ARRIVAL OF THE STAD HAARLEM from Plymouth to Port Chalmers, N.Z April 1879

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S.S. 'Stad Haarlem'

New Zealand Bound
The original destination was to be Otago but was diverted to Lyttelton.

Reference online:  'Papers Past' - a NZ National Library website. 

The following snippets are from
The Timaru Herald and The Star April 16 1879 and Otago Witness 19th April 1879
Wednesday April 16th 1879 page 2. The Stadt Haarlem s.s., Captain Boer, arrived at the Port of Lyttelton from Otago Heads.  She came up the coast under the pilotage of Captain McFarlane, of the Union Steamship Company. She anchored between Rhodes' Bay and Camp Bay at 7 a.m. on the 15th. The Manager of the New Zealand Shipping Company Mr H. Selwyn Smith, came up with the steamer, and landed on her arrival, reporting all well on board. The Health Officer (Dr Rouse) and representatives of the Immigration Department and the New Zealand Shipping Company, went down to the vessel. The Surgeon-Superintendent, Dr Gibson, who is well known here in connection with the Waipa and other of the Company's vessels, reported his charges, numbering within a few of 700, were in good health. The steamer will be cleared this morning, after which she will come alongside the No. 4 wharf to land her immigrants for this port and Port Chalmers.

Lyttelton: The Otago portion of the immigrants -154 in number will be forwarded by special train to Dunedin, from Lyttelton and when those for Canterbury are landed, she will proceed on to Wellington, returning to Lyttelton in sufficient time to leave for London on the 26th of April. There were five deaths of infants, the original number of people being shipped at Plymouth being 697, the ship's company comprising 8 officers and 55 men. The vessel steamed from Plymouth Sound with 763 souls, comprising of passengers and crew. She brings 692 passengers. Passenger List  (count 701) (off site) This was not the largest number brought by any ship to the Colony - see the Atrato from Plymouth in 1874 with Kent immigrants.

The Southland Times  Thursday17 April 1879
Lyttelton, April 16
The Stad Haarlem steamed alongside the wharf this morning and landed the Canterbury and Otago immigrants. The latter were transhipped to the Ringarooma (since sailed South). The Stad Haarlem will leave for Wellington to-morrow. It is believed here that the Commission will report unfavorably as to her adaptability for carrying passengers.

The Otago Harbor authorities would not take the risk of attempting to take Stadt Haarlem into Port Chalmers due state of the bar at the Otago Heads. Her draft of water being too great to admit of her entering Port Chalmers. It is true the Stadt Haarlem went first to Otago, and did not deliver her passengers for that part of the colony to the Immigration Officer on board a brave small steamer; Koputai, but even that seems to have been rather a precarious proceeding.

She only drew 18 feet 6 inches of water, but she dropped her screw to the extent of 22 feet.

The voyage, inclusive of detention, has occupied 57 days, but from that must be ducted six and a half days, that time being lost at St Vincent and the Cape of Good Hope. She left Plymouth Sound at 6 a.m. on February 15th. She anchored at St Vincent on February and was detained here for 36 hours, to do what should have been accomplished in 12 hours, the arrangements for coaling proving very faulty and inadequate. Crossed the Line on March 2nd in long 10.12 W, 15 days out. Reached Table Bay on March 13th, 26 days out and again experienced difficulty getting coal, and was detained to the 18th. Passed Dog Island on April 13th. The average rate of steaming was 262 miles per 24 hours. On several occasions her average speed of 13 knots per hour have been registered. Having been built under special survey on the Clyde, Glasgow  by Messrs A.J. Inglis, expressly for the passenger trade, for the Netherlands India Mail Company (for the Dutch East India Mail Service). She is 2780 tons burthen, 1729 tons net register, 350ft long, 38ft broad, depth of hold 26ft, supplied with engines of 450 horse-power. Engines are on the compound principle, are by the same firm who built the engine. The cylinders are inverted, and are 50 in and 88in respectively, with a stroke of 48in. Power is equal to 2700 horses. Her saloon is fitted for 70 passengers. 200 will find most excellent accommodation in the second and third cabins. She has all her accommodation under a spa hurricane deck. Our old friend, Mr Fox, is her purser.

Otago Witness Saturday April 26 1879

Arrivals, April 17
Ringarooma, s.s., 623 tons, Chatfield, from Wellington and Lyttelton. Union Company, agents. Passengers - Mr and Mrs Kingsford, Mr and Mrs Burns, Rev. Mr Crump and family, Mrs Enderwood, Miss Ogilvie, Messrs Fullarton, Allen, Gunn, Hayman, Boss, Robinson, two steerage, and 109 adults ex Stad Haarlem.

