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Mayes, Joel B. (pp. 103, 104)  Return to Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born October 2, 1833, in Bates County, Georgia, near Cartersville, at that time in the Cherokee country. Joel was the second son of Samuel Mayes and Nancy Adair, the former of white blood from the State of Tennessee, but whose ancestors emigrated from England and Wales. His mother was the daughter of Watt Adair, a Cherokee who held many high offices in the old nation, while his great-grandfather Adair was an illustrious man during the reign of King George the Third of England. Joel moved to the Cherokee country with his people in 1837, and attended the public schools until 1851, when he entered the Male Seminary at Tahlequah and there remained for four years. In 1855 he began school teaching and continued it till 1857, when he commenced stock-raising in the western portion of the nation, and followed it till the outbreak of the war. It was as a private that Joel Mayes entered the Confederate service, First Indian Brigade, but he was rapidly promoted to the offices of paymaster and quartermaster, which last named he occupied till the conclusion of the war. Returning to his home in 1865, he once more devoted his attention to stock-raising and farming, and has at present 300 acres in cultivation, 500 head of stock cattle, 75 head of horses, 500 head of sheep and about 150 hogs. In 1879 Mr. Mayes was appointed Clerk of the District Court, and held the office till 1883, when he was elected Judge of the Northern Circuit of the Nation, and held the office through re-election for five years.

After this he became Clerk of the Commissioners' Court for two years, and then Clerk of the National Council. While holding this appointment he was elected Supreme Judge, and later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. In 1887 he was nominated and elected Principal Chief on the Downing ticket, and was re-elected in 1891 by an immense majority.

In 1857 Mr. Mayes married Miss Martha J. Candy, by whom he had no children. In 1863 he married Miss Marth M. McNair, the issue of this marriage being two children, both of whom died in infancy. Mr. Mayes next married Miss Mary Vaun, daughter to David Vaun, once treasurer of the nation and a wealthy and prominent citizen. The subject of our sketch is a Royal Arch Mason, a member of the Methodist Church and a good Christian. He is a man of considerable force of character, which displays itself in a fine physique and a face and head that indicate intellectual strength. His executive ability has been tested and demonstrated since his advent in office, and the public criticism on the same was well illustrated by the immense majority he received in the recent executive contest. Chief Mayes is five feet eleven inches in height and weighs 280 pounds. He has a good-natured, kindly disposition, which endears him to all his acquaintances.

[Since the above was written Mr. Mayes was taken ill with la grippe, early in December, during the council term, and never rallied, dying December 14, 1891, at Tahlequah. His seat was filled December 23d by Colonel C. J. Harris, the National Treasurer, who was elected by a vote of the General Council.]

Ingram, John F.  (p. 362) Return to Biographical Index
The proprietor of the Forest House, Eufaula, was born in Harrison County, Texas, in December 1839. He commenced his education in the neighborhood schools at the age of ten years. At fourteen years of age he left school, and assisted his father on the farm until 1855, when he came to the Creek Nation and renewed his studies at Tallahassee Mission, having the right of citizenship through his mother who was a Creek Indian. After three years at the Mission, young Ingram undertook the charge of a herd of cattle for a widow lady, and in the capacity remained five years. But mechanics was the natural bent of John's inclination, and he soon drifted into the carpenters' trade, and became master of the bench before many years. At the outbreak of the war he joined the Confederate service, and served bravely until the close. In 1866 he married Miss Rebecca Marshall, daughter of Mathew Marshall, of Choska, Cherokee Nation, by whom he had one child, who died shortly after its mother in 1868. In 1871 he married Miss Elizabeth Ross, a Cherokee, by whom he had two girls---Fannie, born in 1874, and Leona, in 1876. In 1884 he moved from the old town on North Fork, and build himself a home at Eufaula, which, with additions, he shortly afterwards converted into a hotel, now called Forest House, and fitted up with all the necessary conforts for the traveler, having good stables, fine orchards, garden and shady grounds. Mr. Ingram started to Eufaula with $60.00 capital, which he expended in lumber for his house, while at the present time the building is worth at least $2,500.00. During his stay at Eufaula, he has improved a farm of 100 acres, which is in excellent cultivation. Besides this, he is owner of some 50 head of cattle, besides horses and hogs. Between the years of 1884 and 1891 his people have frequently endeavored to secure his official services, but he preferred to keep clear of politics, all his time being necessary for the success of his business, to which he is greatly devoted. He is a hard working man and popular with all classes. Mr. Ingram's daughters are pupils at the Harrell Institute, receiving the highest classical and musical education.

Ivey, James W. (pp. 440, 441) Return to Biographical Index
James W. Ivey was born April 12, 1832, in Houston, Georgia; son of Barney Ivey and Elsie Davis, daughter of Windell Davis, a North Carolinian. His great-grandfather emigrated from Londonderry, Ireland, at an early day. James W. was instructed in youth at the public schools of Alabama, after which he went for three and one-half years to Princeton College, New Jersey, and there graduated, taking a legal and literary diploma; some years later Mr. Ivey took a medical diploma in New Orleans, La. At twenty-one years of age James, as well as his brothers, received from his father $50,000 as a start, and with this capital he opened a large farm in Rusk County, Texas---having one league and a labor of land. At the close of the war he set free 110 negros, and found himself in possession of $95,000 Confederate money. In 1854 he married Charlotte Bell, daughter of Jack Bell and sister to the well-known Lucien B. (Hooley) Bell. His wife died in 1865, leaving him one son, now living, who is editor and proprietor of the Tahlequah Telephone. At the outbreak of the war Mr. Ivey joined the Confederate service, Twenty-eight Texas Cavalry, under Colonel Horace Randell, and from private rapidly rose to be colonel of this regiment, under General Walker. He was present at Fort De Rousse, Milliken Bend, Perkins' Landing and many other engagements. Mr. Ivey was an old-time Whig till after the war, when he became a Republican, and took an active part in the political campaign in Texas in 1871 and 1873. On the day Hayes was elected Mr. Ivey left Bonham and went to Alabama, where he became engaged in the political struggle of 1875 and 1876---in three districts of Alabama. In 1878 he left Texas and moved to Cherokee Nation, where he has been since residing, most of his time being devoted to teaching, for which he is eminently fitted, as he is undoubtedly one of the best educated men in the nation.

Hastings, William Wirt (pp. 441, 443) Return to Biographical Index
William W. Hastings was born December 31, 1866, at Benton County, Arkansas, the second son of W. Yell Hastings a white man and Lue J. Stover, daughter of John Stover, who married a Ward (a family well known among the Cherokees.). William attended the neighborhood schools until 1882, and then entered the national male seminary, where he graduated in 1884. Soon afterwards he became a teacher of the Bulliard School, Delaware district, and after one year at that point, went to Nashville, Tennessee, in 1885, for twelve months. Returning in 1886, he took charge of Sager School, same district, for one year, and then returned to Nashville, Tennessee, where he took a literary course. He then commenced the study of law, graduating in 1889. He was one of the four first students, and therefore contested for the collegiate debate prize, which he won. On his return to the Cherokee Nation, he was appointed principal teacher of the orphan asylum, and in the fall of 1890, a member of the board of education. This office was abolished by an act of council, January 3, 1891, and the office of superintendent of education was created instead, which Mr. Hastings was called upon to fill. November 24, 1891, Mr. Hastings was elected by the national council as attorney general of the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 he associated himself with Messrs. Boudinot & Thompson, in the profession of law, and their office is situated in the bank building, at Tahlequah. Mr. Hastings has an improved farm of 250 acres in Delaware district, which he rents to tenant farmers. In height, Mr. Hastings is five feet ten inches, and weighs 140 pounds. He is a gentleman of courteous manners and pleasant address, with an education far above the average, and bids fair at an early day to shine in his profession. Mr. Hastings took an active part in the last campaign for the Downing party, and made some stirring speeches throughout the country during the contest.

Baugh, Joel Lindsey (p. 443)  Return to Biographical Index
Joel Lindsey Baugh is the son of John Harvey Lindsey, of Alabama, and Charlotte Bryan, a Cherokee. He was born January 8, 1858, in Coowescowee district, and was educated at the Tahlequah Male Seminary. Quitting this institution in 1876, he began teaching, and taught at the following points: Hickory Grove, Bryan Chapel, Silver Lake and Cave Spring. He was appointed chairman of the committee on building a colored high school, in 1889, and was elected to the senate in August, 1891. Mr. Bough abandoned school teaching in 1880, and in August, 1888, married Dollie Markham, daughter of J. W. Markham, of Saline district. By this marriage he has one daughter, Charlotte, aged two years. Mr. Baugh has been merchandising for some time, and is owner of a stock of cattle. He is a gentleman of pleasing appearance and good address, with considerable force of character. From the hour of his entry to the senate he took such an active part in the important measures of the day that he was immediately recognized as a leader, and will, in all probability, rise to great eminence as a politician. Mr. Baugh is five feet eleven inches in height, and weighs 150 pounds. He resides at Chouteau, on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad.

Quinton, Miss Eliza Jane (p. 470) Return to Biographical Index
Miss Quinton was born in January, 1861; eldest daughter of Thomas Washington Quinton, of Pennsylvania. Her mother was Miss Eliza Jane Enix, of the same State. Miss Quinton went to school at Keystone Academy, Factoryville, Pennsylvania, where she remained for five years; in 1889 she went to the Baptist Mission Training School, and graduated in one year, coming to Eufaula in August, 1890, where she now resides under the auspices of the Women's Baptist Home Missionary Society, subject to whom she holds her present appointment. Miss Quinton has already done much good in the community, being a most devout Christian, affable and kind-hearted. She is a lady of superior education, and in every respect thoroughly fitted for the arduous duties of her calling. It is hoped that she will remain many years in Eufaula, and continue her successful career.

Chandler, Thomas A. (p. 470) Return to Biographical Index
Thomas A. Chandler was born in the Cherokee Nation, July, 1871, the eldest son of B. G. Chandler, a Tennessean, and Anne Gunter, a Cherokee by blood. Thomas attended the public schools at Hicho, Arkansas, and Delaware district, Cherokee Nation, after which he entered Worcester Academy, Vinita, and there graduated in 1888, having taken a scientific course. Later he entered Drury College, Sprinfield, Missouri, and remaiining half a year, went to Muskogee, Creek Nation, where he opened a grocery business, conducting the same with success for one year and a half, when he sold out October, 1891. On the thirteenth of the month following, Mr. Chandler was nominated by Chief Mayes, and confirmed by the senate, for the office of district revenue collector, for Delaware district, a position of trust, such as is rarely bestowed on so young a man, but which Mr. Chandler is quite capable of filling. He is clever and industrious, with pleasant manners and good address. During the recent political campaign, Mr. Chandler devoted his best energy towards the success of the Downing party, to which he is a close adherent. His father is a farmer, residing in the Delaware district.

Smith, Wiley (p. 471)   Return to Biographical Index
Wiley Smith was born about 1843, in the Creek Nation, being the youngest son of Kosayar-E-Holar, a Creek. In youth he was sent to a neighboring school, for a short time, after which he went to work with his father until he was twenty-one years of age, when he married a full-blooded girl, named Tildie, the issue of this marriage was one boy, named Joe. After marriage he commenced working for himself, on a farm that he improved. Some time after the death of his wife, who only survived four years, he married in 1886, Roddie, the daughter of Mich-charhiya (a man of some prominence among his people), by whom he has two children living---Lena, born July, 1879, and Jim, born October, 1890. Mr. Smith was elected to the House of Warriors early in life, and retained his office by re-election for twelve years, after which he was called to the House of Kings, serving satisfactorily for a term of four years. He represented the town of Weogofka, whose citizens claim to be a branch of the original Muskogees. Mr. Smith has a comfortable farm of forty-five acres under cultivation, with cattle, horses, and hogs, sufficient for his own use and consumption. He is a full-blood Creek Indian, about five feet eleven inches in height, and weighs 145 pounds; he is of good appearance, affable and kind-hearted, and very popular with his people. His father Kosayar-E-Holar, was a member of the legislature of the Creek Nation for a long time.

Wright, William C. (pp. 359, 360) Return to Biographical Index
William C. Wright was born March 9, 1860, at Gainesville, Arkansas, second son of Morris M. Wright, a white man and ex-sheriff of Green County, Arkansas, an active politician in his day, and Miss Howard, daughter of George Howard, of North Carolina, a prominent man in his country. William, after attending Gainesville High School until nineteen years of age, began serving his time to the silversmith and watchmaking trade in the same town. Remaining there four years, he came to Vinita, Indian Territory, in 1883, and there started in the jewelry business. In 1888, in connection with this, he opened a fancy grocery house, in which he carries an assortment of all varieties of the finest goods. Both branches of business he still carries on. December 6, 1890, Mr. Wright was elected as alderman of the town, which office he held until 1891. He is also a charter member of the brass band of Vinita, organized in 1886. He married Miss Maggie Benge in July, 1888, daughter of James Benge, nephew of Houston Benge, a prominent Cherokee. Her mother was Miss Ruth Martin, daughter of the celebrated Joe Martin, part Cherokee. By this marriage Mr. Wright has three children. The subject of this sketch carries a stock of fancy gorceries to the amount of about $2,500, and a good stock of jewelry. His business house is situated in the Raymond Building. He is a gentleman of good education and fine business ability, courteous and affable in manner, and very popular. He is one of the great sportsmen of the Indian Territory, and spends a portion of every year on a camp hunt with the Wichitas or other Western tribes. As a trap shot Mr. Wright is said to have no equal in his country, while he is also an adept at angling, and takes great pleasure in the sport. Mrs. Wright is a lady of education and refinement, and greatly beloved by all who know her.

Marrs, David M. (pp. 287, 288, 289) Return to Biographical Index
David M. Marrs was born in Washington County, Arkansas, February, 1858, and is the fourth son of Alexander Marrs, a prominent farmer of that State. His mother was a daughter of David Maybury, of German descent, and a leading politician in Arkansas. Young Marrs attended public school until he was twenty years old, when he went to Prairie Grove College, where he remained two years, and then commenced the study of medicine, continuing it for one year. On September 21, 1878, he married Miss Olivia, daughter of C. G. Gunter, of Benton, Arkansas (part of Cherokee), and a niece to Thomas M. Gunter, who was congressman for Arkansas for twelve consecutive years. By this marriage Mr. Marrs has seven children---Helena, born September 12, 1879; Edgar, born December 20, 1880; John D., born November 19, 1883; Augustus Garland, born March 22, 1885; Olivia, born January 30, 1887; Willie Curtis, born July 29, 1888, and Barney, born July 25, 1891. Mrs. Marrs is a lady of culture and refinement, and has many friends. She had been teacher in the public schools of the nation for several years before her marriage. Mr. Marrs when he first came to the nation, made his home in the southwestern portion of the country, and engaged in farming and stock-raising until 1886, when he sold out and moved to Vinita, engaging in the nursery business and becoming proprietor of the Vinita Nurseries, which he still owns, the firm name being Marrs & Frazee. Early in 1891 Mr. Marrs assumed editorial control of the Vinita Chieftain, the second paper established in the Indian Territory. This paper, under the management of Mr. Marrs, was the first publication in the nation to advocate allotments of lands in severalty. Mr. Marrs' nursery is the finest in the Indian Territory, and contain fifty acres of ground. He has a nice residence on the place, and owns a good many town lots in Vinita. Mr. Marrs is a gentleman of good education and sound judgement, and is very popular in the country. As a writer he has developed a great deal of ability in his editorial columns, and will no doubt make the Chieftain a most popular and successful publication.

Indian Chieftain. (p. 289) Return to Biographical Index
This popular weekly newspaper was started in 1882 by a stock company of Cherokee citizens. It was the second or third paper established in the Indian Territory, but its growth and importance was much accelerated when M. E. Milford, city editor of the Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, Kansas, assumed the business management of the company, since which the Chieftain has obtained a large circulation and a solid footing in the country. It is independent in politics, and has ever advocated the rights of the people. During the past five or six years the Indian Chieftain has been edited by able and well-known writers, and its columns are now under the control of David M. Marrs, the promising young editor.

Tucker, John M. (p. 287)  Return to Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born January 1, 1857, in Johnson County, Kansas, the son of Charles Tucker, who came to this country November, 1871, with the Shawnees, who obtained a right in the Cherokee Nation through a treaty entered into at Washington in 1869, which provided for such right and title in consideration of the money accruing from the sale of Shawnee lands in Kansas, and other considerations, to be paid over to the Cherokees. John attended school at Contention Schoolhouse, Delaware district, and in 1878 went to the national Male Seminary for one year, after which he devoted his time to farming for a while, and afterward, attended to a stock of cattle belonging to Rogers, of Skiatook, and also clerked in his mercantile establishment for some time, after which he began farming on his own account. Becoming popular in his district, the voters concluded to run him for representative, and he was elected in August, 1891, and is now holding that office, a strong supporter of the present administration. Mr. Tucker is somewhat above the middle height and heavily built, of good appearance and address, and is pleasant and sociable in manner. His complexion is fair, and he shows little of his aboriginal blood. He is unmarried.

Seaver, W. F. (pp. 360, 361)  Return to Biographical Index
W. F. Seaver was born in Rock Island, Illinois, February 22, 1849, and was the son of John Seaver and Eliza Criswell, who emigrated to Illinois in 1840, the former being a native of Virginia. At the age of sixteen, William left his home and traveled indiscriminately through the States, adopting various means of making a living throughout sixteen States which he visited in turn. Having sowed his first crop of wild oats, the young man, determining to study for a profession, entered the Alexandria College, Alexandria, Missouri, and then read law under Hon. E. Kimble, of Nevada, Missouri. He was admitted to the bar September, 1877, at Memphis, Missouri, under Judge John C. Anderson, district judge, fourth judicial district. Mr. Seaver holds licenses in Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa and Oregon, which latter State he left in December, 1890, having practiced eighteen months in Salem. On moving to Muskogee, Indian Territory, he formed partnership with Joshua Ross, an Indian lawyer, and with whom he is at present connected in business. Mr. Seaver has had a very adventurous life and broad experience for a man of his years. In 1878, he became involved in the Leadville excitement, and spent three years of his life, as well as $2,350, in fruitless prospecting. Mr. Seaver comes of Indian lineage on both sides. His grandfather was born of a Creek woman by an Irish father, while his great-grandmother was part Creek and Cherokee, by name Murphy, and who married William Ross, of the Scottish Ross family, one branch of which married into the Cherokees. Mr. Seaver married a Miss Neil, of Barton County, Missouri, in 1884, and is without family. He is a pleasant, dignified and gentlemanly man, with great natural adaptability, but his talents are chiefly centered in the law which is the profession to which he is best adapted.

