Canadian Forestry Corps
Canadian Forestry Corps in WWII
Information supplied by Robert Briggs with contributions by JFLH

I wish to thank everyone who has made contributions of photos, stories and other info of their
family members of the Canadian Forestry Corps to this website.

If anyone has additional photos or stories they would like us to add here – we would be pleased to do so

We are continuously trying to keep as up-to-date as possible regarding links that are ever changing, that photo’s are properly credited & any sourced material is also properly credited.

For Further information please contact Bob Briggs

HQ, No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group
Canadian Forestry Corps

CFC Cap Badge
Courtesy of Robert J. Briggs

ORGANIZATION OF NO. 1 CANADIAN FORESTRY GROUP
On 11 Oct 43 the Canadian Government officially approved the allocation of five Forestry companies to carry out Forestry work for 21 Army Group in the operations which were pending in North-West Europe. As the result of a number of conferences held at C.M.H.Q., with senior officers of the Canadian Forestry Corps in attendance, Nos. 5, 15, 16, 28 and 30 Companies were selected for this task in January 1944 and instructions were issued to mobilize Headquarters, No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group with a strength of 15 officers and 110 other ranks. This re-organization took effect from 10 Mar 44 but the new Headquarters and these five Companies remained under C.M.H.Q. command and administration until they moved south to join 21 Army Group.

From 1940 onwards, units of the Canadian Forestry Corps had been at work in the United Kingdom.* In March 1943, when considering the invasion of the Continent, the British War Office foresaw a need for timber operations in the liberated and occupied areas. Accordingly Canada was asked to allocate five forestry companies to the 21st Army Group for operations in North-West Europe, and on 11 October 1943 Ottawa approved this arrangement.68 In January 1944 Headquarters No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group was mobilized to command these companies and was placed under Colonel C. E. F. Jones. In May 1944 assent was given to a further British proposal that the number of companies in No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group be increased from 5 to 10.69 No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group remained under C.M.H.Q.'s administration and command until in July and August its various companies moved to the south of England preparatory to embarking for the Continent.

During the last week in July and the first week in August, No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group and five companies moved to France, where a British pioneer company and two forestry companies of the Royal Engineers were placed under its command. The group at once began to cut timber in the Cerisy Forest between Bayeux and St. Lô. In late October and early November 1944 the Canadian Forestry Group moved into Belgium and commenced work in the Westerloo Forest near Brussels. Towards the end of October the other five Canadian forestry companies arrived on the Continent from the United Kingdom and went to the Ardennes Forest in the American sector where they found one Canadian company already at work.

Extra training at Carronbridge Camp near Thornhill, Dumfriesshire, Scotland
Photo courtesy of Linda Bish daughter of
Pte Edward James (Ted) Bish No.28 Coy CFC

Ref: The Sawdust Fusiliers by William Wonders
Beginning in the spring of 1944 further Canadian Forestry Corps companies were withdrawn from Scottish timber operations in preparations for the Invasion of Normandy. The Companies that went to the mainland were not comprised of the same men. The men that were to go over were selected by the officers who were chosen to lead the men. The officers had to keep in mind in the selection that they needed men with certain skills and were they young enough for the job. Going to the mainland was different from working in Scotland. Companies No. 5, 15, 16, 28, and 30 made up No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group, mobilized 1 May 1944, with its headquarters located briefly at Wilderness Camp and then at Beaufort Castle.
(A further five companies joined them subsequently, which was Companies No. 1, 9, 14, 25 and 27.) The first five companies were sent to Carronbridge Camp just north of Thornhill, Dumfriesshire, for further military training. The men of these first five companies thought they were the cream of the crop until they heard that the other five companies were on their way to Belgium in October 1944. The first group proceeded directly to a staging area at Lancing, Sussex, in southern England. The first companies crossed the Channel from Portsmouth to Normandy beaches in the last days in July and the first in August 1944. From there they moved with the First Canadian Army in the advance across North-West Europe.

Carronbridge Training Part 1 & Part 2 & Part 3
Library And Archives Canada Military Heritage - War Diaries
Courtesy Jean-Francois Chiccoine

War Diary No 1 CFG CFC Special Training - Part 1 & Part 2 & Part 3 & Part 4
Library And Archives Canada Military Heritage - War Diaries
Courtesy of Jean-Francois Chicoine

HQ No 1 CFG CFC War Diaries - Library And Archives Canada Military Heritage War Diaries
Mar 1944
Apr 1944 Part 1 & Part 2 & Part 3
May 1944 Part 1 & Part 2 & Part 3
June 1944 Part 1 & Part 2 & Part 3 & Part 4
July 1944 Part 1 & Part 2 & Part 3 & Part 4
Aug 1944 Part 1 & Part 2 & Part 3 & Part 4 & Part 5

Library And Archives Canada Military Heritage War Diary No 5 Coy - -CFC CFG England to France

HQ No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group, CFC
TIMELINE

15 Mar 1944 - mobilization date of HQ No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group
23 Mar 1944 – took up position in the abandoned Wilderness Camp (re No 14 Coy)
27 Mar 1944 – changed from Pt 2 order basis to a Field force
9 Apr 1944 – movement of No 1 CFG in Carronbridge, Dumfriess, Scotland for extensive combat training
28 May 1944 – left Carronbridge back to Wilderness Camp
10 Jun 1944 – moved to Beaufort Castle, Beauly, Inverness-shire
3 Jul 1944 – movement to Lancing, Sussex, England – staging area
31 Jul 1944 – movement to marshalling area, Brown Camp
Aug 1944 – movement in three groups to Subles, France near Bayeaux

Officers of HQ No 1 Canadian Forestry Group CFC
Jones, C.E.F. Col – Commander
Burchett, E.P. Lt. Col – 2/i.c.
Hanssen, G.L.M. Capt – S/Capt “A” & “Q”
Rapple, R.E., Capt - Adjutant & Q.M.
Thomas, G.M., Capt – Stores Officer
Minns, G.W., Lt - Assistant O/i.c. Forestry “A” & “A” Section
Montgomery, R.H., Major – O/i.c. General Workshop Section
Winskill, D.T., Capt – Mill Maintenance & Construction G/W Section
Smith, R.O., Lt – Assistant to Mill Maintenance & Construction G/W Section

