October 15, 1755, a party of Indians fell upon the inhabitants of Mahahany (or Penn's) Creek, that runs into the river Susquehannah, about five miles lower that the Great Fork made by the juncture of the two main branches of the Susquehannah, killed and carried off about twenty-five persons, and burnt and destroyed their buildings and improvements, and the whole settlement was deserted." Provincial Records, N.340
    "We, the subscribers, near the mouth of Penn's Creek, on the west side of the Susquehanna, humbly show, that on or about the 16th inst., (October, 1755) the enemy came down upon said creek and killed, scalped and carried away all the men, women, and children, amounting to twenty-five in number, and wounded one man, who fortunately made his escape, and brought us the news, whereupon the subscribers went out and buried the dead, whom we found most barbarously murdered and scalped.
    "We found but thirteen, who were men and elderly women; and children we suppose to be carried away prisoners.  The house where we suppose they finished their murder, we found burnt up; and the man of it, named Jacob King, a Swisser, lying just by it.  He lay on his back, barbarously burnt, and two tomahawks sticking in his forehead; one of those marked newly with W. D.-we have sent them to your honor.  The terror of which, has driven away almost all the back inhabitants, except the subscribers, with a few more who are willing to stay and endeavor to defend the land; but as we are not all able of ourselves to defend it for the want of guns and ammunition, and but few in number, so that without assistance, we must flee and leave the country to the mercy of the enemy.
    We therefore, humbly desire it, that your honor would take the same into consideration, and order some speedy relief for the safety of these back settlements, and be pleased to give us speedy orders what to do.
    "George Gliwell, Gates Auchmundy, John McCahon, Abraham Soverkill, Edmund Matthews, Mark Curry, William Doran, Dennis Mucklehenny, John Young, John Simmons, George Snabble, George Aberheart, Daniel Braugh, George Lynn, and Gotfried Fryer." Prov. records, Np242-3
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    Conrad Weiser wrote several letters to Governor Morris for help to fight the Indians.  Two of his sons, Frederick and Peter, went to Shamokin, to help their cousin with his family, against the Indians.
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Letter to Gov. Morris, from Conrad Weiser, Esq. 10/27/1755
    May it please your Honor
    Since the date of my last letter, which I sent by express, by Sammy Weiser, dated last Sunday evening, 5 o'clock, and about 11 o'clock, the same night, I sent a letter to Mr. Read, in this town, who forwarded it to your Honor, by the same opportunity.
    The following account of what has happened since, I thought it was proper to lay before your Honor, to wit:  After I had received the news that Paxton people above Hunter's Mills, had been murdered, I immediately sent my servants to alarm the neighborhood.  The people came to my house by the break of day.  I informed them of the melancholy news, and how I came by it.  They unanimously agreed to stand by one another and march to meet the enemy, if I would go with them.  I told them that I would not only myself accompany them, but my sons, and servants should also go-they put themselves under my direction.  I gave them orders to go home and fetch their arms, whether guns, swords, pitch-forks, axes or whatever might be of use against the enemy and to bring with them three days provision in their knapsacks, and to meet at Benjamin Spicker's, at three of the clock that afternoon, about six miles above my house, in Tulpehocken township, where I had sent word for Tulpehocken people also to meet.
    I immediately mounted my horse, and went up to Benjamin Spicker's where I found about one hundred persons who had met before I came there; and after I had informed them of the intelligence, that I had promised to go with them as a common soldier, and be commanded by such officers, and leading men, whatever they might call them, as they should choose.  The unanimously agreed to join the Heidelberg people, and accordingly they went home, to fetch their arms, and provisions for three days, and again at  3 o'clock.  All this was punctually performed; and about two hundred were at Benjamin Spicker's by two o'clock.
    I made the necessary disposition, and the people were divided into companies of thirty men in each company, and they chose their own officers; that is, a captain over each company, and three inferior officers under each, to take care of ten men, and lead them on, or fire, as the captain should direct.
    I sent privately for Mr. Kurtz, the Lutheran minister, who lived about one mile off, who came and gave an exhortation to the men, and made a prayer suitable to the time.  Then we marched towards Susquehannah, having first sent about fifty men to Tolheo, in order to possess themselves of the gaps or narrows of Swahatawro (Swatara), where he expected the enemy would come through; with those fifty, I sent a letter to Mr. Parsons, who happened to be at his plantation.
