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Stark County was established February 13, 1808, and organized in January, 1809.  It was named from Gen. John Stark, an officer of the revolution, who was born in Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1728, and died in 1822.  The surface is generally rolling; the central and northeast portions are slightly undulating.  The soil is sandy loam; in some parts of the north and east a clay soil predominates.  It is a rich agricultural county, one of the great wheat producing counties.  It embraces within itself the requisite facilities for making it the seat of various manufactures – mineral coal, iron ore, flocks of the choicest sheep, and great water power.  Limestone abounds, and inexhaustible beds of lime marl exist.  It was settled mainly by Pennsylvania Germans, and from Germany and France. 


Area about 580 square miles.  In 1887 the acres cultivated were 202,996; in pasture, 48,540; woodland, 41,991; lying waste, 6,080; produced in wheat, 986,962 bushels; rye, 2,195; buckwheat, 610; oats, 944,367; barley, 6,434; corn, 1,020,356; broom-corn, 60 pounds brush; meadow hay, 42,107 tons; clover hay, 25,649; flax see, 12 bushels; potatoes, 171,921; tobacco, 100 pounds; butter, 1,155,775; chees, 1,097,000; sorghum, 940 gallons; maple syrup, 16,881; honey, 12,766 pounds; eggs, 762,909 dozen; grapes, 52,208 pounds; wine, 637 gallons; sweet potatoes, 578 bushels; apples, 118,588.  [In 1876 it produced in apples 881,832 bushels, probably never equaled by any other county in the State.]  Peaches, 24,799; pears, 3,697; wool, 194,716 pounds; milch cows owned, 12,676.  Ohio Mining Statistics, 1888:  coal, 793,227 tons, employing 1,747 miners and 216 outside employees; iron ore, 11,455 tons; fire clay, 14,730; limestone, 2,043 tons burned for lime.  School census, 1888, 25,376; teachers, 443.  Miles of railroad track, 239.



And Census





And Census










































Sugar Creek,


























Population of Stark in 1820 was 12,406; 1830, 26,552; 1840, 34,617; 1860, 42,978; 1880, 64,031; of whom 47,161 were born in Ohio, 5,885 Pennsylvania; 586 New York; 306 Indiana; 302 Virginia; 36 Kentucky; 4,100 German Empire; 1,451 England and Wales; 917 France; 623 Ireland; 294 Scotland; 129 British America, and 23 Norway and Sweden.  Census, 1890, 84,170.


The first Maravian missionary in Ohio, Mr. Frederick POST, settled in 1761 in what is now Bethlehem township, on the north side of Muskingum, at the junction of its two forks, the Sandy and Tuscarawas.  The locality called Tuscararatown is on the south side of the river, just above Fort Laurens, and immediately contiguous to Bolivar.  Just there was the Indian ford, on the line of the great Indian trail running west.  The site of POST’S dwelling, or missionary station, was long indicated by a pile of stones, which had probably formed the back wall of the chimney.  The site of the garden differs from the woods around it in the total want of heavy timber.  The ruins of a trader’s house, on the opposite side of the river, have been mistaken for those of the missionary station.


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The dwelling built by POST must have been the first house erected in Ohio by whites, excepting such as may have been built by traders or French Jesuits.  The Indian and Moravian village of Schoenbrun was not commenced until 1772, eleven years later.


 Loskiel’s History of the Missions says, in allusion to this mission – “On the Ohio river, where, since the last war, some Indians lived who had been baptized by the brethren, nothing could be done up this time.  However, brother Frederick POST lived, though of his own choice, about 100 English miles west of Pittsburgh, at Tuscararatown, with a view to commence a mission among those Indians.  The brethren wished him the blessings of the Almighty to his undertaking; and when he asked for an assistant to help him in his outward concerns, and who might during the same time, learn the language of the Delaware Indians, they (the brethren) made it known to the congregation of Bethlehem, whereupon the brother John Heckewelder concluded of his own choice to assist him.”


“We know of POST that he was an active and zealous missionary, but had married an Indiana squaw, contrary to the wishes and advice of the directory, who had the oversight of not be acknowledged as one o f our missionaries in any other manner than under the direction and guidance of another missionary.  Whenever he went farther, and acted on his own accord, he was not opposed, had the good will of the society, of which he continued a member, and its directory, and even their assistance, so far as to make known his wants to the congregation, who threw no obstacle in the way if any person felt inclined of his own choice to assist him; but he was not then acknowledged as their missionary, nor entitled to any farther or pecuniary assistance.”  This will explain the above passage in Loskiel.


“In Heckewelder’s Memoirs, written by himself, and printed in Germany, there is a short allusion to the same subject.  He says, in substance, that he had in his early youth frequent opportunities of seeing Indians, and that gradually he became desirous of becoming useful to them; that already in his 19th year, his desire was in some measure gratified, as he was called upon by Government to accompany the brother Frederick POST to the western Indians on the Ohio.  He then mentions some of the fatigues and dangers of the journey, and that he returned in the latter half of the year 1762.  In Heckewelder’s Narrative of the Indiana mission of the United Brethren, he gives a more detailed account of this mission.  He says, in effect, that Frederick POST, who had the preceding year [1761] visited the Indians on the Muskingum thought he would be able to introduce Christianity among them; that the writer of the narrative, by land with the consent of the directors of the society, went with him principally to teach the Indian children to read and write.  They set out early in March, and came to where POST had the preceding year built a house on the bank of the river Muskingum, at the distance of about a mile from the Indiana village, which lay on the south across the river.  When they commenced clearing, the Indians ordered them to stop and appear before their council the next day, where POST appeared, and was charged with deceit, inasmuch as he had informed the Indians his intentions were to teach them the word of God, and now he took possession of their lands, etc.  POST answered that he wanted no more land than sufficient to live fro it, as he intended to be no burden to them, etc.; whereupon they concluded that he should have 50 steps in every direction, which was stepped off by the chief next day.  He farther says, that an Indian treaty being to be held at Lancaster in the latter part of summer, POST was requested by the governor of Pennsylvania to bring some of the western Delaware’s to it, which he did, leaving Heckewelder, who returned the same fall, in October, from fear of a war, etc.  POST probably never returned to this station.”


In Zeisberger’s Memoirs there is no illusion to this mission, though he and POST were frequently associates at an earlier date, an din 1743 were imprisoned together in New Your as spies.  The foregoing is abridged from papers in the Barr Mss., comprising a letter from Mr. Thomas Goodman, in which was copied on e from Judge Blickensderer, of Dover, who had carefully investigated the subject.  No mission it seems was established, only an attempt to found one was made.  Old Edition.


A Running Fight


The following account of the only fight between the whites and Indians known to have occurred with the present limits of Stark county has been furnished to us by Dr. Lew SLUSSER, of Canton.


Before the settlement of whites in this part of Ohio, the general government authorized the formation of scouting parties known as “scouts” or “spies.”  Whose duty it was to reconnoiter the country beyond the Ohio.