Attached Personnel
Burnside, T.R., Capt - R.C.A.P.C. Paymaster, HQ 1 CFG
Fowler, A.C., Capt – R.C.A.M.C. Medical Officer
West, W.G. Capt - R.C.A.M.C. Medical Officer

H.Q., No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group
Canadian Army
Lt.-Col (Substantive)
Edgar Page Burchet awarded O.B.E. 22 Aug 1944
In February, 1944, at the request of the War Office, the Canadian Forestry Corps undertook the design and construction of rafts of large size piling and square timber for safe towing from the U.K. to France for use in construction of harbour installations and bridging.
Lt. Col. E.P. Burchett was placed in complete charge of this technical operation, being responsible for selecting suitable sites, having regard to tides, winds, etc., design of rafts and general supervision of construction.
Due to the energy, initiative and skilful direction of this officer, this work, comprising the rafting of 22,000 large round piles (up to 120 ft. in length) was successfully completed ahead of schedule without the loss of a single piece of timber. The operation enabled this essential material to be available on the Continent when required and released a large volume of shipping for other purposes.

North West Europe
Hall, Ernest William K72942 Sgt HQ 1 CFG
Award – Mention in Despatches

The King has been graciously pleased to approve the award of MID, in recognition of gallant and distinguished services to:

HQ 1 Cdn Forestry Group – Canadian Forestry Corps
Captain (Staff Captain “A” & “Q”)
Gerald Louis Maria Hannsen

Awarded the Knight Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau July 1945

This Officer has been Staff Capt “A” & “Q” since the Forestry Group arrived in N.W.E. in July 1944. As he speaks the Dutch language fluently, he has acted as liaison officer with the Netherland authorities and for the C.F.C. Coys operating in the liberated parts of Holland. His untiring energy and devotion to duty have been of the greatest assistance in the administration and operations of this formation. He has cheerfully accepted and efficiently discharged responsibilities far in excess of his normal duties.

Johnston, William Alexander Annandale K41129 S/Sgt
HQ. 1 CDN Forestry GP. C.F.C.
British Empire Medal

The King has been graciously pleased to approve of the award BME (Military Division) to the undermentioned.

No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group
Colonel – Chilion Eric Ford Jones
Awarded O.B.E. 27 Jun 1945

Colonel C.E.F. Jones has commanded No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group of 10 Companies since April 1944, and throughout their operations in North West Europe. Under his command the Canadian Forestry Companies have done magnificent work, often under very trying conditions. They have been primarily responsible for the supply of timber for the big bridges, and for all other purposes. Col. Jones and his units have also been instrumental in supplying very large quantities of pitwood to the Belgian mines, and it is not too much to say that without their well organized assistance there would have been a crisis in that country

Canadian Forestry Corps
Headquarters 1 Cdn Forestry Group
Captain (O I/C Forestry and Audit and Accounting Sec)
Larrson, Oscar Gottfried
Awarded Croix de Guerre avec Etoile de Vermeil 8 Jan 1945

During the month of August 1944, when Canadian Forestry Corps Units were initiating forestry operations in France, this Officer, in close co-operation with French Forest Officials, performed outstanding services in the selection of standing timber to provide a maximum quantity of urgently needed lumber with minimum exploitation of, or damage to Forest Areas. During this period, frequenting working in areas not cleared of enemy mines, initiative and devotion to duty, which, with a high degree of technical skill made his service of very great value.

PDF File Map
Canadian Forestry Corps in North West Europe
Courtesy of Paul Keenleyside

CMHQ Report # 151 - CFC 44-45
TABLE "A" showing dates of commencement and termination of operations by Companies in Northwest Europe.
COY EUROPE
Commenced Terminated
1 1 Nov 1944 18 Sep 1945
5 28 Jul 1944 21 Jul 1945
9 1 Nov 1944 17 Nov 1945
14 3 Nov 1944 14 Jul 1945
15 28 Jul 1944 23 Jun 1945
16 7 Aug 1944 25 Nov 1945
25 5 Nov 1944 14 Jul 1945
27 7 Nov 1944 14 Jul 1945
28 3 Aug 1944 23 Nov 1945
30 9 Aug 1944 23 Jun 1945

TABLE "B" showing details of locations of Companies in Europe.
No. 1 Coy - Sate. Hubert, soignes Brussels (Bel.);Luneberg (Ger.)
No. 5 Coy - Cerisy Balleroy (Fran.); Soignes Brussels (Bel.);Reichswald Goch, Diersfordter Wesel, Wesel Wesel (Ger.)
No. 9 Coy - Sate. Hubert, Schilde (Bel.); Tilburg (Hol.); Reichswald Goch, Bentheim (Ger.)
No. 14 Coy - Cedrogne Vielsalm, Schilde (Bel.); Wesel Wesel (Ger.)
No. 15 Coy - Ceriay Balleroy (Fran.);Schilde (Bel.); 'sHertogenboach (Hol.); Reichswald Goch(Ger.)
No. 16 Coy - Cerisy Balleroy (Fran.);Spa (Bel.); Rips (Hol.); Segeberg Neumunster (Ger.)
No. 25 Coy - St. Michel St. Hubert, Haute Marlagne Charleroi, Lalu Samree (Bel.); Lembeck Walfen (Ger.)
No. 27 Coy - St. Michel St. Hubert, Exel(Bel.); Gangelt, Binnen Nienborg (Ger.)
No. 28 Coy - Cerisy Balleroy (Fran.); Westerloo, Zonhoven (Bel.); Hochwald Xanten,Kerrsenbrock Osnabruck, Unterluss (Ger.)
No. 30 Coy - Cerisy Balleroy (Fran.); Westerloo, Schilde (Bel.); Rips (Hol.);
Reichswald Goch (Ger.)

