Descendants of Roger Garde, Proven and Probable
by James R. Henderson
While he was living in York, Roger Gard was mentioned on two bonds which were recorded in Aspinwall's Notarial Records [Boston Municipal Printing Office, 1903]. The first bond, dated 13 May 1643, was from John Manning and Nicholas Trerice for £70.10 to William Pennicott of the Island of Fayal. The bond specified that if Manning and Trerice failed to deliver on their contract with Pennicott, they would then pay the amount of the bond to "Abraham Shurt, Mercht & in his absence to Mr Roger Gard & in the absence of them both to Mr Samuel Maverick all living in New England." The appearance of Samuel Maverick's name on this bond is interesting in that he was the brother-in-law of the Rev. James Parker whose letter reporting the death of Roger Gard is mentioned above. The second bond mentioning Roger Gard was also dated May 1643. It was from Nicholas Trerice and John Manning for 100,000 Portuguese Reis payable to Samuel Andrews or John Gard of Fayal in the Azores. This John Gard may have been Roger's son born in 1618, but might instead have been his presumed brother, who married Rebecca Copp at Bideford, Devon on 27 Sept. 1629. This bond contained the provision that payment could also be made "in New England unto Roger Gard". Payment of both bonds was acknowledged when they were recorded in 1647.
The connection between Nicholas Trerice and Roger Gard on these bonds is
worth noting, because Trerice's son John was associated with William Gard
in 1666 as presented under William Gard below. An excellent article on the
career and family of Nicholas Trerice can be found in NEHGR, Vol. 143, pp.
25-39. As for Roger Gard's probable brother John, he may have been the same
John Gard who, by 1660, was living in Newport, Rhode Island with a wife
named Harte. Harte Gard died at Newport 16 Sept. 1660 age 55 and John Gard
died there 7 Aug. 1665, age 61. As Roger Gard's son John also moved to Rhode
Island by 1664 there has been some confusion regarding the two as discussed
in the section on Roger's son John.
Children of Roger and Philippa Gard, baptized at Bideford, Devon:
i. Elizabeth, bpt. 16 Feb, 1613/14
2. ii. Rebecca, bpt. 9 May 1616; married William Champlin in 1641.
3. iii. John, bpt. 8 Nov. 1618; married Mary? Tetherley and Martha Brenton.
iv. Thomas, bpt. 21 Jan 1620/21
v. Patience, bpt. 13 July 1623
vi. Mary, bpt. 1 Feb. 1626/27
4. vii. (possibly) Roger, probably born about 1630; remained in Bideford, twice married.
2. Rebecca Gard was baptized 9 May 1616 at Bideford and married William Champlin there on 25 Nov. 1641. Their eldest son John was undoubtedly the John Champlin "late of Fayal" who inherited property from John Gard in Newport, Rhode Island in 1673 as will be discussed below.
William Champlin may have been a brother of Jeffrey Champlin, one of the early settlers of Newport, Rhode Island.
Children (Champlin) baptized at Bideford, Devon:
i. John, bpt. 4 Sept. 1642; made a brief appearance in Newport, R.I. in 1673.