The Star, 17 April 1879 pg2

The Stad Haarlem leaves the wharf at 1.30 p.m. to-day and will anchor in the stream. The launch Lyttelton will leave her at 3 p.m., after which the steamer proceeds to Wellington. Her crew, all but one or two, are said to have deserted last night, but it is probable they will have been captured by the time the steamer is ready to sail. The Stad Haarlem worked until midnight last night putting out Otago and Canterbury cargo.

The Star, 17 April 1879 pg2
Magisterial - Lyttelton This day
(Before H. Allwright, Esq., and J.T. Rouse, Esq.)
Desertion - Threes lads belonging to the s.s. Stad Haarlem were charged with this offence. In defence they stated that they came ashore to sell some clothes. The Bench ordered them on board the vessel.

The Star 18 April, Wellington
The Stad Haarlem arrived early this morning, and came along side the middle T of the wharf.

The Star Saturday 19 April 1879
Wellington, 18 April
Within an hour after the Stad Haarlem passed the lighthouse this morning, she was berthed alongside the middle of the Queen's wharf. Immediately her immigrants were landed she was thrown open to public inspection, and her appliances were much admired. She will be re-painted and fitted up for the homeward voyage.

The Press, Wednesday 16 April 1879 p.2

Stad Haarlem, SS, 1728 tons, De Boer, from Plymouth via Port Chalmers. New Zealand Shipping Company, agents. Passengers - all Government immigrants.

Agreeably to expectation and news by telegraph published yesterday this steamer arrived off the Lyttelton Heads soon after four o'clock yesterday morning from Port Chalmers. She had waited off the bar at the latter port for an opportunity to get into the harbour for close upon twenty-four hours, and at the expiration of that time, there being no immediate prospect of the sea on the bar subsiding, she was ordered on to Lyttelton. She made good time in coming up the coast, accomplishing the run in sixteen hours. On her arrival yesterday Dr Rouse, health officer at port, made an official visit to her. Later in the day the representatives of the Press went off, but on arriving alongside found the health officer's flag still flying, and were informed by Captain De Boer in command, and Dr Gibson, the surgeon superintendent, that no information could then be made public, and no visit could be made on board until after the inspection had taken place by the Immigration Commissioners. At the request of the reporters Captain De Boer kindly wrote out a report of the voyage, but subsequently thought it better to withhold it until the vessel is cleared. A report in brief, however, appears in the Press shipping telegrams yesterday. The appearance of the steamer is that of a fine powerful vessel well adapted for making long ocean voyages. She flies the Dutch flag and when built was intended for the Dutch and East India mail service. The run out from Plymouth to Port Chalmers occupied fifty-one days under steam. This is exclusive of the delays at the two coaling stations touched at on the voyage. The Immigration Commissioners are expected to make their official visit at half-past nine o'clock this morning, and the ship will probably come up to the harbour during the afternoon to berth at No. 4 wharf, opposite to that occupied by the ship Northampton. She has saloon passengers on board for Wellington, and 667 Colonial immigrants, apportioned as follows: 315 for Canterbury, 222 for Wellington, 130 for Port Chalmers. They are reported to have arrived in good health. Particulars of the cargo she has on board for this port are given in the memoranda of imports elsewhere. She is consigned to the New Zealand Shipping Company.

Sailed - Ringarooma for Lyttelton and Port Chalmers at 1 pm.

The Press, 17 April 1879 p.2

Yesterday morning at eleven o'clock the SS Stad Haarlem steamed up the harbour from her anchorage off the quarantine ground, and was berthed at the new No. 4 wharf.

As her head was turned towards the bay and she was coming in between the Moles, she presented a very interesting appearance to the spectators who thronged the various wharves, not only on account of her prodigious size as compared with the steamers that frequent Lyttelton, but also on account of her immense crowd of immigrants, the face of every man, woman and child, of whom was eagerly turned towards the town. The immigrants, who were either looking over the rail, or standing upon the top of deck-houses hurricane deck or forecastle, increased the novelty of the event by their continuous cheering and waving of handkerchiefs at hats. Her appearance from shore was in this sense that of a pleasure steamer, with a mammoth excursion party on board.

On board, however, the impression was less favourable. The main deck, the only promenade upon which passengers are enabled to exercise themselves, is literally hampered with deckhouses, officer's rooms, galleys and buildings of that description. Over the main deck some provision has certainly been made to modify this defect, but it is altogether inadequate for the accommodation of over 300 or 400 passengers. In case of fire or any calamity tending to excite the passengers, the want of deck room would be most disastrous, and confusion and serious loss of life could scarcely be averted were the emergencies of the calamity such as to cause the passengers to rush forward or aft along the narrow passage ways between the bulwarks of the vessel and the block of buildings on the deck. Fortunately no such catastrophe has been met with on the Stad Haarlem's voyage to New Zealand.