Photos courtesy of Paul Keenleyside
A bit of detailed field work here. The War Diaries of 4 Aug 1944 say the headquarters camp was set into an apple orchard on the north side of the Bayeux-St. Lo road between Subles and Agy. Inquisitive, I dug in and first saw a recently completed highway, but that wouldn't be it. So It was easy to locate an existing road which would have been the original route and alignment. That comes from years of being able to figure out old highway alignments as I travelled around the southwestern quarter of BC. ("that's the old highway").
It goes northeast to southwest. Subles and Agy come together at a small bridge. Then I was able to see where it might be. AGY_SW would be "the north side of the road". This field with the sheep is the only large field in the area. On the other side is a smaller field but with trees (it would be difficult unless there was some kind of orientation picture with buildings to know what exactly the camp was on). The apple orchard may have been here, taken out (obviously) for the tents.
AGY_NW is a swing to the north. You can see a little white sign with Subles written on it, and the route number on top. The little sign on the other side of the road with its back showing says "Agy". In "driving" this route, there are many buildings that are obviously dated before WWII that are still standing as they are made of cut stone.

Canadian Army Newsreel - Forestry Corps in Belgium

The Sherbrooke Telegram 21 Dec 1944

These next photos courtesy of Louis Perron son of Pte Frank Perron No.5 Coy & HQ No 1 Canadian Forestry Group CFC
Pte Francois ‘Frank’ Perron
You will find so enclosed a photo of my father François (Frank) Perron taken in decembre 1944 in westerloo

In July 44 he cross La Manche and work with the corp at the Cerisy forest near Caen then move to Westerloo Belgium. I have also pictures taken im Belgium with a family name Torf than I wrote to them 3 years ago and they send me some other picture of my father with the family Torf from Belgium. The coy was living in a Château in Westerloo not far from the Torf,s home and the children still remember the Chrismas gift they had from my father and another soldier name Bradley. (Bradley, M.J.B., ACpl C21029)
During the war he was truck driver than foreman and clerk accountant group B and Caporal.
You will fin also his pay book, some information they had when they cross in France about enemy, way to travel, maps of France and Paris, ect…

77a, Bd, Emile Jacqmain Tel 17.52.74
Café-Hotel de Verviers Chauflage central
Eau courante chaude et froide
Welcome to allied soldiers

77a, Bd Emile Jacqmain Tel 17.52.74
Bar Hotel Verviers central heating function
Running hot and cold water
Welcome to allied soldiers


JOACHIM-TRACET 13 Place d’Armes (Albert-Somme)Telephone 2-00

Kasteelfeesten Westerlo
Chateau Kasteel de Merode au Francois Perron etait loge avec les militaire pendant la liberation en decembre 1944. Ce Chateau et ses jardins sont situe tout pres de la maison familiale Des Torfs. (Source Josef Torfs, Tenerife Canaries)

Kasteelfeesten Westerlo
Castle Kasteel de Merode Francois Perron was the box with the military during the release in December 1944. The Chateau and its gardens are located near to the family home Of Torfs. (Source Josef Torfs, Tenerife Canary Islands


From: Louis Perron
Sent: February-17-13 4:04 PM
To: Robert J Briggs
Subject: Re: Canadian forestry corps
Hello Bob,
You will find picture of the casttle that CFC were using to live in Westerlo during the Chrismas time.
The Torf family informe me that as children at that time they have good souvenir of de CFC who give them woo to heat the houses, warm blankets because that year it was colder as usuel and that my father and friends arange the things to be sure that every children had a Chrismas gift. In the Chrismas Morning, Santa Clauss in a small airplane drop boxes to them. Later their father told them that my father and the Torf father went in Bruxel the Chrismas ev to buy things they want.
Louis Perron

No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group
From 1940 onwards, units of the Canadian Forestry Corps had been at work in the United Kingdom.* In March 1943, when considering the invasion of the Continent, the British War Office foresaw a need for timber operations in the liberated and occupied areas. Accordingly Canada was asked to allocate five forestry companies to the 21st Army Group for operations in North-West Europe, and on 11 October 1943 Ottawa approved this arrangement. In January 1944 Headquarters No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group was mobilized to command these companies and was placed under Colonel C. E. F. Jones. In May 1944 assent was given to a further British proposal that the number of companies in No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group be increased from 5 to 10. No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group remained under C.M.H.Q.'s administration and command until in July and August its various companies moved to the south of England preparatory to embarking for the Continent.
The Canadian Forestry Corps' first task in connection with the North-West Europe campaign was curiously reminiscent of an earlier day in Canada. Lumber would be required on the Continent for the use of the invading force, but shipping could not be spared to carry it. Lt.-Col. E. P. Burchett, Assistant Director of Timber Operations, C.F.C., affirmed his belief that it would be practicable to tow long timbers across the Channel in the form of rafts. The idea was approved, and in March 1944 No. 1 Special Forestry Section, C.F.C., began work on raft construction at Southampton and Barry (on the Bristol Channel). Before the project was wound up in August-by which time it was possible to cut timber on the Continent-the Canadians had built 77 square timber rafts and 54 of round timber. The project was a success. The rafts met some rough weather at sea, particularly those from Barry which had to round Land's End, but tugs were able to move them safely at speeds up to eight knots.
During the last week in July and the first week in August, No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group and five companies moved to France, where a British pioneer company and two forestry companies of the Royal Engineers were placed under its command. The group at once began to cut timber in the Cerisy Forest between Bayeux and St. Lô. In late October and early November 1944 the Canadian Forestry Group moved into Belgium and commenced work in the Westerloo Forest near Brussels. Towards the end of October the other five Canadian forestry companies arrived on the Continent from the United Kingdom and went to the Ardennes Forest in the American sector where they found one Canadian company already at work. When in the middle of December the Germans launched their counteroffensive in the Ardennes the six Canadian forestry companies took up a posture of defence before being forced to make a hasty withdrawal. They all got safely back to Brussels, but although they were able to take considerable technical equipment with them 21 sawmills had to be abandoned in the Ardennes. These companies were then re-assigned to other areas in Belgium.