Hendricks, W. H. (p. 361)  Return to Biographical Index
W. H. Hendricks was born in Georgia, February 28, 1831. The subject of this sketch is the son of William Hendricks, his mother being a Cherokee orphan girl named Susanna. HIs parents emigrated from Georgia in 1832, and, strange to say, both died in January, 1868. William was first sent to Park Hill Missionary School until his eleventh or twelfth year, after which he is indebted to his own industry and observation for whatever knowledge he acquired. In 1860 he married narcissa Crittenden, by whom he has one daughter living----Mrs. Fannie Carr. In 1864 he again married, this time wedding Mrs. Eliza Benge (whose maiden name was Linder), but by whom he has no family. In July, 1862, Mr. Hendricks joined the Federal army---Colonel Phillips' Indian Brigade---during which time he saw service at the first battle of Neosho, the two fights at Newtonia, Missouri, and the first battle of Cabin Creek. In November, 1862, he became commissary sergeant, and held the office until October, 1863. After the war he went on his farm, and was elected member of the lower house in 1872, after which he was re-elected, serving six years. In 1878 or 1879 he was elected to the senate, and served eight years, until 1888. In the meanwhile he was superintendent of the insane asylum from 1882 to 1884. In 1875 he was one of the three commissioners sent by the old settlers to Washington to look after their claim. He went to the capital with Jack McCoy, and remained until June, 1876, visiting while absent the Centennial at Philadelphia. IN 1883 Mr. Hendricks was made United States postmaster at Menard. He handles two mails per day, and looks after his store, in which he carries a small stock of goods. Mr. Hendricks is a fine, handsome, fresh-looking man, and, though in his sixtieth year, does not look over forty-five years of age. He is six feet high, weighing 192 pounds. He has a good home, 115 acres in cultivation, besides cattle, horses and hogs.

Lindsey, Riley Wise (pp. 284, 285) Return to Biographical Index
Riley Wise Lindsey was born February 22, 1832, near Indian Springs, Georgia, and is the seventh son of Parham Lindsey, a prominent man in the early history of middle Georgia, being both senator and representative several times. His mother was a Miss Wise, from Maryland. Riley attended public school until seventeen years of age, when he became a dry goods clerk, and remianed in that capacity two years. At the age of twenty-one years he formed a partnership in the mercantile buisness with H. M. Byers at his native place, Indian Springs. Continuing in the business one year and a half, he sold out, and in 1855 went to Kansas City, Mo., as a salesman. In two years' time he bought a half share in a mercantile house, and ran it under the firm name of Mechetta, Lindsey & Co. Selling out in 1858, he came to the Cherokee Nation the following year and married Miss M. Bryan, daughter of Colonel Jelle-Bryan, once a prominent Cherokee. In 1861 he joined the Confederate army, and at the close of the war visited Mexico, where he remained two years. Returning to the Cherokee Nation, he engaged in the mercantile buisness until 1885, when he commenced farming and stock-raising, and continues the business at present. He has 150 acres of good land in cultivation, 200 head of stock cattle, 30 head of horses, and a good residence and orchard, besides some town property. Mr. Lindsey has been the father of fifteen children, but ten only are now living. He is a gentleman of good appearance and pleasant address, with the refinement and polish of the true Southern gentleman. Mr. Lindsey is an Odd Fellow of old standing and a member of the Presbyterian Church.

Morrow, James Marion (pp. 285, 286) Return to Biographical Index
Born July 1, 1860, in Knox County, Ohio, the fifth son of William J. Morrow, a prominent farmer and stock-raiser.  James' mother was a Miss Easter, of Scotch descent. James attended district school until fifteen years of age, when he went to Lincoln College, Jackson County, Missouri. After having remained three years at college, he began clerking in a drug store in Kansas. Following this business for eleven years at different places, he went to Iowa, and there remained some time, after which, in 1891, he moved to Muskogee, Indian Territory, and there began clerking for Sam Gavagan, the druggist. In March, 1891, he removed to Tulsa and purchased the drug stock belonging to Dr. Bland, in which business he is now engaged. In October, 1890, Mr. Morrow married Miss Dana Calhoun, daughter of Ross Calhoun, of Kansas, a prominent state politician and ex-mayor of Ness City, Kansas. Mrs. Morrow is a lady of refinement and education, much respected and admired. Mr. Morrow is five feet seven and a half inches in height and weighs 178 pounds. He is intellectual-looking and gentlemanly in appearance and address. Mr. Morrow is a fine chemist and prescriptionist. HIs stock in trade is worth about $2,000, he has a good store building, and a nice town residence in Tulsa, Creek Nation. When Mr. Morrow came to town there was no drug store worthy of the title; however, in the brief time that has intervened, he has succeeded in building up a lively trade. Mr. Morrow's father is a large real estate dealer and owner in Creston, Iowa.

Sepulpa, William A. (p. 239) Return to Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born October, 1861, near Polecat Creek, Sepulpa Station, on the Frisco nad St. Louis Railroad, being the son of Sepulpa, who died in 1889. His grandmother lived until May, 1890, dying at the age of ninety years. William was first sent to school at Tallahassee Mission, Indian Territory, in 1872, and remained five years, going from thence to Wooster University, Ohio, where he studied for three and a half years in the freshman class. On his return he was appointed United States Indian officer in 1885, and afterwards entered S. B. Severs' establishment at Okmulgee, where he clerked for six months. In the same year he was elected cattle-tax collector, but resigned the office soon afterwards. From this time forward he devoted his attention to farming, and has now eighty acres in cultivation and a good orchard. In 1888 he married Lizzie Hartwich, by whom he has one son, aged two years. In 1887 he was elected member of the House of Warriors for Cussetah Town, and in 1891, was unanimously re-elected to the same office. Mr. Sepulpa is a good young man, energetic and ambitious, and is very popular among his people.

Hinds, Sampson O. (pp. 239, 241) Return to Biographical Index
Born December, 1846, in Jennings County, Indiana, the second son of John Hinds and Eliza Mace, of Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Sampson attended neighborhood school until the war broke out, when he joined Company E, 82d Indiana Infantry, Federal service, and was afterwards transferred to Company H, 122d Indiana Infantry. During the war his people had moved to Iowa, where he joined them in 1866, and took a three years' course of study at the Leon High School. Afterwards he commenced reading law with Judge J. W. Harvey, of Leon, where he was afterwards admitted to the bar. In May, 1873, he married Miss Jennie M. Rankin, of Dexter, Dallas County, Iowa, and in the fall moved to Lincoln County, Kansas, where he commenced practicing his profession. In 1874 he was elected county attorney for the above county, and held that office for four years. His wife dying in August, 1877, he married Miss Luella A. Gilkison, of Terra Haute, Indiana, in March, 1889. Mr. HInds practiced law at Lincoln until the fall of 1884, when he was elected judge of the Fourteenth Judicial District in Kansas, which position he held for four years, moving in April, 1889, to Muskogee, where he now resides. By his first marriage, Mr. Hinds has two children, Warren C. and Jessie M., now at college at Muskogee. By his second marriage he has four children---Jessie G., Franklin J., Homer C. and Atta M. Mr. Hinds is a man of fine personal appearance, five feet six inches in height and weighs 210 pounds. He is a lawyer of considerable ability and experience. His firm is known by the title of Hinds & Jackson, and these gentlemen have an extensive practice in the United States courts of the Indian Territory.

Lipe, De Witt Clinton  (pp. 241, 242) Return to Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born February 17, 1840, in Tahlequah district, Cherokee Nation, eldest son of O. W. Lipe, of Fort Gibson, and Catherine Gunter. De Witt attended public school until twelve years of age, when he went to Cane Hill, Arkansas, and there remained two sessions, after which he entered the Male Seminary at Tahlequah, leaving there at fifteen years of age. Although but a boy De Witt commenced clerking in a general mercantile establishment, and continued the business until he was eighteen years of age, when he started in cattle on his own responsibility with a stock of 150 head, and continued until after the war, when he established a mercantile house in Coowescoowee district, carrying on the business until 1870. In that year he moved to his present home, seven miles north of Claremore, still merchandizing and stock-raising, until 1884, when he sold his store and its effects, and is now devoting his attention to stock and agriculture. Mr. Lipe has been district clerk and senator, the latter for two years. In 1879 he was elected treasurer of the nation, and held that position for four years. In 1885 he was again elected to the Senate, and in 1887 was commissioner of citizenship. Mr. Lipe married Miss V. Hicks, daughter of Elijah Hicks, in September, 1861. She was niece of Chief John Ross. By their marriage they have one son, named John Gunter Lipe. In March, 1890, Mr. Lipe married Miss Mary Archer, granddaughter of Second Chief Joseph Vann. By this marriage they have three children----Annie, Victoria, and Lola. Mr. Lipe owns 450 acres in cultivation and between 400 and 500 head of cattle and some forty head of horses and a comfortable residence. He has also town property at Vinita and Fort Gibson. Mr. Lipe is a man of great business ability and has a good, practical education; he is extremely popular among his people.

Adams, Thomas J. (pp. 242, 244) Return to Biographical Index
Born in February, 1848, at the old Creek agency, the eldest son of William Adams, by Hepsie Perryman, niece of Louis Perryman, Thomas first attended school at Tallahassee Mission, in 1852, and, later, moved to Asberry Mission. In 1861 he married Miss Mahalya Grayson, daughter of Betsy Grayson. During the war he was detailed by the Federal government to the commissary department as distributor of beef to the various camps. In 1866, when the war ended, he was elected to the House of Warriors, which office he has held until the present---over twenty-five years. Few, if any members, of that house can boast of such a record. In 1885 Mr. Adams was elected Speaker of the House, which office he held for four years. Since 1867 the subject of our sketch has been practicing law in all the courts of the Creek Nation. He is also on the board of trustees of the New Yarker Mission School. Mr. Adams had fourteen children, eleven of whom are living---Isaac, Wash, Betsy, Thomas, Hepsie, Lewis, Lee, Mitchell, Lizzie, and Mary. He has about 600 head of cattle, 40 or 50 head of horses, 40 sheep, and some 150 hogs, besides a good farm of seventy-five acres of land. On his ranch is a good dwelling-house, out-houses, stables, and every other possible convenience. Mr. Adams is considered one of the brightest lawyers among the Creeks, and is a successful politician, having, in fact, no superior among his people in bringing about such ends as he wishes to accomplish. He is about six feet one inch high, weighs 198 pounds, and physically, very powerful. He is energetic to accomplish an undertaking, and is very popular with his constituency.

Heinrichs, Joseph (pp. 244, 245) Return to Biographical Index
Joseph Heinrichs was born February 15, 1851, at Nord Keichen, Westphalia, Germany, the youngest son of Everhart Heinrichs. Joseph came to the United States in 1867, landing at New York, from whence he traveled south until he arrived at Little Rock, Arkansas, where he remained for a short time. Leaving there he went to Fort Smith, the home of his brother and sister, and in that town started in the shoemaking business as an apprentice. Serving three years he returned to Little Rock in 1871 and worked his trade for nine months, when he went to Tahlequah, Indian Territory, and there commenced business for himself, soon combining the shoemaking trade with that of buying hides and furs. In 1879 he bought a stock of groceries, and in 1891, started a meat market in connection with the same. He is now carrying a stock of queensware, and boots and shoes in addition--his total stock amounting to about $3,000. Mr. Heinrichs has a nice residence, and the finest orchard in Tahlequah. He also owns about sixty head of stock cattle and a large drove of hogs. In August, 1874, he married Miss Lucy Kilpatrick, daughter of Joshua Kilpatrick and Eliza Hilderbrand, who was daughter of Hilderbrand of Cherokee fame. The issue of this marriage was four children, Mary, Catherine, Eliza and Henry. Mr. Heinrichs is a good man of good education and first-class business ability, having an excellent reputation for honesty and reliability wherever he is known.

Alexander, George Abner (pp. 245, 247) Return to Biographical Index
George A. Alexander was born in March, 1842, the eldest son of James Alexander, who moved to the Creek Nation with the first general emigration, and was forage master for the Indians on their trip to this country. At the time of his death he was clerk of the council and correspondent for his people. George Abner's mother was half-blood Creek, of the Jacob family. George received the additional name of Abner at the particular request of Mr. Abner, a general merchant, located in the Creek Nation close to where Alexander had made his home. The subject of our sketch was sent to Asberry Mission at the age of twelve years, and remained there until he was seventeen, returning home in 1859 to take charge of the homestead, his father having died during his absence. At the outbreak of the war George Abner joined the Confederate service, and was rapidly promoted to the position of lieutenant. His uncle, Wm. Jacobs, captain of the company, becoming ill in 1864, George conducted him home, and on his death, which occurred on the 17th of April, the young man was appointed captain in his place, which position he creditably filled until the conclusion of the war. Being without money or means, George Alexander began farming on a small scale, and has since continued agriculture, having, at present, a fine farm of 250 acres in a prime state of cultivation, upon which is situated a comfortable residence, with orchard and gardens, together with sufficient stock for his family use. In August, 1861, he married Miss Nancy Chislomn, daughter of John Chislomn, a Cherokee, well and favorably known throughout his nation. By this marriage he had twelve children, eight of whom are living, viz: Lizzie (now the wife of Governor Brown, of the Seminole tribe), aged twenty-nine years; Lewis, twenty-six; James A., twenty-four; Robert, twenty-two; Mattie, twenty; John B., nineteen; Ida, sixteen, and George, thirteen. Mr. Alexander has been a member of the House of Kings for eight years, and has just been elected for the coming term to represent the town of Tuckabatchee, which is the most powerful and populous in the nation, and was at one time dominant over the small towns. Mr. Alexander's mother was a niece of old Chief TuckabatcheeMicco. The subject of this sketch is a man of fine personal appearance, about five feet nine inches in height, of good education, intelligent, affable in manner and popular with all classes. Althought a quarter-blood, he shows but little of the aborigine, the Anglo-Saxon predominating to a very great extent.

Adair Jr., John L. (p. 130)  Return to Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born June 8th, 1866, at Tahlequah, being third son of John L. Adair, of that town. John L., Jr., began attending the Indian University in 1879, and after three years, went to the Male Seminary at Tahlequah, where he remained four years. On leaving there he devoted his time for three years to assisting his mother in the post office, after which he entered his father's business house as clerk, in March, 1890. In 1891 he was appointed district clerk, to fill the vacancy left on the death of Allen Ross, which office he still holds. In 1891 he married Miss Abbie G. Bourdman, daughter of William and Margaret Bourdman, of St. Louis, a family of prominence in that city. John L., Jr., is six feet high, weighs 150 pounds, and is a young many of perpossessing appearance, good address and polished manners. He is the owner of property in Vinita and Tahlequah to the amount of about $2,000, and is now practicing law at the last mentioned town. Being talented and ambitious, and possessing a good education, he will, no doubt, be heard from in the near future.

Nash, W. S. (pp. 130, 131)  Return to Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born September 10, 1846, at New Orleans, La., the third son of Nathaniel H. Nash and Sarah Jane Smelser. William attended school in New Orleans until he was thirteen, when he went to Fort Gibson in 1861, and the year following went to New York, returning to Fort Gibson in 1864. In 1884 he embarked in the mercantile business, and in the January of 1878 married Miss T. Thompson, daughter of Richard Thompson, a prominent Cherokee. By this marriage they have three children (living) --- Carla A., born November, 1880; Bertha M., born December, 1884, and William Carroll, born March, 1886. Mr. Nash owns about 120 head of stock cattle, fourteen head of improved stock horses, and carries a stock of about $12,000 in merchandise. He is also owner of a gin and machinery valued at $2,000, and a considerable number of town lots in the best locality in Fort Gibson. Mr. Nash commenced business on a capital of $800, and through strict attention, economy and fair dealing, has accumulated a good competence, with the prospect of attaining wealth before many years. He is a gentleman of good education, courteous in address and popular with the people of his district. He is a Mason of old standing and a member of the Presbyterian church; is nearly five feet eight inches in height, and weighs 140 pounds.

Bacone, A. M., Almon C.* (p. 135) Return to Biographical Index
Almon C. Bacone, A.M., President of the Indian University, was born in Scott, Cortland County, N.J., April 25, 1830. His early days were spent on a farm, but his father dying, and the young man's health and strength rendering him unfitted for physical labor, he walked to the village of Cortland at the age of fifteen and sought occupation in a tailor shop. During three years spent at this place, he acquired a keen desire for education, and moving to the village of Homer, became a student in the Cortland Academy. During his early studentship he was forced to albor in various capacities to pay his board bill. But when sufficient knowledge was obtained, he was enabled, by teaching a part of the time, to complete his preparation for college. Entering Rochester University, he soon graduated in the class of 1858. During his preparatory studies, Mr. Bacone united with the Baptist Church, and for some time entertained serious thoughts of entering the ministry, but circumstances seemed to require that he should engage in teaching. In this capacity he has held prominent positions in the schools of New York, New Jersey, Michigan, and Ohio; but the work which enlisted his sympathies most has been among the Indian people. In 1878 he was called to take charge of the Cherokee Male Seminary, located at Tahlequah, the capital of the nation. While thus employed for a year and a half, there was furnished to him a good opportunity for getting a better insight into Indian character, and studying the best means of elevating the people. Consulting prominent Indian missionaries, the work of founding an Indian University followed. It is pre-eminently a Christian institution, having for its primary object the training of native Christian workers.

*See sketch of Indian University on page 84.

Grayson, Capt. George W. (pp. 131, 132, 133, 134)  Return to Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch, George W. Grayson, was born in 1843, within four miles of Eufaula, Creek Nation. He is a son of the late James Grayson and Jennie Wynn, a half-breed Creek. The original name of Grayson was Grierson, having become corrupted in soem unaccountable manner. The original Grierson was a Scotchman, reputed to have come from the city of Edinburgh, Scotland. He married a Creek woman of the Hillabee Town, who bore him several children, among whom was the grand-parent of the subject of our sketch. George W. was the first-born of his family, and his parents, being great admirers of literary attainments, persisted in keeping him and his brother "Sam" at such schools as the nation could afford, in preference to holding them at home, where, by assisting on the farm, they could have materially lightened the parental burden. In the course of time these young men became recognized among the most advanced pupils in the old Asberry Manueal Labor School, close to Eufaula. George W. was finally singled out by the nation as most worthy of the superior advantages afforded by the schools in the States, and, thus favored at the expense of the nation, was placed at Arkansas College, Fayetteville, where he remained two years, until the outbreak of the Civil War. His father died about this time, and George W. joined, as private, the Second Regiment of Creek Volunteers, under Colonel Chilly McIntosh (Confederate service). At nineteen years of age he was captain of Company "K," which he commanded until the close of the war. Captain Grayson took an active part in several skirmishes, the most notable being the engagement and the capture of the steamer "J. R. Williams," at Pleasant Bluff, Arkansas River, and the sutlers' train at Cabin Creek, each loaded with commissaries for the enemy at Fort Gibson. Soon after the war the subject of our sketch was called to the clerkship of the chiefs and councils of the nation, in which capacity he, with others, served for a time, when he married Miss Anna Stidham, and soon afterward left the old home for a farm which he had purchased, seven miles west of Eufaula. About this time he was elected national treasurer, which office he held two terms of four years each. He was next elected as one of the Creek representatives at the international council of the tribes, which position he relinquished for the secretaryship of the same, the appointment being conferred on him by the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs, E. S. Parker. Captain Grayson has represented the nation as its delegate before various departments of the government and committees of Congress at Washington during some five or six sessions, and at one time successfully conducted, on the part of the nation, a contest for the chieftaincy, which the constitutional party claimed for J. M. Perryman, and which Ispar-he-char denied. Mr. Grayson has been a member of the House of Warriors for Coweta Town eight years, and has been recently re-elected for another term of four years. In each of these elections he was seated by the unanimous vote of his town.  He belongs to what is generally known among the Creeks as the Tiger clan, from which, in former times, many of the leaders were chosen.

