[see Edgar M Gregory--sources for a complete list of the articles I've found about Gregory]
[Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph 21 August 1865 page 2]
Letter from Cairo, Ill.
CAIRO, Illinois, Aug. 9th, 1865.
I understand Gen. Gregory is in charge of the Freedmen's Bureau of Texas. He is a Philadelphian, a thorough going man [sic], and of whom [sic] gentlemen who know him well speak in the highest terms. I hope he will as cordially "accept the situation and make the best of it," as I know the majority of the citizens of our State have done.[...]
[Dallas Herald 16 September 1865, page 2]
Brig. Gen. Gregory, Chief of the Freedman's Bureau, for the District of Texas, arrived at Galveston, on the 5th inst.
[Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph 25 September 1865 page 4]
Gen Gregory, of the Freedmen's Bureau, and Gen. Kent, the Provost Marshal General, arrived in this city last Saturday. We regret to learn that an unfavorable impression has gone abroad of the former gentleman, and are satisfied that it is not well founded. We believe that he is earnestly devoted to the two objects of securing the welfare of the negro, and of saving the agriculture of the State, and that free consultation between him and the planters and citizens most interested will secure the object to mutual satisfaction. We trust they will give him a fair and candid reception. He goes up to Hempstead today.
[Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph 29 September 1865 page 7]
--Gen. Gregory, Superintendent of the Freedmen's Bureau for this State, returned to this city on Tuesday afternoon from a tour of inspection in Austin and Washington counties. We learn that the Bureau will be established immediately throughout the State, and that agents will be appointed in a few days. The General will establish his Headquarters at Galveston. He departed for that place yesterday morning.
[Macon Daily Telegraph 30 September 1865 page 2]
The Galveston Bulletin says that it is the intention of Gen. Gregory Assistant Commissioner of Freedmen for Texas, to establish public schools at once throughout the State, furnished with competent teachers for both white and black.
[Dallas Herald 21 October 1865 page 2]
It is believed by some, that the Freedmen's Bureau will ere long be entirely discontinued, and the duties of the Bureau be turned over to the State Civil officers. This has already been done, in effect, in Alabama and Mississippi, and the powers of the Bureau seem gradually to have been diminished in many other places within the past month or so. Gen. Gregory, the chief of the Bureau for this State arrived in Galveston some weeks since, but up to this time, we have heard of no appointments under him in other parts of the State. The Provost Marshall's or Civil officers appear to be performing the duties applicable to the officers of the "Bureau."
We hear it asserted, also, that efforts will soon be made to relieve this State of the presence of the negro troops, which are posted in such numbers in the Southern and Southwestern parts of the State.
[Flake's Bulletin 29 December 1865 page 4]
RETURN OF GEN. GREGORY.--Gen. Gregory has returned from his second tour among the Freedmen. He reports them contended and disposed to make cantract [sic] for the ensuing year. All the apprehended difficulties about labor are rapidly vanishing.
This is well. We never thought that the fears of a negro insurrection had any foundation in fact.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 1 January 1866 page 1]
FROM NEW ORLEANS AND TEXAS.
In western Texas the planters, farmers [and] freedmen are generally making contracts [for?] the next year, satisfactory to both parties. [In] central Texas the prospects are not so good, planters being discouraged. On such as [?] sugar and cotton plantations of Brasoe, Colorado, Cofrey and other streams near the coast, General Gregory is making a tour and addressing the freedmen, with a view to persuade them to make contracts for labor next year.[...]
[Flake's Bulletin 2 January 1866 page 5]
The colored people of Galveston celebrated their emancipation from slavery yesterday by a procession.
Notwithstanding the storm some eight hundred or a thousand men, women and children took part in the demonstration.
The procession was orderly and creditable to those participating in it.
A meeting was held in the colored Church, on Broadway, at which addresses were delivered by a number of speakers, among whom was Gen. Gregory, Assistant Commissioner of Freedmen.
The General gave them a great deal of good, plain advice, which, if they follow, will redown to their well being and prosperity.
The Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln was read.
John Brown's body lies mouldering in the ground
was also a part of the programme. So far as we observed there was no interference nor any improper conduct on the part of spectators.
COLORED SUNDAY SCHOOL--The colored Sunday School, under the direction of Mr. Tambling, was visited on Sunday morning by General Gregory. Mr. Richard L. Shelley of the New York Tribune, and several other gentlemen, all of whom addressed the audience gave the freedmen much good advice relating to their spiritual and temporal welfare.[...]
[Flake's Bulletin 14 January 1866 page 5]
RATIONS.--By the regulations of the War Department Gen. Gregory has authority to issue rations to indigent negroes and refugees. An impression prevails that a large sum is thus expended. The following is the official statement for the whole State of Texas during the month of December: Rations issued to nineteen men, ten women and three [?] children. Total rations, 32. Whole number of Rations, 496. Total cost, $70 19.[...]
[Flake's Bulletin 17 January 1866 page 4]
HIGHLY IMPORTANT DECISION.
The case of Mr. H. M. Elmore came up yesterday before Judge Caldwell. It will be remembered the Col. Elmore was arrested by Gen. Gregory, Assistant Commissioner of Freedmen on a charge of "hunting a freedman with dogs." A writ of habeas corpus was taken out, at Houston, and yesterday set as the time for a further return.
Before the Hon. Colbert [??] Caldwell, Judge of the Seventh Judicial District of Texas, sitting in Chambers at Galveston.H. M. Elmore, Applicant, vs. E. M. Gregory, Respondent. For Habeas Corpus.
And now comes E. M. Gregory, Brevet Brigadier-General United States Army, and Assistant-Commissioner Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, for the State of Texas; and for return to the writ of habeas corpus served upon him in this case, respectfully says:
That by an act of the Congress of the United States of America, approved 3d March, 1865, there was established in the War Department a Bureau for the management and control of all subjects relating to refugees and freedmen, under such regulations as might be prescribed by the head of such Bureau, approved by the President of the United States.
That on the 2d day of June, 1865, the head of such Bureau, Major-General O. O. Howard, of the United States army, with the approval of the President of the United States, among other regulations in that behalf, prescribed and promulgated the following:
"In all places where there is an interruption of civil law, or in which local courts, in violation of the freedom guaranteed by the proclamation of the President and laws of Congress, disregard the negroes' right to justice before the laws; the Assistant-Commissioner will adjudicate all difficulties arising between negroes themselves, or between negroes and whites or Indians, so far as recognizable and not taken cognizance of by other tribunals, civil or military, of the United States.
"The old system of overseers tending to compulsory and unpaid labor and acts of cruely and oppression, is prohibited.
"The unity of families and all the rights of the family relation will be carefully guarded."
That afterwards, on the 12th day of July, 1865, the same head of said Bureau promulgated in substance the following:
"No Assistant-Commissioner is authorized to tolerate compulsory unpaid labor, except for the legal punishment of crime; and in all actions the officer should never forget that no substitute for slavery will be tolerated, and the Assistant-Commissioner must explain, by constant recapitulation, the principles, laws and regulations of this Bureau to all parties concerned."
That on or about the 30th day of November, 1865, the respondent being in discharge of his duties as Assistant-Commissioner of said Bureau for the State of Texas, a complaint and charge was made against the same H. M. Elmore, that he had run down with dogs and guns, and caught and falsely and cruelly imprisoned and kidnapped a certain freedman named Shade,in Walker county, Texas, in the month of July, 1865: and though ample time had elapsed, and ample opportunity given the proper civil authorities, the local courts of Walker county had taken no notice of said act, though it was and is a high offence against the laws of Texas and of humanity, and was cognizable by the local courts of the State, thus leaving the said freedman without protection or redress, unless extended by this respondent.
That said act of said Elmore was a crime, done in contempt of the constituted authorities of the government; and the said Elmore voluntarily acknowledged and admitted the perpetration thereof as charged.
That upon this charge so confessed and admitted, and under an imperative sense of official duty, this respondent arrested said Elmore, and still holds him in custody.
That having lawfully obtained jurisdiction of the subject matter and of the person of the accused, and no other competent authority having attempted to act in the matter, this respondent proposed to adjudicate the cause, and respectfully denies the jurisdiction of your Honor in the premises, and therefore respectfully declines to surrender the person of the said H. M. Elmore under the writ issued in his behalf.
And this respondent prays to be hence dismissed.
All of which is respectfully submitted this 15th day of January, 1866.E. M. Gregory,
Brevet Brigadier-General, Assistant Commissioner for Texas. ----
Judge D. J. Baldwin, of Houston, and District Attorney A. P. Wiley, appeared for Gen. Gregory, and Judge Baker, of Huntsville, and Col. J. H. Mauley, of Houston, for Elmore.
Judge Baker then asked for an order upon Gen. Gregory to show cause why an attachment should not issue. In support of this motion he made an argument, claiming that the Freedmen's Bureau was created and given jurisdiction only upon the occurrence of certain specified contingencies enumerated in the act of Congress. He then proceeded to argue that not one of these contingencies had arisen, and that, therefore, neither original nor concurrent jurisdiction was possessed by the bureau, that that the prisoner was therefore illegally held by the Assistant Commissioner of Freedmen. The counsel for General Gregory submitted the case without argument.
OPINION OF THE COURT.
Upon the surrender of this department in May last, to the federal armies, there was no person in the State of Texas competent to execute any office created by her Constitution. Thus, upon the advent of Federal authority among us, it was not the mild and persuasive laws administered by judges and juries we had, but the military power of the Government to challenge our obedience.
It follows logically that the constitution and laws of this State did not operate propio vigore, but were prescribed by the Provisional Governor as rules of action for our guidance until the people should amend the Constitution in the manner indicated by the President, so as make [sic] it acceptable to the National Government. The Provisional Government is one of the means resorted to by the President to aid the loyal people of the State to reestablish their normal relations to the General Government. Thus it is every officer of the Provisional Government and army officer are alike creatures of the Executive will--deriving their commissions from the same--each independent in its own sphere--not antagonistic, but co-operatively--working together to effect a common object, which is a restoration of the Southern people, to their rightful relations to the Union, at the "earliest possible moment."
The creation by act of Congress of a bureau in the War Department to be called the "Bureau of Refugees, Feeedmeh [sic] and Abandoned Lands," had conferred upon it exclusive jurisdiction of all subjects relating to freedmen, which is to exist for twelve months after the suppression of the rebellion. The armed opposition to the Government having ceased in this State, in May last, the chief of that bureau, by virtue of authority of the act aforesaid and the approval of the President, prescribed certain rules whereby the local courts had concurrent jurisdiction in all cases of offences by and against freedmen, and as a judge of the Provisional Government to meet the requirements of the occasion, I thus have charged the Grand Juries in every county of this district.
"And now gentlemen I will with perfect candor admonish you that in relation to offences by and against freedmen, as yet our jurisdiction is not exclusive, but concurrent. If we by reason of "old codes" render [sic] obselete [sic] by the emancipation of the slaves or any lingering prejudice, we [sic] make any dicrimmination [sic] against color, and fail to punish white men who may violate the personal or proprietary rights of the freedmen, that class of offenses will be withdrawn from the civil tribunals of the provisional government, and exclusively disposed of by military authority."
The return which is not controverted shows that the alledged [sic] offense was committed in Walker County prior to the acquirement of the District Court of that county, and no notice having been taken of it, and complaint being made by the party aggrieved to the Assistant Commissioner, whose jurisdiction is held to be concurrent, the motion is overruled, and the writ of habeas corpus dismissed.
[Flake's Bulletin 8 February 1866 page 4]
WHERE DID IT GO TO?
[...] [The beginning summarizes the New York Freedmen's Association annual report for 1865, including receipts of $250,341.51.] yy
Now we ask in all sincerity, what was done with this money? A quarter of a million of dollars is a large sum. These figures are altogether to [sic] general. We get along first rate in Texas, and have never yet heard of a single dollar given in charity, reaching this latitude. We support exactly thirty-five persons, all told, in the State of Texas, where tens of thousands are fed in other States. Perhaps General Gregory could expend small sums in fitting up school houses. But on the whole the freedmen are better off when left to work out their own living.
Wherever money has been sent, a pack of thieves has gone out in the same ship to steal it. There is not a State in the whole Union where the freedmen are in as good a condition as in Texas; and it has all been accomplished without the aid of charity.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 8 February 1866 page 1]
Charges Against General Gregory--Major-General Howard Denounced.
GALVESTON, Feb. 3.--Ex-President Burnett has published a list of severe charges against General Gregory in his administration of the Freedmen's Bureau.
General Gregory says they are false, and demands a retraction or full proof.
Colonies of Europeans are coming into Texas. The Poles are settling on Trinity River, near Palestine. The Germans and others from the Northwestern States are settling in the Colonies.
Flakes' Bulletin, a thoroughly Union paper, and the Government organ at Galveston, denounces General Howard's management of the Freedmen's Bureau, and speaks of him as a religious hypocrite.
[New Hampshire Sentinel 8 February 1866 page 2]
The number of colored children now being educated in South Carolina is 6000. As a rule, the freedmen are ready to work where they are sure of their pay. Gen. Gregory reports crops of all kinds in Texas as abundant. The desire of the freedmen to learn is intense; their morals are equal, if not better than those of a large majority of the better informed and educated white. Where federal troops are not quartered, or at a distance from them, the freedmen are frequently restrained of their liberties and otherwise inhumanly treated.[...]
