Inspection of Workshops and Factories

Of Ohio


Prepared by Frank Henry Howe from the Report of





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HENRY DORN was born in Frankfort-on-the Main, Germany Feb. 16, 1843, where he attended the public school from the age of six to fourteen years. He learned the trade of machinist, serving as an apprentice from 1807 to 1862. During his apprenticeship he attended the night college in his native city and soon became, from natural aptitude and close application to his studies, an accomplished draughtsman. After the completion of his apprenticeship Mr. Dorn went to Paris, France, where he obtained employment in the shops of the Northern Railroad Company. He also worked in other shops on stationary engines, tools telegraphic instruments, and in other branches of mechanism, as well as in the drawing-rooms of different firms and companies by whom he was employed. He attended college in that city, thereby more readily acquiring a knowledge of the French language. Mr. Dorn now speaks with fluency and accuracy German, French and English.


In 1869 Mr. Dorn left Paris and came to America, landing in Philadelphia, where he soon procured employment as a mechanical engineer. Here, on the 12th Of September, 1871, he was married to Miss Emily Dorn (though of the same name, no relation), by whom he has had four children. Shortly after his marriage he removed to Cleveland where he continued to reside until 1884. While in that city he was employed by the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad Company for over six years. He left the employ of this company to accept the position of superintendent of the iron work of the Cleveland viaduct, one of the finest structures of the kind in the world. He was subsequently employed by the civil engineer of Cleveland to superintend the laying of the block pavement on some of the streets of that city.


In 1880 Mr. Dorn was employed in the erection of the building and in putting up the machinery of the H. P. Wire Nail Company, the largest factory of the kind in the United States. Just as the structure was about completed, in 1881, through the carelessness or ignorance of the general manager of file company, Mr. Dorn met with an accident resulting in an injury to his spine, from which he has never fully recovered, his right side remaining in a partially paralyzed condition for nearly three years.


On the 11th of April, 1884, Gov. Hoadly tendered Mr. Dorn the position of inspector of workshops and factories, under the law which had just passed the Legislature creating that office. He accepted the position and immediately entered upon the discharge of its duties. In this position he has shown exceptional qualifications and been of incalculable benefit to those for whose protection in health and limb the office was created. His first annual report to the governor showed the importance of the office, and the legislature very wisely provided him with three assistants. His ability an a mechanical engineer and his careful and systematic management of the office have placed it in the front rank of offices of that character in the United States.


Taking a deep interest in the subject of factory inspection generally, Mr. Dorn made an appeal to all officers of that kind in the United States, and by untiring efforts succeeded in getting together the first national convention of factory inspectors ever held in this country. It was held in Philadelphia, Pa., on June 8 and 9, 1887, and Mr. Dorn had the honor of being the first presiding officer of the convention, and before the close of the session was unanimously elected permanent secretary and treasurer.


The second convention was held in the city of Boston, Mass., on August 8, 9 and 10, 1888, and Mr. Dorn was unanimously re-elected for a second time.



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On April 4, 1884, an act was passed by the Legislature of Ohio for the inspection of workshops and factories. This was the third legislative act on the part of any State in the Union for such a purpose. Section 2,873a of that act reads as follows:


"The governor of the State shall appoint a suitable person, to be known as the inspector of the sanitary condition, comfort and safety of shops and factories, who shall be a competent and practical mechanic in practice, whose duty it shall be to visit all factories or shops where ten or more persons are employed, and to carefully inspect the sanitary condition of the same, to examine the system of sewerage in connection with said shops and factories, the situation and condition of water-closets or urinals in and about such shops and factories, and also the system of heating, lighting and ventilating all rooms in such factories and shops where persons are employed at daily labor, and also as to the means of exit from such places in case of fire and other disaster, and also all belting, shafting, gearing, elevators, drums and machinery of every kind and description in and about such factories and shops, and see that the same are not located so as to be dangerous to employees when engaged in their ordinary duties, and that the same, so far as practicable, are securely guarded, and that every vat, pan, or structure filled with molten metal or hot liquid shall be surrounded with proper safeguards for preventing accident or injury to those employed at or near them."