Mr. Grayson's wife, Georgiana, is the oldest living daughter of the late lamented G. W. Stidham. Her mother was the third wife of Judge Stidham, and was the daughter of Paddy Carr, whose name is familiar in the history of the Cherokees (see McKinney and Hall's Indian Tribes, page 145). Mrs. Grayson's parents were slave-owners, and she was brought up in affluence and ease, knowing nothing of hardships until the war swept away everything. Mrs. Grayson possesses a fair knowledge of books and music. She has traveled considerably in the West and South, and visited the city of Washington. She is a quiet, unostentatious woman, exceptionally lady-like and queenly in her deportment, and is loved and admired by all her acquaintances. Her daughter, Lena, her eldest-born, is married to W. H. Sanger and has a pleasant home in Eufaula, while she has with her Walter C., Washington, Eloise, Tsianina and Ethel, with the raising and education of whom she is at present most deeply concerned. Captain George W. Grayson is a tall, dignified, handsome man, of gentlemanly address. Though but forty-eight years of age, and possessor of an almost boyish complexion, his hair and beard are strangely white. He is fastidious in dress, intellectual in conversation, and polished in his manners.

Keys, Judge James M. (p. 338) Biographical Index
Judge James M. Keys was born March 25, 1845, son of Louis Keys, who came from the old State in 1828 and settled on the Illinois River near Tahlequah. His mother was Catherine McDaniels, daughter to James McDaniels, of Irish descent. William Keys, the grandfather to James M., was a United States citizen of Scotch-Irish blood. James was educated at the Tahlequah schools, and at sixteen years of age enlisted in Captain Tennent's company, Fourth Arkansas, serving three months and twenty days, when he joined Stand Watie's First Cherokee Regiment, and remained with them until the termination of the war. He was present at Pea Ridge, Wilson Creek, Elk Horn, Honey Springs and Cabin Creek, as well as lesser engagements. After the war James Keys went into mercantile business with William Keys at Gibson Station, Indian Territory, and continued it for seven years. He had in the meantime served as deputy sheriff of Coowescoowee for two terms. In 1879 he was elected prosecuting attorney for the same district, and served two years. He was re-elected in 1883 and served until 1885. In 1882 he became town commissioner, and held that office for one year. In 1885 Mr. Keys was elected supreme judge and chief justice of the Cherokee Nation. Serving in this capacity three years, he was re-elected and held the office until November, 1891, when he was called to the senate, and is now acquitting himself honorably and admirably in his capacity of senator. He was married March 16, 1869, to Nannie J. Mayes, neice to Chief Mayes and ex-Chief Bushyhead. By this marriage he has three children---Denis Bushyhead, Blueford H. and Lizzie. Judge Keys is a tall, well-built man, of cheerful, pleasant manners, a good conversationalist and an excellent speaker---as he has this year proved himself. Despite his inexperience in the senate, the judge was one of the foremost men in the debatable issues of the season.

Alberty, Ellis M. (p. 339) Biographical Index
Ellis M. Alberty was born May 4, 1854, in Going Snake district, the son of Moses Alberty (a Georgian, who settled in this nation in 1832) and Elizabeth Buffington, daughter of Ellis Buffington. Ellis, while but six years of age, commenced attending school at Prairie Grove, but after the outbreak of the war refugeed with his parents near Goodwater, Choctaw Nation. Here Ellis visited the mission school off and on until 1866, when his family returned to the home place in Going Snake district. At the Baptist Mission in this district Ellis completed his education. On June 14, 1874, he married Martha Murrell, daughter of a Texas gentleman of that name. By this marriage he has three children---Spencer Lee, twelve years old; William H. and Lulu, aged eight years. Mr. Alberty's first important office was that of senator to represent the Going Snake district, to which office he was elected August 3, 1891, his opponents being J. M. Starr and Johnson Spaight. He is a strong supporter of the Downing party, and as he says himself, will hang with them until the end. He has 150 acres in cultivation, which he farms himself, his land being of the richest and most durable quality. His boys are attending Prairie Grove School, and will be provided with a good, sound education. Mr. Alberty is a quiet, dignified gentlemen of unimpeachable honor, and very popular with his people. He is first cousin to Thomas Buffington, president of the senate, and to Senator Ellis Buffington, of Flint district.

Crutchfield, Leroy L. (pp. 339, 341) Biographical Index
Leroy L. Crutchfield was born in Collin County, Texas, October 25, 1844, second son of John Crutchfield, from Alabama, who married Miss Mary E. Ladd, of Tennessee. Leroy attended private schools till 1861, when he entered the Confederate service joining the Fifteenth Texas Calvary, under Col. G. H. Sweet, and was in continual service till the close of the war. IN 1870 he went into the cattle business wiht his father, and was then elected sheriff of "Jack" County, in which capacity he served five years. Afterward he engaged in merchandise in Jacksborough, and continued it till November 1887, when he moved to Vinita, Indian Territory, purchasing the grocery and furniture business of W. C. Patton & Co. Mr. Crutchfield conducted this business till 1889, and then, by appointment of Chief Mayes, entered the service of the revenue department of the Cherokee Nation, as collector for Coosescoowee district, and in June 20, 1891, his duties were enlarged by having the Cherokee strip added to his territory. Mr. Crutchfield was married to Miss Lizzie Horton, daughter of Major H. Horton, of Lee County, Virginia, on August 12, 1868, at Decatur, Texas. By this marriage they have three living children, viz: Anna, Josie and John, ranging in age from ten to twenty-two. Mrs. Crutchfield is a lady of accomplishments and good education, thoroughly practical, and whose chief care is to look after her husband and interesting family. Mr. Crutchfield is 5 feet 11 inches, a man of gentlemanly and intellectual appearance, whose experience and education fit him for any business. He owns 150 acres of farm enclosed, and a nice residence in Vinita. Mr. Crutchfield was elected mayor of Vinita and served two terms. He is a Cherokee by blood.

McIntosh, Colonel D. N. (pp. 397, 398) Biographical Index
D. N. McIntosh was born near Newnham, Georgia, September 20, 1822, the son of William McIntosh, a half-breed Scot and Creek Indian. The subject of our sketch moved to this country when eight years old with the third emigration, in 1830, and settled on the Verdigris River. He was educated at Smith's Institute, Kentucky, and left there at the age of eighteen, in the year 1841. At this period the Creek Nation was composed of two districts, each district governed by a chief, who jointly presided at the general council. Young McIntosh, notwithstanding his youth, was appointed clerk of the Arkansas district, and in that capacity served honorably for a period of ten years. In 1856 he was appointed delegate to Washington, and again, at the conclusion of the war in 1866, the southern division of the Creeks appointed him to the same office, which he held for twelve years. In 1877 the new government was adopted, and for eight years (during his delegacy) Colonel McIntosh served as representative of Coweta Town. In this, as well as in other capacities, the colonel proved himself to be a man of sound judgment and rare wisdom, retaining a strong influence among his people. Nor was he in the background when the toesin of war was sounded, and the nation divided its allegiance between North and South. After the Confederate treaty, D. N. McIntosh was elected colonel of his regiment, under the command of General Cooper, and served gallantly until the close. He fought at Bird Creek, Newtonia, Honey Springs and other engagements. At the close of the war he was sent as delegate to Washington, and has held the same trust for many years. Mr. McIntosh has devoted the later years of his life to agriculture. He has one section of land under fence, 500 acres of which is in cultivation. By his first wife, Jane Ward, he has four sons --- Albert, aged forty-one; Freeland, aged thirty-eight; Rowley, aged thirty, and D. N. McIntosh, Jr., aged twenty-eight. Rowley is called after his father's uncle, who was chief of the Creeks for thirty years, from 1828 to 1858. By his second wife, E. B. Gawler, Colonel McIntosh has seven children --- Helena, Etta, Lula, Zenephon, Monides, Emerson and Yancey. The colonel, although in his seventieth year, enjoys excellent health mentally and physically.

Boling, M. D.,  James M. (pp.396, 397) Biographical Index
James M. Boling was born January 31, 1856, the eldest son of R. J. Boling, at one time a prominent merchant in Cherokee County, Georgia. James entered the North Georgian Agricultural College, Dahlonega, North Georgia, at the age of twenty, and after a year and a half or two years' attendance, entered college at Amherst, Virginia, where he remained one year. In 1884 he attended the Georgia Medical College, graduating frm there in 1886. Commencing the practice of medicine immediately at Kensington, Georgia, he continued at that point for four years, moving to Claremore, Cherokee Nation (his present home), in 1890. In December of the same year he married Miss Julia M. Davis (born June, 1868, at Kensington, Georgia), daughter of John Davis, Jr., of Walker County, Georgia, an extensive farmer and stock-raiser, and part Cherokee. Mrs. Boling's mother was a Miss Hall, daughter of S. B. Hall, a Tennesseean by birth. Mrs. Boling is a lady of refinement and education, and fascinating in manner and appearance. She is quite popular iin Vinita. Dr. Boling is somewhat above the middle height, intellectual-looking, and courteous in manner and address. His education is far above the average, while his professional reputation stands high. The doctor has lately erected a drug store. Dr. Boling is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and a Master Mason of Crawfish Lodge No. 261, Georgia. He is very popular among the people of Claremore and its vicinity, and is greatly esteemed and respected by all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance.

Moore, Charles Gates (p. 398) Biographical Index
Charles Gates Moore was born in Montgomery County, Missouri, being the son of J. W. Moore, a merchant of Readsville, Missouri. At an early age Charles Gates was place at school at Fulton, Missouri, and at the age of fifteen commenced clerking in the same town. Later on he acquired a thorough knowledge of drugs, and in 1887 moved to Eufaula, in the Creek Nation, where he established a drug store at his present stand. Mr. Moore carries one of the largest stocks of goods in the Indian Territory. Some time ago he opened a branch house at Checotah, and here also he commands a large trade. The subject of our sketch is a member of the M. E. Church South, and of the Masonic order, being Master of the Eufaula lodge, Indian Chapter (McAlester), and Cæur de Leon Commandery, at Parsons, Kansas. He is a wide-awake business man, and very popular.

Lane, Cap L. (p. 407) Biographical Index
Cap L. Lane was born November 26, 1867, at Clarksville, Texas, the only son of Dr. R. G. Lane, of Clarksville. His mother was a daughter of Cap Lane, a well known farmer of North Texas. After attending school until the age of fifteen, the subject of this sketch entered the Kamper Family School, of Booneville, where at the end of three years he graduated, and returned to his home. Here he entered the drug business, and remaiined three years working for L. H. Galberg, when in May, 1888, he moved to Chelsea, Cherokee Nation, and opened a drug business of his own. In October, 1891, he married Miss Maud Rogers, daughter of Captain C. V. Rogers, ex-supreme judge of the Cherokee Nation. Mrs. Lane is a cultured lady, having been educated at Fayetteville, Missouri, and the female seminary, Tahlequah. Mr. Lane is five feet ten inches in height, and weighs 135 pounds, is a bright, intelligent and well educated man, of courteous manner and kindly disposition. He carries about $1,500 stock, does a good business, and has a nice residence in Chelsea.

Covel, John Henry (pp. 343, 345) Biographical Index
John Henry Covel was born July 18, 1848, close to the national capital. He is son of the late Caleb Covel of Massachusetts, who came to Park HIll with the missionaries at an early date. His mother was Eliza Turtle, whose relatives were prominent in the old State. Henry was sent by his mother to the Illinois district to learn Cherokee (soon after the death of his father), and during a term of eight years attended the neighborhood schools. When the war broke out he accompanied a party of Cherokees going South, and traveled as far as Red River, where he joined the refugess. At the termination of the war he went to Cane Hill College, Arkansas, but being left an orphan by the death of his mother in 1867, he was forced to shift for himself. Then followed a brief life on the cattle range, and a little experience in such hardships as ox-driving and so forth. At length Henry was appointed school teacher in the Sequoyah district, and later on went to Coowescoowee district, where he taught three years. At the age of twenty-seven years he married Lizzie Mayes, daughter of Wash Mayes (present high sheriff) and niece to J. B. Mayes, principal chief. Lizzie's mother is a sister to ex-Chief Bushyhead. By this union Mr. Covel has two children -- Ella May and Jessie Crawford. Soon after his marriage, and quite unexpectedly, he was appointed first assistant teacher at the Cherokee Orphan Asylum, and there taught four years, after which he was elected clerk of the Saline district for two years. At the expiration of the term he was appointed principal teacher of the orphan asylum for four years, but resigned that position on the election of Joel B. Mayes to the chieftaincy of the Cherokee Nation in 1887. The chief then appointed him as executive secretary, which office he held until November, 1891, when he was re-appointed on the chief's re-election. Mr. Covel is the owner of two farms --- one of 70 acres, in the Saline district, and one of 100 acres, close to the capital. He also owns a small herd of cattle on Grand River, and a pleasant residence in Tahlequah. Mr. Covel is a self-made man, and has no reason to be ashamed of the fact. Without a parent's assistance since early boyhood, he has educated himself to become a good educator. He is affable in manner and pleasant in disposition, with a good stock of common sense as a basis to his book knowledge.

Jones, Wilson N. (pp. 399, 400) Biographical Index
W. N. Jones, the present chief of the Choctaws, was born in Mississippi in 1831, and is the youngest son of Nathaniel Jones, who emigrated to the Choctaw Nation in 1833. Nathaniel Jones was annuity captain, and served later as a member of the legislature at the early councils. The subject of our sketch belongs to the Ok-la-fa-lay-a clan. In 1849 he commenced farming without any capital whatever. The results were very limited for the first few years, but he soon accumulated enough to secure a fair start. He succeeded so far as to be in a position to open a mercantile establishment on a capital of five hundred dollars. In 1866, or 1867, he took a Kansas man named Jim Myers as partner, who contributed three or four hundred dollars to the stock. After four years of hard labor they succeeded in accumulating money enough to purchase a thousand head of cattle. Myers drove the cattle to market and disposed of them in Kansas, probably at Fort Scott, but forgot to return and divide the proceeds with his partner. The consequences was that Wilson Jones lost his labor of four years, amounting to at least $5,000. But Mr. Wilson went bravely to work again, and collecting what debts were due to the house and $300 worth of cattle, turned in by Mr. W. W. Hampton, satisfied his creditors and saved his business, enabling him to purchase a fresh stock of goods. There being little money among the Choctaws at the time, Mr. Jones was obliged to take stock in payment for his sales; but he had a fine range and permitted his cattle to accumulate year by year. When the railroad was located he opened a store at Shawnee, fifteen miles from Caddo, where he continued in business thirteen or fourteen years with great success, increasing his stock until, at the present time, he is the largest cattle owner in the Indian Territory. Of late Mr. Jones has devoted his whole attention to stock-raising. In 1884 Wilson Jones was elected district trustee, and in 1887 treasurer, which office he held until 1890, when he was elected principal chief of the Choctaw Nation. He was first married to Col. Pickins' daughter, by whom he had two children, both of whom are dead. In 1855 he married Louisa La Flore, by whom he has had four children, all of whom are dead. William, the last surviving member of his family, was waylaid and shot in 1889. His mother died  a long time before. In 1876 Mr. Jones married Isabel Heaston, daughter of Col. Heaston, of Bennett County, Ark., by whom he had two children, both of whom are dead. Mr. Jones has about 17,600 acres of land, 550 of which are under cultivation, the rest in pasture. He also owns 5000 head of cattle, 3000 of which are beaf stock. Besides this he has 75 head of horses. His brand is W. J. He has also an interest in coal claims, a cotton gin and half ownership in a large mercantile establishment with W. H. Ainsworth, of Caddo. Without education, Governor Jones is a man of extraordinary intelligence, unflagging energy and tenacity of purpose. He is a wonderful financier, when we consider that he is wholly destitute of book learning. Had he had the opportunities of education now offered to his people, there is no knowing what he might have achieved. He is a man of great popularity, and will undoubtedly give full satisfaction to his supporters in the discharge of his responsible duties.

Connor, F. M. (pp. 406, 407) Biographical Index
F. M. Connor was born near Joplin, Missouri, March 29, 1852, the son of William Connor (a farmer, mill-wright and mechanic,) and Drucilla Davis. His grandfather, Caleb Connor, was one of the first settlers in Indiana. When but five years old, the subject of this sketch accompanied his father to the Cherokee Nation, settling on Grand River, Delaware district, in 1857. He was partly educated at Asberry Mission, in the Creek Nation, but his parents dying in 1868 and in 1870, he was forced to take care of himself at an early age. In 1871, when only eighteen years old, he conducted a boarding house on Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, at the same time, by close application during leisure hours, he completed his education. In 1874, he returned to Delaware district, and in the same year married Rebecca Duncan, daughter of Green Duncan, one-fourth Cherokee. By this marriage Mr. Connor has four children --- Alonzo, Crawford, Lulu and Leonard. In 1887, the subject of this sketch was elected member of council, and held the office for two years, when he was nominated by the chief, and confirmed by the senate, as town commissioner for the Cherokee Nation. On November 24, 1891, he was re-elected by unanimous vote to fill the same office; up to November, 1891, the commissioners have collected, and turned over to the nation, $7,000. Mr. Connor is the second white man who has ever been elected as representative in the Cherokee national council --- William Howe being the first. In the contest on that occasion, Mr. Connor competed against five Cherokees, and received the largest majority in the district. Mr. Connor has 600 acres of land in cultivation, near Fairland, a rapidly growing little town on the Frisco Railroad, and which promises to be the best town in the nation, surrounded as it is by the finest agricultural lands. Mr. Connor is owner of the land on which the town is being built, having purchased the same from W. B. Ritter, and is also owner of the Fairland Hotel, besides a small herd of cattle and horses. The subject of this sketch is a pleasant gentleman, and an active energetic man of business, trustworthy, reliable and exceedingly popular in this district.

