he had come over to visit the garrison at Point Pleasant to communicate the design of the Indians of uniting with the British.  His grave is to be seen at Point Pleasant to the present day. 


The last years of LOGAN were truly melancholy.  He wandered about from tribe to tribe, a solitary and lonely man; dejected and broken hearted by the loss of his friends and the decay of his tribe, he resorted to the stimulus of strong drink to drown his sorrow.  He was at last murdered, in Michigan, near Detroit.  He was, at the time, sitting with his blanket over his head before a campfire, his elbows resting on his knees and his head upon his hands, buried in profound reflection, when an Indian, who had taken some offense, stole behind him and buried his tomahawk in his brains.  Thus perished the immortal LOGAN, the last of his race.  These foregoing facts were given to me by Henry C. BRISH, of Tiffin, who had been an Indian agent.  He had them from the "Good Hunter," an aged Mingo chief and a familiar acquaintance with LOGAN. 


In view of the question of authenticity of LOGAN's celebrated speech we append the following extract from BUTTERFIELD's History of the Girtys, published in 1890, by Robert Clark & Co.:


"His lordship (Lord DUNMORE) was met, before he reached the Indian villages by a messenger (a white man) from the enemy, anxious for an accommodation.  DUNMORE sent back the messenger with John GIBSON and Simon GIRTY."  (The latter was then a scout for Lord DUNMORE and had not yet commenced is notorious renegade career.)


"The two soon brought an answer to his lordship from the Shawanese.  GIBSON, nearly twenty-six years after, in relating the affair, ignores the presence of GIRTY entirely.  But his memory was certainly at fault, for a number of persons present afterward declared that he was accompanied by GIRTY. 


"While negotiations were going forward, the Mingo chief, LOGAN, held himself aloof.  'Two or three days before the treaty,' says an eye witness, 'When I was on the outguard, Simon GIRTY, who was passing by, stopped me and conversed; he said he was going after Logan, but he did not like his business, for he was a surly fellow.  He, however, proceeded on, and I saw him return on the day of the treaty and Logan was not with him.  At this time a circle was formed and the treaty begun.  A son John GIBSON on GIRTY's arrival, get up and go out of the circle and talk with GIRTY, after which he (GIBSON) went into a tent, and soon after, returning into the circle, withdrew out of his pocket a piece of clean, new paper, on which was written, in his own handwriting, a speech for and in the name of LOGAN.'  This was the famous speech about which there has been so much controversy.  It is now well established that the version first printed was substantially the words of LOGAN; but it is equally certain that he (LOGAN), in attributing the murder of his relatives to Colonel Cresap, was mistaken.  GIRTY, from recollection, translated the 'speech' to Gibson, and the latter put it into excellent English, as he was abundantly capable of doing."


The Famed Logan Elm. 


On the farm of the BOGGS family, on the Pickaway Plains, stands the famed LOGAN Elm.  It is on Congo creek, distant about six miles directly south of Circleville, two and a half miles east of the Scioto, and one and a half miles west of the line of the Scioto Valley Railroad.  According to the general tradition it was under this elm that LOGAN made his celebrated speech.  It is a monster tree; twenty feet in girth, seventy nine feet in height and the circle overspread by its branches is one hundred and twenty feet in diameter. 


The BOGGS family settled on the spot about the year 1798.  "For tradition," says the County History, "relates the Capt. WILLIAMSON, an officer under Lord DUNMORE, recited to Capt. John BOGGS the circumstances connected with the treaty of the Indians, and described the place of meeting as being near Congo creek, about a mile below Camp Lewis, in a small piece of prairie of about thirty acres, in the middle of which was a mound.  LOGAN was present and delivered the speech under an elm that stood a short distance southwest of said mound.  


Page 411


Captain BOGGS had no difficulty subsequently in finding said tree from the description given him by WILLIAMSON, and it has ever since been carefully preserved by members of the family, because of the historical association that are believed to surround it."