In pursuance of the provisions of this act, on April 11, 1884, Mr. Henry Dorn, of Cleveland, Ohio, was appointed inspector, at a salary of $1,500 per year and $600 allowance for travelling expenses. Three days later he took the oath of office and entered upon the discharge of its duties at his office in Cleveland. Owing to the inadequate appropriation of funds, but a comparatively small part of the 20,000 or more workshops and factories throughout the State could be visited. The zeal of Mr. Dorn caused him to be as energetic and economical as possible in order to accomplish the most good with the means at his command. The success of the entire system of the department is no doubt largely due to his energy and perseverance. His being a practical engineer, draughtsman and machinist and possessing the knowledge necessary for imparting information in relation to improvements on machinery, its preservation, protection, etc., especially adapts him to the highly responsible duties of his office. In his first report, covering only the last six months of the year 1884, he says:


"I began my inspection in the city of Cleveland, Cuyahoga county, but finding it impossible to make a proper inspection of all the shops and factories in the city of Cleveland first, without entirely neglecting other parts of the State, I confined my inspection to the leading establishments, and to such less prominent places as my attention was called to by persons employed therein.


Out of nearly 300 establishments in the city of Cleveland I inspected 173 from April 16th to June 16th, out of which I found only twenty-seven complying with the requirements of the law creating the office of State Inspector of Shops and Factories. I ordered important changes in forty-one establishments and minor changes were ordered in most of the others.


On the 17th of June I started on an inspection tour and stopped first in Crestline, Crawford county, where I inspected two establishments, ordering minor changes in one.


From Crestline I went to Galion, Crawford county, where I inspected five establishments, ordering minor changes in one and very important changes in another.


From Galion I went to Delaware, Delaware county, where I inspected six establishments, two of which were complying with the requirements of the law creating this office, and minor changes were ordered in three establishments.


From Delaware I went direct to Columbus, Franklin county, where my first duty was to notify all establishments in that city of my coming. I found that there were nearly 200 establishments to be visited, and out of this number I visited seventy-five from June 23d to July 15th, out of which I found only ten that were being operated in accordance with the law creating this office. I ordered important changes in thirteen establishments and minor changes in most of the others.


During the same time I visited also Logan, Hocking county, where I inspected


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seven establishments, out of which I found only one not amenable to the law. Minor changes were ordered in four and very important changes in two establishments.


On July 16th I left Columbus and went to Cincinnati, Hamilton county, where I found a great field of labor. An investigation disclosed the fact that Cincinnati had over 1,000 manufacturing establishments to be visited, which would, if properly inspected, take the inspector over a year, as most of the buildings are from five to seven and even more stories high. The most careful work was required here, as sanitary conditions, safety and comfort and every provision of the law, were found to present a strong claim to attention.


I visited, in the city of Cincinnati, one hundred and seventy-five (175) of the leading establishments, and such others as my attention was called to, from time to time, by persons employed in such shops and factories.


I started out in the same manner, as I did in other cities, by notifying all manufacturers and owners of shops and factories, nearly 1,300 in number, of my coming. Out of the 175 establishments visited, from July 17 to October 11, I found only eleven being operated in accordance with the law creating this office. I ordered important changes in sixty establishments, and minor changes were ordered in most of the others.


During the time I stayed in Cincinnati I made occasional trips to the other cities and revisited shops and factories where I ordered changes with satisfactory results. I found many shops in Cleveland which complied with my requests in regard to important changes, also a number in Columbus and Logan.


Receiving a letter from Akron, Summit county, calling my attention to the shops and factories of that city, I started on October 21 from Cleveland to Akron, where I found nearly fifty (50) establishments to be visited, and, after notifying all owners of shops and factories, I inspected forty-five of them from October 21 to 31.


It is a pleasure to state that, generally speaking, I found the establishments in Akron in better condition and nearer the requirements of the law than any that I have visited.


Out of the forty-five establishments I inspected I found twenty-five working in accordance to law creating the office of Inspector of Shops and Factories.


Minor changes were ordered in nine establishments and very important changes in eleven. Nearly all of the latter changes were in sewer pipe factories and potteries.


In these establishments the greatest danger I found was in the mills where the clay is ground: These mills are started or stopped by means of a cone or friction pulley, and I found the most of these pulleys were not given lift enough or clearance enough to make them safe, as it will sometimes happen that these mills will start up of themselves, either through dirt falling between the two friction pulleys, or through the starting lever slipping from the bolt, which I found in many instances very poorly secured. Most of the levers were only provided with a common iron rod, with an eye in the end, which eye was carelessly hooked on to a common bolt or spike, which was driven in the wall, whereas those eyes should, by all means, be properly provided with hooks securely fastened in the wall, so that the jarring of the mill cannot unhook the iron rods and thereby start the mill up suddenly, endangering the lives of persons engaged in shoveling clay out of the mills. Several accidents of that kind happened in Akron, one man being killed and others had their legs broken and were badly maimed.




