migration.html Untitled
 Johannes Hahn: background
History Lessons:
 Donation of Johannes' Bible
 St. Paul Lutheran Church, Newton, NC
 Zion Lutheran Church, Hickory, NC
 Furor over a baptism
 Hawn marriages in Catawba County, NC
 Hawn burials in Catawba County
This 'n' That:
 Hahn coat of arms
  Historian Yoder's view
 George M. Yoder, historian
 Palatines to America
 About Catawba County
 Bollinger leads migration
 Memories of Hahn Chapel
 Memories of Cape Girardeau
 Letters from visitors (16 pages)
 Photos of some Hawns
(Disclaimer: I have searched the Internet for information on copyright for this article but the only clue I can find is listing of the book, "The Bollinger Connection" by Orenia Bollinger on Amazon.com. It seems the book is out of print, was published in 1984 and many, many people are using excerpts from it on their family web pages, as if the copyright does not exist. Perhaps it doesn't or perhaps usage has conformed with the copyright law. I am printing this in the hopes I won't get sued!)

Populating Missouri
With North Caroliina People

In the 1700s, Europeans began arriving in the new country called America. Lorena Eaker, the historian who wrote German Speaking People West of the Catawba 1750-1800 wrote that King Charles II of England gave William Penn the land known as Pennsylvania in settlement of a debt. It covered more than 40,000 square miles, the largest tract of land ever granted in America to a single person. Penn was governor and he and his sons held the land as proprietors until about two years later. William Penn III, in which religious and civil liberty would prevail. (http://home.comcast.net~jthornton/missouri.htm)

Thus began the large-scale immigration to Pennsylvania, into the south and the new west, influencing every phase of American life.

By the 1800s, most of the eastern coastland was settled. Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, almost doubling the size of the United States. It ranged from what is now Louisiana, north to the Canadian line, and east of the Mississippi River to the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Of course, Native Americans were forced to find new homes.

In the center of the Louisiana Territory was the Mississippi River and the Missouri Territory. As quickly as it became open for settlement in 1812, families from the east began to take possession of the fertile farmland. Families from Catawba County were among the first to make the trek. The easiest route was across land to the Ohio River, floating down to the Mississippi River and upstream to St. Louis. From there they would enter the mouth of the Missouri River and travel to the center of Missouri.

Mrs.Eaker lists a number of men who settled in Missouri but she shows no records of any Hahns among them. However we know some Hahns went to Missouri, for there are many who were born in North Carolina and died in Missouri. Among today's Hahns whose family history was lost is David Earl Hahn, who grew up in Missouri and only recently learned that his roots were in North Carolina.

George Frederick Bollinger led the Catawba County contingent into Missouri, thereby establishing Bollinger County, which still exists today. The following is from Steven Allen, [email protected]


George Frederick Bollinger. eleventh descendant of Heinrich (Henry)Bollinger and Elizabeth Wohlraber came to what is now the state of Missouri in 1797 with a neighbor, John Mussgenug, also called "Moose", a young hunting companion. They owned good riding horses and being adventuresome young men, traveled with their belongings strapped to their saddles. With the aid of their trusty rifles, they lived on the abundant game as they made their way to the small Spanish outpost of Cape Girardeau located on the west bank of the Mississippi River in Upper Louisiana Territory. Lorimier

George F. soon became a friend of Louis Lorimier, the Commandant of the post. Lorimer was impressed by the big jovial North Carolinian whom he considered to be an intelligent, religious, peace-loving and obviously bearing the earmarks of a born leader. Lorimer was anxious to bring more settlers to this area and after much discussion he made an offer of land concessions to new settlers and a large tract of land to George F. Bollinger provided he could persuade other colonists from North Carolina to settle in the Cape Girardeau area. Lorimer explained that according to Spanish rules, settlers could locate on as much as 800 arpens of land (about 640 acres) upon the payment of $41.00, about five cents an arpen, which was the cost of having the land surveyed. Improvements were required and settlers were expected to become Permanent residents.

Lorimier's enthusiasm aroused George's interest and after some thought he agreed to accept the offer. Consequently, he returned to North Carolina and soon married Elizabeth Hunsucker on her eighteenth birthday. George Frederick called his relatives and friends together and used eloquent persuasion to convince four brothers, John, Daniel, Philip, Mathias and two nephews, Mann Henry Bollinger and William Bollinger to return to Missouri with him. Other friends and neighbors were Peter and Conrad Statler, Joseph Nyswonger, George and Peter Grount (Grounds),Peter Crytes, John and Jacob Cotner, John and Isaac Miller, Frederick Limbaugh, Leonard Welker and Frederick Slinkard families also decided to join with him as their leader to the new land rich in fertile soil, virgin timber and abounding with wild fruits, nuts and game, to be had almost for the asking.