[Dallas Herald 17 February 1866, page 3]
The Hon. David G. Burnet addressed a letter to the editor of the Galveston News, recently in which he charges Gen. Gregory of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas, with committing "many intolerable acts of oppression," "inspiring the poor negroes with false notions of themselves, and a bitter hatred of their old master," thus "unfavorably affecting the industrial pursuits of the planters," and leading to "insolent developments, with the inevitable consequences of the deluded negro," "assessing monthly contributions on the poor negro without sanction of law," and "perpetrating outrages so disgraceful to the American name as to issure [sic] their prompt repression and the remanding of their authors to a proper security."
Gen. Gregory pronounces the above statements false in every particular, and demands either a full and public retraction or well authenticated proof.
Whereupon, Judge Burnet addresses the following letter to Gen. Gregory, which we find in the News of the 4th inst:Brev't Brig. Gen. E. M. Gregory:
Sir:--I have this moment seen your reply to my article in the Galveston News, of the 28th ult.
You must have perceived that my "statement", "which you pronounce "false in every particular," was not based on my own personal knowledge, but derived from what I then believed and still believe to be "highly respectable sources."
To obtain proper proof of these statements will require some time, but so soon as they can be had, they shall be submitted to the public.DAVID G. BURNET.
Galveston, Feb. 1st, 1866.
The Telegraph notices the matter as follows:
Gen. Gregory Superintendent of the Freedmen's Bureau in this State denies the truth of the reports referred to by Judge Burnet. These reports were that unwarrantable and unjust fines had been levied for trivial causes by agents of the bureau upon the people, and that the influence of the bureau had tended to disquiet and dissatisfaction. He demands the proof. We presume the venerable ex-President of Texas has not acted unadvisedly, and will either furnish the proof required or put the fault ofn ot doing so on those on whose statements he has relied in making the call for documents. We trust he will not let the matter drop until the irresponsible reports that have produced so much unkind feeling are either proved true and well founded, oir false and unworthy of notice.-- Certain we are that no man can act from purer or better motives than President Burnet; and that he is in no way consulting any other than the public interest in calling for the proof of misfeasance which he has called for.
[Georgia Weekly Telegraph 26 February 1866 page 8]
AFFAIRS IN TEXAS.
Brigadier General Gregory, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for the State of Texas, under date of Galveston, Jan. 31st, reports to General Howard a very satisfactory state of affairs throughout that State.[...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 26 February 1866 page 1]
FROM TEXAS. [...]
Ex-President Burnett is preparing a reply to General Gregory, who demanded proof to sustain Burnett's charge of mal-administration, and the corruption of the Freedmen's Bureau.[...]
[Dallas Herald 3 March 1866 page 3]
WASHINGTON, Feb. 21.--[...]
Brig. Gen. Gregory reports very satisfactorily of the state of freedmen's affairs throughout Texas.
[Flake's Bulletin 8 March 1866 page 5]
THE LABOR BUREAU.
Judge Burnett publishes in the Galveston News a statement relative to the "Labor Bureau." The whole comprises five and a half columns. We republish the affidavits and summon statements, but are unable to make room for Judge Burnett's reflections. We also omit the affidavit of Mr. Perkin's as it has already appeared in the Bulletin:
GALVESTON, March 3d, 1866.
STATE OF TEXAS,
County of Galveston.
Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, Peter [??] Norris [??], of Galveston City, who, being duly sworn, deposeth and saith that his wife, Mrs. A. M. Norris, was the owner of a negro woman named Tanzy Edgar, previous to emancipation, and on the 8th day of November, 1865, said Tanzy brought an order from Gen. Gregory to deliver up all the property belonging to her in affiant's possession. But, as said Tanzy was in said affiant's debt, we did not deem it just or right to comply with said order.
Next day my wife was summoned to appear before said General, to answer to charges preferred against her by said negro woman Tanzy, which are as follows: That my wife was indebted to said Tanzy six dollars, it having been placed in her hands for safe-keeping; also that my wife had several chickens belonging to her, Tanzy. Affiant went to see the General, and explained to him the whole matter. That said Tanzy was indebted to my wife, &c. But the General not being satisfied with my statements, and I wishing to relieve my wife of further annoyance about the matter, I agreed to pay her, Tanzy, and give up the chickens. But Gen. Gregory said, unless I brought my wife before him to answer the charges, he would send a guard for her. I, therefore, in compliance with his demands, took my wife to his office. She stated to Gen. Gregory that said negro woman, Tanzy, belonged to her before emancipation. That she permitted said negro woman to hire her time, and was to pay me eight dollars at the end of eachmonth; but had failed to do so, and was in my debt some six or eight dollars. Also, that said Tanzy had borrowed a mosquito bar [?], worth some ten dollars, which she refused to give up, and that she didnot deposit six dollars with her for safe keeping &c. She had some chickens belonging to said Tanzy, and had told her, Tanzy, that she would give them up at any time she would return the mosquite bar. Said negro, Tanzy, denied my wife's statement in toto, and, on the negro, Tanzy's, testimony, Gen. Gregory required my wife to pay said negro three dollars, which said negro paid my wife in May, 1865, as part of her monthly wages. The money was paid, and I hold Gen. Gregory's receipt for same. We were therefore discharged, and supposed all was settled. But some weeks after, or about that time, said negro, Tanzy, in company with two soldiers, came to my house after dark to take by force property belonging to me. I resisted. They retired, threatening to come with a larger force; but as yet have not made their appearance. I endeavored to prosecute said negro for violation of my rights, but got no satisfaction. Affiant can prove by all his neighbors that his wife was a kind and indulgent mistress.PETER [? NORRIS [?]
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 13th [?] day of February, A. D. 1886.
E. P. HUNY [??], Notary Public.
[Flake's Bulletin 6 April 1866 page 4]
The News again predicts that General Gregory will be relieved presently. It has made the same prediction before. We expect the full end of this present prophecy will be about as correct as the others have been.
[Dallas Herald 7 April 1866 page 2]
We understand that quite a spley [???] little correspondence has taken place between Gen. Gregory, head man of the Freedman's Bureau of Texas, and Judge Roberts, Chief Justice of our county. We made an effort to obtain the documents, with the intention of laying them before our readers, but were not successful. The matter was bout this: Gen. Gregory found a good number of negroes in Harris county who were in a suffering condition, either from inability or disinclination to work. Desiring to throw the burden of their support off the shoulders of Government, he addressed Judge Roberts, requiring him to have these negroes furnished plenty of grub, etc., at the expense of the county.
Judge Roberts replied denying the right of the Freedmen's Bureau to give him instructions, and flatly refusing to have anything to do with the negroes. Gen. Gregory had him brought up before him--not under guard, we believe, and entered into a masterly argument to satisfy him of the error of his position. The Judge was at first roared with some most gentle persuasions, as soft as the cooing of a suckling dove, but when it was observed that this sweet rhetoric made no impression upon the stern old fellow's ears, we understand that some rather rough things were held in suspense over his head. All of it, however, proved unavailing; the Judge neither had the disposition to dance nor could be made to dance, and the negroes, in consequence, all have to look to Gen. Gregory for their pork and sop.
It is well for the county, no doubt, that she has a Chief Justice who understands every bit of his duty, and will not understand more.--Houston Telegraph.
[Flake's Bulletin 10 April 1866 page 1]
We have been reading the double-ended editorial in Friday's Houston Telegraph, and for the life of us we can't tell whether it is in favor of the Freedmen's Bureau or against it. It begins by giving Gen. Gregory a kick, and ends by patting him on the bank [sic]. Marvellous and past finding out are the ways of the Telegraph.
[Flake's Bulletin 15 April 1866 page 4]
GEN. GREGORY.--This officer has returned from an extended tour in the interior, whether [sic] he had gone on a tour of inspection. The General reports that the laborers are at work, the cotton mostly well up and doing finely. He says that the planters are all satisfied, that unless the worm or some other unavoidable cause intervenes, the crops will bve larger than were ever made before. In reference to the statement of his being relieved, he knows nothing, neither is any thing known at Headquarters. If it is true, we shall probably have official information by the next steamer.
[Flake's Bulletin 17 April 1866 page 4]
To Brevet-Brig.-Gen. GREGORY, Assistant Commissioner of Bureau for Refugees, &c.
SIR--The undersigned citizens and planters of the County of Falls, and State of Texas, take pleasure to inform you that our farms are now in as good a condition, and our crops are as far advanced, as we ever had them in any previous year. The freedmen are making much better laborers than even the most liberal of us anticipated. If they continue in their industry, with propitious seasons, a large, very large crop may be expected from this county. We desire the freedmen shall become good and substantial laborers. We honestly believe that Capt. A. P. Delano wishes to deal fairly and justly with all, irrespective of color or condition.
Yours, respectfully,[I didn't bother transcribing the list of 47 names]
STATE OF TEXAS, COUNTY OF FALLS.
I hereby certify that the gentlemen whose names are signed to the above and foregoing statement,are among the most respectable citizens of Falls County.
Given under my hand and the seal of the District Court of said County, at Marlin, this, the third day of April, 1866.
SAM'L M. DALTON,
Clerk D.C., F.C.
[Flake's Bulletin 17 April 1866]
COLORED RELIGIOUS MEETING.--We do not like to complain of anything good, even when evil comes from it. But we are constrained to complain of the negro religious meeting, now being held in the church south of Broadway, and east of Bath Avenue. For the last week the residents of that usually quiet section, have been disturbed by the most hideous noises that ever assailed our ears. We visited the scene of these exercises on Sunday last, and long before we reached the building, heard noises more like those of persons demented than anything else. In the building a crowd of negroes were assembled in all stages of that anomalous state known as having "the power." Some were jumping, others screeching, yelling, clapping their hands. The neighborhood was disturbed and greatly annoyed. They informed us that these proceedings were sometimes kept up all night and at day break, the converted sinners were hauled away on drays. Now we are glad to see all men and women in attendance on religious services, and although we may doubt the devotional character of these wild exercises, we would say nothing against it were it not a disturbance of the public peace. A man may make his religion as great a nuisance as his sins, and when he does so, should be as much restrained. Were the offenders white people, we should be as prompt to condemn. As General Gregory has the confidence of these people, we request him to explain or have explained to them their error, and enjoin them to keep the peace; we have no doubt but that a word from him would remedy the evil more readily than all the law-executing force in the city. There was an ample exhibition of that which was provocative of merriment, but we are not disposed to make merry with the religion of any, however humble.[...]
[Flake's Bulletin 17 April 1866 page 4]
Brevet Brigadier-General E. M. Gregory, Colonel 91st Pennsylvania Volunteers, has been relieved from his duties as Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for the State of Texas, and ordered on General Inspection duty on the staff of Gen. O. O. Howard. After having made a thorough inspection in Texas, calling upon the Department Commanders when travelling off the line of railroad, he will proceed to Washington with his reports, and report to the Commissioner of the Bureau for further instructions. "The Commissioner takes this occasion to commend Gen. Gregory for the marked energy and ability with which he has discharged his duties as Assistant Commissioner. The new duties to which he is assigned are deemed at present of paramount importance."
[Macon Daily Telegraph 24 April 1866 page 4]
FROM TEXAS.--Gen. Gregory has returned from a tour in the interior of Texas and reports that vigorous plantation work is successful, and the crops will be the largest ever raised in the State.
[Flake's Bulletin 24 April 1866, page 4]
MR. CUSHING AND HIS TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS.
When we referred Mr. Cushing to General Gregory and Judges Caldwell and Baldwin as the witnesses against him in relation to the report of his having expressed his willingness to advocate negro suffrage for the sum of ten thousand dollars--cash in hand paid--we had the right to expect that he would either admit its truth, or prove it false through these gentlemen. Such is the usual course with candid men. He has done neither the one nor the other. We now propose to go one step further, and thereupon publish the following card from Mr. Matthew Whilldin, associate editor of this paper:GALVESTON, April 21, 1866.
MESS. F. FLAKE & CO., Gentlemen:--In reply to your request that I would furnish over my own signature and for publication, such statements as I have given you verbally and upon the basis of which you have made the various remarks that have from time to time appeared in the Bulletin in relation to the alleged contemplated purchase and sale of the Houston Telegraph, for the advocacy of negro suffrage, I have to say, that, Capt. Samuel J. Wright, A.Q.M. upon the staff of Gen. Gregory, stated to me that Judges Baldwin and Caldwell had conversed upon this matter in his presence, and that Judge Caldwell had regretted the lack of radicalism on the part of the BULLETIN, and said that Mr. Cushing was in favor of negro suffrage--would advocate it if remunerated for the losses he would incur--say to the amount of ten thousand dollars, and that he would advocate the same in the columns of the Houston Telegraph if paid that amount.
The same statement was made to me by General Gregory, and other members of his staff.Very respectfully,
Now, in closing our present connection with this controversy, we have to say that either Capt. Wright and General Gregory have misrepresented the statements of Judge Caldwell, or the issue lies between that gentleman and Mr. Cushing. And until he publishes a statement from Judge Caldwell, we do not feel bound to reply to any general repetition of his denial.
Judge Baldwin is a neighbor to Mr. Cushing; Judge Caldwell lives on the railroad, at the distance of a few hours' ride. It would be very easy for Mr. Cushing to procure statements from these gentlemen. We are not personally interested in this matter. Mr. Cushing's interests are at stake, and if he is not at all solicitous for his reputation, we do not see that we should be.
[Flake's Bulletin 25 April 1866 page 4]
Capt. C. C. Morse, 37th Ill. Vol. Inft'y, Inspector General on the staff of Gen. Gregory, has been releived [sic] at his own request. We believe that Capt. Morse will soon leave the service.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 26 April 1866 page 1]
The Case of General Gregory.