The voyage has been perhaps as remarkable for it's immunity from storm and serious accidents as it has been for the general good health of the 763 human beings on board. It is due to the surgeon superintendent, Dr Gibson, last here in the Waipa, that with reference to the excellent health of the passengers he should be fully credited with the report made on all sides - by Captain de Boer, the officers' of the ship, and the immigrants - as to his system of discipline and care of all who needed his service. The Stad Haarlem, it should be recollected, has brought the largest number of souls ever carried to any of the Australian colonies in one bottom. The compliments paid by all to Dr Gibson must, therefore, be exceedingly gratifying to him.

The whole number of immigrants is 667 souls, equal to 591 statute adults, and the apportionment is - 315 for Canterbury, 177 Wellington, 116 Otago, 14 Southland, 12 Westland, 6 Marlborough, 4 Taranaki, 23 Hawke's Bay. The married couples were located amidships, fore and about the engine room and occupied part of the "tween" deck and the deck below known as the "orlop" deck. The single women had the starboard side of the saloon partitioned off for their accommodation, a mess-room close adjoining on the 'tween deck, and between eighty and ninety of them were berthed in a compartment on the orlop deck. They were under the matronship of Mrs Ansley. The single men were quartered forward in compartments on both the 'tween and orlop decks. Two of the deckhouses were occupied for hospital purposes. The quarters occupied by the immigrants on the lowermost deck, were as dark as the gloomiest of dungeons, excepting the compartment occupied by the single men on this deck forward.

Upon enquiry it was ascertained that the steamer was built to carry only 450 passengers, and the compartments on the orlop deck thus occupied were never intended to be used for any other purpose than as a hold for cargo, but that all the provisions, both for light and ventilation, possible to be devised had been supplied. In the arrangement for accommodating the vessel's complement (450) of passengers, provision for light and ventilation to the lowermost deck had been made at the time of her construction in the forward part of the ship, now occupied by the single men, but this was not so with respect to the compartments of the single girls and married couples. Of these it required but a moment's inspection to see that they were unfit for the habitation of a human being. No exception is urged against the state in which the immigrants' compartments were found, as regards order and cleanliness. The appearance of the main deck was not as creditable as it might have been, but its slovenly and disorderly condition was partially caused by the preparations in progress for landing the immigrants and their luggage.

For the trade for which she was built, namely to carry immigrants between Amsterdam and New York, or passengers between Amsterdam and New York, the steamer is admirably adapted, and will rank as a first-class boat. She is fitted with very commodious saloon, elegantly furnished and decorated. Her staterooms, to accommodate three persons, are also unusually roomy and comfortable. Hot air pipes, for heating the saloon, are laid along the corridors, and there are ladies' boudoirs, smoking rooms, and an upper saloon, or social hall on deck.

The vessel is, in these respects all that could be desired, and is well worth a visit. She is steered by steam power, the wheelhouses being aft, the quartermaster receiving his instructions by a telegraph indicator worked from the bridge. In the following report, furnished by Dr Gibson, there are also noted other specialties connected with her construction and interesting matters relating to the voyage. The report says:

"The passage has been an extremely fine one enabling the immigrants to be on deck frequently and thus facilitating the regulations, sanitary and otherwise to be carried out. Several very successful entertainments which served to break the tedium of the voyage were held during the passage. The immigrants comprise three hundred hop agriculturalists. These are represented by Mr Alf Simmonds the secretary of the Labour Union, who is a passenger by the vessel. Mr Simmonds has brought with him a quantity of hop plants, and before returning to England will give his attention to acquiring information respecting the adaptability of this country for the hop raising industry. The remainder of the immigrants are comprised of people from England, Ireland and Scotland, but typically English and Irish. When the steamer was chartered it was intended that she should take in all six hundred hop workers, Mr Simmonds thinking he could get that number of Union men to emigrate. Failing to obtain more than three hundred, the complement was made up as above.

The conduct of the immigrants has been fair and their character as a body is good. Their health throughout has been good. No incident has occurred of consequence, with the exception to that of a boy by falling down the hatchway and breaking his thighbone. The doctor attributes their immunity from sickness to fine weather, clean bilges and to a plentiful supply of fresh water. The water from the condensers is perfectly clear. In the 'tween decks is an admirably designed apparatus for purifying the atmosphere. It is worked from the engine rooms, and by driving out the foul air and allowing the fresh air in, keeps this part of the steamer particularly free from bad odours. In the several compartments in the orlop deck extra space is allowed to each immigrant to counteract the apparent difficulty of getting these places as thoroughly ventilated as those in the 'tween decks. No breaches of discipline other than of a trivial character have occurred.