ii. Mary, bpt. 29 Sept. 1644
iii. William, bpt. 14 Feb. 1646
iv. Rebecca, bpt. 24 Feb. 1648
v. Samuel, bpt. 28 March 1650
vi. William, bpt. 26 March 1653
3. John Gard was baptized on 8 Nov. 1618 at Bideford, Devon. Based on a deed dated 1668 he married a sister of William Tetherley, jr., possibly Mary, baptized 3 Feb. 1627 at Northam, Devon, daughter of William and Christian (Thorne) Tetherley. Northam is a parish adjacent to Bideford. Prior to 1664, when he sold his ship, John Gard was evidently a mariner and ship's master. He first appears in New England in 1662 when he took a quit claim to Roger Gard's land in Maine from John and Mary Davis. In this record he is called a merchant of Boston. By 1664 John Gard had settled in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, where from 1664 to 1667 he served as deputy for the town to the Rhode Island government and as an Assistant to the Governor. When he sold his ship Exchange to William Tetherley at Boston in 1664 he is described as a merchant of Rhode Island [Suffolk Co., Mass. Deeds (SD), Vol. 7, p. 71]. On 4 June 1668 he discharged the bill of sale for the Exchange to William Tetherley of Bideford, Devon, "now in Boston" who is described therein as his "brother-in-law" [SD Vol. 7, p. 72]. Since William Tetherley apparently never married, this is taken to mean that John Gard married Tetherley's sister [GDMNH, p.252]. The sale of the Exchange was recorded in Sept. 1671 immediately following a deed in which William Brenton sold land in Scituate to John Man [SD Vol. 7, p. 70]. The fact that these deeds were recorded sequentially in the record book is significant because it supports the conclusion that the John Gard who called William Tetherley his brother-in law in 1668 is the same John Gard who was described by William Brenton as his son-in-law in 1667. On 16 Dec. 1667 William Brenton, Governor of Rhode Island, deeded land to John Gard, stating that Gard had been married to Brenton's daughter Martha, deceased. [Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island (GDRI) by John Osborne Austin with corrections and additions by G. Andrews Moriarty, 1969]. The conjecture that Martha Brenton's husband John Gard might have been an otherwise unknown son of the older John Gard of Newport [TAG Vol. 20, p. 109] clearly has no evidence to support it.
How is it possible that John Gard was both the son-in-law of William Brenton and the brother-in-law of William Tetherley in records dated less than six months apart? Since William Tetherley was not married to a sister of John Gard or to a daughter of William Brenton, the only reasonable explanation is that John Gard had been married twice. Based on a comparison of the ages of William Tetherley's sister vs. William Brenton's daughter Martha, John Gard undoubtedly married Tetherley's sister first, probably in the early 1640's. Martha Brenton was significantly younger than John Gard and he probably married her in the early 1660's. So then, if William Tetherly's sister was deceased, why was John Gard still calling Tetherley his "brother-in-law" in 1668? Also puzzling is Brenton's gift of land to his "son-in-law" John Gard after the decease of Brenton's daughter Martha. The most reasonable explanation for the continued use of these terms describing family relationships between John Gard and these other two men is that he continued to be related to each of them through the otherwise undocumented children which John Tetherley's sister and William Brenton's daughter Martha must have had by John Gard! Sadly, it is clear from William Brenton's will of 9 Feb. 1673/74 [GDRI] that John Gard's child or children by Martha must have died prior to the date of the will. In his will, William Brenton gives the property he had previously given to Mr. John Gard, deceased, to his daughter Mehitable. If this property had been an unconditional gift from Brenton to Gard it would not have reverted to Brenton's ownership upon the death of Gard. Therefore, the inheritance of this property must have had restrictions such as "to the bodily heirs of Martha, daughter of William Brenton". Just as the original gift of the property implied that John Gard had, by Martha, a child who was living on 16 Dec. 1667, so the reversion of the property to Brenton implies that the child had died by 9 Feb. 1673/74. It is unfortunate that one noted genealogist concluded from the reversion of this property to William Brenton that John Gard died without issue [TAG Vol. 32, p. 38]. The proper conclusion is that he had no surviving issue by Martha Brenton. As for John Gard's children by (Mary?) Tetherley, the logical candidates are William Gard of Boston, Massachusetts and John Gard of New London and Stonington, Connecticut. His connections with Boston are apparent from the foregoing discussion, and there is at least one record which connects him with New London, via his father-in-law. "In 1661 a vessel was built by John Elderkin on the account of William Brenton, of Newport", [History of NewLondon (HNL) by Frances M. Caulkins, 1895, p.231]. An interesting but indirect connection between John Gard and New London comes from the fact that John Lamb, to whom John Gard sold his Maine property in 1662, moved to New London by 1666 [GDMNH, p. 408].