    We marched about ten miles that evening.  My company had now increased to upwards of three hundred men, mostly well-armed, though about twenty men had nothing but axes, and pitch-forks-all unanimously agreed to die together and engage the enemy, whatever they should meet them; never to inquire the number, but fight them, and so obstruct their way of marching further into the inhabited parts, till others of our brethren come up and do the same, and so save the lives of our wives and our children.
    The night we made the first halt, the powder and lead was brought up from Reading, (I had sent for it early in the morning,) and I ordered it to the care of the officers, and to divide it among those that wanted it the most.
    On the 28th, by daybreak, we marched; our company increasing all along.  We arrived at Adam Reed's, Esq. in Hanover township, Lancaster (now Lebanon) county, at about ten o'clock-there we stopped and rested till the rest came up.  Mr. Read had just received intelligence from Susquehannah, by express, which was as follows, to wit:  That Justice Frostier, Capt. McKee, John Harris, and others to the number of forty-nine, went up to Shamokin to bury the dead bodies of those that had been killed by the enemy on John Penn's creek, and coming up to George Gabriel's, about five miles this side Shamokin, and on the west of Susquehannah, they heard that the dead bodies had been buried already, and so they went along to Shamokin, where they arrived last Friday evening, and were seemingly well received, but found a great number of strange Indians, the Delawares, all painted black, which gave suspicion; and Thomas McKee told his companions that he did not like them, and the next morning-that is last Saturday-they got up early, in order to go back; but they did not see any of the strangers.  They were gone before them.  Andrew Montour was there, painted as the rest; he advised our people not to go the same road they came, but to keep on this side the Susquehannah, and go the old road; but when they came to the parting of the roads, a majority was for going the highest, and best road, as so crossed Susquehannah, contrary to Andrew Montour's counsel, in order to go down on the west side of the river, as far as to Mahahany; when they came to John Penn's creek, in going down the bank, they were fired upon from this side by the Indians that had waylaid them, some dropped down dead; the rest fled and made towards Susquehannah, and came to this side, and so home, as well as they could.  Twenty-six of them were missing and not heard of as yet, last Monday.
    Upon this we had a consultation, and we did not come up to serve as guards to the Paxton people, but to fight the enemy, if they were come so far, as we first heard, we thought best to return and take care of our own townships.
    After I had given the necessary caution to the people to hold themselves in readiness, as the enemy was certainly in the country, to keep their arms in good order, and so on, and then discharged them-and we marched back, with the approbation of Mr. Reed.  By the way, we were alarmed, by a report, that five hundred Indians had come over the mountain at Tolheo, to this side, and had already killed a number of people.  We stopped and sent a few men to discover the enemy, but, on their return, proved to be a false alarm, occasioned by that company that I had sent that way the day before, whose guns getting wet, they fired them off, which was the cause of alarm-this not only had alarmed the company, but whole townships through which they marched.  In going back, I met messengers from other townships about Conestoga, who came for intelligence, and ask me where their assistance was necessary, promising that they would come to the place where I should direct.
    I met also at Tulpehocken, above one hundred men will armed, as to fire arms, ready to follow me; so that they were in the whole, about five hundred men in arms that day, all marching up towards Susquehannah.  I, and Mr. Adam Reed, counted those that were with me-we found them three hundred and twenty.
    I cannot send any further account, being uncommonly fatigued.  I should not forget, however, to inform your Honor, that Mr. Reed has engaged to keep proper persons riding between his house and Susquehannah, and if any thing material shall occur, he will send me tidings to Heidelberg or to Reading, which I shall take care to dispatch to you.  I find that great care has been taken at Reading, to get the people attending me, were discharged, the people from the country went off without consulting what should be done for the future, through the indiscretion of a person who was with them, and wanted to go home; and near the town they met a large company coming up, and gave such accounts as occasioned their turning back.  I think most of the inhabitants would do their duty; but without some military regulations, we shall never be able to defend the province.