Five deaths occurred as follows: Thomas Port, infant, February 19th of bronchitis; H. Pope, infant February 21st; P. Coleman, infant, March 16th; A Kirkby, infant, April 1st; and G.F. Frickey aged 2 years, April 15th of phthisis. The stores of medical comforts were unusually good in quality and quantity. Boat drill and fire drill and the night watches were kept with rigid regularity. The vessel was fifty one days under steam, and is remarkably free from vibration."

The Canterbury and Otago portion of the immigrants were landed yesterday afternoon, those for Otago being transhipped to the S.S. Ringarooma. The cargo for the places named was also landed last night, and today the steamer will leave for Wellington, whence she will return here to head for home.

Evening Post, 17 April 1879 p.2

The Stad Haarlem steamed alongside the wharf this morning, and landed the Canterbury and Otago immigrants, the latter being transshipped to the Ringarooma. The Stad Haarlem will leave for Wellington tomorrow. It is believed here that the Commission will make an unfavorable report upon the vessel as to her adaptability for carrying passengers.

Evening Post, 18 April 1879 p.2a

The immigrants by the Stad Haarlem landed immediately on her arrival this morning, and proceeded at once to the Barracks. A strong force of police was in attendance on the wharf to keep the middle T clear until the large steamer was brought alongside, and while the immigrants and their luggage were being landed. The immigrants themselves are a very robust, sturdy looking set of people, and appear in excellent health. They seem in every way suited to become capital colonists.

April 18 - Stad Haarlem, ss, 1714 tons, De Boer, from Plymouth via Lyttelton.

The following images are from The Timaru Herald





The Southland Times Wednesday 16 April 1879
That the Stad Haarlem, must had had to give the port go-bye, must indeed have been mortifying to the Port Chalmers and Dunedin public. Lyttelton was already to receive her, and a special berth has been dredged for her accommodation.

The Star Thursday 24 April 1879
Wellington, April 23

The Post has a long article to-night on the inability of the Stad Haarlem to cross the Otago bar. It says that there is "a risk of endangering the reputation of all New Zealand harbours as safe havens. It was only the other day that the ship Enterprise leaving Port Chalmers for London struck heavily on the bar, and actually hung there for several minutes, but nevertheless on getting off proceeded on her voyage at the grave peril of all on board. The ships Benares and Niagara, and the small barques Pallas struck going in, and the Niagara in consequence has had to be docked and under going extensive repairs. The steamers Ringarooma, Arawata and Hinemoa are all known to have struck on the bar within the last few months. The Albion received a severe bumping going both in and out last time and the Hawea also struck while the large ship, Oregon, drawing 22ft, is now detained outside. All these casualties occurred during the later half year. The Nourmatal (of 846 tons) in 1858 first demonstrated the possibility of vessels of over 800 tons entering Port Chalmers. We were not at all surprised to find the Otago papers attributing the Stad Haarlem fiasco to there being an unprecedently heavy sea on the bar. Of course, there always is when this occurs. It is not explained how the small steam tug Koputai managed to get out if the ea were really so heavy; for nobody outside Dunedin will be deceived for one moment by so very transparent a device. To all the world except Dunedin the plain facts will remain clear that the Stad Haarlem, when drawing 18 feet, could not safely enter Port Chalmers; yet the 'New Zealand Pilot' for 1875 distinctly states, that by keeping the course indicated, there will be found 18 feet of water on the bar at low water, Spring tides. Crossing the bar at neap tide, in the precise direction indicated by the 'New Zealand Pilot,' the Hinemoa struck when drawing 12ft 4 in. The Niagara, which was loaded expressly to the draught indicated by the 'New Zealand Pilot' struck so heavily as to sustain injury. The accurate information in the edition 1864 (page 197) 'The average depths at low water (Springs) were 16 and 17 feet, with patches of 14 and 13 ft.' The deepest and best place for crossing being stated in both the editions as '2½ cables length from Taiaroa Head.' has been replaced by inaccurately and misleading statements which appear in the edition of 1875. The danger is one which demands instant attention of our mercantile community and of the marine department. The shipping interests of the Colony must not be sacrificed to the absurd craze of Dunedin for having larger vessels sent there the harbour can admit.

One birth occurred during the voyage - 31 March 1879 Mrs David Johnson - a daughter.
Dr Gibson records five deaths - those of infants, and all from chest complaints.