These scouting parties were made up of men accustomed to the privations and exposure incident to border life.  Many of them had encountered Indians before, and knew something by experience, of their habits and mode of warfare.  They received from the


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Government monthly pay and ammunition, furnishing their own arms.  It was their duty on the discovery of any sign of Indians, to return immediately and give the alarm, that the frontier settlers might adopt measures for their own protection.


There was a company of five, all of whom afterward became citizens of Stark County – James DOWNING, Sr., John CUPPY, Isaac MILLER, George FOULK and Thomas DILLON.  DILLON and FOULK had both been captured by the Indians when young, lived with them many years and knew their habits and customs.  DOWNING was captain of the company.


The party left their place of rendezvous for a scout, in April, 1793.  They crossed the Ohio river at the mouth of Yellow Creek, followed up the north branch to near its source, then directed their course west to the head waters of Sandy.  After reconnoitering for miles around without discovering any sign of Indians, they came to the conclusion, there none about.  Up to this time, they had not discharged a gun, from fear of being discovered.  The rations, with which they had supplied themselves on starting, were nearly exhausted, and they concluded it would be safe to kill some game.  DOWNING shot a deer and another of the part a turkey.  This was on the morning of the fourth day out, between Little Sandy and Indian Run.  As they had not yet taken breakfast, they concluded to prepare the meal.


A party of Indians numbering eighteen or twenty of the Ottaway and Wyandot tribes heard the firing and detected the locality of the scouts.  They divided their force into two parties, with the purpose of approaching them from a different course, one of which was from a direction the scouts would be most likely to take in an effort to escape.


While CUPPY was engaged examining his gun he happened to look up, and saw at a distance an Indian moving about peering through the underbrush.  He immediately sprang to his feet and gave the alarm.  As soon as the Indian saw he was discovered, he turned and ran, and as he did so, CUPPY fired at him, but without effect.  MILLER and FOULK snatched up their guns and gave chase.  The ground was sparsely timbered.  MILLER was in the advance, when FOULK called to him to halt, as he knew just as soon as the Indian reached a more heavily timbered piece of ground he would stop behind a tree and shoot MILLER as he approached.  Thereupon MILLER turned about and he and FOULK started for the place they had left.  Meanwhile the other party of Indians, numbering six or eight, made their appearance in another direction.  They were bold and demonstrative.


DOWNING said to CUPPY and DILLON:  “Let us stand together and defend ourselves to the last.”  “No,” replied DILLON, “each one for himself” – and suiting his action to the sentiment, started on a run.  DOWNING and CUPPY kept together and moved cautiously along the higher ground or upper bench towards the forks of Sandy.  As the Indians pressed upon them too closely, they would turn, raise their guns as though they intended to shoot.  Then the Indians would jump around, throw up their hands, and run upon the hands and knees, evidently for the purpose of diverting the aim of the whites.


By degrees they became bolder and advanced closer, when DOWNING taking advantage of a good opportunity, shot the nearest, which had the effect of keeping the others at a greater distance.  Soon after, DOWNING and CUPPY caught up with DILLON, who appeared much exhausted as though about to fall.  DILLON begged “for God’s sake” that they would help him, and as DOWNING turned and saw his face, he discovered that he was choking with his necktie.  DILLON in his haste to loosen it and assist his breathing, pulled the wrong end and made it tighter.  DOWNING cut the neckerchief with his belt knife, thereby releasing him, when DILLON immediately took a fresh start and was soon out of sight.  DOWNING and CUPPY were both past middle age and somewhat fleshy.  They had both run until nearly exhausted, and knew they could not hold out much longer.  DOWNING said to CUPPY, “I can’t go any farther – I’ll stand and fight under this thorn bush if I die,” and stand he did.  At the same time CUPPY got behind a tree, and both awaited the approach of the savages, determined to make the best resistance they were able.


They had not long to wait, for soon the Indians were seen approaching.  DOWNING reserved his fire until the foremost Indiana came within close range, then taking deliberate aim, fired and brought him down.  The others returned a volley which cut the bushes around DOWNING and CUPPY, but did not strike either.  MILLER and FOULK hearing the firing, hastened in the direction from whence it came, and before aware of it were among the Indians.  MILLER espied one of unusual size, with a silver half-moon hanging on his breast.  He as in the act of loading his gun, and just as MILLER was drawing a bead upon him, the chief saw him, gave a yell and sprang behind a tree.  MILLER soon discovered that he was so surrounded that it would be impossible to protect himself behind a tree, thereupon he determined upon flight as the only hope of safety for his scalp.  Quick as thought he sprang from the upper bank and ran across the bottom or swamp toward the north branch of the stream.


The Indians left DOWNING and CUPPY, threw down their guns, drew their tomahawks, gave a scalp yell and gave chase after MILLER.  At one time they were so near he recognized a tall warrior known among the whites as Tom Jilleway.  After MILLER crossed Little Sandy, and was in an open plain, he thought as he afterwards expressed it, “no legs for it.”  He always considered himself swift on foot, and put in his best efforts for about a mile and a half until he reached the highlands or ridge, when he stopped to look back and listen.  He could neither hear nor see anything of the Indians.  After resting a short time, he concluded to

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return to the place where they were first surprised, in the hope of finding the rest of his company.


As they were not there, and the day was far advanced, he decided upon making for the company’s place of rendezvous on the east side of the Ohio River.  He continued to travel as long as he could see his way until he reached Yellow creek.  Here, under a fallen tree that lay up from the ground, he made a bed of leaves upon which he slept soundly amid the howling of wolves and the screeching of wild cats.  Next day he crossed the Ohio at the mouth of Yellow creek and reached the place of rendezvous where he found DOWNING, CUPPY and DILLON safe and unhurt, except that DOWNING’S face was much swollen and his eyes bloodshot from exertion.


In the evening of the next day FOULK made his appearance, and reported that when the Indians started after MILLER, he hid himself in the brush.  When they were out of sight he crossed over a branch of the Sandy, the same that is now called Indian Run from this identical flight, and secreted himself on a hill where he could overlook the plains scuth without being observed.  He could see the Indians in camp not a mile distant, and was satisfied, from his knowledge of their ceremonies, that two of their number had been killed.  In discussing the matter, the companies were of the opinion that they had the best of the fight and that they made a fortunate escape.


The next day Gen. Wayne and his staff in a barge, with his troops in 95 flatboats, came down the river on their way to camp Washington, afterward Cincinnati.  As they came in sight, the scouts discharged their guns as a salute.  Gen. Wayne had his barge run ashore, and, on learning they were Government scouts, signaled a boat containing sharp-shooters to land.  He had a target set up, and a trial of skill between his sharpshooters and the scouts in which the sharpshooters came out second best.  General Wayne complimented the scouts, saying:  “My brave fellows, you are d –d fine shots,” and treated them to brandy.