The victory at Point Pleasant, as stated, broke the power of the Indians.  The site of the battle is four miles above Gallipolis, on the Virginia side of the Ohio.  In the fall of 1844, while traveling over western Virginia collecting historical materials, I stayed overnight in the cabin of a mountaineer, named Jesse VAN BIBBER, then an old man.  I had sought him for information, because his family had been engaged in the border wars.  This old man sung to me, in pathetic tones, the song of that battle, sometimes called by them "The Shawanese Battle."  I wrote it down from his lips, and published it in my works on Virginia, and now reproduce it here;


Battle of Point Pleasant.


Let us mind the tenth day of October,

Seventy-four, which caused woe ;

The Indian Savages they did cover

The pleasant banks of the Ohio.


The battle beginning in the morning—

Throughout the day it lasted sore.

Till the evening shades were returning down

Upon the banks of the Ohio.


Judgment proceeds to execution—

Let fame throughout all dangers go;

Our heroes fought with resolution,

Upon the banks of the Ohio.


Seven score lay dead and wounded,

Of Champions that did face their foes

By which the heathen were confounded

Upon the banks of the Ohio.


Colonel Lewis and some noble captains,

Did down to death like Uriah go ;

Alas ! their heads wound up in napkins

Upon the banks of the Ohio.


Kings lamented their mighty fallen

Upon the mountains of Gilboa ;

And now we mourn for brave Hugh Allen

Far from the banks of the Ohio.


Oh! bless the might King of Heaven,

For all his wondrous works below,

Who hath to us the victory given

Upon the banks of the Ohio.




Circleville in 1846. - Circleville, the county seat, is on the Ohio canal and Scioto River, twenty-six miles south of Columbus, and nineteen miles south of Chillicothe.  It was laid out in 1810, as the seat of justice, by Daniel DRESBACH, on land originally belonging to ZIEGLER & WATT, and the first lot sold on the 10th of September.  The town is on the site of ancient fortifications, one of which, having been circular, originated the name of the place.  The Old court-house, built in the form of an octagon, and destroyed in 1841, stood in the centre of the circle.  Few, if any, vestiges remain of these forts, but we find them described at length in the Archæologia Americana, by Caleb ATWATER, published in 1820.  The description and accompanying cut are appended:


There are two forts, one being an exact circle, the other being the exact square. The former is surrounded by two walls, with a deep ditch between them; the latter is encompassed by one wall without any ditch.  The former was sixty-nine feet in diameter, measuring from outside to outside of the circular of wall; the latter is exactly fifty-five rods square, measuring the same way.  The walls of the circular fort were at least twenty feet in height, measuring from the bottom of the ditch, before the town of Circleville was built.  The inner wall was of clay, taken up probably in the northern part of the fort, where was a low place, which is still considerably lower than any other part of the work.  The outside wall was taken from the ditch which is between these walls, and is alluvial, consisting of pebbles, worn smooth in water, and sand, to a very considerable depth, more than fifty feet at least.  The outside of the walls is about five or six feet in height now; on the inside the ditch is at present generally not more than fifteen feet.  They are disappearing before us daily and will soon be gone.  The walls of the square fort are at this time, where left standing, about ten feet in height.  There were eight gateways, or openings, leading into the square fort and only one into the circular fort.  Before each of these openings was a mound of earth, perhaps four feet high, forty feet perhaps in diameter at the base, and twenty or upwards at the summit.  These mounds, for two rods or more, are exactly in front of the gateways and were intended for the defense of these openings. 


As this work is a perfect square, so the gateways and their watch-towers were equidistance 


Page 412






Page 413



Top Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.



Bottom Picture


The County Court-House on the let; the old circle was a few hundred yards distant,

farther up the street.



Page 414


from each other.  These mounds were in a perfectly straight line, and exactly parallel with the wall.  Those small mounds of were at m, m, m, m, m, m, m.  The black line at d represents the ditch, and w, w, represent the two circular walls. 