They harvested their abundant crops in North Carolina in the fall of 1799, stocked their ox-carts and covered wagons with their belongings and all the provisions and food for their livestock that their wagons would hold; started on their perilous journey westward. They faced the almost unknown territory with strong hearts and great courage, hoping to cross their largest obstacle, the Mississippi River, on the ice, frozen solid in mid-winter.

George Frederick's wife, Elizabeth, was in poor health after giving birth to their only child, Sarah, in 1799. Elizabeth and Sarah were left behind with relatives that stayed in NC. Unfortunately, Elizabeth died and was buried in NC, never to see the land so glowingly described by her husband.

Many hardships were endured by the hardy little band of pioneers as they made their journey westward, moving forward a few miles each day, making and breaking camp each night, fording the small streams and floating across the larger ones on rafts which they made from the nearby trees, following roads that were barely trails thru forests and valleys.

With the superb leadership of George F., they arrived on the east bank of the Mississippi River opposite St. Genevieve in late December and pitched camp to explore the river crossing possibility. Their expectations were better than they had hoped for as winter had come early to this area and the river was already covered with ice. Now to determine if the ice was thick enough to support their wagons.

The bitter cold continued while they had determined that the ice was not yet thick enough for a crossing. Some of the men hunted for wild game to supplement their food supply while others kept busy cutting huge piles of logs to keep a roaring fire burning day and night to provide heat for warmth and for cooking. The older boys took care of their live stock, doling out the feed that they had brought with them. Daily the thickness of the ice was examined and on Dec. 31, 1799, a chopped hole in the ice indicated thickness well over two feet, A few trips across were made on foot and horseback inspecting the condition of the ice and with the advice of the experienced men of Ste. Genevieve, a decision was made that the ice would support a loaded wagon. A wagon was chosen to be driven across with no one riding and the driver would walk ahead watching the ice and leading his team. The trip across and back to camp was made without the ice cracking and preparations were made for an early crossing New Years Day, Jan. 1, 1800.

It was imperative that they cross as soon as possible to replenish their supplies, which were becoming low, at the village across the river. Jan. 1, 1800, everyone was awakened early. Breakfast was prepared and hurriedly eaten before daybreak. The final preparations were made to break camp and all supplies were loaded. The weather was bitter cold with dark skies overhead and light snow was failing, but the decision had been made to cross and there was no turning back. The group was devout German Reformed Protestants and they gathered together in the early cold gray dawn to seek guidance from their God for a safe crossing of this obstacle to their destination.

The cracking of whips like pistol shots rang out over the heads of the oxen to coax them out upon the ice; the crossing had began. All that were able, walked to lighten the loaded wagons, keeping a safe distance from the wagons, which were also spaced far apart to lessen the danger of breaking the ice. The crossing was made successfully with no mishaps, except extremely cold hands and feet.

river crossing

The hardy townsfolk of St. Genevieve had built a large fire to warm and welcome the new pioneers. Safely across the Mississippi, they were relieved of their crossing fears and enjoyed the local hospitality. News from the East was exchanged for information of what they might expect ahead. Needed supplies were purchased and oven the weather abated as the sun broke thru the-overhead clouds. Bidding their newfound friends adieu, they happily set forth on the last part of their journey to find their new land. They all settled along the Big White-water River as the rich soil was to their liking. They located in family groups spaced along the river according to their anticipated needs.

They lived in their wagons with cramped quarters, but little complaining was done as they went about building corrals crudely covered to confine and protect their animals. Straight oak trees were felled to build each a cabin. The logs were expertly notched at the ends and fitted together making the logs lie as close together as possible. Cracks were chinked with mud and weeds or dried grass. Later, floors were made of split logs called puncheons, hewn as smooth as possible. Hides and blankets were hung over openings for doors and windows. Fireplaces were constructed by using native stone and mud. Clearing the land of trees along the river was started and some land was covered only with tall weeds and grass. Spring came early this year; garden seed was planted and the small cleared fields were planted with grain.. The fertile soil yielded bountiful crops and improvements were made on their homes and barns were built and filled at harvest time. The industrious band of pioneers continued to thrive and grow.

George Frederick Bollinger

George Frederick BOLLINGER, the eleventh descendent of a family of twelve, of Henry BOLLINGER and Elizabeth WOHLRABER, born 1770 in Tryon County, North Carolina. His parents, with their nine older children migrated from the Longswamp Area, Mertztown, Berks County, PA.in 1768 and had acquired extensive land and also a mill, which became known as Bollingers Grist Mill on Bristol Creek, later changed to Bollinger's Mill Creek. George helped with the usual chores of farming and learned the millers trade by helping at the mill.