I found in polishing establishments, stove foundries and other shops and factories where emery wheels are used continually that those wheels, in a good many instances, were too high-speeded, which is very dangerous and often results in their bursting and consequently in the killing or serious injury of somebody. I herewith present a table for speeding solid emery wheels of different diameters:


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Wheels which are speeded higher than is shown in the above table are dangerous to the operator.


Another danger which arises from emery wheels of al descriptions is that most of them are not provided with exhaust fans, and the persons working at them are compelled to inhale the poisonous dust, which will settle on the lungs, and in most cases consumption will be the result. Providing emery wheels with exhaust fans is not only beneficial to the person operating such wheels, but also to the owners of establishments where such wheels are used.


An exhaust fan will absorb every bit of emery dust which escapes from the wheel, and therefore all other machinery in such establishments, especially shafting, will be freed from emery dust, and consequently last three times as long. The saving of shafting and boxes alone will pay the cost of the use of an exhaust fan, and still many proprietors of such establishments are totally blind to these facts.




Another important matter is the use of buzz-saws in planing-mills and other establishments. They are, in fact, the most dangerous tool in use, and although persons operating them know their danger, in the course of time they become careless. Therefore a protection is absolutely necessary, and this also can be done at a small expense, and to the advantage of both operator and owner, by putting a guard or hood over the buzz-saw, which will not in the least interfere with the work of the sawyer, but, on the contrary, will enable him to turn out more work in less time, while protecting his life and limbs. By investigating the facts about accidents I found through the reports of some accident insurance companies that there sire on an average from fifty to fifty-three persons killed or in injured daily in the United States alone through accidents occurring by operating buzz-saws.




Another prolific source of danger is the non-protection of fly-wheels on stationary engines, which can easily be done by putting an iron or wooden railing or casing around the fly-wheel.


The eccentric of an engine is generally located between the bed-plate of the engine and the fly-wheel, and the engineer is, therefore, compelled to go close to the same to oil either the eccentric or other parts of his engine, and many accidents take place through neglect in not fencing in the fly-wheel properly.


One accident occurred to an employee in Cincinnati which resulted in his death. The deceased, endeavoring to ascertain the time of day from a clock hanging on the wall near the engine, in some unexplained manner passed too near the fly-wheel, was caught by the wheel and held fast, and, being whirled around at a great velocity, was almost instantly killed. Hundreds of similar accidents occur every year and many valuable lives are lost.


Now, all such accidents can be prevented by a small outlay of money, which will, at all events, be less expensive than contesting suits for damages in court. I have and shall in the future enforce the law in regard to these matters to the letter.




Another danger I have discovered-and it is one that I meet everywhere-the very unsafe condition of elevators.


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In many places elevator wells, or shafts, are not properly and in many cases not at all protected. On all floors doors open either directly into the shafts or have no protection or safeguards, and the lives of persons working at their ordinary avocations are endangered.


All these places should be protected by automatic doors or safeguards, so set that they will raise and lower when the elevator is at the floor. I have not yet gone further than to suggest that all elevators be provided with automatic doors, but wherever the necessity for protection exists have insisted upon an adequate safeguard being provided.




Nothing in the course of my inspection has more strongly impressed me than the necessity of requiring all shops and factories of a greater elevation than two stories to be provided with a safe and efficient system of fire-escapes. The duty of supplying safeguards against casualties always likely to occur In the event of conflagrations in crowded shops and factories is so obvious and imperative that there can be no difference of opinion respecting it.


It is of that class of self-assertive obligations which admit of no controversy, the only question being as to the best method of adequately meeting it. Nevertheless it is a fact, amply demonstrated in the observation I have had, that very many owners and proprietors of shops and factories are wholly indifferent to this important duty, and I have found some so utterly destitute of all concern for the safety of employees as to refuse to provide proper escapes when their attention was called to the necessity for such provision. It is somewhat difficult to speak with calmness of men whose overweening selfishness has excluded from their natures every spark of consideration for their fellow-beings, who, while liberally insuring their property against fire, so that in case of such a visitation-a danger always imminent their pockets shall not suffer, will not expend a dollar for the security of the lives of those by whose labor they profit, and it is but simple justice that this class be compelled, by the mandate of inflexible law, to perform a duty which men of ordinary humane instincts accede to without a question. The frequent occurrence of fires which have their most serious result in the loss of human lives furnishes fearful warnings that should not be heedlessly dismissed from attention, and I submit that the business of legislation can have few worthier objects than that of diminishing, so far as may be, the possibility of such calamities.