Some confusion has arisen in connection with John
Champlin's 1673 inheritance of a house in Newport, RI formerly belonging
to one of the two John Gards of Rhode Island. Although it is not certain,
it seems likely that since the younger John Gard was a resident of Portsmouth,
it was the older John Gard of Newport from whom John Champlin received this
Probable children of John Gard by his first wife (Mary?) Tetherley:
5. i. William, born 1642-1643; married Maria Jameson.
6. ii. John, born about 1645; married Isabel/Isabella _____.
Two additional children, baptized at Bideford, Devon as children of John "Gord" or "Goorde", may actually belong to this John Gard:
(iii.) Christian, bpt. 28 Aug. 1646
(iv.) Isaac, bpt. 13 March 1650/51
John Gard probably had only one child by his second wife Martha Brenton:
v. (name unknown), born before Dec. 1667; died before Feb. 1673/74.
4. Roger Gard had children baptized at Bideford, Devon between 1662 and 1688. Based on his own name and the fact that he named his youngest daughter Philippa, he is undoubtedly either a son or grandson of Roger and Philippa (Gist) Gard. As his oldest known child was baptized in 1662, it seems unlikely that he was born after 1640. Accordingly, he has been placed here as the unrecorded youngest son of Roger and Philippa Gard. It seems reasonable to suppose that he was born in the early 1630's.
Children by first wife (name unknown), baptized at Bideford:
i. Grace, bpt. 7 Dec. 1662
ii. Jo (Joanna or John?), bpt. 15 May 1665
Children by second wife Elizabeth Edwards, baptized at Bideford:
iii. Richard, bpt. 7 Jan. 1670/71
iv. James, bpt. 3 Aug. 1673
v. Roger, bpt. 7 May 1676
vi. John, bpt. 16 June 1678
vii. Nathaniel, bpt. 1 Nov. 1680
viii. James, bpt. 26 Aug. 1683
ix. Philippa, bpt. 26 July 1685
x. David, bpt. 30 March 1688
5. William Gard was born in 1642 or 1643, based on his 1667 deposition in Maryland in which he states his age as 25 years [Maryland Archives (MDA) Vol. 57, p. 184]. His first appearance in the records occurs when he married Maria Jameson at Charlestown, Massachusetts on 30 July 1666. Maria was baptized at the First Church of Boston on 28 Nov. 1647, daughter of James and Sarah Jameson. The identity of her parents is proven by the deed recording the sale by her mother of a house lot in Boston to her husband in 1677 [SD Vol. 11, p. 216]. Maria was a member of the First Church of Boston, but her husband was never admitted to membership. William Gard was a mariner and a ship captain. While trading in Maryland in 1666 his ketch Hope was seized by the authorities for failure to list his cargo and post the bond required to load tobacco. The bark William, whose master was John Trerice, son of the Nicholas Trerice mentioned above, was also seized at the same time for the same reason. Both ships were described as "of New England". Gard and Trerice claimed that one John Pitt had promised to arrange the proper papers for them and that they were not aware that he had failed to do so. Their cases were tried at a special session of the Maryland Provincial Court on 19 March 1666/67, where they were both found guilty of the charges against them. As punishment, both of their vessels were confiscated [MDA, Vol. 57, pp. 158-163]. In spite of this rather harsh treatment, William Gard continued to trade in Maryland as late as March 1671/72 [MDA, Vol. 54, p.520]. The Gard-Trerice connection in these records, repeating as it does the Gard-Trerice connection of the 1643 bond discussed above, reinforces the belief that William Gard was most likely a son of John Gard and grandson of Roger Gard.
By 1677 William Gard was master of the ship Society, engaged in Trans-Atlantic and Caribbean trade [The Original Lists of Persons of Quality, by John C. Hotten, 1874; The Complete Book of Immigrants, Vol. 2: 1661-1699, by Peter W. Coldham, 1990]. Specifically, he is recorded as having sailed the Society from London to New England in July 1677 and from Barbados to Boston in March 1679 and again in July 1679. These two known voyages to Barbados by William Gard provide an unexpected link with his probable brother John, to be discussed below.