Coachman, Ex-Governor Ward (pp. 341, 342, 343) Biographical Index
The pleasant and popular ex-Governor Coachman was born in Wetumka, Alabama, in 1827, and went to the neighboring schools in Macon County, the same State, at an early age. He is the youngest son of Muslushobie (otherwise Coachman) by his wife Pollie Durant, a half-breed, and full niece of Alexander McGibery, once a prominent Creek leader, mentioned in Piggot's history. She was also sister to Sophia McComb and Rachel Bosheers, of Scotch and French descent. The subject of this sketch lived with his uncle Loughlin Durant until twenty-two years of age, when he moved West to the  Creek Nation on a prospecting expedition, finding the new country favorable, he returned to Alabama and entered into correspondence with the Indian Commissioner for the purpose of making arangements for the removal of the remaining Creeks into the new country. Being successful in this enterprise he left Alabama in June, 1849, with 65 Creeks, and arrived safely in the neighborhood of his present home. On his arrival he was made interpreter for the chiefs of the Upper Creeks (so called in those days). In 1851 young Coachman started out on a trading expedition among the wild tribes, but a party of Caddo Indians on their return from a big hunt, carried off his stock, and it was with difficulty that he got back to his home. After this he began selling goods for Mr. Fred Cummins, a licensed trader at Wewoka, and remained with him for five years, from thence he entered the business house of John W. Taylor, near Wetumka, where he stayed two years, until 1857 when he commenced improving land, and continued agriculture until 1861. At the outbreak of the war he joined the Confederate army under Col. C. McIntosh, and remained in the regiment until the close of the war, serving in the capacity of first lieutenant. While with the refugees as interpreter, Mr. Coachman was appointed to assist Gov. Throckmorton and Col. Regan in making a treaty with the Comanchees, Rappahoes, Cheyennes and Kiowas. On their return from this enterprise they were informed that the South had surrendered, and on thier arrival at the refugee camp on Red River, they learned that a meeting was appointed at Armstrong Academy by General Stand Watie, a Cherokee, for the purpose of deciding the wisest movement under the disadvantageous circumstances. At this juncture Col. E. C. Boudinot arrived from Richmond, Va., and in addressing the Indian people, recommended them to return to their homes peaceably, and go to work on their farms, and among their cattle. While the wild tribes he exhorted to go back quietly to their respective reservations and cease hostilities. He finished by calling upon the members of the Five Tribes to meet him at Fort Smith that same year, for the purpose of making a satisfactory treaty with the United States. It was during the war that Mr. Coachman was first elected law-maker, and has ever since been a member of council. In 1874 he was elected second chief, but in one year he took the place of Locher Hargo, the first chief, who was impeached by his people. In 1878 he was re-elected by the majority, but was counted out. (as Gov. Coachman says himself,) by fraudulent practice. In the same year he was appointed a delegate to Washington, which office he held for several terms. After this he took his seat in the house of Kings and is now president of that influential body. Gov. Coachman was married in 1851 to Miss Lizzie Carr, a relative of Paddy Carr, of historic fame. By this marriage he has three children --- Peter, born 1852; Visey, 1854 and Charles, 1856. His wife dying in 1864, he married Miss Lizzie Yohler by whom he has one child, named George. The governor is a man of fine, portly appearance, five feet ten inches high. He is well educated and intelligent far beyond the average, and is one of the most popular men in the nation.

Perryman, L. C. (pp. 105, 106, 107) Biographical Index
The present chief of the Creek Nation was born at Sodom, Creek Nation, Indian Territory, March 1, 1838. His parents, Lewis Perryman, of Big Spring Town, and Ellen Perryman (nee Winslett), of Hechittee Town, emigrated to this nation from the old Creek Nation in Alabama, in the year 1828. Chief Perryman is the oldest of a large family of children. The Perrymans were a large, energetic and enterprising family at the breaking out of the Civil War in the United States; and the Winsletts were recognized as the brightest intellects of the country at that time, as is attested by their translations and original writings still extant in the Creek language. Chief Perryman entered school at Tallahassee Mission in 1849, under Rev. W. S. Robertson. The young student at an early age developed a marked aptitude for mathematics, which so enlarged his reasoning powers that to-day he is recognized as a most logical and unerring reasoner among his people. It was while going to school that young Perryman first commenced translating the Biblical history for the Presbyterian schools of the Creek Nation. Later in life he translated the Creek laws from the English into the native language, as well as many of the popular hymns.

At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1862 Mr. Perryman enlisted as a private in the Union army in Kansas---First Regiment of the Indian Home Guards. He served till the close, and was mustered out as Sergeant-Major in May, 1865. After the war the subject of our sketch took an active part in the reconstruction of the Creek government and adoption of the present constitution. He was for six years Judge of the Coweta District, and on his resignation was elected member of the Lower House from Big Springs Town, which position he continuously held by re-election until nominated for Principal Chief in 188, and elected September 6th of the same year. He was the unquestioned leader of the House of Warriors during the whole of his long term of service, and was several times called upon to represent the nation at Washington, D. C., as National Delegate. The Oklahoma question was the all-absorbing subject before the nation at the time. The policy of the preceding administration was to let the Oklahoma question alone and allow the United States government to settle friendly Indians on the land and thus part with the said lands forever for the small sum of thirty cents per acre, which the land had been sold for in 1866. Mr. Perryman, during one of his trips to Washington, concluded it would be better and more statesman-like to enter into negotiations with the United States government for an increase of pay for those lands,  with the understanding that, should the United States government allow the sum additional, then the Creeks would relinquish their rights and claims to the possession of said lands.

This idea was conceived and set on foot by Mr. Perryman, but when the idea became known to certain of his political opponents, they fairly made Rome howl with their mutterings of discontent and their opposition to his policy, and threatened to recall him in disgrace from Washington.

When he was elected chief, shortly afterward, his political opponents began to see that they had misunderstood the signs of the times. He has consummated that policy during the past four years, and now there is not a citizen in all that county who does not approve of the sale of Oklahoma.

Mr. Perryman is quite an extensive stockman, having about one thousand head of good cattle. He has also 950 acres of fine bottom land, his corn averaging about seventy-five bushels to the acre.

He has two sons --- Andrew, aged twenty years, and Henry, fifteen years. These young men are very promising and are receiving education at a private school in Tulsa, Creek Nation, prior to a collegiate course.

Mr. Perryman is a member of the Presbyterian Church and a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. As an executive officer he ahs few equals, and that his people fully realize this fact is proven by his re-election to the office of Principal Chief, October 1, 1891.

Boudinot, Elias C. (pp. 115, 116) Biographical Index
The late distinguished lawyer and statesman, E. C. Boudinot, was born August, 1835, near Rome, Ga., and was the son of Kille-kee-nah, a Cherokee descended from a long line of chiefs. Elias was first educated for a civil engineer at Manchester, Vt., but finally concluded to adopt the law as a profession. He was admitted to the bar in 1856, and practiced in the State and Federal Courts. One of his first cases was the defense of Stand Watie, defendant in a murder case, in which it is recorded that young Boudinot made one of the most effective and polished orations ever made by such a youthful lawyer. Stand Watie was acquitted, and the counsel for the government to-day pronounces it a righteous verdict.

Soon after this E. C. Boudinot became associate editor for The Arkansian, an ably edited weekly published at Fayetteville in the interest of democracy. In 1860, at twenty-five years of age, he became the chairman of the State Central Committee, and as one of the great leaders of democracy, assumed the editorship of The True Democrat, the leading organ of that party at the capital. In 1861 he was elected Secretary of the Secession Committee by acclamation, and soon afterwards embraced the cause of the Soutyh, repairing to the Cherokee Nation, where he and his relatives, Stand Watie, raised a regiment for the Confederate service. The latter was elected colonel, while Boudinot became major, afterwards succeeding to the office of lieutenant-colonel.

At the conclusion of the war the subject of this sketch represented the Southern Cherokees at a meeting of various Indian tribes at Fort Smith, to determine the terms of a treaty then under consideration between the United States and the Indians of the Indian Territory. Boudinot, in representing the Southern Cherokees, made an able defense of the course pursued by them during the war. His exposure of the conduct of John Ross called forth the powerful and passionate oratorical genius of Boudinot. In 1867 the subject of our sketch opened a tobacco factory in his nation, an act of treaty having guaranteed the Cherokees exempted from all taxes. But the United States officers seized and confiscated the factory, and thus the most solemn of compacts was ignored. After the case was brought before the Supreme Court, Congress authorized the Court of Claims to make settlement for damages suffered by Boudinot, and the tribunal adjudged restitution after a lapse of fifteen years.

Severs, Frederick B. (pp. 108, 109, 111, 113, 115) Biographical Index
Frederick B. Severs, the subject of this sketch, born August 13, 1835, in Washington County, Ark., the only son of Charles J. Severs and his wife, Basima T. Ballard. His father was from Tennessee and his mother from South Carolina. She was related to the Rutledges, Pinckneys and Austins, families of considerable prominence in that State, their record dating back to Revolutionary days. His father, Charles J. Severs, moved to Arkansas, then a Territory, in 1834. Frederick attended school in his father's neighborhood until he was about fifteen years old, when he went to Cane Hill College, Boonsborough, Ark. He remained at college two years, after which time he returned home, and assisted his father in conducting the farm. In his eighteenth year he entered commercial life at Fort Gibson, in the Cherokee Nation, under the auspices of W. C. Dickson, an old time friend of his father's, and a prominent merchant, who volunteered to instruct Frederick in mercantile affairs. He remained with Mr. Dickson four years, when he returned  to his home in Arkansas, where he remained but a short time. He was requested to come to Concharty Town in the Creek Nation to take charge of a school, which school (as all then were) was under the control of the United States Indian Agent, who, being greatly interested in the education of the Creeks, secured the services of Mr. Severs, who, although young, was highly esteemed by the agent, and by him deemed competent and qualified to assume that responsible charge. Mr. Severs here first formed the acquaintance of Miss Annie Anderson, the present Mrs. Severs, whose father was George Anderson, the king of Concharty Town, and also second chief of the Creek Nation. Miss Anderson was a highly educated young lady, gifted with considerable personal beauty and mental attainments of the highest order, and possessing all the attributes that make up a lovable character. Miss Anderson was favorably known throughout the Creek Nation, as taking a deep interest in the educational advancement of the Concharty people, among whom she taught school for several years, and until she married. She was educated at Tallahassee Mission, which school was conducted by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions; Rev. R. M. Loughridge was superintendent and Rev. W. S. Robertson was principal, at that time his wife (Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson) was principal teacher --- she is now an aged lady, living in Muskogee, respected and loved by her former pupils and the entire community. This estimable lady, in her advanced years, is still greatly interested in the educational and religious welfare of the Muskogee people, and devoted much of her time, assisted by Mrs. Severs, to the translation of the Scriptures into the Muskogee language. The subject of our sketch left Concharty in 1858 to fill the position of principal teacher of the Asbury Mission, a school under the charge of the Southern Methodist Board, and located at old North Fork Town, now known as Eufaula, on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. Here Mr. Severs taught for two years, when his brother-in-law, Mr. H. Shields, trading at Sheildsville, a post near the capital town of Okmulgee, solicited his assistance and services, which he continued to render for two years, until the breaking out of the war in 1861.

The Creek Indians were forced by circumstances to take sides in the late civil war. Mr. Severs espoused the Southern cause and was mustered into service in the First Creek Regiment as first lieutenant, in Captain Checote's company of full-blooded Indians, and succeeded to the captaincy when Checote was promoted to the colonelcy. Later on he was appointed brigade commissary, with the rank of major, which he retained to the close of the war. He is familiarly known, however, and addressed as Captain Severs.

At the breaking up of the army at the close of the war, Captain Severs was in Texas. Laying aside the profession of arms, without delay he resumed the peaceful occupation of educator, and taught school near Bonham for three months. Meantime his old home in Arkansas had been devastated by contending armies. He received his pay for teaching in produce and provisions, which he had hauled to the Washington County homestead, to replenish the exhausted larder. This indefatigable ex-soldier then loaded up a four-mule wagon with apples, and made two trips from Arkansas to San Antonio, Texas, marketing his fruit there and hauling back return loads of provisions, which were readily sold at a profit. Then, with his small means and some aid from friends, he commenced business on his own account at Shieldsville, in the Creek Nation, at the old stand where he was formerly employed. About that time his old commander, Checote, was elected principal chief of the Creek Nation, who appointed him his private secretary. The assistance Captain Severs rendered in this department proved of great value to the chief and to the nation, as he heartily engaged in shaping a sound, constitutional form of government for the Indians, and made many suggestions that were adopted and proved to be judicious. He moved his store to Okmulgee in 1868. His business grew steadily, and in 1870 he married Miss Annie Anderson, before mentioned, who was then engaged in teaching the same school in Concharty that Captain Severs taught before the war.

The old board store-house in Okmulgee has given place to a handsome stone building, which contains a stock of general merchandise varying from $20,000 to $35,000 in value, to meet the requirements of trade. He also owns at Okmulgee a cotton gin, and grist and saw mill, which cost ten thousand dollars, and which was built to replace a fine new mill destroyed by fire. In addition, he owns nearly all the business and dwellin-houses in the town, for which he receives rent.

In 1884 Captain Severs moved to Muskogee to secure the excellent opportunities afforded at that town for the education of his children. Here he built a comfortable residence for his family. He also purchased the house and business of S. S. Sanger, and is now carrying on an extensive general merchandise business. Muskogee growing in importance as a cotton point, he erected a capacious cotton gin, with all the latest improvements. There being great need for a flouring mill at Muskogee, to stimulate the growing of wheat to produce a home supply of flour, Captain Severs, with his fellow-merchants, organized the Muskogee Roller Milling Company, which erected a mill and an elevator at a cost of $25,000, one-fourth of the paid-up stock being owned by him.

The establishment of the United States Court for Indian Territory at Muskogee necessitated the erection of many buildings to accommodate court officials, attorneys and others, which was met, in part, by Capt. Severs, who built several dwellings and law offices, and to supply a much-needed want, he erected a very handsome brick bank building, at a cost of thirteen thousand dollars. he, with others, procured a charter from the United States and organized the First National Bank of Muskogee, with a capital of stock of $100,000. He is stockholder and a director of the bank.

Captain Severs is prominent as a stockman in Indian Territory; he owns about 8,000 head of a graded class of cattle. At his stock farm, Pecan Grove Ranch, he has a large country house of modern architecture. Here are orchards, gardens capacious barns, stables and sheds --- everything necessary for the successful prosecution of farming and cattle-raising. The farm consists of 250 acres of superior soil, in a good state of cultivation. A few miles from Okmulgee is his horse ranch, where he has five hundred head of improved stock.

Mrs. Severs has had six children, three of whom are living --- Bessie, born April 1st, 1871; Maryy, born September 1st, 1872; Annie born December 5th, 1878. The two eldest graduated at Baird College, Clinton, Mo., the summer of '91 and Annie is now preparing for the same honor, at the same college.

Holding Captain Severs in high esteem, the Creeks adopted him into their tribe, with all the privileges of citizenship, a very uncommon mark of their regard, not a single white citizen of the United States having been adopted by them since the war. He takes a deep interest in the welfare of the people; by material aid and encouragement he has always assisted them to progress in industrial pursuits, in education and religion. Time and again, when failure in crops or other causes had created distress, he supplied their pressing wants until they could obtain relief. The widow, the orphan and the destitute have always found in him a friend, and worthy charities find in him a liberal contributor.

Captain Severs is full five feet eleven inches in height, of fine personal appearance, of gentlemanly and affable  manners, of a cheery and sanguine disposition, and a steadfast friend. He is one of the richest men in Indian Territory. His success has been won by sagacity, by knowledge of human nature, and by untiring energy and devotion to the smallest details of the various pursuits that engage his attention. He is in the prime of life, with unimpaired health, and may reasonably expect many years to enjoy the fruits of a successful and well-spent life in the bosom of his estimable family, in whom he takes great delight --- a loving husband and a devoted father.

Palmer, Hon. W. A. (pp. 136, 137) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born near the mouth of Little River, Creek Nation, in 1856; the son of Palmer, a half-breed French and Creek, who came from the old country in 1833 and died at Fort Gibson in 1865, only surviving his wife (Watey Palmer's mother), about two weeks, she dying rather suddenly, close to Fort Scott, Kansas. At the outbreak of the war, the subject of out sketch went with his parents, who refugeed for three and a half years among the Sac and Fox Indians in Kansas. When ten years of age, after the death of his parents, Watey was living with his grandmother, an old full-blood, who had gone down with the Confederacy. With her he lived until sixteen years of age, after which he went to school at Tallahassee Mission, paying his way by work done during vacation time, for which he deserves unstinted credit. After two years spent at that school, the nation, recognizing his desire for education, placed him at Henderson Southwestern Baptist Union School, Jackson, Tennessess, for four years, after which, in 1881, he became a student for two years at Westminister College, Fulton, Mo. Returning home during the election, he was elected by the Little River Tulsie Town to represent them in the House of Warriors, which office he held for four years. During this term he took a commercial course at Bryant & Stratton's College, St. Louis, and was after this elected National Auditor for the Creek Nation, in 1887. In 1890, in company with Captain G. W. Grayson and Rowley McIntosh, Mr. Palmer was sent to Washington, in order to try and prevent some noxious legislation prejudicial to the interests of the Creeks, and although a young man, he did some excellent work. In 1890 he was appointed Superintendent of Census for Wewoka District. Prior to this he was appointed Cattle Tax Collector by ex-Governor Ward Coachman. In 1890 he entered the field as a candidate for second chief. Mr. Palmer has 215 acres of land under cultivation three miles east of Wewoka, besides 120 head of cattle and 26 head of horses, but most of his time, for some years, has been spent in the mercantile business, having clerked at C. Hall's establishment for four years, G. M. Perryman's, Eufaula, for one and a half, and Patterson & Foley, of same town, for two years. He also took charge of C. Hall's store, at Red Fork, for one year and a half. Mr. Palmer is an unmarried man, and though so young, is steady and industrious. He has a very thorough education, and with his ambition it is safe to infer that he will fill the highest offices that his people can bestow upon him. He is a gentleman of good address, and very popular.

Balentine, William H. (pp. 138, 139) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in July, 1854, the son of Rev. Hamilton Balentine and Anna Hoyt, grand-daughter of Second Chief Lowry. This lady died in March, 1890. The Rev. H. Balentine, of Pennsylvania, educated at Princeton College, came to the Creek Nation in 1844, and taught school at the Tallahassee Mission, and later at Coweta Mission. Afterward he moved to Good Water and Spencer Academy, Choctaw Nation, teaching for some time at these points. His next move was to Wappaknucka, Chickasaw Nation, where he taught on different occasions for a term of five years. After the war he went to Park Hill, where he remained two years, after which he moved to Vinita. Remaining there three years, he was appointed by the Cherokee Council to take charge of the Female Academy. Here he remained one year, when he took sick and died of pneumonia, February 22, 1876, sincerely and deservedly regretted by all who knew him and felt his influence. William, during his early life, derived much of his education through parental intercourse, having traveled with his father from one mission to another for years. In 1872 he went to the Highland University for two years, and completed his education at Westminister College, Fulton, Missouri, in 1876. William would have graduated but for the death of his father. In 1876 he commenced school-teaching at Woodhall School, near Tahlequah, and has continued in the profession until the present, having taught at Durdeen, White Oak, Pheasant Hill, Menard, Garfield and Eureka. At Menard he taught for seven sessions. In 1881 Mr. Balentine was appointed to teach at the National Male Seminary. In 1876 the subject of this sketch made a tour of the United States, visiting the Centennial, the national capital, Niagara Falls, and other notable places. In 1878 he married Miss Fannie Keys, daughter of the late Chief Justice Reilly Keys, for thirty years a judge and also a national delegate. By this marriage he has a family of three children --- Fannie M., William H. and Annie M. His first wife dying in 1885, he married, in 1890, Mary D., daughter of Andrew Johnson, a prominent man in the Flint District. Mr. Balentine was first appointed to the office of clerk of the Senate committees of the National Council in 1879, and was reappointed to various committees for a term of ten years. He was alos Secretary for Judge Walker while that gentleman was superintendent of the Female Seminary. He was a member of the board of trustees of the Insane Asylum for two years. Mr. Balentine owns 160 acres of good farm land close to Tahlequah, and 50 acres near Fort Gibson, both of which he looks after himself. He has also a small herd of cattle, fifteen horses and mules, and a large stock of hogs. His children have been, for the past two years, attending the Elam Springs School, and are receiving the best possible education. Mr. Balentine is a gentleman of more than ordinary education, and , intellectually, is far superior to the majority. His brother Hamilton, who lives at Vinita, is a prominent and successful man of business.