In Cincinnati many of the buildings used for shops and factories are from five to nine stories high, and generally the first three or four floors of the building are used as storerooms, the employes occupying the upper floors, escape from which would in most cases be extremely difficult in the event of a rapidly spreading fire, and loss of life or serious bodily injury almost inevitable. Most of the buildings are improperly constructed with reference to means of egress, the ingenuity of the architects having apparently been exerted to secure the greatest possible economy of apace in the matter of stairways.


Some of these buildings are provided with but a single stairway, and where there are two or more they are generally located so near together that a fire which would render any of them useless as an avenue of escape would be very likely to do so with all. In many cases, also, these stairways are located near elevators, which are most potent aids to the rapid progress of fire. While it is not the province of the State to require that these faults and defects in the construction of buildings shall be remedied, it is unquestionably within the rightful powers of the State to demand that the security which the builders have failed to provide shall be supplied in some other way, and a thorough system of fire-escapes is the only other practicable method. The use of straight ladders, as a substitute for some improved fire-escape, on buildings over two stories high, should not be allowed, since they are worse than useless as a means of escape. Not one in twenty who should attempt to reach the ground in this way would get there in safety. They might escape the fire only to find death or permanent injuries from being precipitated to the earth below.


The great pertinency of these remarks was brought forcibly to the notice of the people of the State by two horrible casualties which occurred in Cincinnati during


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the spring of 1885: one the burning of Dreman & Co.'s rag-factory, by which nine lives were lost, the other the burning of the building on West Sixth street, occupied by the Parisian Dyeing and Scouring Company and the Sullivan steam-printing establishment, by which sixteen lives were sacrificed, and several persons seriously wounded, if not maimed for life. In both these holocausts most if not all of the lives lost could have been saved had the buildings been provided with properly constructed fire-escapes.


In my judgment the most secure and effective plan is that of a balcony on each story, with incline ladders extending from one another between the windows. Persons descending on ladders thus placed avoid the flames that issue from the windows, are in no danger of falling, and by the exercise of the simplest care in their movements may make their escape unscathed. I found Cincinnati to be a great field of labor, and during the necessarily short time that I was there I ordered the erection of about fifty fire-escapes on shops and factories. In most cases these orders were complied with, but in several instances the agents for buildings refused to pay any attention to the demand of the Inspector that fire-escapes should be supplied.


The law relating to this matter would seem to be sufficiently explicit in its requirements, and the penalties for violation ample to insure a universal compliance with it, but such is very far from being the fact.


In 1887 Chief-Inspector Dorn invented a fire-escape which has been pronounced by all experts to be the simplest and most practicable invention of the kind extant. It consists of a rectangular enclosure of brick, built from the foundations to the roof, and within the exterior walls of the building. This enclosure or well contains the stairways, access to which is had from balconies constructed on the outside of the building at the level of each floor. The balconies communicate by a door with each floor of the main building and by another door with the enclosure containing the stairways.


By means of this arrangement the occupants of each floor can immediately pass out of the building on the same floor, and along the balcony to the stairway which, being entirely cut off from the interior of the entire building, would be perfectly free from flame or smoke, even if the whole building should be on fire.


This escape evidently obviates a serious objection to all others, viz., the fear people have of descending them, especially from very high buildings. This invention, the result of Mr. Dorn's ingenuity, has not been patented, owing to the humane desire of its inventor to make its adoption as universal and free from expense as possible."


On the subject of "child labor” Mr. Dorn says:


"The subject of child labor has engaged the earnest attention of publicists and philanthropists for generations, and in the general progress of ameliorating influences and agencies this matter has received a share of consideration. That it has not obtained that full measure of regard which its great importance merits will not be seriously questioned by any one whose experience or observation give him authority to speak.


Legislation has bravely sought to baffle the cupidity and selfishness of those who would profit by the labor of children, but its success has been only partial and irregular, and throughout this enlightened nation thousands of children of tender years are now laboring ten and twelve hours a day in shops and factories, the great majority of whom should be acquainted with no severer tasks than those of the school and the home.


Ohio, I regret to say, has her full share of guilt in this matter, the statute relating to the employment of children under sixteen years of age being freely and persistently violated, for the obvious reason that no adequate means are provided for its enforcement.