    I am sure we are in great danger, and by an enemy that can travel as Indians, we may be surprised when it would be impossible to collect any number of men together to defend themselves, and then the country would be laid waste.  I am quite tired, and must say no more that that.  I am your Honour's Most obedient servant, Conrad Weiser  (Provincial records, N.p249-251
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    From the Following extract, taken from the Pennsylvania Gazette, of Nov. 13, 1755, the names of the murdered and missing at Great Cove, may be seen-Elizabeth Gallway, Henry Gilson, Robert Peer, William Berryhill and David McClelland were murdered.  The missing are John Martin's wife and five children; William Gallway's wife and two children, and a young woman; Charles Stewart's wife and two children; David McClelland's wife and two children.  William Fleming and wife were taken prisoners.  Fleming's son, and one Hicks, were killed and scalped.
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 October 31, 1755
To the Rev Kurtz and all other Friends:
    This morning, very early, between four and five o'clock, Adam Rees, and inhabitant over the first mountain, about six miles from Lawrance Hout's, who lives on this side of the mountain, came to my house, and declared, that yesterday, between 11 and 12 o'clock, he heard three guns fired towards the plantation of his neighbor, Henry Hartman, which made him suspect that something more that ordinary had happened there.  Whereupon he took his gun and went over to Hartman's house, being about a quarter of a mile off, and found him lying dead upon his face; his head was scalped; but saw no body else.  He thereupon made the best of his way through the woods to the inhabitants on this side of the mountain, to inform them of what had happened.  He further informs me that he had been to Adam Reed's, Esq, and related the whole of the affair to him and that Reed is raising men to go over the mountain in quest of the murders.  Wm. Parsons
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Two men lying dead, 1 scalped, on the Shamokin road.
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Reading, November 16, 1755
My Dearest Father:
    I'm in so much horror and confusion, I scarce know what I'm writing.  The drum is beating to arms-bells ringing-and all the people under arms.  Within these two hours, we have had different, though too certain accounts, all corroborating each other!-and this moment is and express arrived and dispatches news from Michael Reis's at Tulpehocken, eighteen miles above this town, who left about thirty of their people engaged, with about an equal number of Indians, at said Reis's.  This night we expect an attack.  Truly alarming is our situation.  The people exclaim against the Quakers, and some are scarce restrained from burning the houses of those few who are in this town.  Oh, my country!  my bleeding country!!
    I recommend myself wholly to the divine God of armies.  Give my dutiful love to my dearest mother, and my best love to brother Jemmy.  I am, honored sir, Your affectionate and obedient son, Edward Biddle.
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Tulpehocken, the 16 November, 1755
    Yesterday the Indians attacked the Watch, killed and wounded him, at Derrick Sixth (Dietrich Six) and in that neighborhood, a great many in that night.
    This morning the people went out to see, and about 10 o'clock came to Thomas Bower's house, finding a man dead-killed with a gun shot.  They soon heard a noise of firing guns; running to that place, saw four Indians setting on children, scalping them-three of the children are dad, two are still living, though scalped.  Afterwards our people went to the Watch-house of Derrick Sixth, where the Indians made the first attack.  They found six dead bodies; four of them scalped; about a mile on this side of the Watch-house, as they came back, the Indians had set fire to a stable and barn; burnt the corn, cows and other creatures-here they found five Indians in a house eating their dinner and drinking rum which had been in the house; two of them were on the outside the house.  They fired upon them, but without doing execution.  The Indians have burnt the improvements on four other plantations.
    I have this account from those above named, and from Peter Anspack, Jacob Caderman, Christopher Noacre, Leonard Walborn, George Dollinger, and Adam Dieffenbach............Peter Spycker
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Berks County
    As the group of men were heading towards Dietrich Six's, they found these:
    A child about eight years old, daughter of one Cola, lying dead and scalped.
At Abraham Sneider's place, the wife of Cola was found dead in the corn field and a child about eight or nine.  Both dead and scalped.  In the house they found another child of the said Cola's, about ten years old, dead and scalped.
    At Thomas Bower's home, was found a dead man scalped, whose name may have been Philip, a shoemaker by trade.
    Casper Spring, dead and scalped, having buried him, they marched about one hundred rods and found one, Beslinger, dead and scalped, they buried him.
    They found an Indian, dead and scalped, killed by Frederick Weiser the day before.