General Gregory has not been dismissed as stated, nor even mustered out, but has been retained [sic] as Assistant Commissioner for Freedmen's affairs for Texas, and ordered to other more important duty.
[Flake's Bulletin, 26 April 1866, page 4]
MR. CUSHING'S TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS.
Mr. Cushing being completely cornered, and having no alternative left save that of putting the two Judges or General Gregory on the witness stand, skulks behind his successor, and thus runs from the fight he can no longer maintain. We do not propose to be diverted from our main issue by the side attacks upon us in yesterday's Telegraph, or by joining issue with Mr. Gillespie. As for this latter gentleman we shall pay our respects to him after we are through with Mr. Cushing. When it may be found that "Wicked Jim" did not die and go to Heaven in early youth, Mr. Cushing is the gentleman to whom our present attention is directed. Until yesterday we had neither spoken to nor seen Judge Baldwin or Judge Caldwell since this controversy began. The former gentleman called on us yesterday, and remarked: "I do not think Mr. Cushing will call on me in regard to that matter." We will tell Mr. Cushing why we do not put these gentlemen on the stand, and why he dares not to do it. If we put them there and they testify, as we believe they will, he will get his factotum, Mr. Gillespie to keep repeating his denial. But if he calls them on the stand himself the question is settled at once and forever. Now Mr. E. H. Cushing. We have nothing to do with Mr. Gillespie, we defy you to call on Judges Caldwell and Baldwin, for their testimony in regard to the matter in controversy. You dare not do it.
[Dallas Herald 28 April 1866 page 1]
GEN. GREGORY RELIEVED.--The Galveston News of the 13th says: We copy the following from the "Army Bulletin"--remarking only that if the "Commissioner" is satisfied with the manner in which Gen. Gregory has performed his duties, the great majority of the people of Texas will be abundantly delighted to hear of his removal. It will give more satisfaction among those who wish peace and quiet than anything that has been published for many a day:
RELIEVED.--Brevet Brigadier General E. M. Gregory, Colonel 91st Pennsylvania Volunteers, from duty as Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, Texas. The Commissioner takes this occasion to commend Gen. Gregory for the marked energy and ability with which he has discharged his duties as Assistant Commissioner. The new duties to which he is assigned are deemed at present of paramount importance.
ASSIGNED--Brevet Major General J. B. Kidnoo [sic], Colonel Twenty-second United States Colored troops, to duty as Assistant Commissioner of the Freedman's Bureau for Texas, with headquarters at Galveston.
[Georgia Weekly Telegraph 30 April 1866 page 2]
FROM TEXAS.--Gen. Gregory has returned from a tour in the interior of Texas and reports that vigorous plantation work is successful, and the crops will be the largest ever raised in the State.
[Flake's Bulletin 1 May 1866, page 4]
Mr. Flake, of the Bulletin, in return for uniform courtesy, having made charges and intended to damage Mr. Cushing, the latter denounced Mr. Flake, in a published card, as "an infamous liar." Mr. Flake neither sustains his assertions nor vindicates himself. The ethics of the editorial vocation, and the sense of honor entertained among all gentlemen, do not recognize a man thus branded, and thus tamely accepting the "situation," as entitled either to credit or honorable association. That is our view of the matter, and we shall "govern ourselves accordingly." The press must sustain courtesy and honor as a law. Otherwise, no gentleman can be connected with it. It would then become the most fearful source of social corruption with which a country could be cursed.--Houston Telegraph, April 29.
It may not be uninteresting to review this controversy and get back to its first principles. Feeling the prickings of a guilty conscience, Mr Cushing asks us to tell what we know of him. We answer, of ourselves we know nothing. We have not passed words with Mr. Cushing, but gentlemen say he offered to sell the Houston Telegraph to the advocacy of negro suffrage for ten thousand dollards. "It is false," says Mr. Cushing, "who told you so!" Mr. Whilldin, associate editor of this paper, replies: "General Gregory and Capt. Wright say that Judges Baldwin and Caldwell so represent." They are all responsible persons. What does Judge Baldwin's office and say: "Sir, is this true or false?" Does General Grogory [sic] or Capt, Wright say to Mr. Whilldin, "You lie, sir! We never told you so!" Do Judges Caldwell and Baldwin charge falsehood on either Wright or Gregory? Oh, no! All Mr. Cushing does, is to say it's a lie! What's a lie! That General Gregory and Capt. Wright told Mr. Whilldin of that he can know nothing? Neither can he know what the Judges told the military gentlemen. But he does know whether he is or is not guilty. He does know what answer he will get when he asks either of those gentlemen. Therefore he dare not make the experiment. He cant [sic] deny anything we have said. But he does know the truth of what Judge Caldwell is stated to have said.
Now a single word for the present editor of the Telegraph. Your object is apparent, your backers we know. We do not nibble at the bait gudgeons bit at. We are not to be seduced into any violation of law at present. We have a duty to perform, and when the proper time comes it will be performed.
[Flake's Bulletin, 4 May 1866, page 1] Mr. Telegraph man, please read Mr. Cushing's card, and say who lies--Mr. Flake, General Gregory, Judge Caldwell, Mr. Whilldin, or Mr. CUSHING!
[[Columbus Georgia] The Daily Sun 6 May 1866 page 2]
From our Texas Correspondent.
General Gregory of the Freedmen's Bureau, and his satrap subalterns, are much complained of by the planters for arbitrary decisions and unjustifiable conduct generally. If half that is said of them by the public and through the press of the State, is true, a proper representation of their cases at Washington, unless justice is deaf as well as blind, is all that ought to be necessary to secure their prompt removal. The agent at this place, however, is an exception. I never saw him, and have forgotten his name, but he is said to discharge his duty with scrupulous fidelity.[...]
[Flake's Bulletin 13 May 1866 page 4]
THE ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER OF FREEDMEN.
Major General Kiddo, the newly appointed Assistant Commissioner, has arrived and relieved General Gregory. The antecedents of Gen. Kiddo, save his record as a gallant soldier in the Army of the Potomac, are unknown. Gen. Gregory, the departing officer, has been vigorously assailed during the whole of his administration by the press of Texas. We have taken no part in the controversy, because the charges were confined to matters of administration in which men might honestly differ. No taint of dishonesty was fixed upon him, and we took the great fact that so far as we had any evidence, the labor of Texas was in a good and healthy condition, as better evidence of his administration than any comments from a press, which made no secret of being opposed to the Bureau, no matter by whom managed. Our laborers are at work, the cotton is growing, and the prospect of a crop is better than the most sanguine expected. These were the matters which concerned the public. They were those to which we gave our attention. While we are not the partizans [sic] of Gen. Gregory, and have no interest in defending him, we cannot close our eyes to the fact that his enemies are those who have been the enemies of all that is loyal, and who are opposed to all that pertained to the Federal Government.
[Flake's Bulletin 17 May 1866, page 6]
We clip the following from the San Antonio Express, edited by Wm. E. Jones, the nominee for the office of one of the judges of the Supreme Court:
GENERAL GREGORY.--We are informed that this distinguished officer arrived in our city last night. We hope he will be pleased with San Antonio, and would be glad if he would conclude to remain among us. There are but few of our citizens who do not know and appreciate the difficult office undertaken by Gen. Gregory, and the efficient and impartial manner in which he has discharged the duties devolving upon him. He has done much for the freedmen and consequently much for the white. We can assure General Gregory that though he may have many enemies in this State, he has also many friends who respect and esteem him.[...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 19 May 1866, page 1]
The Freedmen's Bureau in Texas.
Brevet Brigadier General Gregory, Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau in the State of Texas, has forwarded to Major-General O. O. Howard a report of the operations of the Bureau in the State, dated April 18th. He states that he had just returned from a tour of inspection, of many hundred miles in extent, through Western Texas, and everywhere found the laborers steadily at work in the fields and well and profitably employed. Misunderstandings between them and the employers are becoming very unfrequent [sic]. He says:--
"The freedom of hte negro has become a recognized palatable fact in most of Texas, and property holders are disposed to treat his claims with an increasing degree of fairness," but adds, "during the month of March and up to date, instances of maltreatment and vindictiveness have perceptibly increased in some portions of the State. These can be readily traced to the very perceptible reduction of the military force, and to the increasing excitement on the grave National questions now agitating our Government.
It is feared by the loyal residents that the withdrawal of the troops from the interior will be followed by much harshness towards the freedmen, and that these cruelties will increase in a rate proportionate to the army reduction. The conduct of the freedmen has been in every way loyal and commendable.
Any antagonism between the races they clearly see will result to their detriment, and they avoid it. The same influences that urge the freedmen to labor will operate to make them faithful to their contracts. In this State the rate of wages has not been fixed, either as to maximum or minimum, by any regulatiosn from this office.
Under such arrangements the planters and farmers of Texas have put in large crops of sugar, corn, cotton and wheat, and I hazard the opinion that if the season continues as favorable as at present, more cotton will be made here than was ever made here in any one year before. The health of the State is good.
He reports the freedmen's schools flourishing, there being forty-two day schools, twenty-nine night schools, and nineteen Sunday schools, with a total attendance of 2830 [?] children, and 1780 [?] adults. Besides there are eighteen or twenty private schools. The freedmen's schools, in many parts of the State, are passively accepted, and in many instances, recognized and welcomed. They are wholly self-sustaining.
[Flake's Bulletin 22 May 1866 page 5]
HEAD QUARTERS BUREAU OF REFUGEES FREEDMEN AND ABANDONED LANDS,
State of Texas. Galveston, May 124, 1866.
CIRCULAR NO. 12.
WAR DEPARTMENT, BUREAU OF REFUGEES, FREEDMEN AND ABANDONED LANDS,
WASHINGTON, March 30, 1866.
SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 46.
1. Bvt. Brig. Gen. E. M. Gregory is hereby relieved as Assistant Commissioner for the State of Texas, and placed on general inspecting duty on the staff of the Commissioner. He will make a thorough inspection of Texas, calling upon the Department Commander for an escort when traveling off the lines of railroad. On completion of this inspection, he will report in person to the Commissioner, at Washington, bringing his inspection report with him.
By order of Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard, Com'r.
C. H. HOWARD,
Bvt. Brig. Gen. U.S.V.,
Act. Ass't Adj't General.
In compliance with the above order, I hereby relinquish charge of the affairs of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, State of Texas.E. M. GREGORY,
Bv't Brig. Gen. and Ass't Com's.
WM. H. SINCLAIR,
Assistant Adjutant General.
HEADQUARTERS, BUREAU OF REFUGEES, FREEDMEN AND ABANDONED LANDS,
State of Texas, Galveston, May 14, 1866.
CIRCULAR NO. 13.
WAR DEPARTMENT, BUREAU OF REFUGEES, FREEDMEN AND ABANDONED LANDS, Washington, April 2, 1866.
SPECIAL ORDER NO. 48.
1. Bvt. Major General J. B. Kiddoo, having reported in accordance with Special Orders No. 144, Current Series, A. G. O., is hereby assigned as Assistant Commissioner for the State of Texas, relieving Bvt. Brig. Gen. E.M. Gregory.
[The Commissioner takes this occasion to command Gen. Gregory for the marked energy and ability with which he has discharged his duties as Assistant Commissioner. The new duties to which he is assigned are deemd at present, of paramount importance.]
General Kiddoo will proceed, without delay, to Galveston, Texas, the present Headquarters of the Assistant Commissioner.By Order of Maj. Gen. O. O. HOWARD, Commissioner.
C. H. HOWARD, Bvt. Brig. Gen., U.S.V., A.A.A.G.
In compliance with the above Orders, I hereby assume the duties of Assistant Commissioner, Bureau of R., F. and A.L., State of Texas.
All existing Orders and Regulations, promulgated from these Headquarters, will remain in full force unless otherwise ordered.J. B. KIDDOO, Bvt. Maj. Gen., Assistant Commissioner,
Official: Wm. SINCLAIR, Ass't Adj't Gen'l.
[Flake's Bulletin 31 May 1866 page 18]
The synopsis of an important report from General Gregory appears in our columns to-day. It is from a telegraphic dispatch to the New York Tribune, and appears to be for the month of March.
[Flake's Bulletin 31 May 1866 page 4]
In speaking of the order to arrest plantation-running Bureau Agents, the Houston Telegraph says:
"This order, it is thought, will seriously discommode Gen. Gregory, who, it is said, has three fine plantations in operation in this State, either alone or connected with other parties."
We don't care two straws about any body's thoughts in this matter, but we do want the facts. We are opposed to plantation-running Bureau Agents, and if General Gregory is guilty, we want a chance to take back our good opinion.
What three plantations is he running? Where are they located? As old Dr. Simpson says, in "Very Hard Cash," let us "have the facks."
[Flake's Bulletin 31 May 1866 page 6]
THE TEXAS FREEDMEN.