In visiting the different shops and factories in the regular course of my duties I made it a part of my inquiries to ascertain the extent to which children were employed, and in many places I found children of nine or ten years of age performing labor that should give employment to adults, or at least to minors who have passed the period of childhood, and might properly be expected to earn their own livelihood. In the cigar-factories of Cincinnati I found a great number of children employed, the demand for this class of workers being at that time,

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probably exceptionally large, owing to the strike of the cigar-makers. I also found many young children in chair-factories in different parts of the State, where they worked at polishing and painting chair-frames and making cane-seats. They were also found in printing-offices, nickel-plating works, paper-box-factories, match-factories, etc.


While it is true that much of the work required of children thus employed is not of a severely exacting nature, yet it must be maintained that the practice of subjecting young children to a daily round of labor for which they receive a mere pittance in the form of wages it is a wrong alike to the children and to the State, and wholly antagonistic to the enlightened and liberal sentiment of this age.


The tens of thousands of children throughout the country who are in this way deprived of the opportunity to obtain as much of an education as would enable them, when grown to adult age, to understand the obligations of citizenship, is a dark blot upon our character as a people, for which our advanced civilization and wonderful material progress do not atone. It is true that ample provision is made for securing to every child in the State at least an elementary education, but the State is still derelict if it fails to compel those in whose behalf such provision is made to take full advantage of it. Now it is sufficient to declare, in the form of a statute, that this must be done. Laws do not enforce themselves. There must be an active, energetic, and vigilant executive force behind them, fully armed with the power to put them into effect.


There is hardly, any limit to what may be said upon this subject, but the object in referring to it here is simply to bring it to the thought and attention of the legislative power, and not to give to it elaborate discussion. Such discussion, indeed, it cannot need with intelligent men, who intuitively understand that the intellectual and moral training of the youth of the commonwealth is of far greater importance to its future welfare than can be any consideration relating to its merely material affairs. But the policy of controlling and restricting child labor finds approval as well upon economic as upon moral grounds. There is no gain to the general welfare from this class of ill-remunerated toil. Its products are not materially, if at all, cheapened to the consumer. The profit is reaped by the employers, and it is the heartless cupidity of this class, incidentally aided by the improvidence of parents, that is responsible for the extensive prevalence of child labor. To successfully combat this sordid instinct there is required something more aggressive than a simple statutory declaration of hostility. As previously observed, there must be a zealous and vigilant executive force, imply supported behind the declaration."


During the first six months after the enactment of the law for the inspection of workshops and factories Mr. Dorn visited 487 establishments, with a working capacity of 45,511 males and 4,808 females. Letters from many of the leading manufacturers and business men of the State were received, congratulating him on the success of his efforts, and expressing their approbation of his recommendations, and asking for a vigorous prosecution of the good work and the rigid enforcement of the law.


The work performed by Mr. Dorn was remarkable in its extent and efficiency, and it was only by his perfect system of conducting the affairs of his office that so much was accomplished. The appropriation was so small in consideration of the work necessary for the enforcement of the law as to almost defeat its own object, and in closing his first report Mr. Dorn called the attention of the Legislature to the necessity of an increased appropriation, as follows:


“To carry on the office so as to do justice to all interests there should be at least three deputy-inspectors appointed. One inspector cannot do the work as thoroughly and satisfactorily as it should be done.


An appropriation should also be made by the General Assembly to create a contingent fund outside of the travelling expenses.


So far the Inspector has had to use a portion of his own salary for defraying necessary expenses, such as postage, telegrams express charges, and many other items too numerous to mention.


The Inspector would also recommend the striking out of the word "ten" in section 2873a, where it says, "whose duty it shall be to visit all factories and


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shops where ten or more persons are employed," and insert the word "five." I have found many shops where fewer than ten persons were employed which needed many changes, but the Inspector had no power to require them to be made.


The allowance of $600 a year for travelling expenses is insufficient. The Inspector has, while exercising the greatest economy in expenditures, used from April 16 to November 15 $469.23, leaving but $130.77 of the allowance in hand, a sum hardly sufficient to pay travelling expenses to the close of the year ending December 31, 1884.


The Inspector also deems this the proper place in which to state that, owing to no appropriation having been made for office purposes, he has been compelled to establish an office in his own home, where the business has been necessarily carried on at some disadvantage.


The Inspector should have an office located with reference to the class of persons with whom he has official relations, so that he can be at all times easily accessible."