    A child of Jacob Wolf, scalped.
    John Leinberger and Rudolph Candel, were found scalped.
    Casper Spring's brains were beat out, had two cuts in his breast; was shot in the back, and otherwise cruelly used, which regard to decency forbids mentioning; and that Beslinger's brains were beat out, his mouth much mangled, one of his eyes cut out, and one of his ears gashed and had two knives lying on his breast.
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November 19, 1755
    Philip and Frederick Weiser gave the following relation, to wit: that on Saturday last, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, as some men from Tulpehocken were going to Dietrich Six's places, at the foot of the hill, on the Shamokin road, to be on the watch appointed there, they were fired upon by Indians; but none were hurt nor killed.  Our people were but six in number-the rest being behind-upon which our people rant towards the Watch-house, which was about one half mile off; the Indians pursued them, killed and scalped several of them.  A bold, stout Indian come up to one Christopher Ury, who turned about and shot the Indian right through his breast.  The Indian dropped down dead, but was dragged out of the way by his companions-he was fond next day and scalped by our people.
    The Indians divided themselves into two parties.  Some came this way, to meet the rest going to the Watch, and killed some of them; so that six of our men were killed that day and a few wounded.  The night following, the enemy attacked the house of Thomas Bower, on Swatara creek.  They came, in the dark night to the house and one of them put his fire are through the window and shot a shoemaker, who was at work, dead on the spot.  (A neighbor heard shots and came to assist)
    By eight of the clock, parties came up from Tulpehocken and Heidelberg.  The first party saw four Indians running off.  They had some prisoners, whom they scalped immediately.  Three children lay scalped, yet alive; one died since; the other two are likely to do well.
    Another party found a woman just expired, with a male child lying at her side-both killed and scalped.  The woman lay upon her face; my son Frederick turned her about to see who she might have been-to his surprise, they found a babe of about fourteen days old, under her, wrapt in a small cushion; his nose was quite flat, which was set right by Frederick, and life was yet in it, and recovered again!
    Upon the whole there are about fifteen of our people, including men, women, and children killed; and the enemy is not beaten.  (Conrad Weiser)
Reading, November, 1755
    Indian  attacks
November 25, 1755, Northampton
    Moravian settlement, called Gnaden-hutten, on the west branch of the river Delaware, killed six of the inmates, burnt down their dwellings, meeting houses, and all their out-houses, their grain, hay, horses and upwards of fifty head of cattle that were under cover.  During December, 1755, the Indians killed all before them in the county of Northampton, and already burnt fifty houses, murdered above one hundred persons, and are still continuing their ravages, murders, and devastations, and have actually overrun and laid waste a great part of that county, even as far as within twenty-five miles of Easton.  And a large body of Indians under the direction of French officers, have fixed their head quarters within the borders of that county, for the better security of their prisoners and plunders.
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February 15, 1756
Albany township
    The Indians came yesterday morning, about eight o'clock, to Frederick Reichelderfer's house, as he was feeding his horses, and two of the Indians ran upon him and followed him into a field ten or twelve perches off; but he escaped and ran towards Jacob Gerhart's house, with a design to fetch some arms.  When he came near Gerhart's, he heard a lamentable cry, Lord Jesus!, Lord Jesus! which made him run back toward his own house; but before he got quite home, he saw his house and stables in flames; and heard the cattle bellowing, and thereupon ran away again.
    Two of his children were shot; one of them was found dead in his field, the other was found alive, and brought to Hakenbrook's house, but died three hours after.  All his grain and cattle are burnt up.  At Jacob Gerhart's they have killed one man, two women, and six children.  Two children slipped under the bed; one of which was burned; the other escaped, and ran a mile to get to the people.  We desire help, or we must leave our homes. Yours, Valentine Probst
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    Mr. Levan immediately repaired to Albany township, but before he reached the scene of horror, additional intelligence was received by him of other murders.  In a letter from him to James Read and Jonas Seely, of Reading, he says:  "When I had got ready to go with my neighbors from Maxatany, to see what damage was done in Albany, three men, that had seen the shocking affair, came and told me, that eleven were killed, eight of them burnt, and the other three found dead out of the fire.  An old man was scalped, the two others, little girls, were not scalped.