Brevet Brigadier General Gregory, Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for the State of Texas, has forwarded to Maj. Gen. Howard a report of the operations of the Bureau in that State, dated April the 18th. He says he has just returned from a tour of inspection of many hundred miles in extent through Western Texas, and everywhere found the laborers steadliy at work in the fields, and well and profitably employed. Misunderstandings between them and their employers are becoming quite unfrequent [sic]. He says the freedom of the negro has become a recognized, palpable fact in most of Texas, and property-holders are disposed to treat his claims with an increasing degree of fairness; but he adds: During the month of March and up to date, instances of maltreatment and violent abuse have perceptibly increased in some portions of the State. These can be readily traced to the very considerable reduction of the military force, and to the increasing excitement on the grave national questions now agitating our Government. It is feared by the loyal residents that the withdrawal of the troops from the interior will be followed by much harshness toward the freedmen, and that their cruelties will increase in a ratio proportionate to the army reduction. The conduct of the Southern freedmen has been in every way loyal and commendable.--An antagonism between the races they clearly see will result to their detriment, and they avoid it. The same influence that urged the freedmen to labor will operate to make them faithful to their contracts. In this State the rate of wages has not been fixed either as to the maximum or minimum by any regulations from this office. Under such arrangements the planters and farmers of Texas have put in large crops of sugar, corn, cotton, and wheat; and I have heard the opinion that if the season continues as favorable as at present, more cotton will be made than was ever made in any one year before. The health of the State is good. He reports the freedmen's schools flourishing, there being forty-two day schools, twenty-nine night schools, and nineteen Sunday schools, with a total attendance of 2,830 children and 1,760 adults. Beside these, there are 18 or 20 private schools. The freedmen's schools in many parts of the State are passively accepted, and in many instances recognized and welcomed. They are wholly self-sustaining.
[Flake's Bulletin, 9 June 1866, page 4]
We hear that an effort is being made to induce Gens. Fullerton and Steadman to inspect Texas before going to Louisiana. It is urged, as being due to Gen. Gregory that the results of his labor should be inspected at once, as he has been relieved, and that the character of his administration should be made public. Besides this, it is said that many of those acquainted with the affairs of the Louisiana Bureau under former officers, are now in Texas, and their testimony is needed to bring to light hidden things of great unction.
[Flake's Bulletin 15 June 1866 page 4]
Generals Fullerton and Steadman will be here, anon. We hope our friends of the News, Star and Telegraph will have all the facts ready for presentation about Gen. Gregory and his "three plantations." We half suspect that is what he is waiting for. We hope they will have all the documents ready in black and white, for they will be called for, and it would look ugly if they could not be produced.
[Flake's Bulletin 19 June 1866 page 4]
GENERAL GREGORY.--General Gregory will leave on this morning's steamer for New Orleans. He has waited some weeks for the arrival of the two Inspectors appointed by the President. If he meets them, he will probably return, otherwise he will proceed to Washington. General Gregory's administration has been somewhat stormy, as was to have been expected. But he has the satisfaction of knowing that he has managed the largest Bureau on the least money, and with the best results. Even his opponents admit that the negroes of Texas are working better than those of any other State. By the way of news, we may mention that the number of mythical plantations which he owns, has increased to thirty-two. Last week twenty-seven was the highest number reported.
[Flake's Bulletin 19 June 1866 page 4]
Generals Kiddoo and Gregory have just returned from an inspecting tour through Washington, Grimes and the adjacent counties. They report that the planters are generally satisfied with their laborers--who are working as well as could be expected. In some places where it was very wet, the grass has got the start, but the negroes are working very hard to get ahead of it. The Generals assembled the hands at many places and gave them wholesome talk, taking for their text, "get out of the grass." They told the darkies that it was their duty to work early and late in the present strait. The Trinity bottoms, which were overflown, are being replanted. Those planters from other places that went there for hands return with them. In some places the stock was drowned. Of course it will be impossible to do much without mules and horses. When all the draw-backs from bad seed, rains and over-flows are accounted for, Gen. Gregory estimates that the crop will not fall short of the calculation on the first of May more than twenty-five cent [sic]. They regard the whole appearance as hopeful.
[Flake's Bulletin 8 July 1866 page 4]
Major General Steadman and Brig. General Fullerton arrived most unexpectedly on the steamer yesterday. They are here for the purpose of investigating the workings of the Freedmen's Bureau. It is to be hoped that the largest opportunity will be given them to see the practical working in this State, that all the various charges made against General Gregory and subordinates of ruining [sic] plantations and doing other things contrary to law, will be made in good form.
This is essential to perfect fairness and the opportunity for amendment.
[Flake's Bulletin 10 July 1866 page 4]
THE MISSION OF THE TWO GENERALS.
The President's Commissioners, Generals Steadman and Fullerton are here. They are looking into the affairs of the Freedmen's Bureau with that scrutiny that has brought to light hidden things in other States--that has developed deeds of darkness and designs of evil. Their mission is in its nature inquisitorial. Their duty is not so much to discover good things as to detect the evil. They are a grand jury looking only for evidence against. This is the nature of their duty. They are not seeking evidence against the Bureau but evidence against the individuals who may happen to administer it. Their object is not to destroy, but to improve. Those who expect any aid or sympathy from these officers tending to the degredat [sic] on of the blacks, are sadly mistaken. They have worked hard since they came here Saturday and Sunday, serving the Lord in their peculiar vocation, for eliciting the truth, is always the Lord's service, and as the result Gen. Steadman declared:
"The Bureau in Texas has been and still is well conducted, there is nothing in it requiring further investigation."
To the friends of General Gregory, and those of us who believed him an honest man, this is peculiarly gratifying. That officer was badgered, hampered and hindered by the very men whose fortunes he was making. We were in a measure, silent, knowing that he and all other true men could afford to await the time when truth will out. Those who made statements of his plantations, ought in justice to themselves, to give the evidence upon which they based their statements, and acknowledge their error. It is gratifying for us to know, that amidst general corruption, our officers are, and have been honest. The Bureau is only a temproary [sic] affair, and hope [sic] that the day may speedily arrive, when it may wisely be discontinued. To hasten that day, the best way is to strengthen the hands of those who discharge their duties faithfully and honestly.
[Flake's Bulletin 12 July 1866, page 4]
Genls. Steadman and Fullerton returned last night, from their visit to Houston and Richmond. They express themselves well satisfied with the management of the Bureau in Texas. Some of the subordinate officers are not quite up to the standard they have fixed. They have found no trace of General Gregory's plantations, and are well pleased with that officer's administration.
They speak highly of General Kiddoo and of his great popularity with all classes. These officers leave on this morning's steamer for New Orleans, where their labors will be more arduous, as the State has been longer in Federal rule, and the operations of the Bureau more extended.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 14 July 1866 page 1]
GALVESTON, July 12.--Generals Steadman and Fullerton leave to-day for New Orleans. They have visited portions of the interior, and express satisfaction with the former and present management of the Bureau. Nothing has been heard of General Gregory.
[Georgia Weekly Telegraph 23 July 1866 page 4]
TEXAS STATUTES.--It is said that when General Gregory went to Texas, he visited a lawyer at his office, and asked him for a copy of the laws of Texas. The lawyer went to a drawer, drew therefrom a handsomely mounted and finished bowie-knife, and handed it to the astonished officer.
[Daily Columbus Enquirer, 29 July 1866, page 1]
The Galvesteon News of the 16th says: "A large planter on the Brazos informs us that he expects to make 350 bales of cotton from 450 [??--possible 150?] acres. Also 300 hogsheads of sugar from a somewhat larger area of land. He thinks he will make 6,000 bushels of corn from 150 acres, or about forty bushels to the acre. He works now about sixty hands, though commenced with eighty hands, yet, the sixty, now, under the policy of General Kiddoo, do far more work than the eighty did under General Gregory's rule."
[[Georgia?] The Daily Sun 6 September 1866 page 2]
The report that Gen. Tillson was to succeed Gen. Howard as the head of the Freedmen's Bureau appears to have been unfounded, as he has been directed to return to August, Ga., to assume his duties as Assistant Commissioner for that State. Gen. E. M. Gregory is assigned to duty as Assistant Commissioner for Maryland.
[Flake's Bulletin 8 September 1866 page 4]
Brig. General Gregory has been appointed Assistant Commissioner of the Bureau for Maryland, with his headquarters at Baltimore, one of the most agreeable, pleasant and influential positions in the gift of General Howard.
[Flake's Bulletin 26 December 1866 page 1]
BALTIMORE, Dec. 22--Gen. Gregory, Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for Maryland, restored four negro children to their parents. They had been apprenticed according to the laws of Maryland, two years ago.
[Flake's Bulletin 22 January 1867 page 5]
A Rich Letter.
GALVESTON, TEXAS, Jan. 11, '67.
To the Editors of the N.O. Tribune:
Messrs. Editors: Your correspondent has just heard the most graphic and thrilling narrative of actual life among the freedmen of the interior of this State, that has ever come under his notice.
Mr. J., an educated young colored man from Ohio, has lived for two months among the freedmen of the interior as "one of them," in the very hot-beds of ignorance and oppression.
Early in November last, Mr. J. left Houston, accompanied by the boss black man of the plantation, for Missouri county. His "make-up," for an effectual [sic] disguise was a pair of "linsey pantaloons, a coarse cotton shirt, and a many-colored head-handkerchief["]. Thus attired, he traveled among the freedmen for the laudable purpose of assisting them by his superior intelligence in getting fair pay for his [sic] produce, corn or cotton, that they have toiled for the past year; and prevent as far as possible, the shameful cheating of the white buyers in the country towns. Mr. J. successfully accomplished his mission in Missouri county, passing from one plantation to another, through the "head black" of each place, and gladly welcomed by the freedmen, who fairly danced for joy at having "a smart man" among them, who could read and write and calculate their accounts. Some times he was accosted by the planter with, "Boy, who's your master, and where're y ou from?" The reply would be, "Ise from Massa Dick's, or John's," mentioning the adjoining plantation, and then he would be allowed to pass on.
Going into Fort Bend county, the whites learned that there was "a smart nigger" among the freedmen who taught them the value of their produce. J. was discovered, and obliged to flee for dear life, pursused by a band of mounted jay-hawkers, determined to catch the nigger and kill him for presuming to know how to read and write; fortunately, J effected his escape, and going thence through adjoining counties, he came to Chappell Hill, Washington county, whence he came to Houston, and then here three days ago; having spent two months and five days among the freedmen in six different counties in this State. Mr. J. states that every where he went, the whites, with the exception of the few large planters, are excessively ignorant, and unable to read or write, and consequently, strongly opposed to any education for the negroes, or treating them as otherwise than slaves; that sentiments of the strongest antagonism are expressed towards Congress, the Federal soldier and Yankee by the Andy Johnson whites, that negroes are summarily shot who dare on any occasion to dispute the word of the white planter or overseer., And that there exists in Fort Bend and Horton counties armed bands of jayhawkers who hunt negroes and Union white men on every possible occasion, and "lynch" them with all conceivable ferocity. Through Cana, in Fort Bend and Horton counties, the poor freedmen have heard of Gen. Gregory, and they whisper his name among themselves, and pray that they may see him and lay before him their numerous grievances for redress. Mr. J. states, finally, that the condition of affairs in the "interior" is deplorable in the extreme; robbery, murder and violence are of every day occurrence, and the negro cheated of his earnings, flogged and abused whenever his employer wishes, is infinitely worse off today than he was during the war. Governor Throckmorton telegraphs the Texas representative at Washington, to deny and refute the base slanders of Generals Heinzleman and Kiddoo who assert the condition of things here as lamentable. Of course, the Governor asserts that the ignorant, rebellious and seething mass of white here are all loyal, peaceable, puiet [sic] citizens!
The freedmen here are at loggerheads about one of their churches. More than a year ago, the representation of the M.E. Church, North, came here and organized a church among the blacks. Last November, more than two-thirds of the same people with others allied themselves to the African Methodist Episcopal Church who held the deed of the colored church, transferred their right of possession to the A.M.E. Church. At this the M.E. Church North demure, and refuse to give possession and have, therefore, commenced a litigious suit. So far as your correspondent can discover, all the intelligence, both among laymen and clergy, is with the African Church, and why, in the name of common sense, the Church, North, attempt, through their representative here, to cause a division among the freedmen, we cannot perceive. The Mayor allows both parties to worship alternately in the same church till the question is settled.
Bishop Simpson, of the M.E. Church, North, and Bishop Campbell, of the A.M.E. Church, have both been here. The white bishop and black bishop are both eminent men and fine orators. Of the two, perhaps the black bishop excited the most admiration, for certainly never before has Texas seen an educated pulpit orator identified with the negro race.OCCASIONAL.
[Flake's Bulletin 14 February 1867 page 4]
Brig. Gen. E. M. Gregory, the First Bureau Commissioner for Texas, has been confirmed by the Senate Major General by Brevet, for gallant and meritorioius services at the battle of Five Forks.
[Flake's Bulletin 6 March 1867 page 5]
Senator Wilson's Charge Against Texas
Senator Wilson, [illegible], on Feb. 19, made a brief speech in the Senate, while the military reconstruction bill was under consideration, in the course of which he adduced, to show that the civil rights bill, without more efficient guarantee of civil rights, was inadequate for the protection of the people, the following startling array of facts:
The civil rights bill passed in the spring of 1866. I have a partial list of outrages and murders perpetrated in the rebel States since the passage of that act, officially reported. All admit that the cases officially reported make but a small portion of the outrages or murders committed. From April to Deember, in Virginia, 18 murders and 105 burglaries in one county alone; in North Carolina, 15 murders of freedmen were committed and 86 outrages--some of the number were assaults with intent to kill; in South Carolina, 29 murders and 64 outrages; in Georgia, 79 murders; in Mississippi, 34 [?] murders; in Kentucky, 19 murders; in Texas, 74 murders and 10 mortally wounded. Since the passage of the civil rights law 375 murders of freedmen have been committed in the rebel States, and 556 outrages. These outrages and murders were officially reported, and the victims of the Memphis riot, and the New Orleans massacre is not included.
This official list of murders and outrages in Texas since the passage of the civil rights act is an illustration of the murders and outrages in the rebel States. Let it be remembered that these are but a small part of the crimes perpetrated:APRIL.
One freedman, Green Taylor, Washington county, murdered by James Hall, who was tried by military commission and acquitted.