In pursuance of the recommendations in Inspector Dorn's first report an amendment to the act creating the office was passed April 25, 1885. The amendment made provision for the inspection of all workshops and factories, the act of 1884 providing only for the inspection of those employing ten or more persons. It also gave the chief-inspector power to appoint three assistant inspectors, each at a salary of $1,000 per year and $500 for travelling expenses; continuing the salary of the chief-inspector at $1,500 annually, with $600 additional as a contingent fund for office and other incidental expenses. Provision was also made for a room in the State-house for the transaction of the business of the office. With these increased facilities the work of inspection was very much extended and the efficiency of the office greatly increased.


In 1886 the efficiency of the office was still further increased by a small appropriation for clerical hire; previous to this all the clerical work of the office had been performed by the chief-inspector.


During the year 1877 the number of shops and factories visited was 3,581, being an increase of 474 over the previous year.


Again, from a later report, we quote 'Mr. Dorn's language:


"When the great number of establishments in the State engaged in the various branches of industry—over 20,000 in 1880, according to the federal census of that year-using every conceivable kind of machinery, employing hundreds of thousands of people, of all ages and conditions, from the delicate child of eight or nine years to the gray-haired man and woman, some little idea may be formed of the interests involved and the importance to the State of a complete and satisfactory inspection of these numerous generators of disease and death as well as of wealth The magnitude of the duties devolving upon the chief-inspector and his assistants can readily be seen, and to enable them to accomplish the purposes for which they were appointed they require, and should receive, the hearty support of every intelligent citizen of the State.


The importance, if not the necessity, of a thorough inspection of all places where people are employed at labor, no matter what the character of the work, must be apparent to every person who has given the subject the least consideration.


On the thoroughness of such inspection depends, in a great measure, the safety of tens of thousands of our population, men, women, and children. And who will claim that there is anything more deserving the careful attention of the General Assembly than the lives and health of the people on whom the State depends for its wealth and prosperity? This subject transcends in importance all other matters coming before the Legislature, with the possible exception of that of education.


Not only Ohio, but most of the other States, as well as the general government have provided, by the creation of commissions and the expenditure of large sums of money for the protection of domestic animals from contagious and other diseases, and from brutal treatment by their owners and others having them in charge. No one objects to this; but, on the contrary, it is continually urged that the State does not do as much in this behalf as it should. Figures of portentous magnitude are given, showing the immense value of our live-stock, and. therefore, the obligation of the State to make every effort to protect this interest


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This protection is asked mainly in the interest of owners, a purely dollar—and—cent view of the question. The urgency for legislative action in any particular case seems to be proportioned to the monetary value of the interest involved. And no one questions the propriety of such legislation. The fruits of their toil should be secured to the toilers as far as they can be by the State without interfering with individual freedom of action, or attempting to lessen individual responsibility. In some cases, as in the one under consideration, individual, isolated action is of no avail to stay the ravages of disease, especially if of a contagious character, and the State is called upon to interpose its power, not for the especial benefit of a single individual or of a class, but in the interest of all. It was for such purposes the State government was established, that society itself was organized.


If legislation for such a purpose is entitled to the indorsement of our people, who will question the propriety of all legislation necessary to protect human beings—to protect the lives, the limbs, the health of those who wield the industrial power of the State, and from whose ranks, in a few years, will come those who will administer the political affairs of the State, and, to a great extent, give tone to our moral and social fabric? Intelligence and moral worth are not developed and propagated in poorly ventilated workshops, nor are the better instincts of man assisted by maimed and mutilated limbs.


Owing to circumstances which it would be out of place to discuss here, many children of tender years, instead of attending school and acquiring the knowledge necessary to fit them for future usefulness, are forced into workshops and fac­tories to assist their parents in supporting the family. They are incapable of forming correct opinions as to the sanitary conditions of the places in which they are employed, of the safety of the buildings, or of the dangerous character of the machinery by which they are surrounded. If a bullock or a horse is considered worthy of the protecting care of the law-making power of the State, certainly the tender child, endowed with reason, immature and undeveloped as yet, can lay claim to a part of the attention of those whom the people have entrusted with the management of the government. These children will, in a few years, constitute a large portion of the political power of the State, and their future characters and worth to society depend largely upon their happiness or unhappiness, upon their sound bodies and sound minds, their healthy or diseased constitutions, in their youth. The more they are poisoned by the impure atmosphere that too often fills workshops from cellar to garret, or are mangled by insecure machinery, the less likely they will be to possess either the ability or the inclination to perform the more important duties devolving upon them as men and women in such manner as will secure their own welfare as well as that of their fellow-beings. These undeniable truths should be well pondered by every one who has the welfare of his fellow-creatures at heart. To make the superstructure durable the foundation must be sound and free from defects of any kind."


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