Canton in 1846 – Canton, the county seat, is 120 miles northeast of Columbus.  It is finely situated in the forks of the Nimishillen, a tributary of the Muskingum.  It was laid out in 1806 by Bezaleel WELLS, of Steubenville, and the first house erected the same year.  Mr. WELLS was the original proprietor of the town, and died in 1846.  The view shows a part of the public square, with the court house on the left and the market in the center.  It is a very compact town, with many brick dwellings.  A large business is done here in the purchase of flour and wheat, and within the vicinity are many flouring mills.  Canton contains 1 German Reformed, 1 Lutheran, 1 Presbyterian, 2 Catholic and 1 Methodist church; 10 dry goods, 2 book, 2 hardware and 7 grocery stores; 2 newspaper offices, 1 gun barrel and 2 woolen factories, 2 iron foundries, and about 2,000 inhabitants.  The Canton female institute is a flourishing institution, with near 100 pupils.  Old Edition.


Canton, county seat of Stark, about 105 miles northeast of Columbus, about 50 miles south of Cleveland, about 75 miles westerly from Pittsburgh, is in the midst of a rich agricultural and mineral region.  It is on the P. Ft. W. & C.; Valley C. & C.; C. & W. and P. M. & C. Railroads.  Canton is one of the most important manufacturing cities in the State.  Machinery manufactured here is shipped to all parts of the world.


County Officers, 1888:  Patrick L. MANLY, Auditor; John McGREGOR, Clerk; Alonzo SMITH, Jonas W. WEARSTLER, and Jacob SCHMACTHENBERGER; Commissioners’ Joseph A. SCAAEFER; Coroner; Jospeh MANDRU; Leopold BIECHELE and Cyrus H. STONER; Infirmary Directors: Jacob P. FAWCETT; Probate Judge: John C. WELTY; Prosecnting Attorney; James E. DOUGHERTY; Recorder; Augustus LEININGER; Sheriff, Reuben Z. WISE, Surveyor; Hiram DOLL, Treasurer.  City Officers, 1888; John F. BLAKE, Mayor; Ed. M. GRIMES, Clerk; Atlee POMERENE, Solicitor; David PLETCHER, Marshal; Hiram DOLL, Treasurer; John E. DINE, Street Commissioner; John H. HOLL, Engineer; Louis B. OHILIGER, Chief of Fire Department; L. T. COOL, Sealer.  Newspapers:  News Democrat, Democratic, Isaac R. SHERWOOD & Wilbur G. MILLER; Ohio Volks-Zeitung Und Journal, German Democratic, H. OHLRICHS, editor; Repository, Republican, Repository Printing Co., publishers; Advance, Prohibition, J. R. BEDEN, Editor and publisher; Wochenblatt Der Cantoner Press, German, Canton Publishing Co.  Churches:  2 Catholic; 1 Church of God; 2 Evangelical; 3 Methodist; 2 Luthern; 1 Reformed; 1 Episcopal; 1 Presbyterian; 1 Baptist; 1 German Reformed; 1 Disciples; 1 United Brethren; 1 Christian; 1 Dunkard.  Banks:  City National, P. H. BARR, president, Henry A.


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Top Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.



Bottom Picture




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WISE, cahier; Farmers’, John H. BRENNER, president, T. C. McDOWELL, cashier; First National, George D. HARTER, president, L. L. MILLER, cashier; Savings Deposit, Isaac Harter & Sons; Geo. D. HARTER & Bro.


Canton Workshops and Factories. –Globe Iron Foundery, castings, 7 hands; E. W. Poorman, steam heating apparatus, 30; Wrought Iron Bridge Co., 200; Berger manufacturing Co., steel sheet roofing, 36; Kanneberg Roofing Co., 20; Willis Lind & Co., sash, door and blinds, 52; Gibbs Lawn Rake Col, 20; 20; Canton Electric Light and Power Co., 12; Clark, Smith & Co., wind mills, etc., 8; A. B. Morris, patterns and models, 10; W. R. Harrison & Co., feed cutters, 30; Pearl Steam Laundry, 10; Canton Steam Pump Co., 49; J. H. McLain Machine Co., feed mills, etc., 135; Harvard Co., surgical and dental chairs, 23; Canton File Case Co., furniture, 10; Dexter Wagon Co., 18; Wood, Brown Co., buggy gears, 12; Ney Manufacturing Co., hay carriers, etc., 35; J. F. Blake, flour, 6; Novelty Cutlery Co., 39; Canton Stove Co., 36; Dick’s Agricultural Works, feed cutters, 60; Canton Street Railroad Co., drop forgings, 103; Canton Gas Light and Coke Co., 10; Joseph Biechele Soap Co., 18; John Danner Manufacturing Co., revolving desks, 70; G. C. Howey, flour, 4; Jos. Weaver & Sons, sash doors and blinds, 40; Gilliam Manufacturing Co., coach pads and gig-saddles, 148; Campbell Lumber Co., doors, sash and blinds, 28; Alexander’s Woolen Mills, 12; Skinner Bros., planning, 6; Berg & Son, carriages, 10; Canton Brewing Co., 10; F. B. Smith, force pumps, 37; Canton Buggy and Gear Co., 37; New York Steam Laundry, 6; Canton Tile Hollow Brick Co., 10; J. G. Wachter, machinery, 6; Jos. M. Ball, flour, 12; Canton Combination Lock Co., 24; Canton Steel Roofing Co., 35; Princes Plow Co., 50; C. Aultman & Co., engines and threshers, 356; Bolton Iron and Steel Co., 200; Canton Spring Co., vehicle springs, 94; Canton Saw Co., 32; Sun Vapor Street Light Co., street lamps, 70; City Box Factory, 20; Novelty Iron Works, casting and machinery, 65; Diebold Safe and Lock co., 420; Chieftain Hay Rake Co., 30; Bucher & Gibbs Plow Co., 133; Elbel & Co., saddlery and hardware, 252; Peerless Reaper Co., 150; Wrigley Bros., paper boxes, 32; Hampden Watch Manufacturing Co., 1,276; Dueber Watch Case Co., 996.  State Report, 1890.  Population in 1880, 12, 258.  School census, 1888, 6, 677, J. H. Lehman, school superintendent. Capital invested in industrial establishments, $3,335,244.  Value of annual product, $4,705,297. -- Ohio Labor Statistics, 1887.


Since these last statistics of 1888 were gathered, Canton has taken a surprising bound in importance among the manufacturing points.  This by the accession of the Hampden Watch Manufacturing Company from Springfield, Mass., combined with the Dueber Watch Case Company*  from Newport, Kentucky.  Unitedly they employ over 2,300 workmen, who with their families increase the population over 5,000.  This brings, at this writing, just gathered, the census of Canton, for 1890, to 26,337.  The establishment of these works in Canton was in consequence of a proposition made by its citizens, at the close of some preliminary negotiations, to Mr. John Dueber, of Newport, Kentucky, that if he would bring his works here and those from Springfield, Mass., which he had recently purchased, they would give him $100,000 in cash, 20 acres of land on a beautiful commanding site and exemption from city taxation for ten years; the whole representing a cash valuation of at least $175,000.  So happy now is Canton, for she starts on the new decade prepared to supply the time of the whole world – tick! Tick! Tick!