In later developments ten companies and one District Headquarters were returned to Canada from Scotland to form five fuel wood cutting units in mid-October 1943 - District No. 1 Headquarters, and Companies No. 2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 17, 21, 23, 26 and 29. Companies No. 4, 6, 10, 11, 13, 18, 19, 20, 22 and 24 continued to work in Scotland. Beginning in the spring of 1944 further Canadian Forestry Corps companies were withdrawn from Scottish timber operations in preparations for the Invasion of Normandy. The Companies that went to the mainland were not comprised of the same men. The men that were to go over were selected by the officers who were chosen to lead the men. The officers had to keep in mind in the selection that they needed men with certain skills and were they young enough for the job. Going to the mainland was different from working in Scotland. Companies No. 5, 15, 16, 28, and 30 made up No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group, mobilized 1 May 1944, with its headquarters located briefly at Wilderness Camp and then at Beaufort Castle. A further five companies joined them subsequently, which was Companies No. 1, 9, 14, 25 and 27.) The first five companies were sent to Carronbridge Camp just north of Thornhill, Dumfriesshire, for further military training. The men of these first five companies thought they were the cream of the crop until they heard that the other five companies were on their way to Belgium in October 1944. The first group proceeded directly to a staging area at Lancing, Sussex, in southern England. The first companies crossed the Channel from Portsmouth to Normandy beaches in the last days in July and the first in August 1944. From there they moved with the First Canadian Army in the advance across North-West Europe.
Source:'The Sawdust Fusiliers' by William C Wonders

Thornhill Train Station
- The CFC companies that were sent for extra training before going to North West Europe.
- They went by train from their camps to Thornhill and from there by truck to Carronbridge, Dumfriesshire to the barracks for a month of extensive training.

Extra training Carronbridge Camp near Thornhill, Dumfriesshire
Photo Courtesy of Linda Bish daughter of Private Edward 'Ted' James Bish No.28 Coy CFC

The Montreal Gazette – Aug 4, 1944 - Canuck Lumberjacks Arrive in Normandy - London, August 3 – (CP Cable)

CANADIAN FORESTRY CORPS COMPANIES IN 21 ARMY GROUP
Source Ref: CFC Report 117
50. On 11 Oct 43, approval had been granted by the Cdn Govt for the retention in the UK of five Forestry companies for operational requirements in 21 Army Group (see para 42). At a conference at CMHQ on 25 Jan 44, recommendations were put forward that these five companies should include a Group HQ and Companies 5, 15, 16, 28 and 30. Cross-posting within all companies would be made to ensure that personnel selected for inclusion in this group would be suitable by age, category and training for employment in a Theatre of War. This was to be completed by 31 Mar 44 (1/For/1/4 Brig Weeks to Brig Beament, 26 Jan 44). As of 10 Mar 44, the strength of the Group, including reinforcements, totalled 49 officers and 1146 ORs. (ibid, Brig Penhale to Gen Montague, 10 Mar 44).
51. With respect to eqpt, the general understanding seems to be that Canada will be responsible for the full cost of the initial provision of personnel and equipment, including unit equipment. In addition, the Cdn Govt: will bear a proportionate share of the maintenance of such personnel and equipment according to the cost of a combined operation in any theatre where Cdn troops might be engaged. Financial adjustments will be based upon a complete army per capita rate to be established for every theatre and the Canadian share will be proportionate to the number of troops engaged. (6/CFC/1/2, Brig Penhale to Gen Montague, 31 Mar 44) This policy, it will be noted, does not apply to those companies engaged in completing lumbering operations in Scotland. The latter continue under the financial arrangements described in report no. 29.
52. Early in Mar 1944, the CE 21 army Group, approached CMHQ with an "unofficial enquiry" regarding the possibility of adding another five Forestry companies to the existing commitment. This proposal was taken up with Col Jones who was of the opinion that no difficulty would be experienced in finding the necessary personnel. He expressed the belief that one Group HQ would function satisfactorily for ten companies, although the provision of two would greatly facilitate control and administration. He suggested that a second Headquarters could be made available by utilizing one of the district headquarters presently operating in Scotland. Since the personnel involved in this increased commitment (38 officers and 1049 other ranks) had not yet returned to Canada, their transfer to 21 Army Group would not involve any actual increase in manpower is so far as the CFC was concerned. Additional reinforcements required were negligible in number, totalling on 39 all ranks (1/For/1/4, Brig Penhale to Gen Montague, 10 Mar 44).
53. CMHQ forwarded the British proposal to the Canadian Govt for their consideration on 13 Mar 44 (ibid, Tel GS 13, CANMILITRY to DEFENSOR). On 24 Mar 44, NDHQ replied that the matter would receive their favourable consideration on receipt of an official request from the War Office and a recommendation of approval from Gen Stuart (ibid. Tel GS 191, DEFENSOR to CANMILITRY). Three days later, Gen Stuart suggested to Lt Gen HDG Crerar, who on 20 Mar 44 was appointed GOC-in-C, First Canadian Army, that he ask 21 Army Group for an official request (ibid, Gen Stuart to Gen Crerar, 27 Mar 44). On 3 Apr 44, the GOC-in-C advised HQ 21 Army Group that an official approach to OTTAWA would receive favourable consideration and suggested that a request to the Cdn Govt be initiated by the War Office (ibid, Gen Crerar to HQ, 21 Army Group). On the assumption that this course will be adopted, mobilization plans continue, although at the date of writing (30 Apr 44) the official request has not yet emanated from the War Office.
54. In the meantime, the original five companies plus 10% reinforcements are undergoing a month's refresher basic training course at CARRONBRIDGE CAMP, Dumfriesshire, Scotland. In the near future, these five companies will join 21 Army Group for employment in rear areas of operations in Europe.

PDF File Map
CFC Companies in France
Courtesy of Paul Keenleyside
PDF File Map
CFC Companies in Belgium
Courtesy of Paul Keenleyside

Advance into the Netherlands
After the successful landings in the south of France by the U.S. 6th Army Group, the 21st Army Group formed the left flank of the three Allied army groups arrayed against German forces in the West. It was therefore responsible for securing the ports upon which Allied supply depended, and also with overrunning German V-1 and V-2 launching sites along the coasts of western France and Belgium. By 29 August, the Germans had largely withdrawn across the Seine River without their heavy equipment. The campaign through Northern France and Belgium was largely a pursuit, with the ports - formally designated "Fortress Towns" by the Germans - offering only limited opposition to the First Canadian Army. The advance was so rapid, 250 miles in four days, that Antwerp, Belgium was captured on 4 September 1944, undefended, and with its port facilities intact. On 1 September 1944, the 21st Army Group was relieved of operational control of the American armies, and those armies formed the 12th Army Group. By mid-September, elements of 21st Army Group had reached the Dutch border, but were halted due to lack of supplies, and by flooding caused by the widespread German demolition of Dutch dikes. German control of some of the channel ports, and previous Allied bombing of the French and Belgian railways, resulted in a long supply line from Normandy served mainly by trucks.