D [the reader is referred to the plate] shows the site of a once a very remarkable ancient mound of earth, which a semi-circular pavement on its eastern side, nearly fronting, as the plate represents, the only gateway leading into this fort.  This mound is entirely removed; but the outline of the semi-circular pavement may still be seen in many places, notwithstanding the dilapidations of time and those occasioned by the hand of man. 



Ancient Fortifications at Circleville. 



The earth in these walls was as nearly perpendicular as it could be made to lie.  This fort had originally but one gateway leading into it on its eastern side, and that was defended by a mound of earth several feet in height, at m, i.  Near the centre of this work was a mound, which a semi-circular pavement on its eastern side, some of the remains of which may still be seen by an intelligent observer.  The mound at m, i, has been entirely removed so as to make the street level, from where it once stood. 


B is a square fort adjoining the circular one, as represented by the plate, the area of which has been stated already.  The wall which surrounds this work is generally now about 10 feet in height, where it has not been manufactured into brick.  There are seven gateways leading into the fort, besides the one which communicates with the square fortification - that is, one at each angle, and another in the wall, just halfway between the angular ones.  Before each of these gateways was a mound of earth of four or five feet in height, intended for the defence of these openings. 


The extreme care of the authors of these works to protect and defend every part of the circle is no where visible about this square fort.  The former is defended by two high walls - the latter by one.  The former has a deep ditch encircling it - this has none.  The former could be entered at one place only - this at eight, and those about twenty feet broad.  The present town of Circleville covers all the round and the western half of the square fort.  These fortifications, where the town stands, will entirely disappear in a few years; and I have used the only means within my power to perpetuate the memory, by the annexed drawing and this brief description. 


Another writer gives some additional facts.  Writing in 1834, he says:


On the southwest side of the circle stands a conical hill crowned with an artificial mound.  Indeed, so much does the whole elevation resemble the work of man, that many have mistaken it for a large mound.  A street has lately been opened across little mound which crowned the hill, and in removing the earth many skeletons were found in good preservation.  A cranium of one of them was in my possession, and is a noble specimen of the race which once occupied these ancient walls.  It has a high forehead and large and bold features, with all the phrenological marks of daring and bravery.  Poor fellow, he died overwhelmed by numbers; as the fracture of the right parietal bone by the battle-axe and five large stone arrows sticking in and about his bones, still


Page 415


bear silent, but sure testimony.  The elevated ground a little north of the town, across Hargus creek, which washes the base of the plain of Circleville, appears to have been the common burying ground.  Human bones in great quantities are found in digging away the gravel for repairing the streets and for constructing the banks of the canal which runs near the base of the highlands.  They were buried in the common earth without any attempt at tumuli, and occupy so large a space that only a dense population and a long period of time could have furnished such numbers. 


Circleville is a thriving business town, surrounded by a beautiful, level country.  Opposite the town, the bottom land on the Scioto is banked up for several miles, to prevent being overflowed by the river.  Circleville has 1 Presbyterian, 2 Lutheran, 1 Episcopal, 2 Methodist, 2 Baptist, 1 Catholic, 1 Evangelical and 2 United Brethren churches; an elegant court-house, recently erected; 1 or 2 academies, 3 printing offices, about 20 mercantile stores, 1 bank, 9 warehouses on the canal, and had in 1830, 1,136, and in 1840, 2,330 inhabitants; it has now over 3,000.  The business by the canal is heavy.  Of the clearances made from this port in 1846, there were of corn, 106,465 bushels; wheat, 24,918 bushels; broom corn, 426,374 pounds; bacon and pork, 1,277,212 pounds; and lard, 1,458,259 pounds. - Old Edition. 


Circleville, county seat, is twenty-six miles south of Columbus, on the east bank of the Scioto River, which is crossed at this point by the Ohio canal.  Circleville is on the C. & M. Division of the P. C. & St. L. and the S. V. Railroads.  It is in one of the richest agricultural regions in the State and is noted as shipping more broom corn than any other point in the United States, and having the largest straw-board manufacturing concern, it is claimed, in the world.  This is one of the finest agricultural sections of Ohio; so Circleville's industries are principally devoted to working up the products of the soil.  Pork-packing, sweet-corn canning and drying, tanning, and milling are conducted here on a large scale.  It has the largest straw-board and straw-paper mill in the world, employing a capital of about a half a million dollars and a large force of employees. 