Callaghan, Jas. O., M.D. (pp. 139, 140, 141) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born November, 1860, at Sulphur Springs, Texas. He is the eldest son of Judge S. B. Callaghan, present Chief Justice of the Creek Nation, who is the son of Oliver Callaghan of Scott county, Pennsylvania. Mrs. S. B. Callaghan (Dr. Callaghan's mother), is the daughter of Rev. Wm. Thornburg, a minister of the Methodist Church, who came from Mississippi to Texas and died in that State about the year 1845. Up to the age of fourteen James received his schooling at Sulphur Springs public school, after which he went to the Alley High School, Jefferson, Texas. Here he remained two terms, when he commenced studying medicine and serving his apprenticeship in the drug business. After two years spent in this manner, he entered the business in Springfield, Mo., and there continued until 1882, when he became traveling agent for A. A. Mellier, wholesale druggist. In the fall of 1883 he took a course of lectures at Missouri Medical College, and in June of the same year married Miss Josie E. Tarpley, of Murphysboro, Tenn. In the spring of 1884 he returned to the Creek Nation (Muskogee), where he built a home for himself and began the practice of medicine.

After some time Dr. Callaghan returned to St. Louis, and taking another course of lectures, graduated in the spring of 1886. In 1890 he was appointed president of the Creek Medical Examining Board, which office he still holds. In 1888 he was elected secretary of the Indian Territory Medical Association, of which he was one of the charter members. Dr. Callaghan was the originator of the Creek medical laws recently published. He has a high reputation as a physician and a pharmacist, which latter adjunct gives him an advantage over the majority of the profession. He is a gentleman of good address, courteous and kind-hearted, and very popular socially aas well as professionally. Dr. Callaghan has two children, Eula T., aged six, and Clay T., aged two years.

Patton, Wm. C. (pp. 141, 142) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born August 1, 1829, being seventh son and fourteenth child of Joseph E. Patton, of Buncombe County, North Carolina, a farmer and stock-raiser. His mother was a Miss Orr, of South Carolina. William went to a neighborhood school until fifteen years of age, and at eighteen went to Lafayette Academy, Walker County, Georgia, where he remained two years. In 1853 he went into the mercantile business in Georgia, and continued in it until 1860. In that year he opened out in Chattanooga, and in 1862 joined the Confederate army, continuing in service until the close. After the war Mr. Patton farmed in Walker County, Georgia, for two years, after which he re-entered the mercantile business at Lafayette. In the fall of 1868 he re-opened at Ringold, Ga., continued in business until 1874, then moved to Springfield, Missouri, where he followed the mercantile business until 1879, when he moved to Vinita, Indian Territory, and there embarked in stock-raising and agriculture. Soon afterwards Mr. Patton opened a large mercantile establishment in the same place, which he is now conducting. In May, 1862, he married Miss Jane Davis, daughter of Martin Davis, a Georgian planter. Mrs. Patton's mother was the daughter of the well-known Colonel Sam Tate, of Cherokee County, Georgia. Mrs. Patton is one-fourth Cherokee. They have three children, Pauline (now Mrs. Ed. Halsell), Julia (now Mrs. Dr. Fite, of Muskogee), and Evelyn. Mrs. Patton is a lady of refinement and education. She has for many years assisted her husband in business, acting as his book-keeper. Mr. Patton is a man of fine intellectual appearance, is a good business man, and well known for his many charitable actions. Mr. Patton carries a stock of general merchandise amounting to $15,000, while there is a drug store in another department of the building. He owns four stone and brick store buildings in the town, and a storehouse at Catoosa carrying $7,000 worth of merchandise. Mr. Patton is the possessor of some twenty lots in Vinita, and eight or ten residences which are rented out, besides 200 head of mules, 600 of cattle, and 1,000 acres of land in cultivation.

Mounts, David Albert (p. 296) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born June, 1854, the eldest son of W. J. Mounts, of Wheeling, W. Va. He was educated in Kentucky, Missouri, Texas and Indiana, having been with his father in these states. After coming to Fort Gibson he went to work for O. W. Lipe, in 1877, for half interest in the profits of his business. He remained two years, and in 1879 married Miss Carrie Thompson, one of the belles of the Cherokee Nation and highly accomplished. In 1881 he went to work for Mr. Scott as head clerk in his mercantile establishment, and there remained until 1888, when he associated himself with Mr. W. S. Nash, the title of the firm being W. S. Nash & Co., which business he still continues. Mr. Mounts has four children --- John, Claud, Ray and Howard. In height he measures five feet ten inches and weighs 140 pounds, is of gentlemanly appearance and kind and affable in disposition. Mr. Mounts is deservedly popular with the people of Fort Gibson and its surroundings.

Henry, Hugh (pp. 298, 299) Biographical Index
Hugh Henry was born January, 1848, at Nacogdoches County, Texas, third son of W. D. Henry, a Georgian, and Levisa Hutton, a half-breed Creek. After the marriage of his parents they moved to Texas, in 1832, his mother dying in 1852. After the death of his mother Hugh remained in Eastern Texas with his grandmother about eleven years. When quite young he became a cowboy, attaching himself to Hart Bros.' cow camp until the breaking out of the war, when he joined the Confederate service under General Terry, remaining in the service eight months. After this Hugh Henry became a frontiersman in earnest, driving stock between San Antonio, Tex., and St. Louis, Mo., which was a dangerous experiment in those days, yet he continued it for three successive summers, when he went upon the buffalo range, hunting these animals for their hides for a term of one year. The buffalo becoming scarce, Mr. Henry came back to the nation and allied himself with the Grayson Cattle Company, working for them for thirteen years, ending May 15, 1891. He now owns about 300 head of cattle, 450 acres of improved farm (valley prairie) land, 21 head of ponies, 100 head of hogs, and 4,000 bushels of corn (made this season). He has a good home, containing comfortable house, orchard and garden.

He was married to Miss Anne Dickerson, of Texas, in 1871, and had three children: James, aged eighteen years; Levisa, aged seventeen years, and Luella, aged nine years. His wife died in August, 1883, and two years later he married Mittie Exon, a white woman, who came to this country from Missouri, by whom he had three children: Patrick, aged over five years; Mack, aged three years, and Annie May, aged six or eight months. Mr. Henry is about six feet in height, of robust build, and weighs 172 pounds---showing little of the aborigine in his appearance. Mr. Henry is one of the most experienced cow-hands in his country.

McCoy, John L. (pp. 300, 301) Biographical Index
John L. McCoy is a half-breed Cherokee, and has for moe than fifty years figured conspicuously in the affairs of that nation, having held many positions of trust and honor, reflecting credit on himself and his people. He is eminently a self-made man, having enjoyed but limited educational advantages in his youth. At the age of nineteen he was placed by his father in a store, where he remained one year, during which time, by dint of determined perseverance, he mastered, with but little assistance, the rudiments of an English education. His principal text-book was Webster's blue-back speller. Of strong will, of fine natural endowments and firm, unflinching integrity, he was, even as a young man, recognized as a leader among his people, and each succeeding year brought with it fresh honors and new triumphs.

In 1835, just prior to the New Echota treaty, he, with a large part of his tribe, moved to the Indian Territory. By this treaty the Cherokees ceded to the Government all their lands east of the Mississippi --- 8,000,000 acres --- for which theyy were to receive $5,990,000. Besides this, the Governement appropriated July 2, 1836, $600,000; in 1838, $1,047,067, to pay off spoliations, reservations, pre-emptions, removal and subsistence. In 1842 John McCoy was first delegated by the old settler party to prosecute their claim against the Government. In 1847 he was sent to Washington, alone, with instructions to remain until the work was consummated and final settlements made. After a sojourn of three years at the capital, the Government decided on the sum of $419,000 with a 5 per cent interest. Mr. McCoy's arduous efforts were thus far rewarded, the bill being carried after a nearly all night session by a majority of one vote. When the result of the vote was made known to Mr. McCoy, the Washington Chronicle says that he gave a "King Indian yell" which resounded through the corridors of the capital. But there was still a balance of $1,333,333. and interest until date a 5 per cent, due the old settlers in 1875, and Mr. McCoy the same year called a council to establish the claim. The council convened and appointed three delegates to visit Washington and prosecute the matter befroe Government. John L. McCoy, Joseph M. Bryant and William Wilson were the individuals chosen, each borrowing from the nation the sum of $1,200 to defray expenses. After an absence of three weeks Mr. Wilson returned, leaving the affair in the hands of McCoy and Bryant. Then arose a difference of opinion between these delegates. Bryant wanted to have the matter adjusted by the court of claims, and McCoy according to the treaty of 1846. The result is (according to Mr. McCoy's own statement) that Bryant has been visiting Washington ever since without securing any money for his people, but at the same time putting them to enormous expense, having (says Mr. McCoy) already contracted away, perhaps, nearly half of the principal. The treaty of 1846 declares that none of the moneys due the people shall be paid to liquidate any debt, but shall be paid directly to whom it is due. Mr. McCoy has been doing his utmost to awaken the old settlers to these facts, and they know the state of affairs. NOW LET THEM ACT.

The Washington Chronicle dated February 8, 1885, gives a lengthy sketch of Mr. McCoy and contains two engravings of that gentleman, one taken in 1848 and the other in 1885, while in his seventy-third year. It is quite interesting to hear the enthusiastic, yet thoroughly refined, old gentleman describe the strange and thrilling history of the old settlers ---the Tom Starr war, and the amnesty of 1846, in which he himself represented the old settlers. He is now living with is daughter, Mrs. Emma Hanks, widow of the late Calvin Hanks, at her beautiful home near Webber's Falls, and he is a happy man among his grand-children, in whose musical accomplishments he takes his greatest pride.

Johnston, Douglas H. (pp. 143, 144, 145) Biographical Index
Douglas H. Johnston was born at Sculliville, Choctaw Nation, October 13, 1856. He is the son of Colonel John Johnston, Sr., a white man, who immigrated with the Six-Town Choctaws to the Indian Territory form Mississippi. Colonel Johnston acquired his title in the Seminole War, and was a cousin of General Joseph E. Johnston, of Confederate fame. He was a land speculator and a prominent lawyer of Mississippi. On coming to the territory, he was married to the widow of Isaac Moncrief, a half-breed Chickasaw lady, sister of James S. Cheedle, by whom he had four sons, viz.: William, Franklin, Douglas and Napoleon. He was a slave-holder, and, just before the war, opened a large farm on the South Canadian. After the war commenced he moved to Blue, where he died. His wife did not live long after his death. Douglas was raised by his half-brother, Tandy Walker. He attended school at Tishomingo and at Bloomfield. In 1881 he was married to Miss Nellie Bynum, daughter of Turner Bynum, and sister-in-law to Col. G. W. Harkins. She attended the Chickasaw schools, but finished her education at Sherman, Texas. In 1884 Mr. Johnston took charge of Bloomfield Seminary, to finish the unexpired contract of Judge Boyd. In 1886 his wife died of consumption, leaving one son, Llewellyn by name, but familiarly known as Ludie. Two years later he made application for the contractorship of Bloomfield Seminary. There were quite a number of applicants at the time he applied, but he was selected by the Board of Education. At that time the law required that the contracts, which were awarded for a term of five years,  be confirmed by the legislature. Nothwithstanding he was allied to one of the political parties, and party spirit ran high, his contract was almost unanimously confirmed, thus showing, that he commanded the respect and confidence of both political factions. In 1889 he was married to Miss Bettie Harper. By his last marriage he has a daughter. Under the skillful management of Mr. and Mrs. Johnston, Bloomfield Seminary has continually increased in interest in an educational point of view. It is one of the first schools of the nation. An excellent faculty is in charge, and the school will surely prove a great blessing to the Chickasaw people. The subject of this sketch is a straightforward, honest, free-hearted and patriotic man. He has done much for the poor of his community. Nothwithstanding his liberality, he has accumulated considerable property. Besides the several thousand dollars which he gets annually from the school fund, he has a large farm on the Blue, well improved; he also has a large pasture, where hw has quite a number of horses. He has given some attention to stock culture and has a good grade of stock, some which are of fine blood. His cattle are well graded, many of which are Holstein and Durham.

Mrs. D. H. Johnston, the subject of this sketch, was born near Bloomfield, Chickasaw Nation, September, 1865. She was the daughter of J. R. Harper, a white man, who came to the territory from Louisburg, North Carolina, and a full-blood Chickasaw lady whose mainden name was Miss Serena Factor, and who assisted in the primary department for a while at Bloomfield when Parson Carr was contractor. Mrs. Johnston was educated principally at Bloomfield Seminary, but attended Savoy College, in Texas, one term. She began teaching in 1884, near Pennington, ten miles northwest of Tishomingo, while Col. G. W. Harkins was Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Chickasaw Nation. The following year (1885) Mr. Johnston employed her as one of the teachers at Bloomfield, where she continued to teach four years in succession. Her intellectuality, her kind disposition and beautiful counternance won for her a host of friends. In 1889 the subject of this sketch was married to Mr. Johnston. Since her marriage she has retained her position as teacher in his school, which she occupies at present. One daughter -- Wahneta E., a lovely child ---blesses this marriage. Mrs. Johnston belongs to the house of Incona (In-co-na).

Hill, Davis (pp. 145, 146) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born September 21, 1863, at Lafayette, Georgia, and is the eldest son of George W. Hill, a prominent merchant of Ringgold, Lafayette County, Georgia. Davis' mother was a daughter of Martin Davis, of Dahlangoah. The young man attended private school until he was eighteen years old, when he went into general merchandise with his father at Cedar Grove, Georgia. Here he continued for three years until 1886, when he settled in Vinita and again embarked in merchandise, this time in company with William Little. In 1887 he bought out his partner, and connected himself with his father and brother Robert, under the firm name of Davis Hill & Co. In 1889 they opened a branch at Claremore, and built a storehouse 24x60. Both houses are thriving. Mr. Hill married Miss Fannie Parks November 20, 1888, youngest daughter of Jeff Parks, one-eighth Cherokee. Mrs. Hill's mother was a sister to Johnston Thompson, of Tahlequah, one of the wealthiest merchants in the Indian Territory. By this marriage they have one child, George Robert, born October, 1890. Mrs. Hill is a lady of refinement and highly educated. Mr. Hill is a gentleman of first-class business ability, is educated and intelligent and very popular. His firm carries a stock of $5,000 at Vinita and $7,000 at Claremore. Mr. Hill has a good residence in the former town, and six town lots, while the firm owns four lots in Claremore, as well as the building.

Smallwood, B. F. (pp. 146, 147) Biographical Index
This prominent Choctaw was born about the year 1829, in the State of Mississippi, and emigrated with the mass of his people to the Choctaw Nation. His first schooling was received at Shawneetown, on Red River, after which he went to Spencer Academy for some time. On leaving there he devoted several years to farming on his father's place, in Kiamichi county, and in 1847 commenced cattle-raising and agriculture for himself. In 1849 he married Miss Annie Burney, a Chicksaw, of the house of Ima-te-po, by whom he had seven children, two of whom are living---Amelia and Lorinda. In 1862 Ben Smallwood opened a mercantile business in Kiamichi County, but moved to Atoka in the following year, where he continues in the stock and farming business, being located about ten miles from Atoka and four miles from Lehigh. Since the age of eighteen years Ben has been holding office among his people, commencing as ranger of Kiamichi County and graduating upward to chief executive. From 1847 until 1887, excepting the years of the war, he has held the office of representative, being four times speaker of the House. For many years he has figured as the leader of a strong party, but was defeated by small majorities until the year 1888, when he out-voted Wilson N. Jones and was inaugurated principal chief of his nation. In 1890 the same contest took place; but Governor Smallwood had grown weary of official responsibilities and made no effort whatever to secure his re-election. The consequence was that his vote fell considerably below the previous term, while Wilson Jones, who had worked with energy throughout, polled a much larger vote than before. It is therefore assumed that the latter will take his seat, although this will not be rendered certain until the meeting of the council in October next. Governor Smallwood was  a captain during the war in the Second Choctaw Regiment and experienced a good deal of service. He is a man of fine physical exterior; his face is handsome and indicates force of character, while his chest is broad and limbs strongly built, and in height he is a little above average. He is a first-class stateman and legislator, but prefers a quiet home life, with an occasional hunting trip in company with Governor Throckmorton, of Texas, to hunting votes for the coming election. No man loves his people better, or is more truly patriotic, than Mr. Smallwood. Such has ever been his reputation, and such it is likely to remain. His property consists of a farm of five hundred acres, beautifully situated, and containing four mineral springs---one of iron, another carrying sulphur, and so on. These springs undoubtedly possess valuable curative properties. He has also a large herd of improved stock. He is a descendant of the Oklafalaya clan.

Gregory, Noah G. (pp. 312, 313) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch is the eldest son of Joe Gregory, a white man, and Lucinda Simms, a half-blood Euchee Indian. Lucinda was a grand-daughter of Cosienna Barnett, a man of considerable prominence in the Euchee tribe, spoken of in the historic pages of this book. They are distinct from the Creeks and speak a different language, although for many years they have affiliated with and enjoyed the privileges of the Muskogees in everything except missionary work. The missionaries, being unable to speak the language, which is extremely difficult, almost completely neglected the Euchees. Noah G. Gregory was sent to Ashberry Mission School in the spring of 1872, where he remained until 1877, going from thence to Morrisville College, Pike County, Missouri. Here he devoted himself to his studies for two years, defraying part of his tuition expenses by working at other employments. Returning to his home in 1879, he went to clerking for James Parkinson, general merchant, at Red Fork, and there remained until the burning of the business house, four months later. After this he went to work for Mr. Reed, of Tulsa, and in 1881 engaged in merchandise for himself, locating about twenty miles from Red Fork, in the Euchee settlement on Polecat Creek, and continued trading for about one year, when he closed out and went to clerk for H. C. Hall, at Red Fork, and later for G. W. Brown, of Wealaka, where he remained about nine months. After that time he improved a farm, carefully cultivating the land, and also devoting his time to the raising of stock. In 1887 Mr. Gregory was elected member of the House of Kings, he being the youngest member of the upper house at that period. He was also appointed as one of the committee on finances. In 1891 he was elected to the House of Warriors, which office he now holds. Mr. Gregory was married to Miss C. Norman June 15, 1886. The issue of this marriage was three children, one of whom is living and named Ari Novelle, born September 5, 1891. Mr. Gregory is owner of  two small farms in good cultivation, as well as cattle, horses and hogs, besides a comfortable home with a fine young orchard and other improvements. He is a young man of good education, intelligent and business-like, of unquestionable integrity and very popular with his people. He deserves much credit for having aquired such a good education, considering that he was totally ignorant of English when he first went to school; but owing to his own ambition and energy, together with the assistance of kind friends in Missouri, he has acquired knowledge far above the average. Mr. Gregory has been local Methodist preacher in his district since 1879.