From 1940 onwards, units of the Canadian Forestry Corps had been at work in the United Kingdom.* In March 1943, when considering the invasion of the Continent, the British War Office foresaw a need for timber operations in the liberated and occupied areas. Accordingly Canada was asked to allocate five forestry companies to the 21st Army Group for operations in North-West Europe, and on 11 October 1943 Ottawa approved this arrangement. In January 1944 Headquarters No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group was mobilized to command these companies and was placed under Colonel C. E. F. Jones. In May 1944 assent was given to a further British proposal that the number of companies in No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group be increased from 5 to 10. No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group remained under C.M.H.Q.'s administration and command until in July and August its various companies moved to the south of England preparatory to embarking for the Continent. The Canadian Forestry Corps' first task in connection with the North-West Europe campaign was curiously reminiscent of an earlier day in Canada. Lumber would be required on the Continent for the use of the invading force, but shipping could not be spared to carry it. Lt.-Col. E. P. Burchett, Assistant Director of Timber Operations, C.F.C., affirmed his belief that it would be practicable to tow long timbers across the Channel in the form of rafts. The idea was approved, and in March 1944 No. 1 Special Forestry Section, C.F.C., began work on raft construction at Southampton and Barry (on the Bristol Channel). Before the project was wound up in August-by which time it was possible to cut timber on the Continent-the Canadians had built 77 square timber rafts and 54 of round timber. The project was a success. The rafts met some rough weather at sea particularly those from Barry which had to round Land's End, but tugs were able to move them safely at speeds up to eight knots.

During the last week in July and the first week in August, No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group and five companies moved to France, where a British pioneer company and two forestry companies of the Royal Engineers were placed under its command. The group at once began to cut timber in the Cerisy Forest between Bayeux and St. Lô. In late October and early November 1944 the Canadian Forestry Group moved into Belgium and commenced work in the Westerloo Forest near Brussels. Towards the end of October the other five Canadian forestry companies arrived on the Continent from the United Kingdom and went to the Ardennes Forest in the American sector where they found one Canadian company already at work. When in the middle of December the Germans launched their counteroffensive in the Ardennes the six Canadian forestry companies took up a posture of defence before being forced to make a hasty withdrawal. They all got safely back to Brussels, but although they were able to take considerable technical equipment with them 21 sawmills had to be abandoned in the Ardennes. These companies were then re-assigned to other areas in Belgium.

Apart from several companies of No. 1 Canadian Forestry Group,† then working in the Ardennes Forest, and the 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion, brought from the United Kingdom with the rest of the 6th Airborne Division to assist in meeting the emergency, no Canadian units were directly involved in the battle. The Canadian loggers found themselves in close proximity to the enemy and had to take up defensive positions for a time before being evacuated from the Ardennes. The parachute battalion did not reach the front at Rochefort (only a few miles from the previous locations of the forestry companies) until 2 January, by which time the activity required of it was mainly confined to aggressive patrolling. However, the German counter-offensive was significant for First Canadian Army: partly by its effect upon its future operational role and partly because of a subsidiary threat on General Crerar's front.

At 5:00 p.m. on 19 December Field-Marshal Montgomery telephoned General Crerar. The German penetration of the First United States Army's front, he said, was "deep and, potentially, serious". Consequently, he had decided "to make immediate re-dispositions in 21 Army Group, in order to secure its right flank". That same evening the 30th British Corps was to move from Boxtel to Hasselt, 15 miles west of the Meuse, and come under the command of Second British Army. The 51st (Highland) Division would remain under Crerar, but would be kept ready for speedy transfer to the Second Army. Ten minutes after this conversation Crerar issued the necessary instructions to carry out Montgomery's orders. In effect, all plans for launching "VERITABLE" about 1 January were temporarily shelved.

*Marshalling his forces with uncommon skill, choosing his weather and his sector with exemplary care, von Rundstedt has launched an operation on which he is prepared to 'gamble everything"' (21st Army Group Intelligence Review No. 169, 20 December 1944). In the opinion of R.A.F. historians, information provided by Allied air reconnaissance had not been properly assessed and disseminated. †Nos. 1, 9, 14, 25 and 28 Companies had been operating sawmills south-east of Names, in the St. Hubert area; No. 16 Company had been employed at Spa, south-east of Liège.

In February 1945, almost as soon as the area came under Allied control, two Canadian forestry companies were sent to the Reichswald, later moving to the Hochwald, to produce in these bloodstained forests lumber and timber for the Rhine crossings. The Canadian Forestry Group continued operations for a time after the end of hostilities, all the companies being finally stationed in Germany; but in November 1945 Canadian lumbering on the Continent came to an end. During the time it had spent in North-West Europe the Group had produced approximately 47,700,000 F.B.M. of sawn lumber, in addition to large production in other categories; a valuable contribution to the success of the campaign.

PDF File Map
CFC Companies in Holland
Courtesy of Paul Keenelyside

Toronto Daily Star – Mar 14, 1945
CANADIANS USE WOOD OF BIG NAZI FOREST
By ROSS MUNRO

Toronto Daily Star – Jul 21, 1945
EVERY BRIDGE FOR MONTY TIMBERED BY CANUCK CORPS

Ottawa Citizen – Mar 9, 1946
Restoring Operations of Lumber in Germany
By William Boss
MINDEN, Germany, March 11 – (CP)

PDF File Map
CFC Companies in Germany
Courtesy of Paul Keenleyside

The Lethbridge Herald, Tuesday March 12, 1946

Resume Lumbering in German Forests
MINDEN, Germany, March 12.-(CP) - German prisoners-of-war and civilians under supervision of Canadian officers of the Allied Military Governments are restoring lumber operations in the British zone on a scale which has permitted exports to Britain and stimulated Ruhr coal production by provision of pit props.
Under Lt. Col. Max MacLaggan of Blackville, N.B., the Canadians, former members of the Canadian Forestry Corps, have formed the nucleus of the forestry section of the control commission's food and agricultural branch.
Last summer the detachment provided 2,500 tons of pit props daily, keeping 170 mines in production. A crisis had developed, resulting in 12 mines closing down, when Col. MacLaggan was asked to help.