Traveling Notes


Canton is a solid substantial appearing town.  A marked feature is its public square in the center, whereon forty years ago was a market.  The square is some two hundred or more feet wide and say four hundred feet long, all open and paved, used as a street and bounded with substantial buildings.  The new view is looking



Transcriber’s note:  For information on this company see Dueber Watch Case Company.


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Out of the square down Tuscarawas street.  On the right appears the new courthouse, occupying the site of that shown in my old picture:  beyond is seen the tower of the Hurford House, and in the distance appear the spires of the First Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian and Lutheran churches, costly and elegant buildings.  The last named is built of the cream-tinted Massillon sandstone, on which is carved the sublime, heart-resting line, which opens Luther’s famous battle hymn – “A mighty fortress is our God.”


The Hurford House at which I stopped, is a remarkable well-built, well appointed hostelry.  It has 110 rooms, and cost, including furniture, $125,000.  The proprietor, Mr. Alex HURFORD, is past the hustling period of life:  has the honor of being one of the town born; his first appearance here was in the “sad and dreary month of November,” A. D. 1817; but there is nothing of the sad and dreary about him.  He has lived the town and has given me some amusing items.


Like a large part of the original stock of this central back-bone region of Ohio, his father, Thomas HURFORD, was from Pennsylvania; moreover a Chester county Quaker and a queer thing about him was the he changed his Quaker garb at the beck of a poll parrot.  He was in Winchester, Virginia, on business, and while there, on passing up a street he was startled by the cry, as he supposed from an upper window, “You’re a Quaker.”  Looking around, he saw no one and started on, but had proceeded but a few steps more, when the cry was repeated, “You’re a Quaker.”  Again looking around and seeing on one, he hastened on, angry at what he considered a deliberate insult to his religion.  Some hours later he passed the same spot, when he was again saluted with the same cry, “You’re a Quaker.”  Quickly turning, he discovered the guilty party:  it was a parrot.  He was so much chagrined at the circumstance, that, as soon as he got home, he doffed his Quaker clothes and never resumed them.


My father learned the milling business, emigrated to Ohio wand worked in a mill at Steubenville, for the great man of the place who had founded it, Bezaleel WELLS.  During this time he took a flat-boat to New Orleans with flour, on which he cleared $2,500.  With this money he came to Canton, which had been laid out by his old employer, Bezaleel, and built the now abandoned mill yet standing below the Oak Gove.


“Before the building of the Ohio canal,” said he, “the people were wretchedly poor for the want of a market.  Within my memory, the farming folks used to start to church Sundays barefoot, carrying their shoes and stockings in a handkerchief until they got to the foot of Suth hill, hear where Aultman & Co.’s works now are, when they would stop and put them on.  At that time wheat brought but twenty-five cents a bushel and had no outlet except by wagon to Cleveland and Pittsburgh.


The only things that would bring cash were beeswax and ginseng.  Store coffee then cost fifty cents a pound.  It could not be bought without ginseng, beeswax or money.  Most well-to-do families made it a point to have store coffee on Sunday:  on other days, used coffee from burnt rye or wheat.  My father, about 1823, kept a store on the southeast corner of Market Square, now the site of DURBEN & WRIGHT’S drug store.  He paid about 25 cents a pound for ginseng.  It was cut into say, about four-inch pieces and strung on strings, like as our grandmothers used to string their apples for drying.  The ginseng was sent to Pittsburgh in wagons and thence to China, for the use of “the pig-tail people.”  They used it as a substitute for opium and as joss sticks, to burn as incense before their idols.


My father was, at the beginning, farmer, miller and distiller.  Whiskey sold for two cents a dram, or eighteen cents a gallon:  and everybody drank.  In the spring of 1821 or 1822 he loaded two flat-boats with whiskey, at Bethlehem, in this county, for New Orleans.  The river changed its name according to the branches that poured into it.  At Bethlehem it was the “Tuscarawas,” lower down “White Woman,” then “White Woman” was succeeded by “One Leg,” and that went into the “Muskinggum,” which in the Indian, signifies an “Elk’s Eye,” and next came the Ohio, the “Beautiful River.”  This swelled the “Father of Waters,” and so at last, on the bosom of these many waters, father’s whiskey got to New Orleans.


When the idea of the Ohio canal going through Canton was broached, it met with great opposition from some of the leading men, who fought it away, and it was located



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Eight miles west and made the town of Massillon, and that sunk this town for twenty years.  Among its opponents were three old doctors, who shook their heads, looked wise, and said it would increase the ague:  almost everybody was then shaking with the ague.  Every season seven out of every ten had their turn at the shakes.  So the three wise doctors scared the people dreadfully, by simply putting their canes to their mouths and thus delivering themselves lugubriously.  Great personal animosities arose in consequence between the enemies and friends of the “big ditch”; my father, who favored it, made enemies who remained who remained so until he died.  This statement of Mr. HURFORD but supplies another illustration of the old truth, that mankind may forgive your crimes, but never your opinions.


To one of the old doctors, the work seemed so stupendous, so impossible of accomplishment that he said if the Almighty would just allow him to live until the canal was finished, he would willingly lie down and yield up the ghost.  Within three years from that utterance, the canal was in full operation from the lake to the river, yet the old doctor seemed not quite ready to have his ghost “go up a spout.”


My father claimed the canal would create a current and drain the swamps.  When it was finished the sanitary effect of the measure was astonishing.  It drained the swamps throughout its course and malaria largely disappeared through its influence.


The very first start of the work was beneficial.  The canal was principally dug by Ohio farm boys; eldest sons of the farmers who earned from $6 to $10 per month and boarded at home:  this with a larger part of them was about the first chance that they ever had to get a whack at any money.  And this greatly benefited the farming people; put them in happy smiling frames of mind.  Massillon at once sprang into a great wheat market for a large section of country:  -- for Stark, Carroll, Wayne, Holmes and Richland counties.  And strings of wheat wagons from all directions poured into the place, cumbered the streets, and Massillon rejoiced in such trade.


In the palmy days at Massillon, one could tell on meeting the returning farmers on the road, without a question, whether wheat was up or wheat was down.  If down, they approached slowly, their heads hanging, and to our question would drawl out in sleepy tones, kind o’ grumpy, “f-eef-ty cents.”  If wheat was up, they would be seen coming up at a rapid rate, horses on a gallop, heads up, eyes bright, and if you inquired, “Neighbor, how is wheat to-day?”  They would jerk out sharp, with an upward toss of the head, but a single word __ “Dollar!”


The loss of the canal was the first lost opportunity for the prosperity of Canton.  The second came years later.  The projectors of the Cleveland and Pittsburg Railroad, the first railroad built across Eastern Ohio, from lake to river, said to our people, Subscribe $10,000 and you shall have the railroad.  But the leaders again sniveled their noses and gave a toss of their heads and blurted out, “Won’t do any such thing.  It’s all in your eye.  The railroad has got to come through Canton, anyway, the railroad folks can’t help themselves!”  But it didn’t:  it went 18 miles east and thereupon the town of Alliance sprang up.  But for these dead weights, neither Alliance nor Massillon would have had a being, and Canton to-day would have more than absorbed their entire populations, for growing centers increase through their own accommodations.  Now comes a third opportunity, the chance for obtaining the great Hampden-Dueber watch works.