Gregory, Mrs. N. G. (pp. 313, 314) Biographical Index
Mrs. N. G. Gregory (whose maiden name was Carrie E. Norman) is the second daughter of W. G. Norman, and was born in Florida in 1867, coming to the Creek Nation in 1877 --- her mother being a citizen thereof. Miss Norman was partly educated in the States and partly at Wealaka Mission, Creek Nation, where she was greatly beloved by her teachers and admired and respected by her schoolmates. While there she joined the Presbyterian Church, and has since been a devout member. On June 15, 1886, Miss Norman was married to N. G. Gregory, a prominent member of the Euchee tribe, and one of their representatives in the National Council. Mrs. Gregory is kind-hearted and charitable, ever ready to aid the sick and the distressed.

Taylor, Mrs. Susan (p. 324) Biographical Index
Mrs. Susan Taylor was born July 6, 1803, daughter of "Fields," a half-breed of Scotch descent. Her mother was a Miss Brown, sister of Judge Brown, prominent in Cherokee history. Susan Taylor was educated at the Moravian Mission, Spring Place, Georgia, and moved with the emigration to the Indian Territory in 1839. Her husband, Richard Taylor, held many prominent positions in the nation, and was second chief when he died, in 1853. The subject of our sketch settled in Tahlequah before there was a residence in that place, and in 1849 built a fine brick residence, one of the first brick buildings in the nation. The building is still in good repair, and is at present known as the National Hotel. Mrs. Taylor left a large family, three of whom are living ---- Mrs. Anne Daniels, Mrs. Eliza Thompson and Mrs. Francis Butler. Mrs. Taylor was  a most remarkable woman, possessing qualities of generosity, charity and benevolence to such an extent that she was beloved and admired by all. She died at the age of sixty-nine years, in 1872, mourned by the entire nation.

McSpadden, John Thomas (pp. 147, 148) Biographical Index
John T. McSpadden was born near Fort Payne, Alabama, March 15, 1852, the third son of I. K. B. McSpadden, a minister of the M. E. Church, South, who, in 1869, came to the Indian Territory as a missionary. Mr. McSpadden, Jr.'s mother was a Miss Elizabeth J. Green, daughter of a leading citizen of Athens, Tennessee. The subject of our sketch was educated in the Phoenix Academy, near Fort Payne, Alabama, until his nineteenth year, when he followed his parents to the Indian Territory, and there engaged in school-teaching two years. After that he followed the blacksmith's trade three years, but finally embarked in the cattle business, which he has continued up to the present. Mr. McSpadden married Miss Sallie C. Rogers, daughter of C. V. Rogers, a prominent citizen, December 16, 1885, by whom he has two children living ---Clem. M., born December 20, 1886, and May, born July 20, 1891. Mr. McSpadden is very largely interested in the cattle industry, feeding from 500 to 1,000 head. He has several farms, aggregating 350 acres, 225 acres which are in good cultivation, besides a handsome residence in Chelsea, recently completed. Mr. McSpadden is a representative citizen, progressive, liberal and wide-awake, and always to be found on the right side where his country's interests are at stake. The only office he has held was that of mayor of Vinita for one term. Mrs. McSpadden is a cultured lady of charming personality and lovable nature, which have attracted to her a large circle of friends.

Frazee, Morris, Dr. (pp. 148, 149) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born September 8, 1838, at Chandlersville, O. He is the eldest son of W. F. Frazee and Isabella Mahon, from County Armagh, Ireland. Morris attended the public schools until sixteen years of age, when he entered Knox College, Galesburg, Ill., and there remained until, in three years, he completed his sophomore course, after which he read law with Messrs. Muse and Gaston, at Zanesville, Ohio, for one year.  Returning to his home at Warsaw, Illinois, he studied medicine until the outbreak of the war, when he joined the Federal service as a second lieutenant, returning at the conclusion of the war as captain of his company. Afterwards, he entered the medical department of the University of Iowa and studied two years. In 1865 he established a weekly paper in Alexandria, Missouri, which he edited for one year and sold out, commencing the practice of medicine in St. Clair, Vernon County, Missouri, where he remained three years, and in 1871 went to Vinita, Indian Terrioty, where he is now located. Dr. Frazee was the first physician that ever located at Vinita, his practice being continual until the past five years, when he turned his attention to farming, stock-raising, merchandise and the nursery business, which latter, as well as farming, he still continues. In August, 1878, Dr. Frazee married Mrs. Susan B. Kell, nee Daniels, daughter of Hon. Robert Daniels, who was second chief of the Cherokees. Dr. Frazee and his wife, in 1884, adopted the little two-year old son of James Crutchfield, whose mother was a daughter of Robert Daniels. He is called Taylor Frazee, and is now being educated at the Worcestor Academy, Vinita. Dr. Frazee is a gentleman of intellect and culture, of kindly disposition and charitable instincts. He is one of the most popular men in his district.

Ross, Chas. M., Dr. (p. 154) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born at Tahlequah, Indian Territory, December 17, 1868, eldest son of R. B. Ross, ex-treasurer, and great-grandson of Chief John Ross. Chas. M. Ross received his education at the Male Seminary, Tahlequah, graduating in 1887 with high honors. Soon after he entered the Missouri Medical College, St. Louis, where he graduated March 31, 1891, and returning to Tahlequah commenced the practice of medicine. He moved to Claremore August 1st of the same year, and established himself with Dr. J. C. Bushyhead, son of the ex-chief and an old classmate of his in the medical college. These young physicians are meeting with the success which their energy and industry deserves. Dr. Ross is still unmarried, but time will remedy that drawback. The doctor's mother was a Miss Fannie Thornton, grand-daughter of John Daniel, one of the old settlers and well-known throughout the nation. Dr. Ross, by reason of his connection with the leading families of the nation, has a large circle of acquaintances, who hold him in high esteem. The doctor owns a good farm, which is well stocked and cared for, and a lucrative practice which is rapidly increasing.

Shackelford, James M., Judge (pp. 149, 150, 151, 152) Biographical Index
This eminent soldier and judge was born July 7, 1827, in Lincoln County, Ky., the seventh son of Edmond Shackelford and Susan Thompson, both of Virginia. At the age of twelve years he was placed at Stanford University, Kentucky, for two years, after which he became a pupil of the celebrated teacher, James F. Barber. In 1848, under the last requistion of the government, he was elected by a company in Washington County, Kentucky, as lieutenant, and received a first lieutenant's commission from the government, in Company I, of the Fourth Kentucky regiment of infantry, which was commanded by John S. Williams, of Kentucky, in 1847. Going out as he did, under the last requisition, he saw no fighting during the campaign, which was a grievous disappointment to a young man of his ardent and ambitious disposition. On his return he studied law under Judge J. P. Cook and was admitted to the bar, becoming a partner of Cook's in a few years. They practiced together until the outbreak of the Civil War, when James Shackelford raised the Twenty-fifth Kentucky Regiment of Infantry, and was made colonel of the same. He was in the engagement at Fort Donaldson with that regiment, but, through exposure, lost his health and was obliged to resign his office in 1862. Some time afterward President Lincoln issued him special orders to raise a regiment of cavalry for the Union service, which he accomplished in four weeks, choosing from sixteen hundred twelve hundred first class men, who embodied what was known as the Eighth Kentucky Cavalry. About this time, William Davenport, of Kentucky, went to visit President Lincoln, and, on gaining an audience, stated his business: "I have come to know if you would like to have General Morgan captured?" said Davenport. "I know of nothing," said Lincoln "that would suit me better." "Then," replied Davenport, "we have a boy in our neighborhood----Colonel James Shackelford, of the Eighth Kentucky Cavalry, and if you will make him brigadier-general I guarantee that he will capture Morgan inside of six months." The President not only heard, but heeded, and on the 17th day of March, 1863, Shackelford was promoted to the position of brigadier-general. In June, 1863, General G. H. Morgan started upon his memorable raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Iowa, and General Shackelford started his pursuit. After a chase of thirty days and nights he came up with him near Lisbon, Columbiana County, Ohio, Sunday morning, July 26th, and captured him, with the remnant of his command. Morgan and Shackelford had been fellow-officers in the Mexican war, and on this occasion, when Shackelford addressed him in the following words --- "General Morgan, I am glad to see you!" ---the latter replied: "I have no doubt of it; but, damn it, I'm sorry I can't return the compliment." General Shackelford's war experience has been one of rare activity, and contains sufficient interesting matter to justify him in publishing a volume of adventure. We regret that our space is too limited to dwell upon more of the many stirring incidents of his career. The General's wife dying in 1864, and being left with four small children, he felt it his duty, at the termination of the war, to resign although offered by the President the rank of Major-General. Consequently he resumed the practice of law, taking an active part in politics in the meantime. In 1880 he was elector of the State of Indiana at large, and by the electoral college selected and carried the vote of Indiana for Garfield. In 1888 he was elected president of the electoral college, and discharged the duties incumbent upon him with becoming dignity. On the 26th of March, 1889, he was nominated by President Harrison as United States Judge for the Indiana Territory, and the appointment was confirmed by the Senate. HIs headquarters are situated at Muskogee, in the Creek Nation, where a branch of the United States Courts is established. The respect expressed by all classes of people for Judge Shackelford, despite his vigorous enforcement of the law, is perhaps the highest compliment that can be paid to a public official; while the esteem in which he is held by those who are personally acquainted with him indicates a kind disposition, and a character upright and exemplary.

Gentry, W. E. (pp. 152, 153, 154) Biographical Index
W. E. Gentry was born March 11, 1842. He is the second son of James Gentry, of Alabama, and grandson of Elijah Gentry, a white man who married a full-blood Catawba Indian, and Miss Caroline Bush, a United States citizen. William was sent to school for a short time in Mississippi, and then moved to the Creek Nation, in 1855, with his father and mother. Here he went to Asberry Mission, Eufaula, for one year, after which he commenced agriculture with his father, continuing until the outbreak of the war, when he joined the Confederates under Colonel Chily McIntosh, Second Creek Regiment. During the last year his company was transferred to Jumper's regiment, Seminole Nation. At the termination of the war, Mr. Gentry came back to his father's home, where he assisted him on the farm. In 1867 he married Miss Sarah Crestmond, who died in 1868. In 1872 he married Miss Martha Lynch, who died September 3, 1873. The issue of this marriage was one boy, named Albert James, born August 27, 1873, and died February 2, 1891. On August 11, 1878, he married Miss Sallie D. Carr, eldest daughter of Chipley Carr, by whom he has six children, William, born August 13, 1879; Caroline, born April 21, 1881; Mary E., born April 24, 1883; Sallie P., born May 29, 1885; Bobby Lee, born September 15, 1887; Bluford, born October 1, 1889, and Rachel Jane, born November 2, 1891. From the year 1868 until 1875, when his mother died, Mr. Gentry took the responsible charge of his brothers and sisters, living with them and looking after their welfare and comfort during all these years. Mr. Gentry commenced stock-raising at first on a very small scale, but now, with Mr. Lerblance, is the owner of 3,500 head of stock and a mercantile house furnished with a $12,000 stock of goods, and a $3,500 gin and mill, the store and mill at Checotah, on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad, also a half interest in the Indian Journal, a newspaper published at Eufaula, Creek Nation. Mr. Gentry's individual property consists of a farm of 500 acres of good land, all in cultivation, a pasture consisting of one square mile and 300 head of cattle. He was elected to the House of Warriors in 1887, which office he holds until the present time. Mr. Gentry is three-fourths white, five feet ten inches high, of gentlemanly deportment, has a great many true friends, and is  a man of good business education and sound sense.

Triplett, Thomas William (p. 320) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born at Caney Creek, near Tahlequah, May 24, 1869, the son of William Triplett, a half-breed, and Nannie Saunders, who was almost a full-blood. Thomas, when quite young, attended a neighborhood school close to his birthplace until, moving to Tahlequah in 1878, he went to the public school for one year, after which, in 1879, he entered the national seminary, graduating and securing his B. A. under Professor Davis in 1886. On leaving the seminary, he was appointed for a while as deputy district clerk of the district of Tahlequah, but soon after commenced school teaching at Rabbit Trap, Going Snake district. During the five years that have elapsed since then, Mr. Triplett was appointed to the following schools for shorter or longer periods --- Spring Creek, Payne Spring (two terms), Fort Gibson and Saga School, which last position he did not take owing to his having received a better appointment. When the Bushyhead party got into power, Mr. Triplett was appointed clerk of the committee on insane asylums by William Henricks, which office he held for two years. On the change of administration which followed, he was appointed for the same length of time as interpreter for the committee on the Cherokee Advocate. In 1890 he was appointed special secretary of the treasury, and interpreter for same, which office he held until November, 1891, when he was elected district clerk of Tahlequah district, and in this capacity will serve for two terms. Mr. Triplett is a young man of great promise, well educated for his age, and possessing plenty of pluck and ambition. He is one of the most popular of the young men now in office, and his star is in the ascendant. His father is a member of the committee appointed to negotiate with the Cherokee United States Commission.

Jackson, Wayman C. (pp. 154, 155, 156) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was the second son of Columbus Jackson and Virginia Appleberry. Wayman attended public school until he was thirteen years of age, when he went to the Baptist College, Louisiana, Missouri, for one year, and from there to the Morgan H. Luney Male School, at Fayetteville, Arkansas, where he remained eighteen months, finishing his education after a two years' sojourn at the Arkansas State University. Leaving this institute in 1874, he spent one year in Texas, after which he commenced the study of law at Fayetteville, at A. M. Wilson's office (Wilson is a member of the Cherokee Commisssion). In 1876 and 1877 he studied law with Henderson & Shields, of St. Louis, and while there took a course of lectures at Washington University. Returning to Fayetteville, Ark., he was admitted to the bar, and there commenced practicing. In 1881 he was elected mayor of the city, and was re-elected the following year. In 1884 he ran for the Senate, in Washington County, on the Democratic ticket, and was beaten by a few votes. In 1885 he was again elected mayor of Fayetteville, it having just been chartered as a city of the second class. Resigning the office of mayor in 1886, Mr. Jackson returned to the practice of law at Fort Smith, Arkansas, in connection with Colonel E. C. Boudinot, and in 1889 formed partnership with Mr. Hinds, of Muskogee, moving to that locality January 1, 1890. Mr. Jackson and his partner are now practicing in the United States Courts of the Indian Territory, where they have a large practice and an excellent reputation. Mr. Jackson is unmarried, and a young man of gentlemanly appearance and address, possessing an extensive knowledge of the law, considering his age, and with a fine prospect before him. He is five feet ten and a half inches in height and weighs 200 pounds.

Grayson, Colbert (pp. 156, 157) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born at Elk Creek, south of Muskogee, in 1845, and is the eldest son of Elijah Grayson and Louina Scott. In 1853 he was sent to Asberry Mission, and remained there until the outbreak of the war, joining the Confederate service in 1863. In 1865 he married Mary Elizabeth Steward, second daughter of R. W. Steward, a white man who had come from Kentucky to this country in 1844. By this marriage he had six children, only one of whom has survived, named Charley Coleman, born December, 1873. His wife dying in January, 1879, he married in the fall of the same year Mrs. Posey, a white woman, widow of the late Wm. M. Posey, by whom he has two boys and one girl: Edmond T., born June, 1880; Louina Antoinette, born May, 1887; and Grover Cleveland, born December, 1890. Mr. Grayson has been a farmer since the war. In 1883 he was elected to the House of Warriors, and in 1887 was re-elected, serving until 1889, when he resigned for the office of District Inspector of Wewoka District, which office he still holds. Mr. Grayson is a man of sound education and very intelligent. He is one of the best interpreters in the nation, and has held the office of United States Interpreter at Fort Smith for one year, and could have held it permanently had he so desired. He is one-third white, but shows more of the Indian, is five feet eight inches in height, robust in build, and of good appearance. He has about seventy-five acres in cultivation, a good comfortable home and sufficient stock for his own use. He lives sixty-five miles southwest of Okmulgee, at the mouth Little River.

Adair, Penelope (pp. 316, 317) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch is the wife of John Thompson Adair, recently deceased, whose portrait and biography will be found elsewhere in this volume. Mrs. Penelope Adair is the daughter of Jesse Mayfield, of South Carolina, who married Sarah, daughter of Caleb Starr, of Tennessee. Her parents emigrated to this nation in 1839 with the Bushyhead detachment. In January, 1840, Penelope Mayfield married John Thompson Adair, and they settled near Tulu, Washington County, Arkansas, near the Indian Territory line, beside the present family home. Mrs. Adair had a family of nine children, two having died in infancy. Her oldest child, Jesse M. Adair, was born November 28, 1841, then followed Rachel Lavina, Sarah R., Oscar F., Edward Everett, John H. and Samuel Houston, the youngest, who is slightly over thirty years of age. Mrs. Adair's sons are all prosperous men, doing for themselves, the younger one remaining at the old home to look after his mother. Mrs. Adair is the remains of a remarkably pretty woman, having all the marks of culture and refinement. She is at present in poor health, owing to the recent loss of her husband, who died last December at the advanced age of seventy-nine years.

Campbell, William Ross (p. 317) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born September 17, 1868, at Webber's Falls, second son of Rev. Charles H. Campbell, a half-breed Cherokee and belonging to the Methodist Indian Mission Conference. His mother was a Miss Lowrey, a half-breed and grand-daughter of Second Chief Mayor George Lowrey. William attended public school until he was twelve years of age, when he went to work for M. R. Brown, a druggist, at Fort Gibson. With him he remained four years, and went to school at the Presbyterian Mission, at Fort Gibson, for one year. After that he began serving his time to the saddlery and harness trade under David Andre, a Cherokee, and the first of his people who ever followed that business. Leaving Fort Gibson after eighteen months, he entered the employment of R. C. Fuller, at Tahlequah, where he remained two years, and in 1888 moved to Chouteau, where he began the saddlery business on his own resources, and is carrying it on at the present day. Mr. Campbell is a young man of gentlemanly appearance and affable manners. He is very fairly educated, and is looked upon as one of the finest workmen at his trade in the Indian Territory.

Gray, Valentine (pp. 311, 312) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born November 14, 1833, in Jackson County, Mississippi, the fourth son of William Gray, of that place. His mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew Frash. Valentine was sent to the public school until he was seventeen years of age. In 1852 he emigrated to California, where he became a farmer and stock-raiser. Here he remained seventeen years, coming East to Chouteau, I.T., in 1869, where he again embarked in stock-raising and agriculture, and still continues the business. In 1875 he entered the mercantile and milling business, and after three years' experience disposed of his interest. Mr. Gray married Miss M. Rogers, daughter of William Rogers, a prominent Cherokee politician, in 1857. By this marriage he had two children ---- Fannie, born July 8, 1860, and Annie D. born November 13, 1862. Mr. Gray owns some 1,200 head of cattle, 200 acres in cultivation and 60 acres in pasture, besides a comfortable home in Chouteau. He is a man of good appearance and address, educated and intellectual. His wife is one-sixteenth Cherokee. His daughters are both married -- one to Mr. Adair, of Pryor Creek, and the other to Mr. Currington, of Chouteau.