War Brides of of the HQ No.1 Canadian Forestry Group

Thomas, George McAlpine Capt married Miss Dorothy C Seaton 26 Mar 1945

Soldiers of the HQ No.1 Canadian Forestry Group

List of Abbreviations - Library and Archives Canada
ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS of WW2 and service records
Military Districts of Canada 1939
Calgary Military Historical Society

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Adams, Albert Isidore (Moose) LCpl C70017 driver - transf from HQ CFC
Adams, C. Pte B98233
Alexander, R.L. Pte G48266 Transf from No.10 Coy & Reinf Sect
Amos, W.T. Pte K83072 14 Canadian Aux Service Sect
Anderson, J.P. Pte M65192 driver IC
Arola, Axel A. Pte H62507 Transf from No.20 Coy
Arsenault, Herman Pte K99620 electr 'A' - transf from No.10 Coy & No.2 Coy & HQ No 2 Dist
Badger, Merlin Russell ASgt E36081 welder 'B' -transf from No.3 Coy & Gen Workshop
Bailey, Arthur Cpl E29390 driver IC - transf from No.16 Coy & No.2 Coy
Bailey, W. Lt Transf from CAC transf to No.16 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Barker, John Walker CQMS G45554 Fitter-tractor-forestry ‘A’ - transf from No.4 Coy & No.5 Coy transf to No.5 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Baumhour, M.H. Pte B112564
Bean, T.M. Cpl B20741 motor mech "B" - transf from No.12 Coy & No.5 Coy
Beauchamp, E. Pte C70464 Transf from No.23 Coy
Beaudet, Jean Paul ALCpl E36069 motorcycle disp rider - transf from No.3 Coy & No.26 Coy & No.24 Coy
Beaudoin, L. Pte E39480 gen duties - transf from HQ No 2 Dist & No.10 Coy transf to No.27 Coy & No.5 Coy - See No 7 CFD
Beaument, E. Pte C70474 batman
Beebe, Reginald Pte E62637 Transf from HQ No 4 Dist
Beer, Albert George ACpl B17108 RP - transf from No.14 Coy
Benlow, W.F. Pte D77727 clerk class C
Bennett, Joseph Leonard ACpl G49672 cook class C - att RCASC transf from No.22 Coy
Benton, Basil Staff Sgt C21569 clerk class "B" - transf from No 3 DD & HQ CFC & HQ No 1 Dist & HQ No 3 Dist
Berg, E.L. Cpl L51315 Transf from No.26 Coy transf to No.25 Coy
Birnie, William Capt Transf from No.1 Coy & No.30 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Black, William John Francis Pte K74678 gen duty - transf from No.22 Coy - See No 7 CFD
Bloss, S. Pte B40114 blacksmith class B
Bond, J.S. Pte H94675 driver IC
Booth, Frederick Joseph John Pte B20603 Transf from No.12 Coy & No.11 Coy
Boston, R.E. Sgt F49526 Medical orderly - RCAMC att to HQ No 1 CFG
Boyce, Anthony Bertram LCpl D110136 Transf from No.2 Coy
Boyce, Ralph Herbert Cpl G45675 clerk class C - transf from No.4 Coy
Bradley, M.J. Bernard ACpl C21029 postal orderly - transf from No 3 DD & HQ No 1 Dist & HQ No 3 Dist
Brodie, Francis Henry Pte B20198 Transf from No.11 Coy & No.6 Coy
Burchett, Edward Page Lt Col Transf from No.6 Coy & HQ No 5 Dist & CFC HQ
Burpee, Mahlon Aubrey Pte G45605 Transf from No.4 Coy & No.5 Coy transf to No.16 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Camley, Joseph Lloyd George Pte K99143 driver IC - transf from No.7 Coy transf to Reinf Sect & No.10 Coy
Canney, J.E. Pte G56709 orderly - transf from HQ CFC
Carlson, G.E. Pte H62632 driver IC
Carruthers, W.J. Pte M103532 general duties - transf from No.6 Coy transf to No.9 Coy - See No 7 CFD
Cartwright, C. Pte K47836 Transf from No.10 Coy
Cathcart, Edgar Percy Sgt D110162 Transf from No 2 Coy
Chapman, Thomas Agar ALCpl L50027 Transf from No.20 Coy
Chenier, A. Pte E19042 general duty - transf from No.27 Coy
Chenier, Oliver CSM B17045 Supdt clerk A - transf from No.14 Coy
Christiansen, S.B. Pte H94690 Transf from No.26 Coy
Christie, H.M. Pte K41302 motor mech/forestry class A - transf from No.29 Coy
Christie, Joseph Henry Pte G48128 general duty - transf from No.15 Coy
Cisco, William Pte K99003 fitter tractor/forestry class A - transf from No.7 Coy
Clowater, Eldon Samuel Pte G48074 Transf from No.15 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Cole, G.R. Pte D76690 driver IC - transf from No.6 Coy
Connolly, W. Pte H53467
Connors, Malcolm Woodbury Pte E36151 Transf from No.3 Coy & Gen Worskshop & No.11 Coy
Copeland, R.E. Pte K41513 driver IC
Cote, Hector Maurice Pte C70002 clerk class B - transf from HQ CFC
Cowper, Floyd Lucien Pte D113205 driver IC - transf from No.9 Coy & No.2 Coy & No.9 Coy
Crocker, R. Pte K41307 Transf from No.29 Coy transf to No.5 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Curtis, Wesley Howard Pte K99530 motor mech forestry class A - transf from No.10 Coy
Daly, Joseph Edward Pte L50053 batman - transf from No.20 Coy & No.17 Coy & No.9 Coy
David, Antonio Staff Sgt C63196 Transf from No.1 Coy & No.3 Coy & HQ CFC
Demchuk, Andrew Sgt M61832 clerk class B - transf from No.19 Coy & HQ CFC & No 1 CSFS
Duguay, S. Richard Pte G56651 Transf from No.25 Coy & No.27 Coy