One freedman, Joe Mayfield, Washington county, murdered by William Benton, who was tried by a military commission and acquiteed.
One freedwoman, Maria Mayfield, Washington county, murdered by William Benton, who was tried by military commission and acquitted.
One freedman, Milton, De Witt county, murdered by parties unknown. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, name unknown, Liberty county, murdered by parties unknown. No action by the civil authorities reported.MAY.
One freedman, Harry Jones, Fayette county, murdered by R. A. Jones, for interfering while Jones was whipping the Freedman's wife. No action.
One freedman, Godfrey Robinson, Fayette county, murdered by parties unknown, while out herding sheep. Shot through the body and head cut off.
One freedman, Harvey Millican, Austin county, murdered by A. M. Clay. Murdered tried and convicted by military commission.
One freedman, name unknown, Austin county, murdered by B. B. Lee. Murderer tried and convicted by military commission.
One freedman, Luke Woodward, Austin county, murdered by parties unknown. No action reported as having been taken by civil authorities.
One freedman, Jerry Roberts, Harris county, murdered by Buck Chandler and L. Bates. No action reported as having been taken by the civil authorities.
One fredman [sic], Willaim [sic] Wright, Victoria county, murdered by a [sic] unknown white man. No action reported as having been taken by the civil authorities.
One freedman, John, Refugio county, murdered by Daniel Dougherty. No action reported as having been taken by the civil authorities.
One freedman, James Jordan, Refugio county, murdered by parties unknown. Shot while carrying a letter to the Bureau Agent at Victoria.
One freedman, name unknown, Fort Bend county, murdered by Wm. S. Collins. Particulars unknown. No action by the civil authorities reported.JUNE.
One freedman, Leonard Gee, Washington county, murdered, found tied and murdered. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, Peter Higgins, Harris county, murdered, called out of his house at night and shot. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, Butler, Calhoun county, murdered, wanton and unprovoked murder. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, Martin Cromwell, Victoria county, murdered by Aleander [sic] Cromwell. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, C. W. Brown, Liberty county, shot through the body. Reported by Captain Frank Honsinger. No action by the civil authorities reported.
Two freedmen, names not stated, Liberty, murdered by a white man. No action by the civil authorities reported.
Three freedmen, names not stated, Bastrop [?] county, murdered, called to the door at night and shot by parties unknown. No action reported.
One freedman, Jacob Stone, Grayson county, murdered by J. C. Bennett, who escaped. No action by the civil authorities reported.JULY.
One freedman, name unknown, Robertson county, murdered; shot for not "raising his hat." No action by the civil authorities reported.
Two freedmen, father and son, Robertson county, murdered by Wm. Tate, who escaped. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, Isaac Hedrick, Washington county, murdered by Wm. Fields, who escaped. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, McCovers, Lamar county, murdered by Cook Jones, who escaped. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, Gabe, Titus county, murdered by an unknown organized party. No action by civil authorities reported.
One freedman, Ben, Washington county, murdered by W. James. No cause. No action by the civil authorities reported.AUGUST.
One freedman, L. Holmes, Brazoria county, murdered by Wm. Plaugh. No cause. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedwoman, name unknown, Tarrant county, murdered. Taken from her house with another freedwoman; both raped--this one murdered.
One freedman, J. Webb, Grayson county, murdered by J. B. Hills and other for "horse stealing." No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, T. Hargus, Calhoun county, murdered by H. Taylor and J. Clark. No action by the civil authorities reported.SEPTEMBER.
One freedman, Seaton, Burleson county, murdered. Found murdered by parties unknown. No action by civil authorities.
One freedman, William, Fort Bend county, murdered by an armed party at night, who took him from the custody of the civil authorities.
One freedman, Jack Sheppard, Fort Bend county, murdered by G. C. Harrison, who was arrested and put under $5,000 bonds by J. C. De Gress, Provost Marshal.
One freedman, Washington, Washington county, murdered by one Murry, in cold blood. No action by civil authorities reported.
One freedman, M. White, Grayson county, murdered. Shot while running away from a white man who wanted to rob him.
One freedman, Jack Thomas, Grayson county, murdered.
One freedman, Douglas, Grayson county, murdered. Called up at a late hour and shot by parties unknown. No action reported as having been taken by the State civil authorities for the arrest of the guilty.
Three freedmen, names unknown, Fannin county, murdered by two desperadoes, who said they wanted to thin out the niggers a little.
One freedman, name unknown, Grayson county, murdered by two white men who wanted his horse. No action by the civil authorities.
One freedman, Bill, Fannin county, murdered by a party who then robbed and burned his house. No action by the civil authorities.OCTOBER.
Two freedmen, names unknown, Guadaloupe county, murdered; found dead. Had been before threatened for making complaint to the Bureau Agent.NOVEMBER.
One freedman, S. Alexander, near Marhal county, highway robbery, by a gang of armed white men. The Grand Jury dare not indict the criminals.DECEMBER.
One freedman, name unknown, Prairie Lea, publicly whipped to death for calling a young man "Tom" instead of "Master Thomas."
One freedman, name unknown, Prairie Lea, shot and severely wounded. No action reported as having been taken by the civil authorities.
One freedman, E. Parson, Austin, shot and badly wounded by a white man named Aaron Boyce. No action by the civil authorities reported.
One freedman, colored preacher, near Houston, shot and dangerously wounded by a white man, who was held for trial by a justice of the peace at the instance of the Bureau.
One freedman, Nat Henlin, near Austin, shot and severely wounded, and robbed by a party of white men. No action by civil authorities reported.
One freedman, name not stated, near Houston, murdered. Found dead, bucked, gagged, and shot. Employer of freedman suspected.
General Gregory, Assistant Commissioner, in his report of June 18, 1866, says: "Before the civil authorities of Texas, where a negro is the victim, acquittal follows murder as a matter of course."
[Flake's Bulletin 25 April 1867 page 4 [reprinted Flake's Bulletin 1 May 1867 page 10]
A Maryland correspondent of the Philadelphia Press, gives some details of an insult to Major General Gregory, formerly Assistant Commissioner of Texas. The General is now in charge of the Bureau in Maryland. He visited Frederick City on official business, and put up at the principal hotel. White there, three negro clergymen called and transacted official business with him. We give the remainder of the story in the correspondents [sic] words:
"Social intercourse with the General was suddenly interrupted by the abrupt entrance of the proprietor, who advanced to within a short distance of the General, and, in a most disgraceful and ungentlemanly manner, said: "General Gregory, I want you to leave my house; I sent you word yesterday, if you wanted to entertain niggers, you must go to your own room." The General made an effort to explain, by saying he had invited no one there. The negroes came in without his knowledge, and no power could make him order them out. He did this in a remarkably cool and deliberate manner. But the enraged proprietor, who seemed to only grow more wrathful at the cool manner of the General, again demanded him to leave, adding: "I'll be d--d if I ain't as good Union man as you are, General Gregory, but my wife wants to come in, and she won't be in a room with niggers. Now, d--m you, I want you to pay your bill and leave." The General made another effort to explain, but nothing could be said to have him understand the matter. The General told him he would comply with his request, and the proprietor left, demanding him to leave, and pay his bill."
A few moments after the General retired to his bed-room; getting his coat, he stepped to the office, paid the bill, and was advancing to the door without making a remark to any one. He was again assaulted by the proprietor, who said, "If I had been here when the niggers were in there, I would have gone in, taken a chair, and broken the heads of the niggers, and yours, too, General Gregory."-- To which the General answered, "You would have done no such thing; for I would not permit you to injure either them or myself." He returned to the reception room, from whence he was conducted to a privated [sic] residence, where he was handsomely entertained.
This assault on General Gregory, a brave Philadelphian, was not the mere fact of his holding a conversation with colored ministers of the Gospel, but a premeditated assault on the uniform he wore and the noble cause of which he is the representative.
We are afraid that they have not yet learned in Maryland to court the negro and tell him who is his best friend.
[Flake's Bulletin 19 May 1867 page 4 [reprinted 21 May 1867 page 4 and Flake's Bulletin 22 May 1867 page 4]
THE COLORED SCHOOLS OF TEXAS.
Among the almost unnoted, yet significant products of the war, are the schools for freedmen now in being in this State. In humanity, as in Nature, it often happens that to the silent and noiseless agencies must be credited the most stable and beneficial results.
Amid the din of political reconstruction, it may be well not to overlook whatever well-meant efforts are being made to fit our laboring class for the intelligent discharge of the common duties of life.
The colored schools date from the arrival of General Gregory in September, 1865. Under his administration, in eight months, without the aid of Northern charity, without cost to the Government, a hundred schools for freedmen were organized and sustained, with an enrolled attendance of over forty-five hundred pupils. The entire expense rested on the freedmen, and was defrayed by a monthly tuition fee of one dollar and a-half, paid to the teacher by each scholar.
The instructors were obtained from Louisiana, and were regularly acclimated persons; over eighty-five per cent, being either natives of that State, or of long Southern residence. In this way it was sought to disarm the prejudice existing against "Yankee School marms," and to smooth the way for the transfer of these schools to civil rule, whenever our State should decide to inaugurate a system of public instruction for all.
Under the successor of General Gregory, the schools decreased. This was owing to a variety of causes. Some of the teachers sickened with climate or malarial fever; others grew weary of the work. The high price paid for all kinds of skilled labor, drew off such of the male teachers as were at all practiced in mechanics. The disabled bodliy condition of the State Commissioner, (honorably crippled by wounds received in battle) prevented that animating, electrifying presence, speech and contact, the lack of which nothing can supply when self-sacrificing effort is needed. Upon the poorer class of the freedmen, and those with large families, the tuition fee was felt as onerous, and many saw themselves excluded from instruction.
A school system entirely free to the negro, with the expense devolving on the central government, and the teachers drawn from Northern religious socieites, was devised by Gen. Kiddoo and partially placed in operation in the month of January last. But the prompt and almost summary removal of that officer, arrested the movement before the cost to the Bureau treasury had become insupportable.
Under the present administration the Free Schools were abolished, while the rates of tuition were reduced, and the teachers aided by a salary ranging from ten to forty dollars a month. An appropriate of twenty-five thousand dollars for rental and repairs of school buildings was a most timely aid from Washignton, and emphatic school circulars issued by Lieut. Kirman, the A.A.G. and State Superintendent of Education, brought home to each Bureau Agent his duties in connection with the organization and maintenance of the schools.
The school system as now constituted, reaches all classes of the freedmen; none are too poor to pay the stipulated fee, and the income thus added to the public help is adequate to the maintenance of the schools rest lightly and equally upon both the government and the benefitted class.
A large and increasing number of the primary teachers are drawn from the freedmen themselves, having been fitted as instructors in these schools during the past year.
Every encouragement is being given to the young men and women of our beautiful State to engage in the educational work, it being found to be both good economy and good policy, to give the preference to home teachers, whenever such, properly qualified, can be obtained.
In these schools the capacity of the negro to receive the rudiments of civilization, and his desire to improve, have been established; while so great has been the change of public sentiment that in many localities remarkable, two years ago, for the opposition shown towards colored schools, it is questionable whetner now a half dozen men of intelligence can be found who would not deem it a public calamity to have these schools dicontinued [sic].
The school management, foreseeing the day when their pioneer labors would be absorbed by State action, have purposely discarded sectarian tests in the selection of teachers, though appointing none who appear to be incapable of applying christianity to moral conduct.
The schools are consequently ready at any moment to be turned over to the State authorities, with a corps of well trained colored teachers, whenever a common school system shall be adopted.
The enrolled attendance of pupils for April is over 5,000, with one hundred and twelve teachers, about eighty per cent. of whom are of Southern origin and acclimation.
[Flake's Bulletin 28 June 1867 page 2 [reprinted 29 June 1867 page 4]
At a Temperance celebration in Philadelphia, Major General Gregory made a speech, of which the Philadelphia Press says: "In conclusion, he referred to the recent action of Texas in adopting a prohibitory law, and the duty of the National Division relative to the colored race." Our impression is that the General is not well posted on Texas Temperance.
[Flake's Bulletin 22 August 1867 page 4]
General Gregory recently closed a meeting of colored people in Calvert county, Maryland, by singing the Doxology ... [...]
[Flake's Bulletin 24 October 1867 page 2 reprinted 26 October 1867 page 6]
Speaking of General E. M. Gregory, who is well known in this city, the Washington Star says;
"The recent effort to bring about the removal of General Gregeory, the head of the Freedmen's Bureau affairs in Maryland, is a very ill-advised one. No gentleman connected with the bureau in any State has rendered more service to the public interest than General G., who has succeeded astonishingly in advancing his charge (the freed blacks of Maryland) in every respect in which all good and true men of all parties unite in desiring to have them advanced--in industry, intelligence, thrift and probity. A more satisfactorily improving people than are the colored population in Maryland are to be found nowhere, thanks to the energy and devotion to his charge of General Gregory. Those who find fault with his administration of his trust are men who would destroy the Union to-morrow, if they could, men who hate the negro because his enfranchisement was literally the turning point in saving the Union from destruction at the hands of the atrocious conspirators who engineered the rebellion."
[San Antonio Express 19 November 1867 page 1]
[...] Our friend E. M. Wheelock Esq., has received a staff appointment from the Commanding General as superintendent of freedmen schools. There is probably no man in the State more both by education and sympathies for these duties than Mr. Wheelock, who first organized a system of education for the freed people, under the administration of General Gregory. [...]HUMPHREY.