Grayson, Pilot (pp. 261, 263) Biographical Index
Pilot Grayson was born in 1852, within two miles of Eufaula, son of James Grayson, of the Creek Nation. It was not until the close of the war that Pilot began attending the neighborhood school, which he continued for the space of two years, moving from thence to Cane Hill College, Arkansas, where he remained several sessions. Returning home, he afterward went to Howard College, Alabama, where he spent one session, and from thence went to La Grange College, Missouri, where he continued his studies for two years, and thus completed his education. Pilot commenced life in the capacity of a school-teacher, and taught in the Creek Nation for about five years; but his health began to fail and he concluded to try farming for awhile. Meantime he was appointed examiner on the National School Board, which office he held for four years. Soon after this he embarked in the mercantile business in Okmulgee, the capital of the Creek Nation, in partnership with D. A. Carr, which he continued for two years, until, selling out, he returned to Eufaula and farmed for a few more years. Again he went to Okmulgee --- this time to clerk for Messrs. Harrison & Carr, but did not sojourn very long there, returning to his home and his agricultural pursuits, where he spent another two years. Not long afterward Mr. Grayson opened a mercantile house at Brush Hill, northwest of Eufaula, which business he is still carrying on. In September, 1891, he purchased Dr. K. R. Cutler's mercantile interests in Eufaula, and now personally manages the house, which has a very extensive trade. In December, 1882, Mr. Pilot Grayson married Miss M. F. Buckner, daughter of the Rev. H. F. Buckner, but, unfortunately after being married but one year and three months, his wife died, leaving one child --- a boy --- born in January, 1884, and named CC. W. Grayson. In March, 1887, he married Mrs. A. Buckner, of Eufaula, widow of the Rev. Dr. Buckner. Mr. Grayson is owner of a good farm of 250 acres, west of town, besides a small stock of horses, cattle and hogs. In his Eufaula store he carries a $6,000 stock of merchandise, and is a man of good business qualifications, of pleasant address and an education far beyond the average. He is a member of the Baptist Church and the Masonic order.

Grayson, Sam (pp. 250, 252) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in 1849, the second son of James Grayson and Jane Wynne, daughter of John Wynne, a Georgian. When eight years of age Sam was sent to the Asberry Mission School, where he remained four years. In 1860 his father died, and when the war broke out, Sam, with his mother, brothers and sisters, joined the Creek refugees and settled on Red River until the war cloud passed over, returning to Eufaula in 1865. In 1868 he went to Cane Hill College, Arkansas, and there remained three terms; but, his health failing, he was obliged to leave before graduating. IN 1872, in partnership with G. E. Scales, Mr. Grayson entered the mercantile business at North Fork Town, and in the same year removed to Eufaula, continuing the partnership until 1874, when his brother, Captain G. W. Grayson, united with him in buying Mr. Scales' interest in the firm, since which time until the present they have continued in business at the same stand. In January, 1879, Mr. Sam Grayson married Miss Kate Ross, daughter of Richard Ross, a Cherokee. By her he has had four children --- Della, aged ten years; Claude, sevven years; Jennie M., three years, and Vinnie, thirteen months. Mr. Grayson has been clerk of both houses of council for twelve years, and in 1876 and 1877 was appointed delegate to Washington. After this time he determined to ignore politics, and from thence devoted his attention exclusively to business. The Grayson Brothers do a large trade in the Creek and adjacent nations, and carry a stock of $15,000 or $16,000 in general merchandise. They have about 4,000 head of cattle and 1,000 acres under fence, 600 acres of which is in good cultivation, the remainder in pasturage. This, with 30 head of horses and a stock of hogs, forms their agricultural property. These gentlemen also own a half interest in the Indian Journal, the official organ of the country, and now the oldest established newspaper in the Indian Territory. They also own a large gin-house in Eufaula, which carries the Munger machinery, a system superior to all others introduced here. Mr. Grayson is a man of good education and exceedingly popular with all classes.

Merrill, William M. (p. 252) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born May, 1865, in Saline County, Missouri, second son of Asa C. Merrill, a prominent farmer of that State. William's mother was a Miss Akres, also of that State, whose father is now residing in Kansas City. William attended public school until fifteen years of age, when he began assisting his father, and remained on the farm until that parent's death in 1885, which he and his brother assumed charge of the property for their mother. In 1886 William took the responsibility upon himself, and with his family, in 1888, moved to Vinita, Cherokee Nation, where he farmed two years, and in 1891 was appointed deputy constable for the first judicial divison of the Indian Territory. On August 8, of the same year, he received the appointment of deputy United States marshal, and is, at the time of writing, employed in both of these capacities. Mr. Merrill is a young man of gentlemanly bearing and good address, and as an officer is energetic and trustworthy, gaining the confidence of the public by his good moral character and attention to his duties.

Milford, M. E. (p. 263) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born January 12, 1856, near Rockville, Connecticut, and came West about the outbreak of the Civil War, where he has ever since remained. The greater portion of Mr. Milford's life has been spent in newspaper offices, and he bears the reputation of being a first-class newspaper man, whether in his connection with daily or weekly newspapers. In 1884 he was induced to abandon his work on a daily paper published in Topeka, Kansas, and instead, to assume the business management of the Indian Chieftain, published by a stock company, at Vinita; and since that time the aforementioned paper has largely increased in popularity, and at present has a large circulation and advertising patronage. Mr. Milford has, at different periods, held a number of positions of public trusts, in which he has never failed to honorably discharge the duties incumbent on his position. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees for Worcester Academy, and a member of the Board of Directors of the First National Bank, Vinita. Mr. Milford married Miss Laura A. Chesney, daughter of Dr. Charles T. Chesney, of Topeka, Kansas, by whom he has one child, Lucille, born March 17, 1891. Mr. Milford is a gentleman of refinement, affable in manner, kind and hospitable to all, which accounts for the many friends he has made in the Indian Territory.

Lipe, C. C. (pp. 310, 311) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March 10, 1847, near Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, third son of O. W. Lipe, of Fort Gibson. His mother was a Miss Gunter, daughter of John Gunter, a citizen by marriage, and once owner of the town of Guntersville, on the Tennessee River, in Alabama. Clark Lipe attended the public schools until he was fifteen years of age. After the outbreak of the war, he joined the Confederate army (in 1864), and continued in the service until its close. After much difficulty he at last succeeded in bringing together his father's family, the members of which had become scattered during the war, and they settled down in 1866 at Fort Gibson. In 1868 Clark went to school in Herkimer County, N.Y., and from thence to a commercial college at Syracuse, N.Y., after which he returned to Fort Gibson and opened a mercantile business, which he carried on until 1874. Mr. Lipe then moved to his present home on the Verdigris River, and began farming and stock-raising. Mr. Lipe is also in charge of the mercantile business of J. E. Campbell, of Nowata, Cherokee Nation. On November 21, 1870 he married Miss Lizzie Farmore, a New Yorker, who died in childbirth. On August 29, 1873, he married Miss Emma Thompson, daughter of Richard Thompson and Elizabeth Thornton, a daughter of Judge Thornton, of Illinois district. By this marriage they have six living children ---Herman, Caspar, Clinton, Beulah, Cllark C., and the youngest, less than one year old; Herman, the oldest being sixteen. Mrs. Lipe is a lady of education and refinement, and has taught school for several years in the nation. Mr. Lipe is five feet seven and a half inches in height, weighs 180 pounds, and is a man of fine intellectual appearance. He is well educated and is a superior business man. He has held the office of district clerk in the Coowescoowee district for four years, and was defeated for the Senate by a small majority in 1881. He was also clerk of the Council for two years and of the Commissioner's Court for two years. Mr. Lipe owns 160 acres of cultivated land, about 150 head of cattle, 10 head of horses and mules, and a good stock of hogs. He has a good residence on his place, with superior outdoor buildings.

Julian, Robert Willis (pp. 322, 323) Biographical Index
Robert Willlis Julian was born May 31, 1871, in Forsythe County, Georgia, son of R. M. Julian, owner of the Chatahoochie mines and one of the gold mines near Marietta (same State), in which John Winters is part proprietor. Robert's mother was a Miss Susan Willis, daughter of Captain Priestly Willis, of Dawson county, Georgia, a descendant of the Doherty family, the issue of the first white man that ever married a Cherokee. Robert first attended school at Ringgold, Murray County, Georgia, for one year, after which he was a pupil in the public institutions at Marietta, Shylo and Bethlehem, and later at the high schools of Chester and Gainesville, Georgia, graduating at Moore's Business University, Atlanta, 1887. IN 1889 he went to Going Snake district, Cherokee Nation, and spent six months at the Baptist Mission School, after which he moved to Checotah, and soon became a commercial traveler, spending twelve months or more in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Florida. Mr. Julian returned to Checotah in June, 1891, and in connection with his brother, Edwin C. Julian, of St. Louis, became an extensive hay contractor. He has also been a member of the Peerless Cotton Seed Company, of Atlanta, Georgia, and at the death of Henry W. Grady, one of the partners, withdrew from the firm, accepting Arkansas, Texas and Indian Territory as his share. Mr. Julian has been most successful in the sale of this marvelous cotton seen (the Peerless), which has been known to yield as much as four bales to an acre. Mr. Julian and his brother Edwin are about to start a mercantile business on a large scale, making headquarters at Muskogee, with branch supply stores at various points on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad in the Creek and Cherokee Nations. One of the most picturesque and perhaps the oldest relic among the Cherokees is in possession of this gentleman, and at present desposited in the Constitution building, Atlanta. It is a marble ball erected on a pedestal of the same mineral, about three feet in height and weighs 294 pounds. It was wrought by hand by a Cherokee named James Daniel and an Englishman, and somehow fell into the possession of Bailey F. Julian, grandfather of the subject of this sketch. Mr. Julian was elected as a committee clerk in November, 1891, but his services, as well as those of nine others elected to clerk for the various Senate committees, were dispensed with, owing to the passage of a resolution to cut down all unnecessary expense. Mr. Julian is a well educated young man, with plenty of ambition and a good prospect before him. He is still unmarried.

Bell, Lucien B. (Hooley) (pp. 314, 315, 316) Biographical Index
The well-known Lucien B. (otherwise Hooley) Bell was born February 13, 1838, in Habersham County, Georgia, the son of John A. Bell and Jane Martin, daughter of John Martin, first chief justice of the Cherokee Nation. Lucien was first sent to school at Ozark Institute, where, after some time, his health and eyesight failing, he was obliged to leave and sojourn for a while in Rusk County, Texas. Recovering his health in 1856, he entered college at Cane Hill, Arkansas, and there remained until 1858, and at the age of twenty he married. In 1861 he joined the Confederate service, under Colonel Stand Watie, and in 1863 was appointed by the same officer to negotiate with the Confederate authorities for provisions, cotton, stores, etc., for the Southern Cherokee army. At the termination of the war, he went back to Rusk County, Texas, and planted a cotton crop, which, like a large majority of others that season, turned out a failure. In 1867 he moved to Delaware district, Cherokee Nation, and farmed for three years. In 1870 he went to Tahlequah and bcame clerk of an extra session of the Senate, and was re-elected three terms (six years successively). In 1877 he was appointed a member of the board of education and served two years, resigning in 1879. Mr. Bell was then appointed by Treasurer Bushyhead to look after the revenue of the strip, and was the first man who proved the possibility of deriving revenue from that source. Over $800,000 has been collected and handed in up to last year. The years of 1880, 1881 and 1882 were passed by Mr. Bell in agricultural pursuits. In 1883 he was sent as commissioner to Okmulgee, the Creek capital, to dissuade the Creeks from selling Oklahoma. Later on he was choosen one of a committee of five Cherokees to attend a grand council of all the tribes at Eufaula. In the winter of the same year he was ssent as delegate to Washington by Chief Bushyhead. Mr. Bell was first elected to the Senate in 1885, to represent the Delaware district, and was re-elected three consecutive terms, his time expiring in November, 1891. During his first and third terms Mr. Bell was president of the Senate. In the warm contest between Mayes and Bushyhead, November, 1887, when the latter refused to vacate his seat, and a quorum could not be effected for the counting of the votes, Mr. Bell with his party entered the executive office and turned over the official seal to Mayes, who was thereupon sworn in, while Bushyhead retired with as good a grace as could be expected under the circumstances. In 1886 Mr. Bell was delegated to Washington by Chief Mayes. In the various important issues that have been brought before the Cherokees in the past ten years Mr. Bell has taken an active part. He is a man of great energy and pluck, aggressive and obstinate in disposition, yet, withal, a statesman of no ordinary ability. His popularity is indicated by the number of high offices which he has held in the government since 1870.

Austin, William Livingston (pp. 317, 319, 320) Biographical Index
William Livingstone Austin was born November 9, 1830, at Trincomalee, Ceylon Island, East Indies, the son of Dr. William Austin, of the Queen's Own Regiment and a hero of Waterloo. His mother was daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel William Morris. When the subject of our sketch was an infant in arms, his mother, en route homeward with the regiment, touched at the island of St. Helena, and being fatigued while visiting the great Napoleon's last quarters, was placed upon the bed of the departed hero. Thus W. L. Austin had the honor of sleeping on Napoleon's bed. His uncle, Robert Austin, surgeon of the frigate Shannon, was in the memorable contest with the Chesapeake off Boston Harbor. After the battle the Shannon towed the Chesapeake to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where Austin's father was stationed, and he assisted Surgeon Robert Austin in caring for the American and English wounded. His sister, Mary Austin, married David Ross, grandson of Lord Ross, who was killed at Baltimore. The subject of this sketch was educated at Fulham, London, for four years, and completed his studies at Lennoxville, Canada, under the tutorship of Sir Jaspar Nicolls, B. A., University of Oxford. William L. entered commercial life in Montreal, Canada, at the same time that his father was living at Sherbrook, side by side with Jefferson Davis ---these gentlemen being stanch friends. On leaving Canada young Austin went West with gun and dog in search of hunting and adventure, and found himself after twelve months in Harrisonville, Cass County, Missouri. Here he taught school for two sessions, and at length embarked in commerce with John Cummins, late of Paris, Texas. On January 4, 1854, in the same town, he married Miss Susan Elizabeth Keller, a Virginian, closely related to the Prices of Missouri. By this marriage he has two children --- Myra (Mrs. Allen) and Mary Ross Potter, widow of Warren Potter, late assistant postmaster of Kansas City. Mr. Austin devoted many years to commercial enterprises, representing prominent business firms in New York, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Kansas City. He was a commercial tourist, and has ridden out of St. Louis before the days of railroads. In the spring of 1873, while traveling near Okmulgee, his camp was burned and his property destroyed, whereupon Captain Severs employed him in his store, and he remained at the Creek capital for five years. Afterward he opened business in Shawneetown, and there traded for a year and a half, until 1880, when he became accidentally involved in a shooting scrape in Muskogee one night, and was shot in the leg. The scuffle resulted in his being taken to Fort Smith and put to such heavy expense that it broke him up in business. Since then he has traveled for various business firms through the Indian Territory. Indeed, since youth, he has been more or less associated with Indian people, preferring the natural life as exhibited by them to the artificial life of society. They have always treated him with hospitality, while he, in his humble way, has assisted them so far as lay within the limits of his power. In 1878 and 1879 Mr. Austin accompanied the Creek delegation to Washington, D. C. His family is located at McAlester, Choctaw Nation. His wife is greatly admired, being regarded as a model of refinement and amiability, while Mr. Austin himself is a gentleman of rare education, though not the less a sportsman --- devoted passionately to the rod and gun.

Parks, Hon. George W. (pp. 260, 261) Biographical Index
Hon. G. W. Parks, deceased, supreme judge of the Cherokee Nation, was born in Monroe County, Tennessee, March 20, 1820, and emigrated with his father and family to the present nation in 1838. George received a common school education, and at eighteen years of age was appointed wagon master by Gen. Winfield Scott, who conducted the Cherokees to their homes in the Indian Territory. George remained in the new country two years, after which he returned home, and at his father's death embarked in the dry goods business in 1840, in Cleveland, Tennessee, on a capital of $4,000. Remaining there until October, 1867, he sold out and came West, but the war had shattered his fortune and he arrived in the nation with only two good wagons and teams and $9 in money, his family consisting of a wife and eight children. During the war he had served in Wheeler's Cavalry, Joseph E. Johnson's army, and participated in a number of battles. In 1852 he joined the Masonic fraternity at Cleveland, Tennessee, and there took the Royal Arch Degrees, filling almost all the stations of the Blue Lodge and Chapter, but since coming West he has never affiliated with the order. Judge Parks married Miss Louisa Spriggs, August 9, 1844. She was the daughter of Ezekiel Spriggs, her mother being a McCoy, of Scotch descent. Mrs. Parks is a most charitable and hospitable lady and a loving wife. Their family consists of six children, two having died some years ago. The survivors are named Susan Caroline, Samuel C., Lucy Cordelia, Dondina, George W. and Ruth. In 1880 Mr. Parks was elected associate supreme judge of the Cherokee Nation, and held the position until his death, which occured November, 1883. Judge Parks, on his mother's side, was descended from Lord Fox, an English nobleman, who married a Cherokee at the time that the British troops garrisoned Charleston, North Carolina. Her maiden name was Taylor. The judge's father was Samuel Parks, of Irish descent, who died in Bradley County, Tennessee, in 1841. Judge Parks, during his active and not unromantic life, enjyed several prominent positions in the old State, among them the office of mayor of Cleveland, Tennessee, which he held for six years. In appearance he was rather tall, possessing sharp angular features and gray eyes. He was a temperate man, and of a sociable disposition, while in his capacity of judge he is reputed to have acquitted himself honorably, wisely and conscientiously.

Byrd, Governor William L. (pp. 321, 322) Biographical Index
The life of William L. Byrd has undergone many changes within the past three years. His early career of uneventful peace has given place to one of excessive turbulence. The quiet, plodding business man of long ago is now metamorphosed into a ruler whose every action is looked forward to with something very much akin to dread. His recent conduct in the disfranchisement of the white citizens was alone sufficient to gain him notoriety. But let us commence at the beginning.

William L. Byrd, from the most reliable information, was born in Poutotoe, Mississippi, being the son of John Byrd, a white man and Mary Moore, of Chickasaw and Irish descent. Some of Mr. Byrd's political opponents declare him to have been a white child, adopted in infancy by the family; but we do not see any grounds for this supposition. In youth William was sent to school at Pine Ridge, Choctaw Nation, and later to the Chickasaw Male Academy. The first office he held in the service of his country was that of representative, in 1867, and afterward draughsman of the House for two sessions. At this time he was residing in the Choctaw Nation. Moving to Stonewall in 1875, he was elected one of three in 1887 to revise the Chickasaw laws. In 1881 he was appointed school superintendent, and in 1882 was elected delegate to Washington; was national agent until 1885, and the following year was a candidate for the governorship against William Guy, ex-Governor Wolf, B. C. Burris, Palmer Moseley and R. L. Boyd. The result was considerably in Guy's favor; but, as usual, when a candidate fails to secure a majority of the total votes cast, the matter was referred to the Legislature, and Guy was elected by only one majority over Byrd. In 1888 the race between Byrd and Guy was again run, resulting as before; but Byrd's party being in a majority in the legislature body, they resolved to contest the election, and so doing, cast out a score of devils in the shape of illegal votes, electing Byrd by a majority of forty-eight. Here was a repetition of the Overton-Harris affair, and which was followed by disagreeable results, the United States being called upon to decide the quarrel. Here, again, Byrd was victorious, Uncle Sam being partial to the man of sober aspect and business parts. In 1890, when Sam Paul was in the arena as a representative candidate of the Progressive party, Governor Byrd met him in the lists and defeated him by an immense majority. The disfranchisement of the white voters accounts for this majority, for had the latter been permitted to vote, Paul must undoubtedly have been the victor. In less than a week after the election, the report was passed far and wide that Byrd had been assassinated; but no attempt of the kind has ever come to light. The governor declares his intention of looking after the interests of all his people, without respect to their political creed, nor will he interfere with the landed rights of the white citizens. This he has declared to the writer of this present biography. Governor Byrd entered the mercantile business in 1873, at Doaksville, and moved to Stonewall, where he has been doing an immense business. He has 300 acres under cultivation and 1,000 head of graded cattle. In 1862 he married Susan Folsom, daughter of David Folsom, ex-chief of the Choctaws, but has no family. The children of his neighbors, of whom he is extremely fond, rejoice in climbing to the knees of the big, good-natured man, while he is reading what the press has to say about his barbarous treatment of the white man. Governor Byrd, on his mother's side, is of the house of In-cun-no-mar.