On my original visit to Canton I met Mr. John SAXTON.  He was born in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, in 1792, came to Canton in 1815, when it was a village of three hundred inhabitants and not a newspaper west of it, and died here Sunday, April 16, 1871, at the age of 81.  A late publication says of him: -- “He was the oldest editor and morally one of the best en in the profession in the United States.  He started the “Stark County Repository” in the year 1815, and continued it consecutively for fifty-six years.


When the news came to him of the surrender of Napoleon III at Sedan, to the Germans, he copied from his files of fifty-five years preceding, the account of the surrender, June 18, 1815, of Napoleon I. after Waterloo, to the Germans and British, and wrote a very touching article upon the mutability of human affairs.  Almost to the day of his death he continued to set type with his own hands.  Major McKINLEY, M. C., married with his son’s daughter.


His paper was a pure, cleanly issue.  He felt deeply the moral responsibility of an editor’s position.  His biographer says of him—He practiced religion in his daily life.  He literally went about doing good.  His every-day work was planned to that end.  He began and ended it with a careful reading of the Scriptures and prayer.  He ascertained who was sick and who was needy and had about as many patients for his daily visits as a physician in moderate practice.  In his old age although too deaf to hear a word, he was ever present in his pew at church, feeling it was good to be there.  His temper was so under control, that one


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Who had worked by his side for over thirty years, never knew him to lose it but on a single occasion.  The children on the streets loved him for his genial smile and loving ways, and he knew them all by name.  The people called him “Father SAXTON.”  In politics he began as a Federalist and eventually became a Republican.


A genial and obliging gentleman I find here in the editor of the Stark County Democrat, Mr. Archibald McGREGOR.  He is a much older man than was Father Saxton when I knew him.  They call him “Archie,” in all this part of the State.  He is every inch a Scotchman, was born in Lanark shire, and takes a just pride in the fact.  He presides at all gatherings of the Burns Club, in its region, in memories of the land of Robert Burns, Walter Scott, Gretna Green, Johnnie Groat’s house, Hogg’s Tales, etc.


The Stark County Democrat was started jointly by his father and himself in Glasgow and a teacher by profession.  He was by nature an ardent Republican and a leader of the Radical party of 1819, bent on establishing a British Republic.  Their plans were betrayed, and he with his family first fled to the mountains and then to America, to escape capture and imprisonment.  And his little clan of McGREGOR which he had brought grew and helped to brighten the land, he taking them to the liberty-crowned hills of Vermont for their first nestling place.


Massillon in 1846.— Massillon is on the Ohio canal and Tuscarawas river, eight miles from Canton and sixty-five miles from Cleveland.  It was laid out in March, 1826, by James DUNCAN, and named from John Baptist Massillon, a celebrated French divine, who died in 1742, at the age of 79.  The Ohio canal was located only a short time before the town was laid out, at which period, on its site was a grist mill, a distillery and a few dwellings only.


The view was taken near the American hotel, shown on the right, and within a few rods of the canal, the bridge over which is seen in front.  The town is compactly built, and is remarkable for its substantial appearance.  It is very thriving and is one of the greatest wheat markets in Ohio.  At times, Main Street is almost completely blocked by immense wagons of wheat and the place has generally the bustling air of business.  It lies in the center of a very rich wheat region.  The old town of Kendall, laid out about the year 1810 of Thomas ROACH, joining on the east.  Massillon contains 1 German Evangelical, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Lutheran, 1 Disciples, 1 Episcopal Methodist and 1 Catholic church; 2 hardware, 2 wholesale grocery and 11 dry goods stores; 6 forwarding houses, 3 foundries, 3 machine shops, 1 newspaper office, 1 bank, 1 woolen factory, and had in 1840, series of extensive plains, spreading over a space of ten or twelve miles in length from east to west and five or six in breadth.  These were covered with a think growth of oak timber and were denominated barrens, but, on cultivation, they produced fine crops of wheat.  The Tuscarawas has cut across these plains on their western end, and runs in a valley sunk about thirty feet below their general surface.”  Old Edition.


Massillon is eight miles west of Canton, on the Tuscarawas river, the Ohio Canal, the P. Ft. W. & C.; C. L. & W.; W. & L. E. and M. & C. Railroads.


City Officers, 1888:  Josiah Frantz, Mayor; Joseph R. White, Clerk; J. W. Foltz, Treasurer; Otto E. Young, Solicitor; Adam Wendling, Marshal.  Newspapers:  Independent, Republican, R. P. Skinner, editor; American, Independent J. J. Hoover, editor and publisher; Gleaner, Newsletter & Co., editors and publishers.  Churches:  1 Presbyterian, 1 United Brethren, 1 Lutheran, 1 Evangelical, 1 Disciples, 1 Episcopal, 2 Catholic, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 African.  Banks:  First National, S. Hunt, president, C. Steese, cashier; German Deposit, McClymonds, Albright & Co. P. G. Albright, cashier; Union National, Joseph Coleman, president, James H. Hunt, cashier.

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Manufactures and Employees. -- The Massillon Bridge Co., 94 hands; Warwick & Justice, flour and feed, 16; Massillon Glass Works, 201; M. A. Brown, cigar boxes, etc., 15; S. R. Wells, window glass, 68; The Massillon Paper Co., 50; Hess, Snyder & Co., stoves, steam pumps, etc., 63; J. F. Pocock, flour and feed, 13; A. J. Humberger & Son, dry goods store, 12; C. Seibold, dry goods store, 8; Ricks Brothers, dry goods store, 7; S. Oberlins’s Sons, dry goods store, 6; Allman & Putman, dry goods store, 20; Frank Crone, dry goods store, 5; Joseph Corns & Son, rolling mill, 114; Peter Sailer, cigars, 170; Massillon Machine Co., 22; Conrad, Dangleer & Brown, sash, doors and blinds, 11; Russell & Co., agricultural machinery, 665.  __ State Report, 1888.  Population, 1880, 6,836.  School census, 1888, 3,325, E. A. Jones, superintendent of schools.  Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $850,000.  Value of annual product, $1,200,000. – Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.


 Census, 1890, 10,063.




WILLAIM McKINLEY, JR.was born in Niles, Trumbull county, Ohio, February 26, 1844.  He received a common school education, which was interrupted before completion by his enlistment in May, 1861, as a private in the 23rd O. V. I.  He gradually rose from the ranks and at the close of the war was mustered out with the rank of colonel and brevet-major.




He then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1867, and settled in Anton.  He was prosecuting attorney of Stark county, 1869-1871; was elected to the 45th, 46th, 47th 5oth and 51st congresses.  In June, 1888, as chairman of the platform committee of the Republican National Convention held at Chicago, he is accredited with drafting the resolutions that were adopted.  He is the leader in Congress in protective tariff measures and the author of the tariff bill of October, 1890.