[Flake's Bulletin 22 November 1867 page 1 [reprinted at Flake's Bulletin 23 November 1867 page 1]; also Georgia Weekly Telegraph 29 November 1867 page 4 under "TELEGRAPHIC. ASSOCIATED PRESS DISPATCHES. From Washington." and Dallas Herald, 30 November 1867 page 3]
WASHINGTON, Nov. 21.--General Gregory is mustered out. Only General Howard remains of the Volunteer Generals.
[Flake's Bulletin 9 September 1868 page 1]
The Boys in Blue of the Twentieth ward have chosen Major General E. M. Gregory their president, and he has graciously accepted. Gen. Gregory's record is among the brightest of all those who fought under the old flag. Brave and conscientious, he was a thorough soldier and an exemplary Christian. As an officer of the Freedmen's Bureau he was distinguished for his devotion to the interests of the freedmen, and for his undaunted courage in the midst of the proscriptions of the Southern traitors. Recently mustered out of the service, after having completed an honorable record, he returns to private life and enrols himself in the Republican ranks. The Twentieth ward is a large field for such men as General Gregory. At the last election our vote fell off heavily, owing to want of interest amoung [sic] our friends. With such leaders as Gregory, whose lives are illustrations of the value of undying principles, and whose efforts will be devoted to the good cause, the old Twentieth should give its old majority.-- Phila. Press
[Flake's Bulletin 9 December 1868 page 2]
We copy the following death notice from the Philadelphia North American:
"On Wednesday, the 25th inst., at 7 o'clock E M. [sic]., Ellen Y., Wife of General E. M. Gregory, aged 61.
"The relatives and friends are invited to attend the funeral from the residence of her husband, 1438 North Thirteenth street, on Sunday, the 29th inst., at 2 o'clock."
General Gregory was for a long while on duty in Galveston. His wife was an invalid for years, and we believe had not been in society since the war began, and possibly for years previous to that event.
[Dallas Herald 13 February 1869 page 1]
We have had the pleasure of a call from Lieut. A. B. Coggshall, formerly an officer of the Freedman's Bureau, who came to the State with Gen. Gregory, and is now planting near Hempstead, Austin county, in connection with Col. J. B. McCown.
This is another instance of an ex-officer of the U.S. army, who finds no difficulty in remaining in our State after leaving the service. He is welcome, and so are all other men from the North who prove their desire to become useful and enterprising citizens. He reports that after a residence of three years among us, as an officer of the most unpopular branch of the service, he has never been insulted or treated unkindly. His case is an illustration of our statement in regard to bona fide Northern emigrants, which was republished in the New York Herald, that actual settlers from the North were welcome, no matter what their political conviction. It is alone the instigators of race collisions, for whom Texas has no toleration.--[Houston Telegraph.
[New Hampshire Sentinel 13 May 1869 page 2]
There is nothing in the history of office-seeking more disgraceful than the scramble which took place last week for the position of United States marshal for the eastern district of Pennsylvania. Mr. Ely, recently appointed, died on Wednesday last. Before the funeral services had taken place applications for the position began to pour in upon the President. A raid was made upon him by the leaders of the two factions, including several members of Congress from the State, Colonel Forney, Alexander McCLure and Governor Curtin. The President quietly refused to act upon the suggestions of any of them and appointed General E. M. Gregory, formerly colonel of a Pennsylvania regiment, and more recently of the Freedmen's Bureau in Maryland. The appointment is commended as a good one by all who have not a personal interest in favor of some one else. General Gregory was the favorite of the Christian Commission.
[Flake's Bulletin, 19 May 1869, page 4]
Gen. E. M. Gregory has been appointed Marshal of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
[San Antonio Express 20 May 1869 page 3]
GENERAL E. M. GREGORY, the first Superintendent of the Freedman's Bureau in Texas, and a man of integrity, independence, and moral worth, has been made United States Marshall of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. No better man could have been selected for that position.
[Houston Union 31 July 1869 page 4]
Meeting in Brazoria.
JULY 27, 1869.
The Republicans of Brazoria county assembled here on Saturday, to listen to the Hon. G. T. Ruby, of Galveston, who spoke at some length on the political situation of Texas, reviewing the history of the Republican party, and with a masterly and keen analytical power, A. J. Hamilton's political course and defection from principle. All the chicanery and duplicity of the Hamilton movement were laid bare, and the efforts of Jack and his friends to hoodwink the Republicans of Brazoria entirely frustrated. Here attention was given to the self nominated and would be Senator from this District, A. P. McCormick, who was present, and fairly winced and withered under the telling blows of the speaker. Mr. Ruby was followed by Mr. Batchelder of Houston, and Sergeant Marshal, of Galveston. The former made one of his usual able and powerful addresses. Sergeant Marshall was especially witty and sarcastic, keeping his audience in roars of laughter. Answering Jack Hamilton's "coat tail" argument, Sergeant Marshall said that the gentlemen whom "Colossal" styles "as having tails which curled so tight, etc.," were in a position productive of the jubilant state attributed to them, inasmuch as they were grounded in Republical principles, backed by the strong arm of the government and the national party of the country, whereas poor Jack's tail could'nt [sic], as it was so heavily laden by rebel weight and its refuse--conservatism, so-called, that it hung down perfectly limp, having all power of curling entirely and forever taken away.
Time will not permit giving you a full detail of our meeting. Suffice it to say that Hamilton and McCormick are completely flaxed out here. The Republicans to a man are endorsing Gen. Davis and the regular nominees of the Republican party. At the close of the meeting, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted. McCormick endeavored to obtain a hearing, but such was the strong Republican tide, the people indignantly refused to listen or be interrupted in their business. Brazoria may be depended on. The people in their majesty have asserted their Republicanism in such tones that time-servers and their masters are thoroughly defeated. We intend to roll up a strong majority for Gen. Davis down here, together with the entire Republican ticket. If Gen. Gregory comes here, as promised, among the speakers for the fall campaign, the old soldier will meet with a hearty and glorious reception. Our people insist on Mr. Ruby as their nominee for State Senate, and pledge themselves for his election by a strong majority.Yours, for the cause,
COLUMBIA. [I did not transcribe the resolutions, which claim General EJ Davis is the Republican nominee, repudiate AJ Hamilton etc., pronounce AP McCormick etc. as apostates from the Republican party, and elect a delegate to a convention to vote for a senator.]
[San Antonio Express 12 August 1869 page 2] THE HORSEBACK ORATOR.--The gallant General Gregory, who traveled over Texas after the surrender and made speeches on horseback to the people, proclaiming Lincoln's emancipation and councelling [sic] the liberated slaves, we are assured, will be among the patriotic men who will visit our State during the Fall to urge the claims of the Republican party.
[Flake's Bulletin 21 August 1869, page 4]
The San Antonia Express announces the Gen. Gregory, the first assistant commander in charge of the Freedmen's Bureau, is coming to canvass the State for Davis. Gen. Gregory is the strongest card that party can play. He is strongly entrenched in the affections of the negro. He has traveled all over the State and is personally known to most of them. Gen. Gregory was a brave soldier, a good fighting officer, an honest bureau commissioner, but is a [illegible word; perhaps 'bit'] enthusiastic on the negro question.[...]
[San Antonio Express 8 September 1869 page 2]
GEN. GREGORY.--Our announcement sometime since, that the horseback orator Gen. Gregory, will stump Texas, is verified by Tuesday's dispatches. Come on, old friend, there are thousands of grateful hearts to give you a cordial welcome.
[Flake's Bulletin 18 September 1869 page 4]
The San Antonio Herald, after alluding to the designation of General Gregory as the horseback orator, desires to know if his "headquarters will be in the saddle." General Gregory is a gentleman, fanatical perhaps, but still a gentleman and an honest christian. So firm is our faith in him that we are anxious to see him come. We are not without a faint hope that he will perform the Herculean miracle of refining the journalistic morals of his party. In short, that by faith, fasting and much meditation, he may be able to cast out the devil that now possesses it.[...]
[Flake's Bulletin 3 November 1869 page 2]
GEN. GREGORY DECLINES.--We are authoritatively informed that Gen. Gregory refuses to take any part in the contest for Governor. We don't believe Gen. Gregory ever gave any countenance to the Davis movement here. The announcement in the Union and Express that he would stump the State of Texas was a mere ruse to mislead the colored man.--Austin Republican.
The Austin Republican has good facilities of knowing the facts relating to Gen. Gregory. Gen. Gregory was the strongest speaker that Davis could have put in the field. His declination will be a serious loss.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 31 January 1870 page 2]
WELL NAMED.--At Houston, Texas, a fine building has been recently completed. It is to be used for educational purposees, and designed principally for colored persons. It has been named "The Gregory Institute," in honor of General Gregory, the United States Marshal of Eastern Pennsylvania.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 8 February 1870 page 3]
THE TEMPERANCE CAUSE.--CELEBRATION ON THE 22D OF FEBRUARY.The Committee of Sixteen appointed to make arrangements for a grand temperance celebration in this city on Washington's Birthday, held an adjourned meeting at the rooms of the Young Men's Christian Association yesterday afternoon, Peter B. Simons Esq., in the chair.
There were present delegates from various temperance organizations.
Mr. Charles Heritage, President of the Temperance Blessing, stated that he had printed the following circular for distribution by order ofthe Committee--[...]
[...] General E. M. Gregory, [...][...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 10 March 1870 page 3]
[...] SOCIETY OF THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.--Yesterday afternoon a meeting was held at the Continental hotel of the Executive Committee of the Society of the Army of the Potomac, appointed for the purpose of completing the arrangements for the annual reunion, to be held at the Academy of Music on the 9th of April. General R. Ingalis presided, and General George H. Sharpe officiated as Secretary of the Committee, which met in Parlor C. There were also present Generals J. C. Robinson, G. Mott, W. H. H. Davis, R. B. Potter, J. Van Vliet and Colonel S. B. Wylie Mitchell. In addition the following gentlemen are also members of the Committee--Brevet Brigadier-General C. S. Wainwright, Rhinebeck, N.Y.; Brevet Major-General Alexander S. Webb, Tarrytown, N.Y.; Brigadier-General Edgar M. Gregeory, Philadelphia, Pa.; Major-General Alexander Shaler, N.Y.; Major-General John W. Geary, Harrisburg, Pa.; Major-General Henry W. Siccum, Brookly, N.Y.
Arrangements have been made with the various railroad companies whose headquarters are in this city to transport, free of charge, to their homoes, all representatives at this gathering who have paid fare to Philadelphia.
Upon the occasion of the reunion the music will be furnished by the celebrated band from Governor's Island, and Rev. W. R. Greir, of Allentown, Pa., has been chosed as Chaplain. Sub-committees were appointed with reference to arranging all proper minutiae connected with the occasion, who will give immediate attention to their duties, and in a short time have all their arrangments completed.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 21 March 1870 page 2]
THE NEXT CENSUS.--General Gregory, Marshal for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, is making preparations for the taking of the census in his jurisdiction, which comprises the following counties in Eastern Pennsylvania:--Adams, Berks, Bucks, Carbon, Chester, Cumberland, Dauphin, Delaware, Franklin, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh, Monroe, Montgomery, Northampton, Philadelphia, Perry, Pike, Schuylkill, Wayne and York.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 31 March 1870 page 2]
How the Government was Administered by General E. M. Gregory.
J. E. Hilary Skinner, a London barrister, visited our country in the years 1865-'66, and on his return home published an account of his travels. His book is an interesting one, accurate in the narration of facts, so far as we have observed, and written in a liberal and discriminating spirit. One passage, as it relates to the United States Marshal for this District, and thus possesses a local interest, we venture to quote. The action of General Gregory, in the circumstances described, is what we should have looked for from our knowledge of his character.
Humane, just and straight-forward, he would naturally assert the rights of the feeble against the oppression of the strong. The incident related by Mr. Skinner illustrates his character, and is worthy of repetition. We may add, what Mr. Skinner omits, that Judge Caldwell issued a write of habeas corpus in the case. The General, however, refused to release his prisoner; and in the final hearing the Judge sustained his action, holding that, in the abnormal state of things in Texas, the military authority was supreme.
"Texas, for instance, had not felt the presence of Federal troops, and whole battalions of Confederates had gone home with arms in their hands when Kirby Smith surrendered.
"The Texans were unwhipped, and could scarcely realize what a change had come over their country.
"They were fierce, rough men, little accustomed to obey any laws, and the new doctrine that negroes had personal rights seemed preposterous to them. Here, then, was a field for the energetic Assisstant Commissioner in Texas, General Gregory.
"He set about his work in such a manner as speedily convinced whites and blacks alike that the Bureau must be respected. Throughout November and December of 1865 the stout-hearted old soldier rode hither and thither, with a small escort, addressing mass meetings of colored people and urging them to make contracts for labor.
"While I was in New Orleans there arrived an officer from Texas who told me how glad the planters in that section were to have General Gregory among their freedmen. 'We can do nothing with our niggers, but they'll mind what he tells them,' was the common exclamation, and, as Texas admires nothing so much as courage, they held the General in high esteem, because he spoke and acted fearlessly. His conduct in a certain bloodhound case produced the best possible effect upon those who persisted in carrying out forbidden measures of severity against the blacks. There was a large meeting, and General Gregory uttered his usual plain, straightforward advice to those who had been slaves, cautioning at the same time those who had been slave-owners as to how they might treat their workmen in future. A negro stepped forward and said, 'Is it right, General, that we should be hunted with bloodhounds?' 'No!' thundered old Gregory, looking sternly around; 'who has dared to do so?' 'That man,' replied the negro, pointing to Judge ---, a wealthy citizen, standing at Gregory's side: 'he hunted me last week.'
"'Did you? sir,' asked the General, turning upon his neighbor.