County officers, 1888: Auditor, S. W. MILLER; Clerk, George H. PORTIUS; Commissioners, George BETTS, Alexander C. BELL, Cyrus PURCELL; Coroner, Mack A.LANUM; Infirmary Directors, John G. HAAS, Daniel MYERS, Jacob B. RIFE; Probate Judge, D. J. MYERS; Prosecuting Attorney, Clarence CURTAIN; Recorder, John McCRADY; Sheriff, James T. WALLACE; Surveyor, Cyrus F. ABERNATHY; Treasurer, Joseph C. HARPER.  City officers, 1888: J. Wheeler LOWE, Mayor; R. P. DRESBACH, Clerk; R. C. ANDERSON, Marshall; Daniel BROWN, commissioner; John SCHLEYER, Solicitor.  Newspapers; Herald, Democratic, MURPHY & DARST, editors and publishers; Democrat and Watchmen, Democratic, A. R. VAN CLEAF, editor and publisher; Union Herald, Republican, Harry E. LUTZ, editor and publisher.  Churches: 1 United Brethren, 1 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, 3 Evangelical, 2 Lutheran, 1 Catholic and 1 Presbyterian.  Banks: First National, J. A. HAWKES, president, Otis BALLARD, cashier; Second National, S. H. RUGGLES, president, D. E. WINSHIP, cashier; Third National, S. MORRIS, cashier. 


Manufacturers and Employees. -George H. SPANGLER, carriages and buggies, 4 hands; C. B TYLER, doors, sash, etc., 20; DELAPLANE & PARKS, grain elevator, 2; ROTH brothers, oak harness leather, 15; the McEWING & OLIVER, engines and repairs, 10; BELL & CALDWELL, meal and elevator, 5; Jacob YOUNG, flour and feed, 3; H. A. JACKSON, grain elevator, 3; HEFFNER & Co., Saginaw, cornmeal, 19; Circleville Union Herald, printing, 7; Pickaway Machine Works, machine work, 4; William HEFFNER & Son, flour and feed, 7; J. P. STRAHM, cigars, 6; Democrat and Watchmen, printing, 7; Portage Straw Board Co., straw boards, 210; Conrad RICHARDS, barrels, 10; Edison Electric Light Co., electric light, 4. - State Report, 1888. 


Population 1880, 6,046.  School census, 1888, 2,285; M. H. LEWIS, school superintendent.  Capital invested in industrial establishments, $511,000. 


Page 416


Value of annual product, $609,500.  Ohio Labor Statistics, 1887.  Census, 1890, 6,556. 


Circleville, having derived its name from being built around a circle, in process of time has changed its nucleus spot to a square; and hence claims that it has performed that impossible feat to mathematicians, squared the circle. 




Circleville is noted from having long been the home of Ohio's earliest historian, Caleb ATWATER.  His life was long, and he had a national reputation.  It included many things - minister, lawyer, educator, businessman, legislator, Indian Commissioner, author and antiquarian. 


He was a direct descendant of David ATWATER, one of the wealthiest of the original settlers who founded New Haven, in 1638, and these were the richest body of colonists in America.  This David ATWATER was the progenitor of all the ATWATERS on the continent. One of my four great-grandfathers was a Caleb ATWATER; so I have some of the same blood in my veins. 


But all of that old New England stock is nearly related.  Almost the entire emigration to New England was in 14 years, from 1628 to 1642, when in all 20,000 people came over.  After that there was no emigration, only as the scattering snowflakes after a snow squall.  These 20,000 married young; had large families, often a dozen of children in each, so that at the beginning of the century they had increased to over a million.  The result is, as genealogists ascertain, they are about all in some degree of cousinship to the rest.  This, by some lines, is often near and others are remote.  Often a genealogist may ascertain for a man such a fact as this, that his wife is his third cousin by such a line, and by another the sixth cousin. 