A Typical Frontiersman of 1800

George Frederick yearned for adventure, having listened to tales of the far west told by returning trappers and traders who returned to visit with their relatives, instead of the daily work routine at home. George, with a friend, John Mussgenug (later shortened to Moose or Meus who lived near May's Chapel Cemetery at the top of the hill above the Henry Bollinger Mill, decided to explore the west toward an early established outpost known as Cape Girardeau on the Mississippi River. Consequently, they outfitted themselves with provisions, their trusty rifles and good horses and bidding their families farewell, proceeded to find their way westward. After many days of leisurely traveling and hunting, living off the land as they went, they found their way to their destination. After arriving at the Cape Girardeau post of the Upper Louisiana Territory, George became acquainted with Louis Lorimer, the Spanish Land Commandant, in 1796.

Lorimer, anxious to have more settlers in the area, persuaded George F. to return to North Carolina and bring as many families as possible to the Territory. Lorimer promised each family up to 640 arpens of land for the cost of surveying which usually was seven cents per arpen. When George returned to North Carolina, John Moose moved on to the New Madrid settlement.

After many months of visiting with his family and neighbors, and extolling the virtues of the virgin land across the Mississippi that had an abundance of everything a pioneer could hope for, twenty families agreed to cast their lot with this enthusiastic young man and preparation was made to leave North Carolina in the fall of 1799. Crops were harvested, their covered wagons were loaded with their personnel possessions and all the supplies that they could load into their wagons, field seeds of grain, young fruit trees and vines, garden seeds of vegetables and herbs. The westward trek began into the almost unknown, under his leadership.

George and Elizabeth had became parents of a baby daughter named Sarah but at the time of leaving Elizabeth was ill and could not accompany her husband. She and her daughter Sarah, remained behind with her parents and she soon died, never to see the land so glowingly described by her husband.

After many arduous days on the trail, and crossing the Mississippi River on the ice at St. Genevieve, MO. they located along Big and Little Whitewater Rivers in the Cape Girardeau District, of the Upper Louisiana Territory and by their hard work and perseverance, established a flourishing settlement of farmers.

George Frederick Bollinger became the most conspicuous settler on the banks of Big Whitewater River. He was a man of great energy and enterprise, soon secured a grant of 640 arpens, and assisted his relatives and friends in surveying land of their desires. Soon after locating on his Concession of land he built a log mill on Big Whitewater River, later replaced by a stone building and the community was known as Bollingerville. Later the name was changed to Burfordsville, in honor of a popular local school teacher named Burford. Settlers for miles around depended upon this mill for their flour and corn meal. George, also, built a fortress (blockhouse) nearby, with large yellow popular logs placed in an upright position, to provide protection from possible Indian raids for his household and neighbors who lived near enough to seek shelter.

The new settlers soon were in need of spiritual guidance and George F. made a trip back to N.C. to see his daughter Sarah and met a minister named Samuel Weyberg, a German Reformed minister, originally from Pennsylvania. Weyberg had moved to N.C. in 1792 and ministered to Burke, Lincoln, Rowan, and Cabarrus Counties. George pleaded earnestly for Rev. Weyberg to return with him to the Cape Girardeau District, which he consented to do. Spain had ordered that only Catholics be permitted to settle in the Louisiana Territory but this order was usually ignored. George F. signed a statement that he was a Catholic and the families that he had brought were Catholic. Rev Samuel Weiberg was the first German Reformed or Protestant minister in this area.

Lorimier early recognized the leadership ability of George F. and appointed him to train a group of men and bestowed the rank of Major upon him. He soon had the best trained group known as the lst Battalion, Fourth Regiment, Stephen Byrd, Lt. Col., Commander.

The Census of November 1, 1803 showed that George Frederick had one daughter, Sarah, two slaves over 21 years, 400 bushels of corn, 700 pounds of cotton, 60 pounds of maple sugar, seven horned cattle and 3 horses.

The first division of the Cape Girardeau District in 1806 was for the purpose of taxation. George F. Bollinger and John Abernathy were appointed assessors for the Southern District.

The Territory of Missouri was organized 4 Jun 1812, the First Council consisting of nine members and the House of thirteen. Two members selected from Cape Girardeau were George Frederick Bollinger and Stephen Byrd. The First Territorial Assembly met in October 1812. George Frederick was re-elected to the assembly and served several terms in the State Senate. In 1836 he was a presidential elector on the Jackson ticket.

In 1819,when Madison County was organized, the land on Saline Creek opposite St. Michaels was owned by Col. Nathaniel Cook and a new town was laid out and named Fredericktown in honor of Col. George Frederick Bollinger, a very good friend of Col. Cook.

Bollinger County, MO. was organized March I . 1851 and named in honor of George F, one of the first settlers and a prominent member of the Territorial Legislature.

Napoleon Bonapart Allen, judge of The Probate Court of Madison County married Sarah Bollinger, daughter of David Bollinger and niece of George F. Bollinger. Judge Allen, also agreed with Col. Cook that the new town should be named Fredericktown.

This page was compiled by Linda H. Setzer,. Write to Linda Setzer [email protected]@embarqmail.com (remove one @ before sending).
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