"'I did, sir,' answered the Judge, with unfeigned surprise at such a small matter being taken up seriously.
"'Then, sir, [sic] cried the General, 'it is my duty to have you arrested, and Judge -- was arrested accordingly; nor would Gregory hear of any compromise, but vowed that the prisoner should be brought to justice."
[Philadelphia Inquirer 8 April 1870, page 5]
ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.
SECOND ANNUAL REUNION.
ACADEMY OF MUSIC,
Saturday, April 9, 1870.
Doors open at 12 o'clock M.
The proceedings will be opened at 1 o'clock P.M., by Lieutenant-General PHILIP H. SHERIDAN, U.S.Army, President of the Society.
An oration will be delivered by Major-General JOHN H. MARTINDALE, of Rochester, New York; and a POEM by GEORGE H. BOKER, Esq., of Philadelphia.
The public are invited.
The Parquette Circle and Balcomy will be reserved for ladies.
Cards of admission can be obtained (Gratis) at the Headquarters of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, No. 1103 WALNUT Street; the Union League House; Bailey & Co., Twelfth and Chestnut streets; James E. Caldwell & Co., No. 905 Chestnut street; Lee and Walker, No. 722 Chestnut street; Covert's News Stand, Continental Hotel, and at this office.
GEN. R. P. POTTER,
GEN. E. M. GREGORY,
COL. S. B. W. MITCHELL,
Committee of Arrangements.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 9 April 1870 page 3]
THE GRAND RE-UNION OF OUR SOLDIERS.--To-day will witness a scene that must make every patriotic heart throb with enthusiasm. At the Academy of Music hundreds of our old tried and faithful soldiers, who fought so bravely in the Army of the Potomac during the war, will hold their second annual re-union. Gallant Phil Sheridan, of cavalry fame, will preside.
General R. P. Potter, General E. M. Gregory and Colonel S. B. W. Mitchell are the Committee of Arrangements.
The Committee have, by the apopintment of other Committees, made arrangements for the proper reception of distinguished persons and other guests, many of whom are expected to be present. The music on the occasion will be furnished by the celebrated band from Governor's Island, and Rev. W. R. Grier, of Allentown, Pa., has been chosen as Chaplain. Sub-Committees were appointed with reference to arranging all proper munutiae connected with the occasion, who have given great attention to their duties, and now have all their arrangements nearly completed.
The annual banquet of the Society will be held this evening, at eight o'clock, in the Continental Hotel.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 14 April 1870 page 2]
THE PHILADELPHIA FOURTH PRESBYTERY.--The Philadelphia Fourth Presbytery reassembled yesterday morning at nine o'clock in Rev. Dr. Shepherd's Church, Buttonwood street,above Sixth.[...]
The Moderator announced the Committees. Among them are:--
On Narrative--Herrick Johnson, D.D.; Elder Gen. E. M. Gregory.[...]
Rev. Mr. Robbins reported that his church was doing well, having entered their new edifice at Broad and Oxford streets. This congregation was organized about three years since.
The Sunday school is in good condition, numbering 620 scholars, and continual accessions are taking place.
General Gregory, elder of Mr. Robbins' Church, made substantially the same report as Mr. Robbins.[...]
Gen. Gregory presented a series of resolutions to the effect that the pastors and the people second the temperance cause, and introduce temperance books and papers in the schools. It was moved that these resolutions be made the order of the day for to-morrow at ten o'clock. Agreed to.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 15 April 1870 page 2]
THE PHILADELPHIA FOURTH PRESBYTERY-- The Presbytery reassembled yesterday morning at nine o'clock, Rev. Samuel W. Duffield, Moderator, in the chair. [...]
The order of the day with reference to General Gregory's motion on temperance was then called for.
Rev. Dr. Johnson moved to amend the expression "adult and juvenile societies of the church and congregations," to whom the work was referred to read, "to those acting under their present organized agencies or by such other as might best promote the object."
A long debate ensued on this matter, during which Rev. Mr. Helfenstein read a very simple and truthful pledge, saying that he had fought in the temperance cause for the last forty years, and had found it to work excellently among Sunday School children.
At length it was agreed to refer the matter to a Committee consisting of General Gregory, Dr. Allen, Mr. Schenck and Mr. Ford. The gentlemen named then retired.[...]
The commitee on General Gregory's motion returned and recommended to the churches most efficient action upon the suject.
An amendment was offered that the Church take immediate action to purify themselves from the evil. The amendment was adopted.
Dr. Johnson moved to amend the amendment by adopting the words that "the churches, through their present organized church agencies, or by such others under the control of the churches as may best promote the object," and that the report be sent to every session. Carried.
The vote on the resolutions as amended by the suggestions of the Committee was then made unanimous.[...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 16 April 1870, page 2]
MEETING OF THE CENSUS COMMITTEE OF CITY COUNCILS.--A meeting of the Census Committee of City Councils was held at noon yesterday, in the Mayor's private office. There were present a Committee from the Commercial Exchange, a Committee from the Franklin Institute, United States Marshal General Gregory, and his Honor, Mayor Fox. Mr. George Hall presided. The Chairman stated the object of the meeting. He said City Councils desired an accurate census of the city this year. They wanted the industrial interests and resources of Philadelphia shown to the world at large, and in order to do that they concluded to consult with General Gregory, and render him any service they could in accomplishing the object so desired not only by Councils but by the mercantile community.
General Gregory answered that he had not yet districted the city, nor had he appointed his assistants. He had made up his mind to obtain the census accurately, and he would employ none but intelligent and good men to perform the work. Intelligent men were required for the purpose. He was limited to the first of November to make a return. The blanks are now being prepared in Washington.
The Marshal then went a full explanation [sic] of the requirements of the law on the subject.
Mr. Hall said that he had corresponded with parties in England in reference to the manner in which they took the census there. He then described the system adopted in England, where the blanks were delivered two weeks before, and the census taken in one night.
General Gregory said that there were some peculiarities in our law which were not adapted to our method of taking the census.
After an interchange of views as to the best plan of obtaining an accurate enumeration of the people of this city, and more especially the industrial interests and resources, Mr. Willis moved for the appointment of a sub-committee, consisting of three members of Councils, three members of the Commercial Exchange, three members of the Franklin Institute and three members of the Board of Health, to confer with General Gregory in reference to the census. The motion was agreed to.
On motion of Mr. Willis, Mr. Hall was named the Chairman of the Committee. The selection of the members of that Committee was left with the organizations represented.
Mayor Fox said that he would do all in his power to aid the Marshal. The Police Department would be at his service to protect the assistants in their work. He did not think full justice had been done Philadelphia, and he was anxious to see an accurate census.
Mr. Gregory said he intended to do all in his power to accomplish the object. He would be happy to receive suggestions from the Committee and act upon them.
After further remarks the meeting adjourned.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 27 April 1870 page 7]
UNITED STATES MARSHAL'S SALE.--BY virtue of a Writ of Sale, No. 69, of 1869, to me directed by the Hon. JOHN CADWALADER, Judge of the District Court in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, will be sold at public sale on THURSDAY, May 5, 1870, at 12 M., on the premises, all the right, title and interest of PHILIP BROGAN in the distillery, distilling apparatus, and all that certain lot or piece of ground with the three-story brick messnage [?] or tenemant with a frame shed attached and thereon erected, situate in Philadelphia, on the northwest side of Salmon street, at the distance of two hundred and twenty-six feet southwest of Lehigh avenue, containing in front said Salmon street, eighteen feet, and extending in depth, northwesterly, one hundred and two and a half feet to Tilton street.E. M. GREGORY,
U. S. Marshal E. D. of Pa.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 28 April 1870 page 2]
ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL RAID UPON THE ILLICIT DISILLERIES.--Early yesterday morning another successful raid was made upon the Richmond distilleries. General E. M. Gregory, Detectives Brooks, Clark, Griffith, Hawes, Johnson and Eldridge, and Deputy Marshals Murray, Ridgway, Beale [?] and Barnard proceeded cautiously to perform the work, and in a novel way. They managed to pass the pickets of the distillers by concealing themselves under the contents of a wagon-load of hay.
Thus they entirely disarmed all suspicion as to the purpose of their visit. Alighting in Monmouth Street, above Richmond, they scented the poisonous breath of a bubbling still within a few yards of the spot upon which they had alighted. The owner found safety in flight. His employees followed his example. The authorities found in operation an excellent copper still, with fire blazing roaringly beneath it, and a stench of rotting rye running riot in the surrounding air. The authorities very soon nosed out a number of hogsheads of "mash." With their axes they smashed the vessels containing the mash. Before the officers left the premises they spilled upon the ground no less than sixty hogsheads filled with this miserable mixture. The "raiders" then visited the surrounding places, and as a result captured four stills and three worms, all new, after which the officers returned with their booty to the city.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 28 April 1870 page 5]
GRAND RALLY OF THE FRIENDS OF Temperance, General E. M. Gregory, Rev. A. A. Willits, D.D., and Thomas M. Coleman, Esq., will make addresses at the Grand Temperance meeting, to be held at the Green Hill Presbyterian Church, GIRARD Avenue, above Sixteenth street, on Friday evening, April 29, at 8 o'clock, under the auspices of the Young People's Association. All are welcome.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 30 April 1870 page 2]
'TEMPERANCE' MEETING.--A temperance meeting, under the auspices of the Young People's Association of Green Hill Presbyterian Church, was held last evening at that church, on Girard avenue, above Sixteenth street. This was one of a series of meetings held to further the interest of temperance through the Christian influence of the church.[...]
General E. M. Gregory, Mr. William R. Moran and Rev. A. A. Willitts spoke eloquently upon the evils of intemperance and the importance of working earnestly for total abstinence. The speakers were frequently applauded by the audience.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 12 May 1870 page 8]
On the 11th of May, 1870, the Union League formally took possession of the handsome building on the west side of Broad street, below Chestnut, in which the festivities took place last evening. At that time it was the intention to take possession of the edifice with great and imposing ceremonies, but this object was frustrated, owing to the assassination of President Lincoln. Five years have passed away since that time, and last evening, the fifth anniversary of the first occupation of the building, the event was celebrated by a social reunion and reception, which had been gotten up in the most elaborate manner.[...]
It was, however, soon manifested that not only was the company one most remarkable for ornate beauty and prepossessing attributes, but that it was to a great extent patronized by a class of prominent personages not often to be found in such entertainments.
Among others of such were His Excellency John W. Geary, Governor of Pennsylvania; Major-General George O. Meade, U.S.A.; General Stewart Van Vllet [sic], U.S.A.; General Charles F. Ruff, U.S.A.; General George H. Crosman, U.S.A.; Colonel C. H. Hodges, U.S.A.; Major George White, U.S.A.; Commodore Marchant, U.S.N.; Commodore Fraley, U.S.N.; General Robert Patterson; General Thomas Cadwalader; General Charles M. Prevost; General E. M. Gregory, United States Marshal; [...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 14 May 1870 page 2]
Marshal Gregory is run down with applications for the positions of census-takers.
[Philaelphia Inquirer 31 May 1870 page 3]
CENSUS TAKERS.--APPOINTMENTS BY MARSHAL GREGORY.--The following is a list of appointments of Assistant Marshals for taking the census of this city. They will report immediately to General E. M. Gregory, United States Marshal, receive their commissions and be sworn, in order to commence June 1, 1870:--...
Twentieth Ward, seven District.--[...] 6th, J. A. Gregory (soldier); [...].[...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 1 June 1870 page 4]
The announcement by Marshal E. M. GREGORY of the names of the Assistants whom he has appointed to take the United States census acquaints the public with the fact that to-day the operations of the census gatherers commence. [...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 18 June 1870 page 7]
UNITED STATES MARSHAL'S SALE.--BY order of the United States District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, will be sold at public sale, to the highest and best bidder, for cash, Wednesday, July 6, 1870, at 10 o'clock A.M., on the premises, corner TWENTY-THIRD and MASTER Streets, the Distilling Apparatus, &c., of THOMAS BROPHY.E. M. GREGORY,
United States Marshal,
Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 21 January 1871 page 3]
..The rumor circulated yesterday to the effect that George Mountjoy, convicted of whisky frauds upon the internal revenue, had been pardoned by President Grant, is without foundation. United States Marshal Gregory, to whom the pardon would be directed if such was the case, had not, up to a late hour last night, received any such paper.
[Flake's Bulletin, 18 June 1870, page 4]
Marshal Gregory, of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, has insulted the good sense of the people of Philadelphia, by appointing negroes to take the census in that city. How will the wives of the Union Leaugers [sic] like to have negroes forcing themselves into their houses and asking them their ages, and the number of their children. All right, gentlemen, pile on the agony.--[Doylestown (Pa.) Democrat.
This is the same gentleman who was for a year or so known in this city as General Gregory, in charge of the Freedmen's Bureau.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 31 March 1871 page 3]
Ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment
MASS MEETING AT CONCERT HALL
Military and Civic Procession
CLOSING FESTIVITIES LAST EVENING.
The colored people of this city yesterday celebrated the second anniversary of the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Consitution of the United States. The affair was to have been a remarkable fine one in many particulars, but unfortunately the day proved unpropitious, and was rather a dampener upon the feelings of those who desired to participate. A dreary, disagreeable rain continued all day. A lengthy programme had been arranged, which was carried out very creditably, as follows:--
Addresses were also made by Major-General E. M. Gregory, United States Marshal of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, ....[...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 14 July 1871 page 7]
UNITED STATES MARSHAL'S OFFICE, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, June 27, 1871.