Caleb ATWATER, Ohio's first historian, was born on Christmas Day, 1778, at North Adams, Massachusetts, was educated at Williams College, taught at a ladies' school in New York, and at the same time studied theology; was ordained a Presbyterian minister, married and then quickly lost his wife, which event greatly affected his health and spirits.  He later studied law, was admitted to the bar; and finally paid the best compliment in his power to the charms of wedded life that any poor, forlorn soul can - married the second time.  Went into business, and failing, anticipated the advice of the sage of the New York Tribune "to go West," and got an early start. 


The attractive point was Circleville, the year, 1815, and he remained until his death, in 1854, at the patriarchal age of eighty-nine.  He opened a law office to engage in the practice of law.  The people sent him to the Ohio Legislature, where he became prominent as the friend of public schools, and as one of the original minority to advocate the introduction of canals.  At the close of his legislative duties he was sent by General JACKSON as commissioner to the Winnebago Indians, at Galena, Illinois. 


He early turned his attention to authorship, and his first book grew out of his coming to a town which was built around a circle, laid out by the Mound Builders.  They had arranged their dwellings around it as a nucleus, put their temple of justice, i.e., the Pickaway county court-house, in the center, and repeated their streets from the circumference line.  He, therefore, became interested in Archaeology and issued his "Archaeologia Americana upon Western Antiquities."  This work attracted great attention among savans at home and abroad, and made him widely known.  Beside this he published "A Tour to the Prairie du Chein," "An Essay on Education," "Writings of Caleb ATWATER," and in 1838, his "History of Ohio."


He was the associate of the first men of Ohio and the country at large from the nature of his pursuits and objects of public interest. 


I made the acquaintance of Caleb ATWATER, in 1846, at Circleville.  He had




the ATWATER physique - a large, heavily moulded man, with dark eyes and complexion, and a Romanesque nose.  He was a queer talker, and appeared to me like a disappointed, unhappy man. One of his favorite topics was General Jackson, whose friendship he greatly valued.  He had visited him at the Hermitage, where Old Hickory, who was a genial personage, had entertained him, talking, I presume, between the whiffs of his corn-cob pipe, which he smoked even when in the White House.  His life appears to have been a struggle with penury.  He did but little, if any, law business; he had a large family, six sons and three daughters, and his books were but a meager source of support, and these he sold by personal solicitation.  He was, however, blessed with an excellent wife, and that is the all-important point with a struggling man. 


In my recent visit to Circleville, Mr. Henry F. PAGE took me out to the Forest Cemetery, and there I found a beautiful monument, a cube about fourteen feet in height, of Italian marble, and surmounted by a figure of Christ asking a blessing.  Upon it was this inscription:





Judge CRADLEBAUGH graduated at Miami University, practiced the law in Logan and then in Circleville, was in 1850 and in 1852 a member of the Ohio Senate from Pickaway and Franklin counties.  In 1858 he made a speech in Circleville strongly sustaining the policy of Buchanan and his policy in regard to the Missouri compromise, which led to his appointment as one of the judges of Utah by Buchanan.  After he left Utah he removed to Nevada, from which territory he was sent a delegate to Congress.  He had expected to be Senator when the Nevada was admitted as a State, but finally saw and predicted that "some rich man would come up from San Francisco with a pile of money and buy the Legislature," which proved true. 


While residing in Nevada the war broke out, he returned to Pickaway county and raised the 114th O. V. I. which he commanded.  He was badly wounded by a bullet passing through his mouth, which compelled him to retire from service.  He returned to Nevada, but could not practice his profession, his mouth being so badly lacerated that he could not speak distinctly.  So he became very poor.  He died in 1872, and his remains were brought home and laid beside the beautiful monument he had erected in 1852, to the memory of his wife. 


Judge CRADLEBAUGH greatly distinguished himself by his heroic conduct while acting as Judge in Utah.  He tried to bring the Mormon murderers to account: boldly defied the power of the Mormon church, and in vain appealed to President Buchanan for aid to bring the authors of the Mountain Meadow Massacre to


Page 418


account.  The details are given in the Circleville Union Herald of January 29 and July 2, 1889. 