William Gard wrote his will on 22 May 1679. It was proved on 28 Sept. 1685, with his widow Maria as executrix and sole legatee [Suffolk Co., Mass. Probate, Vol. 6, p. 509]. Five years later, on 4 July 1690 at Boston, Maria remarried. Her second husband was William Gayer of Nantucket.
Children, born in Boston, Massachusetts:
i. William, born 13 July 1667
ii. Mary, born 22 Feb. 1668/69
7. iii. Christian, born 31 May 1670; married (1) William Condy, jr, (2) Peter Coffin
iv. John, born 4 March 1674/75
6. John Gard of New London and Stonington, Connecticut was undoubtedly born before 1650, else he would not have been called "Old John Gard" in 1712. According to James Savage in his Genealogical Dictionary of New England (GDNE), John Gard removed from Rhode Island to New London in 1667, his presence in New London that year being confirmed by the New London 1667 Rate List [HNL, p. 146]. On 26 Feb. 1670/71 he signed a release of Thomas Bayley's debts [New London Deeds (NLD) Vol. 4, p. 1]. A few years later, on 7 Dec. 1678, William Thorne and his wife Lydia (daughter of William Redfin and widow of Thomas Bayley) sold land on the east side of the Great River (now the Thames River) to John Gard [NLD, Vol. 5, p. 36]. Four days later John Gard sold this land to John Lawton [NLD, Vol. 5, p.37 and p. 96]. For some reason the same deed was re-recorded on 14 Jan. 1713/14 [NLD, Vol. 6II, p. 32]. After 1678, there are no records of John or any other Gards in New London or Stonington for two decades. It is probable that John Gard lived elsewhere during this period.
In the late 17th century New London was a major seaport, with ships engaged in coastal and Caribbean trade. The Stanton family of New London, for example, owned several ships and was heavily engaged in trade with the English colonies in the Caribbean. Thomas Stanton's son Daniel even moved to Barbados, where he acted as the family's agent, dying there in 1687. In fact, "With the island of Barbadoes the commercial relations were more intimate than with any other distant port" [HNL, p. 234]. Another example illustrative of the connections between these two places is that of Christopher Christophers, who brought his family from Barbados to New London prior to 1667 [GDNE, p. 383].
Based on the known connections between New London and Barbados, it seems likely that John Gard of New London is the same man who appears in Barbados in April 1679. As mentioned above, William Gard of Boston was in Barbados in March and July 1679, so it seems plausible that the John Gard who was in Barbados between the dates of William Gard's two known voyages there was related to him. In addition to evidence of a connection with William Gard, John Gard's visit to Barbados produced the only known record in which his wife's name appears. On 9 April 1679 at Christ Church Parish in Barbados, John Gard and Isabel (or Isabella) his wife had a daughter named Elizabeth baptized [Hotten, p. 491; Barbados Records, Baptisms 1637-1800, by Joanne McRee Saunders, 1984, p. 273 ]. In Hotten's version of this record John Gard is called "Peregrine" Gard, a translation of the Latin term "peregrinus", meaning pilgrim or traveler; his wife is called Isabell. In Saunders' version he is simply John Gard and his wife is Isabella. This is the only mention of John Gard found in any of the published records of Barbados, confirming his transient status. Thus it is highly likely that the John Gard in this Barbados record is the same John Gard who was living in New London, Connecticut earlier in the 1670's. Note that on 28 July 1699 an Elizabeth Gard married William Howard at East Greenwich, Rhode Island. It would not be unreasonable to believe that she was the same Elizabeth Gard who was baptized in 1679 in Barbados.