Port 	Thomas	infant 		Feb.  19th of bronchitis
Pope 	H.  	infant 		Feb.  21st of bronchitis 
Coleman P. 	infant 		March 16th
Kirkby 	A 	infant 		April 1st
Frickey G.F.  	aged 2 years 	April 15th of phthisis (Tuberculosis of the lungs)

The passengers are principally from the County of Kent.

Miscellaneous passenger listings
Passengers for Invercargill
Jackson family broken link

Emigrant and Colonists Aid Corporation (Limited) proceeding to the Manchester Settlement, Wellington

List of Immigrants per S.S. Stad "HAARLEM" sailed from Plymouth 6th February, 1879
---- --- ---------- -------
POPE, Ambrose 		32 Painter Manchester
POPE, Hannah 		32 		"
POPE, Frederick I. 	11 		"
POPE, Anne E. 		10 		"
POPE, Arthur A.  	 8 		"
WOOD, Thomas 		24 Laborer 	"
WOOD, Mirah 		23 		"

The following "The Farthest Promised Land" by Professor Rollo Arnold of Victoria University, Wellington.

Alfred Simmons's Kent union grew in strength. On 21 November Vogel cabled Grey, ‘Kent and Sussex labourers have struck; seems splendid opportunity obtaining immigrants. Could send several hundreds by steamer, arrive February, or later by sailing vessels. The completion of a direct cable link between Britain and New Zealand in 1876 made possible rapid negotiations on urgent matters. Agent-General. Vogel had offered Simmons a first-class passage to accompany the party to N.Z., provided a reasonable number were recruited, and on 28 December he was able to announce that he was going. He sailed with a party of about 400 on the steamer Stad Haarlem from Plymouth on 14 February. Alfred Simmons wrote a book, Old England and New Zealand, London, 1879.

ANSLEY 	Thomas 	30 	Agri. Lab. 	Chilham Kent w+4ch 	per Stad Haarlem 206 page
EPPS 	John 	12 	rook boy 	Kent 			per Stad Haarlem 206
MORGAN 	George 		Littlebourne    Kent w+3ch > Otago	per Stad Haarlem 209
PRATT 	James 							Per Stad Haarlem 207
SPARKS 	Emma 	12 	d/o George Sparks 			per Stad Haarlem 208
SPARKS 	Louisa 	16 	d/o George Sparks 			per Stad Haarlem 208
SPARKS 	Ann 	19 	d/o George Sparks 			per Stad Haarlem 208
SPARKS 	George 	39 	shepherd 	N Downs 		per Stad Haarlem 208
SPARKS 	George 				Chartham, Kent 		per Stad Haarlem 322
TUCKER 	Sarah 				Kent > Dunedin 		per Stad Haarlem 209
TUCKER 	William 33	Agri. Lab. 	Kent > Dunedin		per Stad Haarlem 209
WATERS 	Thomas 	45 	Agri. Lab. 	Chilham Kent 		per Stad Haarlem 206

The rural home counties of the south-east (which included Sussex, Kent, Hampshire, Surrey and Essex) contributed large numbers of migrants to New Zealand. The migration from this area, followed a long-term decline in rural wages and conditions, which sparked a union movement of rural labourers, the ‘revolt of the field’, in 1874. The failure of this revolt sent quite a number to New Zealand. There was a loss of livelihood in these areas, as local craft workers, like shoemakers or wheelwrights, found they could not compete with factory production. 14 January 1874, Kentish folks were bound for Bluff, Otago, with 287 emigrants on the William Davie. About eighty of the party were allotted to the Wennington, which sailed on 21 January with 294 emigrants for Wellington. The Kent Union had despatched about a thousand emigrants to New Zealand by the time winter was over. A party of about 125 sailed on the steamship Atrato on 10 February. They included sixteen families from the parish of Burham near Rochester. The Burham emigrants were largely brickmakers, and their families. Many of the immigrants on the Atrato settled in South Canterbury. Two further parties totalling 170, mainly agricultural labourers sailed from London before the end of February in the J. N. Fleming and the Rooparell. The Kent Union's next large party was one of 200 which sailed from Plymouth in Waikato on 24 March. The Atrato sailed for the second time, crowded with 755 emigrants, on 6 April. The Ballochmyle sailed on 4 March 1874. The Stonehouse, which left five weeks later than the Ballochmyle.

The pioneers of the south Taranaki bush also included some recently arrived immigrants, among them quite a number of the Stad Haarlem's Kentish party. One of these was William Hatcher, 33, an experienced Kentish hop worker who emigrated with his wife and three children. He may well have been among those who brought cases of hop sets with them.