It is a matter of pride to the people of Canton that it is the home of Major McKINLEY.  It helps to make their place known to multitudes in both continents, while his personal characteristics are such as to win the esteem and regard of all with whom his is associated in either public or social life.  A late writer says, “In his home life Mr. McKINLEY is just as unassuming as in his public career.  The

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House occupied by him overlooks the Public Square in Canton.  It is the old homestead of the Saxton family and is the property of Mrs. McKINLEY, who was a Miss SAXTON.  On account of the prominent position occupied in Ohio by the family, this mansion has been for years the headquarters for the reception of distinguished visitors in Canton.  During the campaign of 1880, Garfield and Arthur, Senator Sherman and his brother Gen. W. T. Sherman, all met under this hospitable roof.


The house is large and roomy with a wide, comfortable porch running all round it.  Within a short distance is Mr. McKINLEY’s law office and that of his brother, who is also his partner.  This office is situated in a large building known as the “McKinley block,” which was put up by the two brothers from the profits of their business.  The property now yields handsome revenue and materially assists Maj. McKINLEY in maintaining his position in Washington.


Maj. McKINLEY is very fond of good horses, and also of the country.  Just outside of Canton he has a small farm, and in the next county a larger one.  He drives out to these nearly every morning and takes great personal interest in all the operations upon them.


JOHN HANCOCK KLIPPART, who for nearly twenty-two years was Secretary of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture, was born in Stark county, Ohio, in 1823.  His ancestors were German, though citizens of the United States for two of three generations.  His opportunities for education were at first limited, but he early learned to make every occupation a means of culture.  In 1847, at the age of twenty-four, he was married to Miss Emiline RAHN, of Canton.



J. H. Klippart.

In 1856, while assistant editor of the Ohio Farmer, he was elected corresponding secretary of the State Board of Agriculture; had he been styled General Secretary it would have better expressed the extent and scope of his duties.  At the meeting of the Board, although usually some member acting as Recording Secretary made a minute of the business transacted, these records were arranged by Mr. KLIPPART for publications in the annual report.  The reports from County Societies were placed in his charge, b him arranged and sent to press.  Preparations for each State Fair were made by the whole Board, or by its executive committee, but a large share of the work unavoidably fell upon the secretary.  Members of the Board, without compensation, gave their time to arranging for and attending the State Fairs at great sacrifice of personal interests, consequently Mr. KLIPPART, the only salaried officer connected with the Board, was left to look after numerous details.  During the fairs innumerable matters required his attention, the services of the Secretary were always in requisition; so when the fairs were over, an immense number of settlements and adjustments were necessarily referred to him.


Besides this, he kept the office through the year, and in additions to this legitimate duties, answered orally or by letter innumerable inquiries.  Perhaps, none, except members of the Board, who of necessity were often in the office, could form an idea of the multitude of sensible and senseless questions to which the Secretary was expected to furnish a satisfactory answer.


In addition to this, Mr. KLIPPART performed a large amount of literary labor of higher character.  He wrote essays on almost all agricultural topics of interest, many of which required extensive research; he also translated many of the best articles from French and German periodicals.  He made laborious compilations of statistics, showing the condition and progress of agriculture within the State.  Two elaborate treaties emanated from his pen; one on the Wheat Plant, the other on Drainage; these were first published in the annual reports and afterwards in book form.


In 1860 Governor Dennison appointed him

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Top Picture

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.



Bottom Picture

J. C. Harrings, Photo., 1887



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One of the Board of Commissioners to proceed to the Atlantic seaboard, to examine and report on the pleur-pneumonia of cattle, which was then creating consternation among the stockmen of the country.  In 1865 he visited Europe, made an extended tour and an able report upon the various agricultural institutions there in operation.  In 1869 he was appointed by Governor Hayes one of the Assistant Geologists for the State Survey.


In 1873 he was appointed by Governor Noyes one of a Board of Commissioners to take measures for restocking the waters of the State with edible fish.  In 1876, he attended the great Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, to present there ht agricultural products of Ohio.  From all these appointments and consequent services rendered to the State, the volumes of the Ohio Agricultural Reports have been enriched; they certainly constitute a body of agricultural literature upon which the people of any state might look with satisfaction.  These twenty-one volumes form a splendid monument to his memory and will serve to remind the farmers of Ohio, of his services to the State, much better than any stately obelisk erected in a century.  Mr. KLIPPART died October 24, 1878, being fifty- five years of age.


The above is from remarks made by J. M. Millikin and N. S. Townshend, members of the State Board of Agriculture, at a meeting of the Board soon after Mr. KLIPPART’s death.  It was also said that from the life of Mr. KLIPPART three important lessons might by learned.  From the amount of work done by him in early life and the excellent training it afforded, one may learn that it pays a man to work.  From the success of his arduous labors and the service he was enabled to render to the State, it evidently pays well to work hard. But in view of the exhaustion of his powers and comparatively early decline, it is equally evident that it does not pay to work too hard.


Isaac R. SHERWOOD was born in Stanford, N. Y., August 13, 1835.  In 1854, he went to Antioch College; two years later entered the Ohio Law College, at Poland, O.  In 1857 he located at Bryan, Ohio and published the Williams County Gazette, which he put in full mourning when John Brown was hung at Harper’s Ferry.  April 16, 1861, the day following President Lincoln’s call for volunteers, he left the office of Probate Judge and the newspaper business to enlist as a private in the 14th O. V. I.


February 14, 1863, he was promoted to rank of major in the 111th O. V. I., February 2, 1864, to lieutenant-colonel, and to colonel September 8, 1864.  He particularly distinguished himself in a gallant charge at the head of his regiment at Resaca.


At the battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864, he made a heroic defense of his position, the command fighting with muskets clubbed and bayonets, after the ammunition had given out.  In recognition of this service, the Ohio civilians in Tennessee presented him with an elegant sword.  President Lincoln promoted him to the rank of brevet brigadier general.  He was mustered out with his regiment at Cleveland, July 15, 1865.


For a time he conducted the Toledo Commercial, later was on the editorial staff of the Cleveland Leader.


In 1868, he was elected Secretary of State and re-elected in 1870.  He organized the


GEN. I. R. SHERWOOD.                                                JOSEPH MEDILL.


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Bureau of Statistics and issued four annual reports, widely commented upon for their accurate exhibits.  In 1872 he was elected to Congress.  From 1875 to 1886 he published the Toledo Journal.  From 1879 he served six years as Probate Judge of Lucas county.  September 1, 1859, he married Miss Katherine Margaret Brownlee.


In 1888, Gen. SHERWOOD removed to Canton, O., to assume control of the Stark County Democrat.


JOSEPH MEDILL was born in New Brunswick, Canada, April 6, 1823.  He removed with his father to Stark County in 1832.  His boyhood was spent on a farm; later he studied law and practiced at Massillon.  In 1849 he founded a Free-soil paper at Coshocton.  In 1852 he established the “Leader” in Cleveland.  In 1854 he was one of the organizers of the Republican Party in Ohio.  In 1855 he became identified with the Chicago “Tribune,” of which he is still the editor in-chief.  He was a member of the U. S. Civil Service Commission in 1871, and was elected Mayor of Chicago.


