Cornelius Maddox
c.1650 ~ 1704

Cornelius Maddocke would have dressed like his father, but by now the bulky boots had been eliminated.  He still had the  long brown wig

    Our grandfather, Cornelius Maddox/Maddocke, was born perhaps in Virginia, or possibly England.  His probable father ~ Dr. Edward Maddox ~ was in Charles City Co., VA, by 1642, and in Charles Co., MD, at least by 1668.  Records about him end after 1683, at which time I think Edward died.

          The first we hear of Cornelius is in 1680 on a ship from England to Maryland.  My guess is that he enlarged and took over one of his father's businesses (exporting) about that time or had already built up his own business, and regularly escorted tobacco to England, and English goods to Maryland.  [Citation:  "Excerpts from Ship Passenger Lists" by Skinner, found in Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, Vol. 2, Gale Research Co., Detroit]

Journey taken by Cornelius Maddock in 1680 from England in Maryland.  This is a 1680 map.

    He was a merchant, as recorded in either tax lists or the ship passenger list.  Perhaps this information is also from government records.

    Being an entrepreneur is a trait that has been passed down through many generations and centuries of our Maddoxes since.  Cornelius' sons Edward and James were inn keepers.  I believe my gr gr gr grandfather, John, was an entrepreneur in pioneer Kentucky, as he borrowed the enormous amount of $800 in the very early 1800s.  His son, William, was an tavern/inn keeper and invester in a Kentucky Turnpike.  His son, Sanford, invested in hundreds of acres of land in Illinois, and sold coal off part of it.  His son, Grant, was in the lumber business in Missouri.  His son ~ my father Tucker ~ owned a grocery store for awhile.

     All the British colonies were established to provide some commodity for England.  In Maryland and Virginia that commodity was tobacco.  So in those early days, people were taxed tobacco.  I think that Cornelius might have even owned a merchant ship.

     We know that he provided some kind of products or services to the state of Maryland, because he was paid handsomly for it.  Twice in 1681, the year after his arrival in America, he was paid by the governor and General Assembly of Maryland.  Once during the
August-September Session with 1050 pounds of tobacco, and once during the November Session with 1800 pounds of tobacco.  [Source:  Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly October 1678 - November 1683, vol. 7, pgs. 212 and 249, as found in "Archives of Maryland Online"]

     If Cornelious was only 20 years old and a new immigrant, where did he get the resources to provide so much for the colony of Maryland?  Once again, I believe he took over and enlarged on his father's exporting already built up in Maryland.  At this time,
St. Mary's City was the capitol of Maryland; this site explains the tobacco industry in early St. Mary's City.

     On March 16, 1683, Cornelius married Mary Smallwood in Charles Co., MD.  I do not know the documentary source for this, but it was probably from church records.  Was this a first marriage for him?

This is the kind of wedding dress Cornelius' bride probably wore.

    If the date of Mary's birth of 1670 as found on WorldConnect is correct, then Cornelius' bride was 16 years old.  She was the daughter of James & Mary Eden Smallwood.  However, she could have been the sister of James. 

     James and Mary Smallwood had a son, Major James Jr, who was an official messenger for the governor and House of Burgesses of Maryland.  He was later identified as Lt. Col. Smallwood.  He was also apparently an Indian Agent and lived near the Indians there in Charles Co., MD.  [Citation:  Proceedings of the Council of Maryland in "Archives of Maryland Online.]  A Smallwood in the next generation would become governor of Maryland.

     People being as class conscious as they were in England, the Smallwoods would not have allowed Mary to wed a man beneath their station in life.  This is another indication of Cornelius' financial success.

This depicts a shoppe in Williamsburg, VA, built about 1700, and may have been similar to Cornelius' shoppe.

    About 1684, their first daughter, Elizabeth, was born in Charles County.

   On July 10, 1686, Cornelius Maddock received payment probably for merchandise owed by the estate of Nicholas Swineburne.  And on August 16, Cornelius Maddocks received payment probably for merchandise owed by the estate of James Wheeler.

     Some time during that year, his first son, James, was born.  He was named after Mary's father.  The following year, son John was born.  He grew up and married Mary with an unknown last name.

     On May 20, 1688, Cornelius and Mary sold 60 acres to James Tatshall [Documentary Source:  Deed records of Charles Co., MD] 

     About 1690, daughter Phoebe was born.  She later married a Mr. Clements.
     In 1691, son Edward was born.  He later married Jane Speake.
     In 1693, son Benjamin was born.  He later married Frances Posey.  

The dress of a Maryland Indian in the 17th century.

    Times were still hazardous and uncertain.  Often relations with the Indians were good, but sometimes not.  Up in New York, New Hampshire and Maine, war with the Indian "King William" raged between 1689 and 1697.  Maryland was no exception in making efforts to remain friendly with the Indians.

Cornelius' brother-in-law, James Smallwood, was apparently an Indian Agent for the Crown.  He lived near the Indians.  That being true, although Cornelius the merchant probably lived right in the town of St. Mary's, he undoubtedly had tobacco fields and they were probably near the Smallwoods.  Associating with the Smallwoods, might have influenced him to learn the Indian language.  He likely traded with the Indians also for goods he could send back to England and sell there.  At any rate, he was able to recognize who different Indians were on sight.  A reward of five pounds sterling was given to Cornelius for finding a Maryland Pomunkey Indian called Esquire Tom, guilty of killing innocent women and children in Virginia. 
Click here for the entire account found in Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, Vol. 23, Pg. 187.

     Nine years later in the winter of 1705, Cornelius Maddox died in Charles Co., MD.  Had he been killed by Indians?  Had he died of a sudden disease?  At any rate, he died without a will.  I believe his death must have been sudden, for surely an astute businessman like Cornelius would have had a will made out and filed.

     His estate was inventoried March 9, 1705 and recorded in Charles Co, MD, estate records.  His children (Anne's siblings) were enumerated by Anne Taylor of his widow's second marriage, in an estate inventory of August 10, 1745 ~ all but brother James who had died the year before.

    I would like to thank Pot Doster (, Michael Marshall, and Diana M. Bara ( for the personal research they have done and their willingness to share their findings on the internet.  Also the state of Maryland for publishing its archives on the internet, including minutes of the General Assembly of Colonial Maryland and numerous tax lists.