Simmons, Alfred Old England and New Zealand; The Government, Laws, Churches, Public Institutions, and the Resources of New Zealand, Popularly and Critically Compared with Those of the Old Country with an Historical Sketch of the Maori Race. Edward Stanford. London. 1879. (the Natives of New Zealand); to which are added Extracts from the Author's Diary of His Voyage to New Zealand, in Company with 500 Emigrants. The appendix of the book includes his diary of the voyage.  New Zealand map, in color. Contents include: Discovery of New Zealand; A Fight with Captain Cook's Sailors and the Maories; Native Population; Missionaries in New Zealand; Jesus Christ, a Maori, now living; Savage Objections to Railways and Telegraphy; The Climate of New Zealand; The English House of Lords Compared with the New Zealand Legislative Council; Education; Religious Denominations; Statistic and Blue Book Haters; Mineral Resources; Timber; Political Economy; British People in New Zealand; etc. Native Population. Native Villages. Customs. Beliefs. Savages. English Emigrants. Settlers. Missionaries.

Smith Book Shop facsimile Christchurch : Kiwi Publishers, c1995. 143 p. ; 21 cm

The life of Alfred Simmons who founded an agricultural union and assisted in the population of New Zealand with families from Kent. Typescript, 22 pages. Friend of the Farm Worker.  His career is traced from poverty in London, editor of a newspaper in Maidstone, to union leader & parliamentary candidate & then to disgrace & obscurity.
Living conditions of the agricultural labourers of Kent
Emigration of members to New Zealand assisted by the union.
Visit of Alfred Simmons to New Zealand

The "Revolt of the Field" in Kent 1872–1879 an article by Rollo Arnold in Past and Present,  (a journal) (1974), A study of the Kent union. pp.71–95.

Simmons made his union dominant in the benefit affairs of rural Kent. This greatly strengthened the union's position, as the old Sick Benefit Clubs had been largely under farmer and squire patronage, representing an extension of their influence over the labourers. Also, many of these clubs were purely local, and helped to tie the labourer to one parish. Acutely conscious of the vulnerability of the poor, Simmons early began fostering voluntary "good feeling" collections by union branches, so that mutual self-help would compensate for the loss of the philanthropic ‘good feeling’ of the masters. By 1873 he could report 700 voluntary collections for sick and needy members.

General labourers had begun joining early in the union's history. The main threats of 1874-5 came from the East Kent corn districts. Here the growing use of machinery was weakening the labourers' position. The Kent Messenger of 9 May 1874 reported several farmers ordering their men to surrender union cards for destruction or accept dismissal, although the men had made no demands of any kind. Simmons warned that the union had nearly two thousand members in East Kent and called an indignation meeting at Monkton. These farmers quickly backed down in the face of widespread public condemnation. The Canterbury Kent Herald, for example declared that "it smacks too much of slavery to say a man must not belong to a certain club". Various small lock-outs developed throughout 1874, and a long trial of strength began on the Isle of Sheppey in March 1875. For a time over half the island's one hundred and fifty unionists were on the funds. By 18th June thirty men had been found employment elsewhere, and in August the union assisted a party of nineteen to emigrate to Canada. In the six months to 26 May 1875, £1014 was spent in aid to locked-out men. Nevertheless the union's reserve funds continued to grow, and it claimed to have achieved a general improvement in wages for its members.

Assisted by New Zealand agents, the union recruited a party of four hundred, which left Maidstone on 29th January.  Simmons accompanied them to New Zealand on the steamship "Stad Haarlem." Their departure solved the eviction problem for the union, and took the heart out of the lock-out. Over the next two months the farmers slowly took back their men at the old rates.  If their real concern had been to lower wages, they would have done far better by negotiating with the union.  As to "smashing" the union, they had utterly failed.  Financially, the union paid a heavy price, as the dispute cost it over £9,000.  Its membership, however, rose during the lock-out to a new peak of sixteen thousand and its finances were rebuilt within a year or two.  It continued as a strong union throughout the 1880s, changing its name to become the London and Southern Counties Labour League, entered the 1890s as one of the country's nine major unions, and was dissolved in 1895 with a membership of thirteen thousand.  Nevertheless, the great lock-out battle of 1878-9 might well be taken as a belated closing episode in the "Revolt of the Field".  For though the Kent farmers failed to destroy the spirit of their labourers, the continuing depression of agriculture was soon sapping the spirit of both master and man and making union initiatives.  In the winter of 1879-80, Simmons reported four-fifths of the farmers reducing wages but there was no pressure on the men to leave the union, and it was decided not to contest the reductions.  Over the next year or two Simmons appears to have lost faith in unionism as a means of solving the rural labourers' problems, turning instead to emigration.  He became secretary of the National Association for Promoting State-Directed Emigration, founded in 1883 under the presidency of Lord Brabazon. He resigned as secretary of the Kent Union in May 1887. This union party is the subject of an article by  R. Arnold, which appeared in Cantium/Kent Local History, vi, no. 4 (winter 1974-5)  A Kentish Exodus of 1879. On emigration related to the Revolt, see RD Arnold, English Rural Unionism and Taranaki Immigration, N.Z.