LYMAN U. HUMPHREY was born in Stark county, Ohio, July 25, 1844.  At the outbreak of the war he enlisted as a private in the 76th O. V. I., participated in many important engagements, was wounded near Chattanooga, but refused to leave the field; he served for four years without losing a day and when mustered out had been promoted to a first lieutenancy.


Lyman U. Humphrey.After the war he attended Mt. Union College and then the University of Michigan.  In 1868 he was admitted to the bar and removed to Independence, Kansas, his present home.  He has served in both branched of the Kansas Legislature, was elected lieutenant governor in 1877 and again in 1879.  In 1888 was elected governor by over 72,000 majority over his Democratic opponent and September 3, 1890, re-nominated for that office, by acceleration, by the Republican State Convention.  Governor HUMPHREY is the true type of the genial, industrious and energetic Kansan.


He has the distinction of being the first Governor to issue a proclamation officially creating a new holiday to be known as Labor Day.  He recommended that Monday, Sept. 1, 1890, be observed and that business in the “Prairie State” be at least so far suspended as to permit all who desired to participate in the public festivities of the occasion.


CHARLES FREDERICK MANDERSON was born in Philadelphia, Pa., February 9, 1837.  In 1856 he removed to Canton, studies law and was admitted to the bar in 1859; was elected city solicitor in 1860, and in 1861, entered the army as fist lieutenant in the 19th O. V. I.  He rose to be colonel of his regiment.  In September, 1864, he was so severely wounded that several months later he was obliged to resign from the army.  He received the brevet of brigadier-general for gallant, long continued and meritorious service.


He resumed the practice of law in Canton; was twice elected district attorney.  In 1869, he removed to Omaha, Neb., and 1882 was elected to the U. S. Senate by the Republicans.  In 1888 he was re-elected to the Senate.


ALLIANCE is eighteen miles northeast of Canton, on the P. Ft., W. & C.; C. & P.; L. E. A. & S. and A. N. & A. R. Railroads.


Alliance was originally called Freedom, and was laid out in 1838, by Matthias HESTER and John MILLER.  The original proprietors of the land were Matthias HESTER, William AULTMAN, Michael and John MILLER, Messrs. SCOTT and CASSIDY. The First house was erected and the first store established by Mr. HESTER.  The growth of the town was very slow until the crossing of the P. Ft. W. & C. and C. & P. R. R. at this point gave it a new impetus.  The population in 1850 was 250.


Gen. Robinson at this time gave the place the name of Alliance, on account of the relation it was expected the two systems of railroads would occupy to each other, although no alliance had been consummated at that time.  Since then the

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Growth of the town has been steady, until it now stands among the important manufacturing centers of the State.


City Officers, 1888:  O. M. COXEN, Mayor; James CULBERTSON, Clerk; Wm. TEEL, Treasurer; Judson L. PHILIPS, Solicitor; M. STACEY, Marshal; Matthew WHITE, Street Commissioner.  Newspapers:  Leader, Independent Democrat, Wallace H. PHELPS, editor; Review, Republican, J. W. GILLESPIE, editor; American Carp Culture, Fish Culture, L. B. LOGAN, editor and publisher.  Churches:  2 Presbyterian, 1 Lutheran, 1 Catholic, 1 United Brethren, 1 German Reformed, 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Congregational, 1 Disciples, 1 Baptist, 1 Welsh Congregational, 1 Friends and 2 others.  Bank:  Alliance Bank Co., John ATWELL, president, W. H. RAMSEY, cashier.


Manufactures and Employees. -- Elmer E. Cline, general machinery, 6 hands; Millord & Co., foundry work, 7; Stanley & Hawkins, flour and feed, 6; Alliance Steam Boiler Works, 4; G. L. Chapman, general machine work, 3; F. Baugh castings, 8; Morgan Engineering Co., 400; J. T. Weybrecht, sash, doors and blinds 14; The Solid Steel Co., 215; The A. W. Coats Co., hay-rakes, 26; George N. Yant, planning mill, 7. -- State Report, 1888.  Population, 1880, 4,636.  School census, 1888, 1,832.  C. C. Davidson superintendent of schools.  Capital invested in manufacturing establishments, $51,300.  Value of annual product, $154,000.  -- Ohio Labor Statistics, 18888.

 Census, 1890, 7,607.




In 1867-68, there was built in Alliance an opera house at an estimated cost of $80,000.  Even at the time of its completion the building was considered unsafe, owing to the use of poor material and hasty construction.  Indeed, so well was this understood, that its property value was very materially affected thereby and the building was sold in 1877, for $9,000.  At this time, some $14,000 to $16,000 were expended in improvements, but without permanently securing its safety as subsequent events demonstrated.


The frontage of the building was eighty feet, by the same depth; it consisted of four stories, containing stores, offices and assembly rooms with the third floor entirely occupied by the opera house auditorium, stage, etc., with a seating capacity


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Of one thousand, although fifteen hundred were sometimes crowded within its doors. 


On June 2, 1886, two of the offices on the second floor, and three of the four stores on the street floor were occupied by business men.  An adjoining two-story frame building east of the opera house, was occupied upstairs as a dwelling, by the family of George MYERS, and downstairs by the grocery of James I. RICKARD.  Early in the day they discovered that their doors did not open and shut freely; they at once surmised the pressure of the yielding east wall of the opera house to be the cause and notified Mr. Florian MARCHAND, manager of the building.  Later in the day, Mr. MARCHAND in company with J. T. WEYBRECHT, an expert builder, made an inspection of the building, with the result that its immediate vacation was ordered.  At 4:30 Messrs. MARCHAND and RICKARD were anxiously watching the building, when fragments of brick began to fall.


At once perceiving that the end had come, they raised the alarm.  The frightened inmates of the stores and offices came rushing out, none too soon.  A long gap opened in the east wall, an awful roar swept over the startled city, a cloud of dust rose slowly against the slanting rays of the afternoon sun, and the stately pile fell crushed like an eggshell into utter and shapeless ruin.


The fire bell rang out clear in the awful silence that followed.  Men and women stood for an instant spellbound with horror; they a cry arose on all sides:  “The opera house has fallen!”  Every mind instantly rested on the occupants of the ruined structure.  Women screamed and fainted, men shuddered and turned pale, and all rushed to the scene, dreading the worst, scarcely daring to hope.  As if by magic, the streets were black with people, with blanched faces and fast beating hearts.  The general and intense relief can be imagined when it was definitely ascertained that positively no person was killed, or even injured.  The families of the persons whose various occupations were conducted in the opera house block were naturally frantic with fear and terror, only equaled by the joy caused by the unexpected good news that all had escaped.


By a combination of circumstances peculiarly fortunate the great ruin became the tomb of no living being.  Had those falling walls, sinking floors and crashing timbers engulfed, as well they might, hundreds of happy, unsuspicious pleasure seekers, the mind shudders at the awful picture.