    In March, 1756, the Indians laid the house and barn of Barnabus Seitle in ashes, and the mill of Peter Conrad, and killed Mrs. Neytong, the wife of Baltser Neytong, and took his son, a lad of eight, captive.
    On March 24, 1756, the house of Peter Kluck, about fourteen miles from Reading, was set on fire by the savages, and the whole family killed.  Next the house of one Linderman, in which there were two men and a woman, all of whom ran up stairs, where the woman was shot dead through the roof.
    March 8, 1756, from Hanover township, Lancaster county.  Andrew Lycan, who lived over the mountain, was attacked by the Indians.  He had with him a son, John Lycan, a negro man, and a boy and two of his neighbors, John Revolt and Ludwig Shut.  They were wounded by the Indians but lived.
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Herford township, March 28, 1756
    John Kraushar, and his wife, and William Yeth, and his boy, about twelve years old, went to their places to find their cattle, and on their return, were fired upon by five Indians, who had his themselves about ten perches from the road, when Yeth was mortally wounded in the back; Kraushar's wife was found dead and scalped, and had three cuts in her right arm with a tomahawk.  Kraushar made his escape, and the boy was carried off by the enemy.  That on the 24th March, ten wagons went up to Allemaengel to bring down a family with their effects; and as they were returning, about three miles below George Zeisloff's were fired upon by a number of Indians from both sides of the road; upon which the wagoners left their wagons and ran into the woods, and the horses frightened at the firing and terrible yealling of the Indians, ran down a hill and broke one of the wagons to pieces.  That the enemy killed George Zeisloff and his wife, a lad of twenty, a boy of twelve, also a girl of fourteen years old, four of whom they scalped.  That another girl was shot in the neck, and through the mouth, and scalped, notwithstanding all which she got off, and was alive, when the letter was written.
    At the same time, the Indians carried off a young lad, named John Schoep, about nine years old, whom they took by night, seven miles beyond the Blue Mountain; where, according to the statement of the lad, the Indians kindled a fire, tied him to a tree, and took of his shoes and put moccasins on his feet-that they prepared themselves some mush, but gave him none.  After supper they marched on further.  The same Indians took him and another lad between them, and went beyond the second mountain; having gone six times through streams of water, and always carried him across.  The second evening they again struck up fire; took off his moccasins, and gave him a blanket to cover himself; but at midnight when all the Indians were fast asleep, he made his escape, and by daybreak had traveled about six miles.  He passed on that day, sometimes wading streams neck-deep, in the direction of the Blue Mountain-that night he stayed in the woods.  The next day, exhausted and hungry, he arrived, by noon, at Uly Meyer's plantation, where Charles Folk's company lay, where they wished him to remain till he had regained strength.
    In June, 1756, the Indians once more commit deliberate murder, in Bethel township, Lancaster county.  A letter dated Bethel township, June 9, makes mention that yesterday, the 8th inst., in the afternoon, between three and four o'clock, four of five Indians made an incursion, at a place called "The Hole" where the Great Swatara creek runs through the Blue Mountain-they crept up unobserved behind the fence of Felix Wuensch, shot him, as he was ploughing, through the breast.  He cried lamentably, and run, but the Indians soon came up with him.  He defended himself sometime with his whip; they cut his hand and breast in a cruel manner with their tomahawks, and scalped him.  His wife hearing his cries, and the report of two guns, ran out of the house, but was soon taken by the enemy, who carried her with one of her own and two of her sister's children, away with them, after setting the house on fire.  A servant boy who was at some distance, seeing this, ran to their neighbor, George Mies, and told him what had happened.  Upon which Mies, though he had a bad leg, with his son, ran directly after the Indians, and raised a great noise, which so frightened the Indians, that they immediately took to their heels, and in their flight left a tub of butter and a side of bacon behind them.  Mies then went to the house, which was in flames and threw down the fences, in order to save the barn.  They drank all the brandy in the spring house and took several gammons, a quantity of meal, some loaves of bread, ad a great many other things.
    Immediately on the above murder being perpetrated, twenty families went into Smith's Fort, which was but one mile and a quarter from where Wuensch lived, and that still more were expected to go into the fort.