Wherever John Gard may have traveled in the 1680's
and 1690's, it is apparent that he returned to Connecticut some time before
1699. In that year one Joseph Gard had two children baptized in Stonington.
This Joseph Gard was baptized there as an adult in October 1707 and the
following month one Daniel Gard was baptized there, also as an adult. Based
on these baptisms, in conjunction with Joseph Gard's naming a son Daniel,
it is almost certain that Joseph and Daniel were brothers. That John Gard
was their father is even more certain because in 1712 "Old John Gard"
was named as the father of Daniel Gard of Stonington [GDNE].
Children of John and Isabel/Isabella Gard:
8. i. Joseph, born by 1675; married Mary___ before 1699.
ii. Elizabeth, baptized at Christ Church Parish, Barbados 9 April 1679; probably married William Howard at East Greenwich, Rhode Island 28 July 1699.
iii. (Probably) Judith, born about 1681; married Jonathan Ginings 25 Dec. 1701 at Windham, Connecticut.
9. iv. Daniel, born about 1685
v. (Probably) Sarah, born about 1690; married Samuel Backus 2 Dec. 1719 (Year shown as 1712 in the Barbour Collection records) at Windham, Connecticut.
7. Christian Gard was born on 31 May 1670 at Boston, Massachusetts. She married William Condy prior to 1689 when their son William was born. After William Condy's death in the early 1690's she married Peter Coffin of Nantucket, with intentions dated 18 July 1695 filed at Boston. She evidently died before 15 March 1708 because her husband was remarried on that date, to Hope Gardner. In addition to the children named below, The Coffin Family by Louis Coffin (1962) lists a daughter Eunice for Peter and Christian Coffin, born 23 Sept. 1693. This Eunice, however, is shown by the Nantucket Vital Records to be a daughter of the Peter Coffin who married Elizabeth Starbuck.
Child by first husband (surname Condy), born at Boston:
i. William, born 12 Jan. 1688/89
Children by second husband (surname Coffin), probably born on Nantucket:
ii. Bartlett, birth date unknown; married Judith Bunker
iii. Lydia, born 23 Nov. 1697; married Samuel Long
8. Joseph Gard was probably born in the early to mid-1670's. His first appearance in the records is as the husband of Mary Gard, who was baptized along with their two eldest children on 6 Aug. 1699 at Stonington, CT. He himself was baptized at Stonington as an adult on 13 Oct. 1707. His baptism as an adult could well be the result of his being raised in the Church of England, therefore having to be rebaptized in order to join the Stonington Church. Joseph appeared several times in the Groton, CT land records between 1706 and 1716, buying and selling small parcels of land near the head of the Mystic River. (The town of Groton was formed in 1705 from the town of New London and the Mystic River forms the boundary between Stonington and Groton.) The first and largest tract purchased by him was 100 acres "lying near the head of Misticke" which he bought from Theophilus and Elizabeth Stanton on 16 July 1703 [Groton Deeds, Vol 1A, p.31]. Another Joseph Gard deed of interest is one for the sale of 4 acres to Thomas Park on 13 Jan 1713/14 [Groton Deeds, Vol. 1A, p. 215]. The deed is dated just one day before John Gard's 1678 deed to John Lawton was re-recorded in New London. The last of Joseph Gard's recorded deeds during his lifetime was the purchase of one acre from Peter Crory on 18 Jan. 1714/15 [Groton Deeds, Vol. 2, p. 178]. Two Groton Connecticut deeds mentioning Joseph Gard were recorded after his death. In the first, dated 19 May 1725, David Culver sold a wood lot "that belonged to Joseph Gard, late dec'd" [Groton Deeds, Vol. 2, pp. 169-170]. This deed indicates that the lot had originally been granted to Joseph Gard on 16 April 1719. Joseph, therefore, must have died between 1719 and 1725. No probate has been found for him. The second post mortem deed naming Joseph Gard was dated 26 April 1726. It is from Joseph's widow and adult children, conveying one acre to Peter Croary [Groton Deeds, Vol. 2, pp. 383-384]. The children named in this deed are Elisha, William, Mary (wife of David Culver) and Elizabeth. Joseph may have had other living children in 1726 who did not sign this deed because they were still minors.