Dupuis, Clarence Pte C34194 driver mech class 'C' - transf from No.22 Coy & HQ No 2 Dist
Dyer, Gordon Ross Sgt C70038 Transf from HQ CFC & No.22 Coy & HQ No.2 Dist
Dyment, Lawrence Bayfield Pte F85576 motor mech class C - transf from No.13 Coy & No.15 Coy
Ewachniuk, A. SSgt M49759 Transf from No 13 DD & No.19 Coy & HQ No 4 Dist
Fairfield, C. Pte H56375
Faye, Frank Pte H94437 driver IC - transf from No.24 Coy
Fernandez, William 'Bill' J. Pte G53441 fitter tractor forestry Class A - transf from No.25 Coy
Firlotte, Tye L. Pte F65520 Transf from Reinf Sect & HQ No 7 CFD
Fitzpatrick, James S. Pte K72863 general duty - transf from No.18 Coy
Forman, Arthur Grove Capt RCAPC
Fournier, Alfred Joseph Pte H53416 orderly - transf from No.5 Coy & HQ CFC
Fults, Edward Austin Pte H56219 motor mech forestry class A - transf from No.17 Coy
Gagnon, Charles Eugene Pte E36078 Transf from No.3 Coy & No.22 Coy transf to No.16 Coy- See No 8 CFD & No.18 Coy
Geiger, C. Pte K74272 fitter tractor forestry class A
Gies, E.E. Pte L53753 machinist metal class B - transf from Reinf Sect
Gilchrist, F.B. Pte H62917 general duty - transf from No.24 Coy
Gilmour, A.M. Cpl K73493 Transf from No.30 Coy & HQ CFC & HQ No 1 Dist transf to HQ No 7 CFD
Glennie, R.W. Pte K41409 Transf from No.26 Coy & No.9 Coy
Graham, John Edward Pte G48014 motor mech forestry class A - transf from No.15 Coy & Gen Workshop
Gulbranson, A.M. Pte K52492 RCASC - cook class C
Gulbranson, Olaf N. Pte K62498 cook 'C' - att RCASC transf from CScotR & No.21 Coy & HQ CFC & RCASC transf to No.5 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Hailey, A.J. Pte M59340 batman
Halladay, V.H. Staff Sgt C29537 Transf from No.9 Coy transf to No.5 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Hall, Ernest William Sgt K72942 Transf from No.14 Coy
Halverson, Gordon David Pte K41027 fitter tractor forestry class A - transf from No.22 Coy
Hanssen, Gerald Louis Maria Capt K31530 Transf from No 11 DD & No.18 Coy & HQ No 5 Dist & OCTU & HQ CFC
Headrick, Robert Pte L50085 Transf from No.20 Coy & HQ No 4 Dist transf to No.16 Coy & No.5 Coy- See No 8 CFD
Hoare, G. Pte D113160 Transf from No.9 Coy
Honeyman, J.G. Pte B94685 14 Canadian Aux Service Sect
Hood, James Eldrean Pte K47194 Transf from No.18 Coy
Horne, E.J. Pte F65629 motor mech forestry class A - transf from Reinf Sect
Houghton, J.A. Capt RCAC
Huntingdon, Edward Cpl E0209 general duty - transf from No.16 Coy & No.8 Coy & HQ No 3 Dist
Irvine, D.J. Pte K73057 cook - transf from No.18 Coy transf to RCASC att to HQ No 1 CFG transf to HQ No 7 CFD
Irwin, John Davidson (Jack/Red) Pte H53356 fitter tractor forestry class A - transf from No.5 Coy
Johnson, J.T. Pte cook class C - RCSC att to HQ No 1 CFG transf from No.25 Coy
Johnston, John Irwin ALCpl B20187 welder G & E class B - transf from No.11 Coy
Jones, Chilion Eric Ford Col O.B.E. CO - transf from HQ CFC
Johnston, William Alexander Annandale S/Sgt K41129 Transf from No.30 Coy
Jackson, Edward Joseph Pte B102808 gen duty - transf from No.22 Coy & Reinf Sect & HQ No 7 Dist
Kelly, Fred J.J. Pte D113006 clerk 'C' - transf from No.9 Coy
Kropielnicki William Sgt M61930 Transf from No.19 Coy & HQ No 3 Dist & RCASC att to HQ No 7 CFD
Lacoure, P.A. Pte K70893 panel beater class A
LaFlamme, Raymond L/Cpl E62648 Transf from No.27 Coy
Lafleur, Wilfred Joseph LCpl C70004 clerk class C - transf from HQ CFC transf to HQ No 8 CFD
Lagrippa, A. Pte D113004 Transf from No.9 Coy & No.6 Coy & HQ No 5 Dist & HQ No 7 CFD
Lambert, Lorne Gilbert Pte C63014 driver I/C - transf from No.1 Coy
Lamontagne, Georges Henri ACpl E36123 batman - transf from No.3 Coy & D.D.M.D.#5 & No.16 Coy & No.22 Coy
Lampman, A.W. Pte K72911 driver IC
Landrie, Peter Joseph Pte B17198 general duty - transf from No.14 Coy transf to CIC
Larsson Oscar Gottfried Capt Transf from No.19 Coy & HQ CFC
Lau-Jensen T. QMS H52659 QM - transf from HQ No 5 Dist
Laye, Herbert Benjamin Sgt H94605 Transf from No.28 Coy & No.27 Coy
Leslie, J.A. Pte B81889
MacElwain, D.F. Pte clerk class C
MacGregor, C.R. Pte C52710 driver IC
MacMillan, James Massey Pte B20597 Transf from No.12 Coy
MacRae, Robert E. Cpl B62635 Transf from No.26 Coy & No.27 Coy
Manuel, Percival Edmund Sgt orderly Sgt - transf from No.12 Coy
Martin, D.A. Pte D113081 Transf from No.9 Coy transf to No.15 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Maude-Roxby, Osborne Victor Lt Col OC - transf from No.6 Coy & No.7 Coy & CFC Training Wing MGTC & No.19 Coy & No.9 Coy & HQ No 7 CFD
McArthur, Dan Pte E36182 Transf from No.3 Coy & No.25 Coy - See No 7 CFD
McBurney, Raymond James Pte K41216 steno - transf from No.22 Coy & HQ No 2 Dist
McCormick, Robert Sanford Sgt H56271 sawdoctor class A - transf from No.17 Coy