    From the Gazette, of June 24; We have advice from Fort Henry, in Berks county, (Bethel township), that two children of Lawrence Dieppel, who lives about two miles from said fort, are missing, and thought to be carried off by the Indians, as one of their hats has been found, and several Indian tracks seen.  (One of them found cruelly murdered and scalped, a boy about four years old, and that the other, also a boy eight years old was still missing)
July 1, 1756  We have advice that on Saturday last, nine Indians came to "The Hole", in Swatara, and killed and scalped four persons and shot two horses, and that a party of men went in pursuit of them.
    Last Tuesday, the 12th inst., ten Indians came on Noah Frederick, while ploughing, killed and scalped him, and carried away three of his children that were with him- the eldest but nine years old-and plundered his house and carried away every thing that suited their purpose.
    Bethel township-Frederick Kenly and Peter Sample, killed.
    Adam Reed wrote this account:  seven killed and five children scalped alive, but have not the account of their names.
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November 19, 1756
    Indians made and incursion in Berks county, killed and scalped two married women, and a lad fourteen years of age, wounded two children of about four years of age, and carried off two more, one of the wounded is scalped and is likely to die, and the other has two cuts on her forehead, given by and Indian, who attempted to scalp her, but did not succeed.  There were eight men, of Fort Henry, posted in different neighbor's houses, about one mile and a half off, when they heard the noise of the guns firing, made immediately towards it, but came too late.
    A woman from Heidelberg township, Berks county,missing for three weeks past, supposed to be carried off by the enemy.
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    From Reading, Berks county, there is advice that a man was lately killed by the Indians.  A letter from Fort Lebanon, states that sixteen Indians were seen near that place.
    In a letter from Hanover, Lancaster county, dated May 2, 1757, it is said that on the night of the 29th ult, the house of Isaac Snevely was set on fire and entirely consumed with eighteen horses and cows.
    Since our last, we hear from Lancaster, that on the 17th May, five men, and a woman, enciente, were killed and scalped by the Indians, about thirty miles from Lancaster, and that the bodies of the men and the women, had been brought down there by some in the neighborhood where the murders were committed.  We are likewise informed that an express arrived in Lancaster, on Saturday last, with an account of seven people being killed in one house, the night before.  And there are letters in town, which advice of more murders being committed; the number uncertain, but is thought there are above twenty destroyed, besides what may be carried off; and that the frontier inhabitants are in great distress, and moving from their plantations as fast as they can.  The number of the Indians that have done, and are doing the mischief, not known.  These late murders have been done in Bethel, Hanover, and Paxton townships.

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June 25, 1757
    Adam Trump, murdered in Allemaengel, by Indians and that evening and that they had taken Trump's wife and his son, a lad nineteen years old, prisoners; but the woman escaped, though upon her flying, she was so closely pursued by one of the Indians, that he threw his tomahawk at her, and cut her badly in the neck.  This happened during a terrible thunderstorm.
    Also during the thunderstorm, at Fort Henry a party killed and scalped.  Northkill, two persons killed and scalped near the fort, also during the thunderstorm.
July 4, 1754
Tulpehocken-three women and four children were murdered.
July 9, 1757, Heidelberg
    Yesterday, about three of the clock, in the afternoon, between Valentine Herchelroad's, and Tobias Bickell's, four Indians killed two children; one about four years, the other five; they at the same time scalped a young woman of about sixteen; but with proper care, she is likely to live and do well.
    Christian Schrenk's wife, being among the rest, bravely defended herself and children, for a while; wrestling the gun out of the Indian's hands, who assaulted her, also his tomahawk, and threw them away; and afterwards was obliged to save her own life, two of her children were taken captives in the mean time.  In this house were also twenty women and children, who had fled from their own habitations, to take shelter; the men belonging to them were about one half mile off, picking cherries-they came as quick as possible and went in pursuit of the Indians, but to no purpose.  (Pa Gazette, July 1757)
    We hear from Linn township, (now Greenwich), Berks county that as Adam Klaus and his neighbors were reaping rye, July 9th, they were surprised by a party of Indians; two men, two women, and a young girl escaped.  Martin Yeager, (Hunter) and his wife were killed and scalped.  John Kraushaar's wife and child, Abraham Seckler's wife and one of Adam Clauss's children were scalped, and are still living, though badly wounded; one of the women is wounded in the side and the other in the hip.  Two of Kraushaar's children were killed; one of Seckler's and one of Philip Eschton's but were not scalped.  The alarm being raised, a party went in pursuit of them, and overtook nine, and fired upon them.  But they soon eluded the pursuit of the whites.