This is to give notice, that on the 26th day of June, A. D., 1871, a Warrant in Bankruptcy was issued against the estate of WILLIAM S. CHERRY, formerly of the firm of JANNEY, REAKIRT & CO., and late copartner with TRYON REAKIRT as TRYON REAKIRT & CO., manufacturers, at Wilmington, Del., of Philadelphia, in the county of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, who has been adujdged [sic] a Bankrupt on his own petition; that the payment of any debts and delivery of any property belonging to such Bankrupt, to him or for his use, and the transfer of any property by him are forbidden by law; that a meeting of the creditors of the said Bankrupt, to prove their debts and to choose one or more assignees of his Estate, will be held at a Court of Bankruptcy, to be holden at No. 131 S. FIFTH Street, Philadelphia, before JOSEPH MASON, Esq., Register, on the 13th day of July, A. D. 1871, at 2 o'clock P.M.E. M. GREGORY, United States Marshal.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 26 August 1871 page 2]
Grace Mission, in the tent at Twenty-second and Federal streets, is meeting with much encouragement and success. [...]
Gentlemen well known in our city have already spoken there, and among those who have promised shortly to speak are Governor Pollock, General Gregory, Judge Strong and Judge Peirce. [...]
[Philadelphia Inquirer 8 November 1871 page 2]
DEATH OF UNITED STATES MARSHAL EDGAR M. GREGORY.
General Edgar M. Gregory, United States Marshal for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, died at his late residence, No. 1723 Master street, yesterday morning, at four o'clock. The general for the past six weeks has been lying very ill of inflammation of the kidneys, and this finally resulted in death.
Up to the time of his death he continued to discharge his duties to the satisfaction of all. The task of taking the census of such a city as Philadelphia fell upon him last year, and much fault was found with its alleged incompleteness, the re-enumeration of the inhabitants showing that the complaints made were not without foundation. But to the general inefficiency of our census system the fault was mainly to be charged. Still more difficult was the position in which he was placed at the Congressional election of 1870, when he was required by recent legislation to appoint a number of deputies to assist in maintaining order and the rights of voters at the polls. Marshal Gregory, it will be remembered, eventually called a force of marines to his assistance on election day, a bitter controversy with Mayor Fox resulting from his course.
Deceased was born at Sand Lake, Rensselaer county, New York, January 1, 1804. At the age of 18, he went to Deposit, Delaware county, New York, where he was engaged in business for his brother many years, and afterwards for himself, as a lumber merchant. While at this place he associated himself with the Presbyterian Church, and at the age of 30 he became an elder, which position he held, at the time of his death, in the Oxford Presbyterian Church of this city, of which Rev. Frank Robbins is pastor. In church matters he was always an earnest and active worker, and took part as a delegate in the General Assembly held in this city in 1870, at which the Old and New School branches of the Presbyterian Church were brought together. During his long residence in Cincinnati he was prominent in every good work, as he was in this city in later times, and for sixteen years was president of the Young Men's Bible Society.
In 1840 he closed his business in Deposit, and removed to Cincinnati, where he engaged in business as a lumber merchant, and also as a banker, remaining there until his final removal to this city, which took place early in 1860.
Mr. Gregory had always been a determined and outspoken anti-slavery man. He was likewise somewhat familiar with military affairs, having acted as colonel of a militia regiment during his residence in Deposit, N.Y. The outbreak of the Rebellion therefore found him not only in full sympathy with the cause of the Union, but also an intelligent adviser of the people in the great national crisis. For a few months his exertions were devoted to the encouragement of enlistement; but in July, 1861, at which time he held the post of captain in the Home Guards, he was authorized to recruit a regiment for his own command in the field. By the close of the year its ranks were full, and its discipline and general outfit highly proficient.
On January 21, 1862, Colonel Gregory left Philadelphia at the head of his regiment, which was known as the Ninety-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, and created such a fine impression on arriving at Washington, that it was detained there to act as provost guard of the capital, the fourth Regular Infantry being relieved by it from this responsible duty. Soon after, Colonel Gregory was ordered to Alexandria as military governor, a position requiring great delicacy as well as unswerving patriotism and great firmness of character.
Colonel Gregory continued in command of Alexandria for some months, when he was ordered to active duty in the field. He was an active participant in the battle of Fredericksburg, December 1862, where his gallantry secured from his regiment the present of a fine horse and a costly sword, while President Linoln rewarded him with the commission of brigadier-general.
At Fredericksburg, General Gregory witnessed his first engagement, and at Chancellorsville his twenty-second. He fought through the Wilderness campaign, and, in fact, participated as brigade commander in all the engagements involving the Fifth Corps, except the battle of Gettysburg, at which time he was at home, under medical treatment for wounds received in battle. Just before the close of the war he was breveted major-general for his gallantry at Five Forks.
After the termination of the struggle he was sent to Texas as Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for that State, a position in which he did good service and gained the respect of the white population, as well as the devotion of the freedmen. From Texas he was ordered to Maryland and Delaware as Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, his services in connection with the Rebellion terminating with this duty.
Having returned to this city, General Gregory was, in May 1869, appointed United States Marshal for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania on the death of General John Ely.
The principal deputy in the office of the marshal was his son-in-law, Captain Wright. By the provisions of the law he will act as marshal until the vacancy is filled by the President.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 9 November 1871 page 1]
There are already several applicants for the place of United States Marshal Gregory, deceased. No nomination will be made till after the funeral, when the indications are that General Baxter will be appointed.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 9 November 1871 page 4]
It is probable that General D. W. C. Baxter will succeed the late General Gregory as United States Marshal.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 10 November 1871 page 4 (reprinted at Philadelphia Inquirer 11 November 1871 page 4)]
GREGORY.--On Tuesday, November 7, at 4 o'clock A.M., General EDGAR M. GREGORY, in the 68th year of his age.
The relatives and friends of the family are invited to the funeral, from his late residence, No. 1723 [?] Master street, on Monday morning, November 13, at 10 o'clock. Services at Oxford Presbyterian Church, corner of Broad and Oxford streets, at 11 o'clock. Funeral to proceed to South Laurel Hill Cemetery.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 10 November 1871 page 1]
Despatches [sic] to Associated Press
THE PHILADELPHIA VACANCIES
WASHINGTON, Nov. 9.--There is an exciting contest for the vacant offices in Philaelphia, caused by the death of Marshal Gregory, the transfer of collector Sickles, of the Fourth District, to be pension agent, in place of Forbes, and the resignation of Mayor-elect Stokley, of the assessorship of the Second District. Senators Scott and Cameron, and Messrs. McEuen, Loughridge, Smith, Leeds and other Philadelphia politicians are here to urge the claims of their respective favorites, but as yet the President has taken no action in the matter.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 10 November 1871 page 4]
Several candidates are already in the field for the United States marshalship, vacant through the death of General Gregory, and great pressure is being brought upon the president to induce him to appoint a new officer.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 10 November 1871 page 2]
A Successor to Marshal Gregory.
The friends of General Hector Tyndale, desiring to see the duties of the office of Marshal of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania properly discharged, and a fit successor to General Gregory chosen, are urging his appointment upon the President. General Tyndale is too modest a gentleman to solicit office, but his eminently honourable record as a merchant, citizen and soldier, should entite any request his friends may make in his behalf to the most favorable consideration of the President.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 11 November 1871 page 2]
ACTION IN REFERENCE TO HIS DEATH.
A meeting of the surviving members of the Ninety-first Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, was held last evening, in District Court room No. 2, to take action on the death of their old commander, General Edgar M. Gregory.
Colonel Joseph H. Sinex was called to the chair, and Mr. W. W. Widdifield was chosen secretary.
On motion, a committee consisting of Captain Hall, Colonel Sellers, Captain Brass, Lieutenant Baker and Major Casner was appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting.
The committee retired, and soon after reported the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:--
Whereas, In the death of our late commander, General Edgar M. Gregory, we have lost one whose sterling worth as an officer and a man was appreciated by all who knew him, and the death of such reminds us that the good and true are not exempt from the hands of the great destroyer; therefore,
Resolved, That the surviving members of the Ninety-first Regiment desire to express, in fitting terms, their admiration of the many noble qualities of mind and heart which so distinguished our late much-esteemed and beloved commander. The deceased in the hour of his country's peril promptly responded to the call of the government for assistance, and, at the head of our regiment, took the field battling for the honor and integrity of the Union.
Resolved, That in the death of General Gregory we have lost one whose memory will remain dear to the members of the Ninety-first Regiment, and whose genial countenance will be missed at each recurring anniversary, and as the tear of sorrow is shed when we meet we will look forward with hopeful eyes to that reunion in the land where the clang of swords and the trumpet notes of battles are heard no more.
Resolved, That the surviving members of the Ninety-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers tender to the sorrow-stricken members of the family their sympathy for the severe loss that they have sustained, but feel assured that our loss is his eternal gain.
Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be presented to the family of the deceased, and the regiment attend the funeral in a body.
On motion, a committee of five was appointed to make all necessary arrangements for the funeral of the deceased.
[Georgia Weekly Telegraph 14 November 1871 page 5]
PHILADELPHIA, November 7.--General E. M. Gregory, United States Marshal, is dead.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 14 November 1871 page 2]
THE FUNERAL OF COL. GREGORY--THE RELIGIOUS EXERCISES--WHO WERE PRESENT
The funeral services of Colonel Edgar M. Gregory, late United States marshal, took place yesterday morning, from his late residence, No. 1723 Master street.
The relatives and friends of the family assembled at the house at ten o'clock. In the parlor the body was exposed to view. It was inclosed in a burial casket which was handsomely mounted with silver, covered with black cloth. on the lid was a massive silver plate, bearing the name, age and date of death of the deceased. The body was dressed in a plain black suit, and in appearance different in no particular from what the colonel was remember to have been when alive. The friends and relatives passed through the room viewing the remains, for about an hour, when the services at the house took place. These over, the coffin was borne by pall-bearers from the house past the military, which was drawn up, at present a arms [sic], on the opposite side of the street, and deposited in the hearse. The funeral procession, including the carriages, the surviving members of Colonel Gregory's regiment in citizens' dress, and the guard of honor and firing party; the State Fencibles, under the command of Captain J. W. Ryan, with their band, proceeded to the Oxford Presbyterian Church, corner of Broad and Oxford, of which the deceased was a prominent member, where the public services were held. The church building was filled in every part with a large audience of personal friends of the deceased. Within the church the pulpit surroundings had been draped in black, and directly in front of the pulpit the catafalque and trimmings had been erected which had been used at the funeral of President Lincoln in Independence Hall. This was surmounted by a highly ornamental floral design.
When the procession reached the church a funeral march was performed by the band. Those taking part filed into the main audience room in the following order:--
The judges of the United States and other Courts.
The officers of the courts.
The heads of departments.
The employees and deputy marshals of the marshal's office.
The coffin borne by the pall-bearers.
The Immediate [sic] family of the deceased.
The friends and relatives.
The delegation of the surviving members of the Ninety-first Regiment P.V., lately commanded by Colonel Gregory.
Representatives of military and other organizations.
The pall bearers were the following gentlemen:--
J. C. Arilson [?],
R. S. Walton,
Hon. Leonard Myers,
James H. Hawley,
Among the clergy were Rev. Mr. Rabbings [?], pastor of the Oxford Street Church; Rev. Joseph Welsh, late chaplain of Colonel Gregory's regiment; Rev. R. Graham, chaplain United States army; Rev. T. J. Shepherd, Rev. James Neill, Rev. Dr. Dickson, Rev. Dr. Withrow, and Rev. Dr. Randall, president of Lincoln University.
Among the civil officials present were Judge Cadwalader, Aubrey H. Smith, United States District Attorney, and many other noted individuals connected with the various departments.
The pall-bearers having deposited the coffin in front of the pulpit, the services were opened by an anthem from the choir, under the direction of Mr. T. Rawlings, Jr., Miss H. M. Alexander and Mrs. Craven rendering the solos. The following order of services was then followed out:--Reading of the Scriptures by Rev. T. J. Shepherd, who also presided.
Prayer by Chaplain Joseph Welsh.
Address by Rev. James Neill.
Address by Rev. Dr. Dicksoin.
Address by Rev. Dr. Withrow.
Prayer by Rev. Dr. Randall, oif the Lincoln University.
After the services the funeral procession proceeded to South Laurel Hill Cemetery, where the service over the grave was read by Rev. T. J. Shepherd, after which the regular military salue was fired by Captain Ryan's company.
[Philadelphia Inquirer 15 November 1871 page 7]
DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, In bankruptcy.--In the matter of SAMUEL C. SCOTT, bankrupt, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, ss.
A warrant in bankruptcy has been issued by said Court against the estate of SAMUEL C. SCOTT of the county of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, in said District, who has been duly adjudged bankrupt, upon petition of his creditors, and the payment of any debts and the delivery of any property belonging to such bankrupt to him or to his use, and the transfer of any proeprty by him are forbidden by law. A meeting of the creditors of said bankrupt, to prove their debts and choose one or more assignees of his estate, will be held at a Court of Bankruptcy to be holden at No. 131 S. FIFTH Street, Philadelphia, in said District, on the 24th day of November, A. D., 1871, at 11 o'clock A.M., at the office of JOSEPH MASON, Esq., one of the Registers in Bankruptcy of said District.E. M. GREGORY,
United States Marshall for said District.
[The New Hampshire Patriot 22 November 1871 page 3]
United States Marshal Gregory, of Philadelphia, died a few days ago. Before he had been dead twenty-four hours, a dozen or two aspirants were hanging about the doors of the White House. In order to get rid of them, the President sent word that he would not fill the vacancy until after the funeral.