McCrae, Charles William Gordon Lt F.A.A. - transf from HQ CFC & No 1 CSFS
McFayden, Alexander Charles Pte H56260 clerk class C - transf from No.17 Coy
McInnis, Stuart Alexander Pte L50101 Transf from No.20 Coy
McLellan, Boyde Elliot Pte F87525 general duties - transf from No.13 Coy transf to NNSH
McMillan, Peter George Pte H56399 Transf from No.17 Coy
McNair, Gordon David Pte G48143 fitter MV class B - transf from No.15 Coy & No.13 Coy
Mercer, Lionel Vernon Eyre Lt K99534 Transf from No.10 Coy & OCTU & HQ CFC & No 1 CSFS & HQ No 7 CFD transf to No.16 Coy & HQ No 8 CFD
Mercier, G.A. Pte K63000 Transf from No.27 Coy
Miljour, R.O.J. Pte C34182 general duty - transf from No.21 Coy & HQ No 5 Dist
Miner, R.A. Pte Transf to No.1 Coy - See No 7 CFD
Minns, George William Lt K41354 Transf from No.30 Coy & HQ CFC & OCTU & No.24 Coy
Miron, J.C.E. Pte C34375 motorcyclist - transf from No.27 Coy
Monnet, Jean Marie Alexis Hon Capt Roman Catholic - att from CCS transf from No 7 CIRU & HQ CFC & HQ No 2 Dist & HQ No 7 CFD
Montgomery, Robert Hastwell (Pat) Lt Col CO - transf from No.16 Coy & No.22 Coy & Gen Works
Morency, Gerard Cpl E38122 clerk class 'C' - transf from No.16 Coy & No.2 Coy
Morin, Joseph Adelard Lionel Pte B16748 Transf from No. 14 Coy
Mousseau, E.G.S. Staff Sgt C34146 Transf from No.23 Coy
Murray, Charles A. Pte F30629 Transf from Reinf Sect & HQ No 7 CFD
Nesbit, T.D. ACpl K99760 driver IC - transf from No.10 Coy
Noble, Albert William Sgt D110124 driver IC - transf from No.2 Coy
Nordholt, A. ACpl H37948 electr class A
Oliver, Jacques CSM C63175 Transf from No.27 Coy
Payette, Desire James Lt K73868 Transf from No 11 DD & No.18 Coy & No.10 Coy & OCTU & No.20 Coy & No.14 Coy
Perrault, J.H.V. Sgt C30216 clerk class C - transf from No.8 Coy
Perron, Francois Frank Pte H53321 clerk class C - transf from No.5 Coy
Perry, A.J. ALCpl K67278 batman - transf from HQ CFC
Pickles, Frank Byron Cpl G45758 clerk class 'C' - transf from No.4 Coy & No.5 Coy & No.4 Coy & Gen Workshop
Powell, Edward George Harvey Staff Sgt C30595 clerk class "B" - transf from No 3 DD & No.1 Coy & HQ CFC
Premont, C.A. Pte E39529 general duty - transf from No.27 Coy
Rapple, Roy Edward Capt Adj & QM - transf from No 3 DD & HQ CFC & HQ No 1 Dist & HQ No 3 Dist
Rennick, L.R. Pte K41553 clerk class C - transf from HQ CFC
Rennison, W. Slim Pte K41311 motor mech class C
Rice, Edward Melvine Pte driver mech class 'C' - transf from No.13 Coy
Ringette, G. Pte E62832 Transf from No.27 Coy
Risebrow, Thomas Robert Pte L41364 Transf from No.26 Coy & No.20 Coy
Roussel, J.A. Pte G56623 driver IC - transf from No.25 Coy
Schwarz, W. Cpl K31043 blacksmith class B
Seymour, Archibald Sidney CSM B17194 Att from RCAMC transf from SSM&SR & No.14 Coy & HQ No 1 Dist & HQ CFC transf to HQ No 7 CFD
Shepheard, F.G. Pte C70075 general duty - transf from HQ CFC
Sherlock, O.W. Cpl K41445 Transf from HQ CFC
Sherry, G. Pte L64661 Transf to No.28 Coy - See No 8 CFD
Sicard, Laurent Louis Staff Sgt B20696 clerk class 'C' - transf from No.12 Coy & HQ No 3 Dist & HQ No 5 Dist
Simpson, Arley H. Pte D71856 Transf from VRC
Sloan, William (Bill) McDougal Sgt K98511 Surveyor Topo Class A - transf from No.6 Coy
Smith, N.B. ACpl K41441 clerk class B - transf from Reinf Sect
Smith, Robert Oswald Lt asst to mill maint & op - transf from No.13 Coy & HQ No 2 Dist
Soucy, Andre Pte E36067 driver IC - transf from No.3 Coy & No.24 Coy
Tansley, Thomas Edwin Lt Transf from Reinf Sect & No.6 Coy & No.19 Coy & No.1 Coy - See No 7 CFD
Tardiff, G. Pte E39477
Taylor, Albert Wilbrey Pte E36082 motor mech 'B' - transf from No.3 Coy & HQ CFC & Gen Workshop
Thatcher, M.L. Pte H45740 motor mech forestry class A - transf from No.23 Coy
Thomas, George McAlpine Capt C70021 Stores Officer - transf from HQ CFC
Timothy, Griffith Pte K98519 Transf from No.6 Coy & HQ CFC & No.27 Coy
Turmel, Roland Pte E36125 Transf from No.3 Coy & No.22 Coy & No.30 Coy transf to CRD
Upton, George William W.O.I S.M. E21002 Supdt clerk class A - transf from HQ CFC
Vandal, W.A. Pte H94377 Transf from Reinf Sect
Vuckets, P.S. Pte H19379 clerk class C
Wallstrom, J.B. Pte H94331 Transf from No.24 Coy
Walsh, Christopher Pte D110195 general duties - transf from No.2 Coy
Watt, Hebert Francis ‘Bert’ Pte H52881 clerk class C - transf from No.23 Coy
Wells, William Pte D110212 driver mech class C - transf from No.2 Coy
Whitney, Stillman Edward Pte H62840 Transf from No.23 Coy
Willie, A.J. Cpl K99225 clerk class B
Willington, L.A. Lt K73796 Transf from No 11 DD & No.18 Coy & OCTU & No.19 Coy & No.6 Coy
Wilson, E. Pte D113130 Transf to No.9 Coy
Winskill, David Thomas Major B17188 mill maint & constr - transf from No.14 Coy & No.16 Coy & OCTU & No.22 Coy transf to COF

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