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August 11, 1757 (Hanover, Lancaster county)
Last Thursday, John Andrew's wife, going to a neighbor's house, was surprised by six Indians, had her horse shot under her, and she and her child were carried off.  On Saturday, in Bethel township, as John Winkelblech's two sons, and Joseph Fischbach, a soldier in the pay of the Province, went out about sunrise, to bring in the cows, they were fired upon by about fifteen Indians; the two lads were killed; one of them was scalped; the other got into the house before he died, and the soldier was wounded in the hand.
    The same day Leonard Long's son was ploughing, and was killed and scalped.  On the other side of the fence, Leonard Miller's son was ploughing; he was made a prisoner.
    Near Benjamin Clarke's house, four miles from the mill, two Indians surprised Isaac Williams' wife, and the widow Williams, alias Smelley, killed and scalped the former, in sight of the house, she having run a little way, after three balls ad been shot through her body; the latter they carried away captive.
    About the same time, as George Maurer was cutting oats in George Scheffer's field, he was killed and scalped, two miles from the hill, so that was not all done by one party.
    There was a severe sickness in these parts-the like has not been known-that many families can neither fight nor run away which occasions great distress on the frontiers.
    August 17, one Beatly was killed in Paxton, that the next day, James Mackey was murdered in Hanover, and William and Joseph Barnet wounded.  These taken prisoner; a son of James Mackey, a son of Joseph Barnet, Elizabeth Dickey and her child, and the wife of Samuel Young and her child.  Ninety-four men, women and children were seen flying from their places, in one body, and a great many more in smaller parties, so that it was feared the settlements would be entirely forsaken.
    Fort Lebanon;  Sunday, the 21st August, the house and barn of Peter Semelcke were burnt and three of his children carried off; himself, wife and one child being from home at the time.
    Lebanon township, that on last Friday, four children were carried off by Indians.  From Reading, Berks county, that on Thursday and Friday last, some people were murdered in Bern township, and carried off.
    October 1, 1757, Hanover township.  Child of Peter Wampler carried off.
    More killed in Hanover township and four persons were killed near Northkill.
    On the 25th of November, Thomas Robinson, and a son of Thomas Bell, were killed and scalped by the Indians, in Hanover township.
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April 8, 1758, Tulpehocken
    I and Mr. Kern have just arrived at Mr. Jacob Sherman's where we have been informed that a woman was killed and scalped by the Indians last night, about three miles from here.  We are now ready to pursue them.  The persons killed, besides one taken captive, are two young men at Swatara, brothers, by the name of Shetterly, one Michael Sauter, and William Hart, and a widow taken captive.
    At Tulpehocken, a man by the name of Lebenguth and his wife were killed and scalped.  At Northkill, Nicholas Geiger, and wife and two of his children were killed; and also Michael Ditzelar's wife was killed, these were all scalped.
    On Monday, the 22d of May, 1758, Barnabas Tolon was killed and scalped in Hanover township, Lancaster county.  And we are will informed that one hundred and twenty-three persons have been murdered or carried off from that county, by the Indians, since the war commenced; and that three have been scalped and yet alive.
    A letter from Fort Henry, in Berks county, dated June 17, 1758, mentions the wife of John Frantz, and three children being carried off by the Indians; and that the woman was murdered a little way from Frantz's house, she being weakly and not able to travel.  Also, that the son of Jacob Snavely, a shoemaker, was killed and scalped about the same time.
    Swatara township, Tuesday, the 20 inst.  A Dutchman was shot and scalped and the next day one Samuel Robinson was shot.
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Fort Henry, October 4, 1758
    The first of October, the Indians burnt a house on Swatara, killed one man, and three are missing.  Two boys were found tied to a tree and were released.
    Reading, Nov. 15, 1758
    We learn that on the 13th inst., Jacob Mossier and Hans Adam Mossier, were killed by the Indians, in Bethel township.