That such a risk of terrible calamity as menaced the people of Alliance for a term of years was permitted in the State of Ohio, is evidence that our laws on the construction and maintenance of public buildings are not such as should satisfy the people.


Mount Union College, located at Mount Union, south of, and connected with Alliance by an electric railway, is a progressive institution that has exerted a wide educational, moral and religious influence.  It had its beginning in a school founded by Rev. O. N. HARTSHORN, D. D., LL.D., in 1846.  It has unusual success and the outcome was the college, founded in 1858.  The institution has had a phenomenal growth, largely owing to the energy of Dr. HARTSHORN, ably assisted by his colleagues.  It would have been impossible for the college to reach its present large proportions but, for the princely gifts and wise counsels of Hon. Lewis MILLER, of Akron, and Messrs. C. AULTMAN and Jacob MILLER, of Canton.  Its buildings are handsome and extensive, beautifully situated on the grounds, which compromise some fifty-four acres.  A new building has just been erected through the generosity of T. R. MORGAN, Jr., of Alliance, Richard BROWN, of Youngstown, and others.  This building is to be used for a gymnasium and observatory, and is said to be one of the finest college edifices in the State.


The Museum of Art and Science is valued at more than a quarter of million dollars.  Bayard Taylor said of it in the New York Tribune in 1876, “The museum of Mount Union College is among the best I ever visited anywhere, and the natural specimens are the most select and valuable I have seen in any country.”


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In 1886, Dr. HARTSHORN retired from his long and useful career, and in 1888, Rev. Tamerlane Pliny MARSH, D. D., of Chicago, was elected his successor.  Under his control the institution is rapidly increasing its sphere of usefulness.  The institution has been attended by more than 18,000 persons, has graduated 1,477, and during eh past year has had 580 students in its different departments.  Among its most noted graduates are Gov. HUMPHREY, of Kansas, Bishop John H. VINCENT, LL.D., of Buffalo, N. Y., Prof. H. S. LEHR, president of Ada Normal University, Von JACKSON, Privy Counselor to the King, Stuttgart, Germany, and many other eminent men.


MINERVA is on the line of Stark and Carroll counties, mostly in Stark, at the junction of the C. & C. & P. and L. E. Alliance & Southern Railroads.


Its situation is pleasant, in a good country in the valley of the Big Sandy, near its head waters.  City Officers, 1888:  Mayor, James JEROME; Clerk, Wm. UNGER; Treasurer, A. C. UNKEFER; Marshal, T. J. ROACH; Street Commissioner, Jos. EIKEN.  Churches:  1 Methodist Episcopal, 2 Disciples, 1 Lutheran and 1 Presbyterian.  It has one newspaper, the “Minerva News,” W. S. KNOX, editor; 1 bank; Peet & Bro.’s Glass Bottle and Jar Works; Yost & Co’s furniture making; car building factory, two planning and one grist mill, and water works, and is in a fine agricultural and coal mining region.  Capital in manufactures, $109,100; value of annual products, $642,400.  Ohio Labor Statistics, 1888.


CANAL FULTON is fifteen miles northwest of Canton, on the Tuscarawas River, the Ohio canal, C. L. & W. and Massillon branch of the C. A. & C. Railroads.


City Officers, 1888:  Charles H. FISHER, Mayor; J. W. KIRK, Clerk; J. M. BERGOLD, Treasurer; Jas. McLAUGHLIN, Marshal and Street Commissioner.  Newspaper:  Fulton Signal, Independent, J. P. YOCKEY, editor and publisher.  Churches:  1 United Brethren, 1 Reformed, 1 Presbyterian, 2 Catholic, 1 Methodist Episcopal and 1 other.  Bank:  Fulton, J. M. Bergold.  Population, 1880, 1,196.  School census, 1888, 575.  I. M. Taggart, superintendent of schools.  Principal manufactures are Fulton Wind Engine and Pump Co., and Fulton Tool and Manufacturing Co.


GREENTOWN is nine miles north of Canton, on the Valley Railroad.  School census, 1888, 133.


LOUISVILLE is seven miles northeast of Canton, on the P. Ft. W. & C. R. R.  It has five churches.  Newspaper:  Herald, Independent, L. P. BISSELL & Co., editors and publishers.  Bank:  Louisville Deposit (Keim & Sons), John KEIM, cashier.  Population, 1880, 1,050.  School census, 1888, 476.  J. M. KERSTETTER, superintendent of schools.


Louisville was almost entirely settled by French from the Rhine, of whom there are several thousand in this county.  They form an excellent population and readily assimilate to the American customs.  The French enter the English schools, while the Germans show more attachment to those in their native language.  Old Edition.


WAYNESBURG is twelve miles southeast of Canton, on the C. & P. R. R. Newspaper:  Valley Enterprise, Independent, Chas. A. LAW, editor and publisher.  Churches:  1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Lutheran, 1 Disciples.  Population, 1880, 622.  School census, 1888, 198.


WILMOT is twenty miles southwest of Canton.  School census, 1888, 167.  Newspaper:  Review, Independent, W. S. SPIDLE & Co., editors and publishers.


 LIMAVILLE is seventeen miles northeast of Canton, on the C. P. R. R. Population, 1880, 164.


NOTH LAWRENCE is fifteen miles west of Canton, on the P. Ft. W. & C. R. R. Population, 1880, 494.


MT. UNION is one and a half miles south of Alliance, on the L. E. A. & S. R. R. Population, 1880, 325.  School census, 1888, 178.  F. P. SHUMAKER, superintendent of schools.


Navarre is ten miles southwest of Canton, on the Tuscarawas river, the Ohio


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Canal, C. L. & W.; W. & L. E.  and C. & C. Railroads.  Churches: I catholic, 1 United Brethren, 1 Reformed Methodist, 1 Episcopal, 2 Lutheran.  Newspaper Independent, Independent, Frank M. Mc CORL, editor and publisher.  Population, 1880, 867.  School census, 1888, 370.  J. E. McKEAN, superintendent of schools.  Coal mining is its principal industry.  It is a very rich agricultural district which also abounds in coal, fire—clay, lime and building stone.


BEACH CITY is fourteen miles southwest of Canton, on the C. IL. & W. and C. & C. Railroads.  School census, 1888, 200.


MAPLETON is eight miles southeast of Canton, on the C. & C. B. B. It has five churches.  School census, 1888, 130.


NEW BERLIN is five miles northwest of Canton, on the Valley B. B. School census, 1888, 173.


NEW FRANKLIN is fifteen miles south of Canton. School census, 1888, 66.


OSNABURG is five miles east of Canton, on the C. & C. B. B.  It has four churches.  Population, 1880, 507.  School census, 1888, 246.


UNIONTOWN, P. 0. Lake, is twelve miles north of Canton, on the Valley R. R.  It has three churches.  School census, 1888, 101.


MAGNOLIA is twelve miles southeast of Canton, on the Tuscarawas Branch of the C. & P. R. R. School census, 1888, 130.


MARLBORO is fourteen miles northeast of Canton.  School census, 1888, 131.


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