William and Elizabeth Small - A convoy of Kentish labourerd from the "hop country" under the auspices of the Kent and Sussex Labourers' Union was led by founder A. Simmons from the Maidstone Railway Station to Plymouth where they departed for Littleton, New Zealand aboard the "Stad Haarlem."

NZ Bound Guest Book Date: 2004-06-06

Name: Robert Goodwin
Arrived: Lyttelton
Comments: Have tried to find a passenger lists for the Dutch Steamer Stad Haarlem and the Mystery
Grandfather's name was William Charles his father's name was Charles wife's name Ann (nee FRID) all came from Kent.


The Star Monday 5th April 1879 Cleared Lyttelton
May 3 - Stad Haarlem, s.s., 1750 tons, P. de. Boer, for London, NZSCo., agents. The Stad Haarlem takes 41 saloon passengers, 14 second cabin and 80 steerage, in all 135, representing 121 statute adults. She arrived alongside the wharf on the evening of the 24 April. Has taken aboard 1274 bales wool, 4428 sacks wheat, 221 casks tallow. 160 cases meats and 10 packages sundries, besides discharging 300 tons railroad iron. Her cargo represents a total valve of nearly £93,000. The steamer has 1300 tons of coal on board, and her first stoppage is fixed for St. Vincent, at which station she will take aboard sufficient coal to carry her to London. Her draught of water is now 21ft 3 ins. The work of loading the steamer has been done by Messrs Cameron Bros., and supervised by Captain Rose, the Company's well-known representative from Wellington. The passage is expected to be made under 48 days.

Passengers: - Saloon
Allen 		Mr Charles
Beatrice 	Miss
Buchanan? 	Mr M
Buxton 		Mr E
Edwards 	Mr M
Garf?rth 	Mr J.G.
Hill 		Mr M
McIntyre 	Mr and Mrs Hugh
McKinlay 	Mr and Mrs
Maitland 	Mr and Mrs G.H.
Maitland 	Florence
Maitland 	Francis
Maitland 	Arthur
Maitland	Zoe
Maitland	Freda
Maitland	William 
Marshall 	Mrs E.L.M.
Marshall 	H.M.B.
Marshall 	J.M.
Marshall 	Jessie
Marshall 	Patrick
Marshall 	George L. 
Maunsell 	Master R.S.
Newton 		Mr and Mrs and child
Nicols 		Mrs
Nichols 	Miss
Nichols 	Miss
Nichols		Maud
Nichols		Ada
Nichols 	Mr
Nichols 	Joseph
Nichols 	Charles
Nichols 	Arthur
Nichols 	Septimus
Nichols 	Harold
Nichols 	Cyril 
Smalley 	Mrs Jane
Sweet 		Mr M
Second cabin:
Chapman 	Mr
Cord 		Mr
Fald? 		Mr and Mrs
Hall 		Mr
Jones 		Mr
Kelland 	Mr
Kemp 		Mr
Lambert 	Mr
Lucy 		Mr
Munsby 		Mr
Sinclair	Mr
Stewart		Mr

My Count:
Saloon - 43 passengers
Second - 14 passengers
Saloon - 81 passengers
Total   138 passengers

Addie 		Mr
Barrett 	Mr and Mrs
Bass 		Mr
Black 		Mrs
Black 		Henry
Black 		John
Brewer 		Mr
Bromley 	Mr
Burns 		Miss
Clements 	Mr
Clutsam 	Mr and Mrs
Coote 		Mr
Coutts 		Mr
Devereaux 	Mr
Dugin 		Mr
Edwards 	Mr
Ericksen 	Mr
Evans 		Mr
Fahey 		Mr
Fraser 		Mr
Furdo 		Mr
Glass 		Mr
Gledhill 	Miss
Gummer 		Mr
Griffiths 	Mr
Hansen 		Mr
Howes 		Mr
Holmes 		Mr
Iredale 	Mr
Irwin 		Mr
Jackson 	Mr and Mrs
Jaco?son 	Mr and Mrs
Jansen 		Mr
Johansen 	Mrs
Jones 		Mr and Mrs and child
Kelly 		Mr
Labalestriere 	Mrs
Langley 	Mr
Laughton 	Mr
Littlefield 	M
Lloyd 		Mr
Lloyd 		Mr
Longdon 	Mr
Lowen 		Mr
McAdie 		Mr
McTaggart 	Mr
Manson 		Mr and Mrs
Marriot 	Mr and Mrs
Milne 		Miss
Moffatt 	Mr
Nelson 		Mr and Mrs and family (2)
Nelson 		Mr
O'Donnell 	Mr
Petersen 	Mr
Petersen 	Misses (2)
Reed 		Mr and Mrs
Reed 		Annie
Reed 		John
Savage 		Mrs
Silk 		Mr and Mrs and child
Sullivan 	Mr
Vincent 	Miss
Wallace 	Miss
Witty 		Mr
W?olley		Mr