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    In the early part of September, in the afternoon, eight well-armed Indians came to the house of John Fincher, a Quaker, residing north of the Blue Mountain, in Berks county, about twenty-four miles from Reading, and within three-quarters of a mile of a party of six men of Captain Kern's company of Rangers, commanded by ensign Scheffer.  At the approach of the Indians, John Fincher, his wife, two sons and daughters, immediately went to the door and asked them to enter in and eat;  expressed their hopes that they came as friends, and entreated them to spare their lives.  The Indians were deaf to the entreaties of Fincher.  Both parents and two sons were deliberately murdered; their bodies were found on the spot.  The daughter was missing after the departure of the Indians, and it was supposed from the cries, that were heard by the neighbors, that she also was slain.
    A young lad, who lived with Fincher, made his escape, and notified ensign Scheffer, who instantly went in pursuit of these heartless, cold-blooked assassins.  He pursued them to the house of one Millar, where he found four children murdered; the Indians having carried two others with them.  Millar and his wife being at work in the field, saved their lives by flight.  Mr. Millar himself, was pursued near one mile by and Indian, who fired at them twice while in hot pursuit.  Scheffer and his party continued their pursuit and overtook the savages, firing upon them.  The Indians returned the fire, and a sharp, but short conflict ensued, the enemy fled, leaving behind them Millar's two children, and part of the plunder they had taken.
    These barbarous Indians had scalped all the persons whom they had murdered, except an infant, about two weeks old, whose head they had dashed against the wall, where the brains with clotted blood on the wall was a witness of their cruelty.  The consequence of this massacre was the desertion of all the settlements beyond the Blue Mountain.
    A few days after these atrocious murders, the house of Frantz Hubler, in Bern township, 18 miles from Reading, was attacked by surprise, Hubler was wounded; his wife and three of his children were carried off, and three other of his children scalped alive; two of these shortly afterwards died.
    Murder and cruelty marked the path of these Indians.  From the many acts of savage ferocity committed in Berks county, may be noticed that on the 10th day of September, 1763, when five of these Indians entered the house of Philip Martloff, at the base of the Blue mountain, murdered and scalped his wife, two sons and two daughters, burnt the house and barn, the stacks of hay and grain, and destroyed everything of any value.  Martloff was absent from home, and one daughter escaped at the time of the murder, by running and secreting herself in a thicket.  The father and daughter were left in abject misery.
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    Lancaster, August, Friday 13, 1762
    James Hamilton, Esq., Lieut. Governor of Pennsylvania, recovered the following prisoners from the hands of King Veaver: Names of Prisoners-Thomas Moore, taken from Potomack, Maryland.  Philip Studebecker, taken from Conegocheaque, Md.  Ann Dougherty and Peter Condon, taken in Pennsylvania, Mary Stroudman, taken from Conegocheaque, Pa., William Jackson taken from Tulpehocken, Pa., Elizabeth Adam, and John Lloyd, from Little Cove, Pa, Dorathy Shabrin, from Big Cove, Elanor Lancestoctes, from Pa., Hans Boyer, a boy, not know from whence taken.  Richard Rogers, Esther Rogers, Jacob Rogers, Archibald Holtemon, and Rebecca Walter, all from Virginia, about the South Branch.
    "Thursday, 19 Aug., 1762, the following were delivered:  Elizabeth Williams, a young woman, delivered by Mussause, a Muncy Indian.  Henry Williams, about eighteen years old, brother to Elizabeth Williams, delivered by Canyhocheratoquin, a Muncy.  Peggy Dougherty, delivered by Eckgohson, a Muncy, Mary Tidd and her child, taken near Samuel Depuis by Eckgohson.  Abigail Evan and her child, taken at Stony Creek, in Virginia, by Cowachsora, a Seneca.
    "A boy by Meightong, a Muncy.  A little girl by Eckgohson, a Muncy.  A little boy, Pessewanck, a Muncy.  A boy of about fourteen years, by Eckgohson.  A boy of twelve years, by Cowackslaira, a Seneca.  A little boy of seven years, by Coracksaraa, a Seneca.  These children's names unknown, as they cannot speak English, or give any account from whence they were taken."

History of Berks and Lebanon Counties
I Daniel Rupp

© Brenda Creasy