Children, first seven baptized at Stonington, CT:
i. Joseph, bpt. 6 Aug. 1699, probably died before 1726.
ii. Mary, bpt. 6 Aug1699; married David Culver by 1726. Possibly the parents of David and William Culver [TAG, Vol. 31, pp. 144-145].
iii. Elizabeth, bpt. 25 Aug. 1700; unmarried in 1726; no further record.
iv. Elisha, bpt. 18 April 1703; married Abigail (maiden name unknown). Elisha appears to have gone to New Jersey with his brothers and then returned to Connecticut. Nine children are listed for Elisha and Abigail on Narda Gard McNally's website which can be found at: http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Fields/4106
v. William, bpt. 19 April 1705; probably the William Gard of Burlington Co., NJ who married Sarah Springer on 21 Feb. 1739. He died intestate at Burlington Co. in 1752. William and Sarah may have been the parents of Mary Gard of Burlington Co., who married Job Ellis in 1769, and of William Gard of Burlington Co., who married Mary Jourdan in 1779 [New Jersey Marriage Records 1665-1800, by Wiliam Nelson, 1967].
vi. Judith, bpt. 15 May 1709; unmarried in 1726; no further record.
vii. Daniel, born 15 Feb. 1710/11, bpt. 10 June 1711; apparently married twice. The name of his presumed first wife is not known. His second wife was Elizabeth Davis. They were married at Southold, Long Island, NY on 14 April 1737 [The Salmon Records, William A. Roberts, 1918]. He had several children by both wives and died at Morristown, NJ on 14 April 1777, "age 70" [Morristown, NJ Presbyterian Church Records (MPCR)]. The statement of his age at death is certainly approximate. It is thus very reasonable to conclude that Daniel Gard of Morristown, NJ is the son of Joseph and Mary Gard of Stonington, CT.
viii. (probably) Jeremiah, born 1717. The name of his first wife, the mother of his children, is not known. On 23 May 1762 eight of his children were baptized at the Morristown Presbyterian Church [MPCR]. A few months thereafter, on 14 Nov. 1762, he married his second wife, Elizabeth Roff, widow of David Moore [MPCR]. Jeremiah is listed on the 1752 Morris county tax list in Poquanack Twp. [Genealogical Magazine of New Jersey, Vol. 16, p. 62]. He died on 19 July 1783, age 66 [MPCR]. Daniel and Jeremiah Gard of Morris County were almost certainly brothers. It is highly likely, therefore, that Jeremiah Gard was also a son of Joseph and Mary Gard of Stonington.
9. Daniel Gard was presumably born about 1685. On 9 Nov. 1707 he was baptized as an adult at the Stonington, Connecticut Church. Five years later he accidentally killed one William Whitehair in a fight which occurred on 16 Aug. 1712. Whitehair died seven days later of internal injuries. Daniel was convicted of manslaughter for this and was sentenced to stand on the gallows for one hour with a noose around his neck and then be whipped 39 stripes! [Colonial Records of Connecticut, 1706-1716, p. 351, footnote]. After this he moved to New Jersey, perhaps as early as 1715 according to one source [Guardline, Vol. 11, Nr. 11, p. 8]. He was certainly living in New Jersey by 13 Dec. 1727 when he witnessed a deed from Benjamin Hathaway, blacksmith, to John Lyon, Carpenter for land in Hanover Township [Hunterdon County, NJ Special Deeds, Vol. 1, p. 30]. He may be the father of the Daniel and Jeremiah Gard of the next generation who resided in Morris County, New Jersey, but there is no evidence that he either married or had any children. It is more likely that he was the uncle of Daniel and Jeremiah of Morris Co. and that they followed him to New Jersey after their father's death.
James R. Henderson
5521 Starboard Court
Fairfax, VA 22032
E-mail: [email protected]
1 June 1999