Ohio Birds.


A remarkable literary and scientific enterprise was that of Genevieve E. JONES and Eliza J. Schultze, in the projection of the "Illustrations of the Nests and Eggs of Birds of Ohio."  In the course of the work Miss JONES died and her mother completed the illustrations.  After 8 years of untiring industry the work was published by Dr. N. E. JONES, with Mrs. N. E. JONES as illustrator and Dr. Howard JONES writer of the text.  It consists of 68 plates, 55¼ x 17¼ inches, accurately colored by hand, representing the nests and eggs of 130 species, all the birds known to breed in Ohio, with over 300 pages of text from original field notes. 


It is one of the most beautiful and desirable works that has ever appeared in the United States upon any branch of natural history and ranks with Audubon's celebrated work on birds.  The two volumes cost about $350. 


Another noteworthy work on birds of Ohio is that of Dr. J. M. WHEATON, of Columbus, Ohio, which is contained in Vol. IV. of the Ohio Geological Survey. 


Dr. WHEATON during his lifetime was a deep student of birds of Ohio and their habitats; he collected and preserved at great expense and years of labor, one male and one female of each species of Ohio birds, many of which are now extinct and others fast disappearing before the changing conditions of ever increasing population.  This valuable collection is now in the possession of his widow, but should be purchased and preserved by the state.  An effort to this end was made during the legislative session of 1889, but owing to a clerical error failed. 


Still another notable work on birds is "Nests and Eggs of North American Birds," by Oliver DAVIE, of Columbus, Ohio (1889).  It is illustrated with engraved plates.  This is the most complete and accurate work on North American birds’ eggs and nests that has yet appeared, and is regarded as a standard by the most eminent authorities.  Its author, Mr. DAVIE, is an expert taxidermist, and is now engaged on a work on that subject, which in its completeness and accuracy will equal his excellent work on "Nests and Eggs."


Samuel LUTZ was born in Lehigh County, Pa., March 13, 1789, and died at Circleville, Ohio, September 1, 1890, aged 100 years, 5 months, and 19 days. 


In 1802 he removed to Circleville, became a Surveyor; served in the War of 1812 under General Harrison.  In 1830 was elected to the Ohio Legislature and re-elected 3 times. 


On Mr. LUTZ's one hundredth birthday more than 1,200 friends and relatives gathered at his residence and in a temporary auditorium erected for the purpose took part in commemoratives exercises.  Each guest was given a card containing his autograph in a strong round hand, and an ample dinner was served on the grounds. 


New Holland is seventeen miles southwest of Circleville, on the C. & M. V. R. R.  Newspaper: Plain Talk, Republican, E. B. LEWIS, editor and publisher.  Population in 1880, 478.  School census, 1888, 186. 


Williamsport is nine miles southwest of Circleville, on the C. & M. V. R. R.  Newspaper: Ripsaw, publisher, Homer COOKSEY, editor.  It has 1 Methodist and 1 Christian church and a fine sulphur spring.  The main industry is carriage-making.  Population in 1880, 313.  School census, 1888, 164. 


Asheville is nine miles north of Circleville, on the S. V. R. R.  Newspaper: Enterprise, Independent, NESSMITH and FRAUNFELTER, editors and publishers.  Churches: 1 United Brethren and 1 Evangelical Lutheran.  Population of about 450. 


South Bloomfield is nine miles northwest of Circleville.  Population, 1880, 303.  School census, 1888, 126. 


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Tarlton is ten miles southeast of Circleville.  Population, 1880, 425.  School census, 1888, 148. 


Whistler is eleven miles southeast of Circleville.  School census, 1888, 89. 


Darbyville is thirteen miles northwest of Circleville, on Big Darby Creek.  Population, 1880, 262.  School census, 1888, 88. 


Commercial Point is fifteen miles northwest of Circleville.  School census, 1888, 82. 


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