The Star Tuesday 6 April 1879

The departure of the s.s. Stad Haarlem caused a very considerable amount of excitement in Port yesterday. Passengers commenced to take up their quarters on board a an early hour. Shortly after 2. p.m. a number of people began to congregate on the No. 4 wharf the booming of the steamer's whistle giving forth warning of her impatience to be away. A large number of passengers' friends assembled on board to say goodbye, the steamers decks being pretty full. At 3 p.m. those for shore were warned to leave the ship. Captain McLellan, the Harbour Master, then ascended the bridge and the order was given to cast off from the wharf. The lines were let go, the engines moved slow ahead, and the big steamer made a start Homeward bound. The breakwater having been cleared, the engines eased, and the passengers mustered on deck, when the vessel was searched in order to ascertain if there were any stowaways. After a careful search no one was found on board that had no business there, and the roll of the passengers was called. A few more minor details having been concluded, the steam launch Lyttelton steamed alongside, and the final good wishes having been exchanged. A 4: 45 p.m. the engines were moved ahead and the Stad Haarlem started her long voyage Home. When the launch, Lyttelton, rounded the breakwater the big steamer was away outside the Heads to sight on her own smoke. Mr Selwyn Smith, the General manager of the company, together with Captain Rose and other of the Company's officials, went off with the steamer, and saw her clear away. Dr Gibson, who came out on the Stad Haarlem, goes Home occupying the post of medical officer. The steamer has mail for England and it is expected that she will land the same some days before that sent via Suez, which leaves Port to-day.

Otago Witness 19 July 1879 pg20

Wellington, July 15 1879
Since August last it appears that Messrs Clement, Sutherland, George Kemberley, Rev. J. Skinner, and Mrs M. Hart, colonists visiting England, have been recommended to the Agent General as willing to give grantanitous services in promoting immigration to suitable persons to the Colony. Mr John Barnes and Mr Julius S. Jeffreys  (he had arrived on the John Wickliffe to Otago) have also been introduced as willing to give assistance on terms to be settled by the Agent General. Mr Reed's engagement at L600 is advised, and he has been placed in charge of the North Ireland agency. Mr A. Clayden was, with his wife, provided with a cabin passage Home in the Stad Haarlem, and is to received L 250 for lecturing for a year in any part of the United Kingdom. Mr J. Bathgate is also to be employed, his travellng expenses when engaged in lecturing being defrayed by the Agent general.

Otago Witness March 17 1898 pg 97
Jeffreys, Julius S., nephew, born in India, 1830, came out a lad of 17, in John Wickliffe, being joined by his brother, who had previously arrived in Australia. Built a house on the site of the Provincial Hotel, in which the first bank, Union Bank of Australia, was started in 1857. They settled at Halfway Bush, but his brother going back to Australia. Mr Julius S. Jeffreys took up a run at Maerewhenua in partnership with Mr John Borton. Visited England 1863-6 returning with a wife and child. Settled at Caversham, but went Home again, settling ultimately in Auckland, where he died.

What is in the name! 

 Stad means city.  Stadt also means city in German. Haarlem is a city 15 minutes from Amsterdam.

The Stad Haarlem was launched on 23 January 1875, she sailed for Royal Netherlands until 1879, when she was jointly chartered by Shaw Saville & Albion and New Zealand Shipping Co. for a single voyage from London to 1879. This was found not to be a financial success and the ship was sold in 1879 to the French company, Compagnie Generale Transatlantique. She had one funnel, three masts (barque rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. They renamed her "Ferdinand de Lesseps" after a French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, who was in charge of the construction of the Suez Canal, was initially called upon to build the new canal at Panama and construction began on January 1, 1880. On 14 Sept.1879 the steamer left Marseilles on her first voyage to Panama. On 30 Oct.1880 she commenced the first of three round voyages between Havre and New York and on 28 April 1881 started her first Marseilles - New York voyage. Her last voyage on this service commenced 10 June1882 (7 round voyages) and in 1911 she was scrapped at Dunkirk. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.2, p.654] [North Star to Southern Cross by John M.Maber] [Posted to The ShipsList by Ted Finch - 30 January 1998]