Smith, John A. (p. 460) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born September 12, 1846, at Williamstown, Massachusetts, eldest son of Joseph Smith, of Vermont, a prominent mechanic of that State. John's mother was a Miss Cope. John attended public school until he was seventeen years, after which he went to railroading, and from 1861 to 1867 continued that business, when he went West to the Cherokee Nation, and was appointed deputy marshal under Marshal Roots Sarber. He rode for the first court ever held in Fort Smith, serving during two terms of Marshal Buttons' office. There are at present only two (including Mr. Smith) of the first deputies who survived the perils attached to the commission in those days. In 1874 Mr. Smith gave up his commission and opened a farm in Coowescowee district. In 1888 he opened a grocery business in Chelsea. April 15, 1873, he married Miss Susan Williams, daughter of L. B. Williams, a Cherokee by intermarriage in the Bigbee family. Mr. and Mrs. Smith have but one surviving child, Addie, born March 16, 1875. Mrs. Smith is a lady of refinement, gentle and kindly in disposition. Mr. Smith is above the middle height; a man of natural intelligence and good business qualifications. He is owner of 30 head of cattle, some mules, horses, and 160 acres in cultivation. His stock in trade is worth about $1,000, while he has a comfortable residence near Chelsea, at his farm, and several town lots.

Smith, John M. (p. 436) Biographical Index
John M. Smith was born December 2, 1834, in New York County, the son of Harvey D. Smith and Miss S. Cook, of the same county. John attended public school until the age of eighteen years, after which he devoted himself to agriculture, until his twentieth year, when he became a frontiersman and spent many years on the Texas border. In 1857 he went to Missouri, and began the nursery business, and in 1866 moved to the Cherokee Nation, settling at Fort Gibson, where he was employed by the government as wagon boss. In 1868 he commenced the nursery business in Tahlequah, and carries it on until the present day. Mr. Smith has been known for many years by the title of "Apple Tree Smith," and has sold over 75,000 trees in the Indian Territory, and these of the very finest quality only. Mr. Smith married Miss Evaline Martin, daughter of H. Martin, and connected with many of the oldest Cherokee families. By this marriage he has nine children, five of whom are girls. These young ladies are all natural musicians; the eldest, Susie, as a musical genius is quite a wonder, and compares favorably with Blind Tom, the celebrated pianist. Mr. Smith owns a farm of 200 acres, 100 head of cattle and 16 head of horses and mules, eighteen miles from Tahlequah. He also owns 300 acres of land, 200 of which are in cultivation, within two miles of Tahlequah. Mr. Smith has recently commenced dealing in pianos and organs, and is doing a very fair trade, and dealing only in the best instruments. Mr. Smith is six feet high, weighs 175 pounds, and a strong, healthy man, being both active and energetic. Few men in the territory are better known than "Apple Tree Smith."

Taylor, Thomas Fox (pp. 460, 461) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in East Tennessee, in 1818, the eldest son of Richard Taylor, half Cherokee. His mother was a Miss McDaniel, a white lady. Thomas Fox was educated at the missionary schools of Tennessee, and at the Nashville and Knoxville colleges. At an early age he became a prominent politician, being endowed with a rare fluency of speech both in English and Cherokee. His first offices were those of clerk of the house and interpreter, after which he was elected to the house as a representative, and afterwards to the senate, unfortunately, however, he was killed in a skirmish near Fort Gibson during the civil war. He was lieutenant-colonel of Stand Watie's brigade when he was killed. Thomas Fox Taylor was not only a natural orator, but a brilliant wit, and the center of attraction wherever he went. He was a dashing officer, and invariably the leader when any adventure or enterprise was to be undertaken. Thomas Fox Taylor's name will be long remembered and revered among his people.

Belt, Mrs. Artelle (pp. 160, 161) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch is the second daughter of Rev. E. W. King, a leading citizen of Sebastian County, Arkansas. MIss Artelle, was born October, 1857, in Greenwood, Arkansas, and attended common school until the age of fifteen, after which she entered the Industrial University at Fayetteville, attending seven years, and graduating in the classical and normal courses in June, 1880. Being well adapted for teaching, Miss Artelle King taught school for two years in Hackett, Arkansas, and while there obtained the admiration and affection of her pupils, and indeed, all with whom she came in contact. During her stay in Hackett, MIss King became acquainted with J. C. Belt, and they were married at Fort Smith, Arkansas, December, 1883. After marriage Mrs. Belt gave up teaching, and has since helped her husband in the mercantile business. Mrs. Belt is a highly accomplished and most fascinating young woman, of great refinement and amiability of disposition. Ever zealous for the right, she is a stanch friend to the temperance cause, and all other measures and means tending to the moral elevation of mankind.

Belt, John C. (pp. 158, 159) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born May 3, 1854, and is the eldest son of William F. Belt and Margaret I. John's parents moved from Tennessee to Arkansas in or about 1847, where they were in the mercantile business. In his younger days John was sent to a neighborhood school. Leaving his family about the year 1877, he commenced dealing in merchandise on his own account at Sans Bois, Choctaw Nation, in which business he continued for one year. In 1878 he moved to Hackett City, Arkansas, entering the same line (merchandise) and successfully following it for a period of six years.  In 1884 he left there, removing to Brooken, Choctaw Nation, and here he continued for over six years, proving himself an excellent as well as popular merchant. In December, 1890, he opened a stock in Eufaula, at the same time embarking in the livery business. In the August following he commenced the erection of an extensive building, 30x112 feet, with large ware-rooms, and capable of holding at least $50,000 worth of stock. Although only just opened out, this fine house is furnished with over $30,000 worth of goods, of every possible variety, including all classes of general merchandise, and its proprietor proposes to allow no competitor to sell goods at lower prices. Special attention is called to his clothing department, and here he carries a stock most varied in style and assortment. His livery stable has just been refitted and refurnished with buggies, harness, etc., etc. He is also agent for the McCormack mowers and reapers. Mr. Belt was married June 24, 1876, to Miss Ida M. Kezette, stepdaughter to L. Quinn, of Fort Smith, Arkansas. By this marriage he had two children, Willie L. and George A., who died before he was eight months old, in September, 1879, his mother having passed away in February of the same year. In 1884 Mr. Belt married Miss Artelle A. King, second daughter of Rev. E. W. King (of the M. E. Chuch, N.) of Sebastian County, Arkansas, a prominent and well-known clergyman. Mrs. Belt is a young woman of superior education. She was teaching in the public school at Hackett City, Arkansas, when she first met her husband. Mr. Belt is undoubtedly one of the brightest among the young business men of the territory, as is evidenced by the great success he has achieved within a very few years. He is affable and courteous in manner, and is looked upon as highly honorable in all his business transactions. He is a member of the Masonic order, and has been for the past seven years, while for five years or over he has been a member of the Knights of Honor.

Bell, John A. (pp. 452, 453) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch, father to the present Lucien B. (Hooley) Bell, was born January 1, 1805, in South Carolina. He was the son of John Bell, whose father was Scotch-Irish and emigrated to this country during the persecution. John A. Bell, the subject of this sketch, was one of the leaders of the treaty party, and one of the first signers of the document that afterwards doomed to death Elias Boudinot and the two Ridges. In 1837 he emigrated to the new country, and settled near Evansville, Arkansas, in the Flint district, but during the troubles immediately preceding 1846 he sojourned in the State of Arkansas, finally making his home on Beattie's Prairie, Cherokee Nation. In 1847 he opened a plantation in Rusk County, Texas, and later moved his negroes on the place. Here resided his father, John Bell, who died in the year 1853. John A. Bell was representative of the treaty party from 1835 to 1846, and was more than once delegated to Washington, D. C. He married Jane Martin, daughter of John Martin, who, at different periods, was national treasurer, national delegate, and judge at the time of his death. John A. Bell died on his property in Texas in 1860, after a useful life of fifty-five years. He was a patriot at heart, and sincerely regretted by his people.

Childers, Ellis Buffentan (pp. 206, 208) Biographical Index
Ellis Buffentan Childers was born January 10, 1866, the third son of Napoleon B. Childers and Sophia Melford. N. B. Childers was a half Cherokee and white man, adopted by the Creeks at the termination of the war. Ellis' mother was one-fourth white and three-fourths Creek, while his grandfather, on both sides, was of English descent. The young man went to school at the old Tallahassee Mission in March, 1877, where he remained three years. Afterward he went to the Government School at Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, where he remained three years and a half. During these years he acquired the printer's trade, and left there in June, 1884. Unfortunately, however, owing to lack of means, he was unable to return and complete his education. After he spent two years on a cattle ranch, until 1886, when he began to assist his father in agricultural pursuits, and with him he remained two years. In January, 1888, he married Miss Fannie Davis, daughter of Mr. Joe Davis, a United States citizen, by whom he had two children--- Walter aged two years, and Irene, one year. In 1887 he was elected a member of the House of Warriors (the youngest member of the Lower House), and in 1891 was again elected for a further term of four years. Mr. Childers first becmae prominent in the House by his defense of the present chief, when the Muskogee party used every effort to impeach him. The young man's defense was a remarkable effort for one of his years and experience, and will go far in rendering him popular with his party. Mr. Childers owns about 50 head of cattle, 28 head of horses, 200 to 300 head of hogs, some good mules, and 60 acres of improved farm. He is now adding to this 150 acres of fine bottom land. Mr. Childers is a member of a stock company known as the Childers-Wilson Pasture Company. He belongs to the Presbyterian Church, and is a young man of bright intellect and pleasant manners. This young man was admitted to the bar in 1887, and has been practicing since that time --- the title of the firm is known as Childers & Mingo. This firm has a large practice, and Mr. Childers bids fair to shine in his profession in the near future.

Gibbs, Joseph L. (pp. 208, 209) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born February 20, 1835, in Chillicothe, O., the only son of James L. Gibbs, a merchant tailor. Joseph's mother was a Miss Donohoe, daughter of Amos Donohoe, of Leesburg, Va. Joseph went to school until fifteen years of age, when he began to learn the blacksmith's trade. In 1856 he stated business for himself at Clarksburg, Ohio, but moved his shop, in 1858, to Mattoon, Illinois, where he worked for twenty-three years. Then moving to Independence, Kansas, in September, 1881, he remained until the spring of 1884, when, moving to Claremore, Indian Territory, he reopened his shop, and in March, 1888, started hotel-keeping. He is now proprietor of the Pacific House, the principal hotel in Claremore. Mr. Gibbs married Miss M. J. Scoot, daughter of Dr. Archibald Scoot, of Tipton, Ohio, by whom he has five living children --- Joseph L., James F., Edward H., Charlotte and Etta F. Mr. Gibbs stands five feet eight and a half inches and weighs 140 pounds. He is a man of good business capacity and is popular in his own town, as is also Mrs. Gibbs, who is a lady of kind and charitable disposition, a good business manager and a gentle and loving wife and mother.

Ewing, Peter R. (pp. 209, 210) Biographical Index
Peter Ewing was born in 1860, the eldest son of Chuffee (which, in English, means rabbit), who was born in Georgia about 1816, and emigrated to the Creek Nation in 1833. His mother came from the same place, but died in 1878, a devout member of the Baptist Church. Peter attended a neighborhood school from the time he was thirteen years of age until sixteen, after which he went to Asberry Mission, near Eufaula, where he remained until 1880. After leaving that institution he assisted his father in agriculture for three months, and then went to school at Louisville, Ky., for six months, and from thence to the William Jewell College, at Liberty, Clay County, Missouri. Here he remained two years, until his health failed and he was obliged to return home. In 1882 he began clerking for G. W. Brodie, of Okmulgee, and after six months, moved to Muskogee, where he worked for Mr. Sanger in his mercantile establishment.  Returning to his father's home, he again went to school, this time to the Indian Baptist Mission, where he finished his Sophomore course. Leaving there in 1886, he commenced teaching public school in Eufaula district, which position he held until 1891, when he accepted an appointment in the mercantile house of J. C. Belt, Eufaula. On December 22, 1890, Mr. Ewing married Miss Susan McComb, third daughter of Rev. William McComb, of the Baptist Church and a half-blood Creek. Mrs. Ewing is three-fourths Creek and one-fourth white ---- a young lady of prepossessing appearance, good manners and address, and a bright scholar. She was a teacher in the Eufaula district for three years, and is president of the Baptist Missionary Society of the Seminole and Wichita Association, which position she has held for three years. Mr. Ewing is a member of the Baptist Church and the Masonic Order. He has fifty acres of improved farm a few miles from town, and a small bunch of cattle. He is a young man of intelligence and ambition and is rapidly qualifying himself for business pursuits. Mr. Ewing's father has been, since 1866, pastor of the West Eufaula Baptist Church, and is widely known for the extensive Christian work he has accomplished; and, although an old man, he is still active and energetic. He is related to the late Judge Stidham, of Eufaula. Mr. Ewing has never had any political aspirations.

Navin, William, M.D. (p. 206) Biographical Index
The subject of this biography was born December, 1850, in Jersey County, Illinois, the fifth son of James Navin, of Jersey County. His mother was a Miss Barker, of Alabama. William attended public school until he was eighteen years of age, after which he began teaching school in Calhoun County, Illinois, where he remained one year, and then engaged in the study of medicine at the St. Louis Medical College. Graduating and securing his diploma in 1872, he began practicing at his home and there remained until 1876, when he moved to Rush County, Kansas. Resuming his profession, he continued to practice in Kansas and Colorado until 1881, when he moved to Coodey's Bluff, Cherokee Nation. In 1883 he married Miss Newcome, eldest daughter of Artemus Newcome, of Delaware Reservation (now in the State of Kansas). Mrs. Navin is connected with the Conner family, of Delaware, and is a lady of good education and refinement. By this marriage there are three living children --- James, William and Ettie --- ranging from six months to six years of age. Dr. Navin has 250 acres in cultivation, and a small herd of cattle, horses and hogs. The doctor is a fine, intellectual-looking man, six feet two inches high, and weighing 225 pounds. As a physician he stands high, while he is very popular as a citizen.

Kornegay, Wade Hampton (p. 452) Biographical Index
Wade H. Kornegay was born April 17, 1865, in North Carolina, son of H. R. Kornegay and Miss Jeanette Williams. Mr. Kornegay was a leading lawyer, and served as high sheriff and clerk of the superior court, during and after the war. Until the age of fourteen, Wade was sent to the academies and high schools of his native county, and at fifteen, entered the Wake Forest College, Wake County, North Carolina, where he remained until he graduated in A.M., at the age of nineteen. After that he taught school four years, being principal of the Richland high school. In 1889 he took a summer law course at the University of Virginia, and from there went to Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, where in one year he took the regular two years' course, graduating in June, 1890, wiht the degree of LL. B. After twelve months spent in travel through the South-wester States and Territories, Mr. Kornegay located at Vinita, Indian Territory, where he is now practicing in the Federal courts. Mr. Kornegay is a gentleman of good address and agreeable manners, possessed of a superior classical education, and gifted with all those attributes necessary to the make-up of a successful lawyer. He is popular in his community and has a very fair practice.

Lipe, Oliver W. (pp. 211, 212) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born January, 1814, in Montgomery county, New York, the son of John C. Lipe, and grandson of Caspar Lipe, who emigrated to the country in 1710. Oliver, with his parents, settled on the Mohawk River, but he left home in 1835 en route to Santa Fe, New Mexico. He stopped off at Boonville, Mo., however, and after some time found his way to Georgia, where he enlisted in the public works --- Georgia Union Railroad Company --- and became a contractor. In 1837 he went to Athens, Tennessee, and the following year rode on horseback from that point to the present site of Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, and was present when the first constitutional convention was held in that nation. Mr. Lipe married Miss Kate Gunter, a half-breed, in 1839, by whom he had three children --- D. W. Lipe, Catherine (Mrs. C. Blaackstone), and Clark C. Lipe. For some years Mr. Lipe followed carpentering and farming till 1850, when he embarked in the mercantile business, and continued the same until 1880, being located at Tahlequah until 1866, after which he moved to Fort Gibson, where he now resides. In 1870 Mr. Lipe erected a grist and saw mill, which he ran until 1882. In 1881 he married Mrs. Belle Manuel, at Fayetteville, Arkansas, daughter of H. G. Cardwell, of Tennessee, by whom he has no family. At the age of eighteen years Mr. Lipe received a lieutenant's commission in New York State troops, and that of captain of the Nineteenth Regiment, Fourteenth Brigade, at nineteen years of age. In 1862 he served with the Confederacy as commissary for Stand Watie's command for several years. During the campaign he was present at the Battle of Wilson Creek and several scratch fights, among them the engagement near the bayou where John G. Lipe and Col. T. F. Taylor were slain. The first office held by Mr. Lipe in the Cherokee Nation was that of clerk to a court, before the adoption of the constitution. He happened to be riding past when Judge Jesse Bushyhead was trying a man for theft. Being called upon to act as clerk he accepted, and as a result was made an unwilling witness to the administration of fifty lashes on the bare back of the unfortunate culprit. In 1879 he was appointed commissioner for the high schools, which office he held for two years. In earlier days Mr. Lipe was repeatedly requested to fill various appointments, but he feared to accept of them owing to his slight knowledge of the language. His son, D. W. Lipe, is a prominent politician. He has been treasurer and is Senator of the Coowescowee district, and is an extensive stock owner and farmer.

Bushyhead, Dennis W. (pp. 117, 118, 119, 120) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March 18, 1826, in the State of Tennessee, the oldest son of Rev. Jesse Bushyhead, a well-known Baptist divine and who was associated for many years with Rev. Evan Jones in the translation of the Bible and other religious works. Rev. Jesse was several times delegate to Washington, and a commissioner on other important occasions. Dennis' mother was a Miss Eliza Wilkinson, a Georgian and half-breed Cherokee. The young man first attended school in 1833 at the Candy Creek Mission School, Tennessee, under charge of Rev. Holland. In 1835 he went to the Mission School at Valley River, N.C., and remained there one year. In 1838 his father, Rev. Jesse Bushyhead, conducted a detachment of Cherokees, numbering 1,000 souls, from the old nation to Beattie's Prairie, Delaware District, Indian Territory, and Dennis was among the party. In the following year, 1839, he attended mission school at Park Hill, Cherokee Nation, under charge of Rev. Samuel A. Worcester. Here he remained one year, after which, in 1841, he was sent to college in New Jersey. In March of the same year young Bushyhead joined Chief Ross' delegation to Washington to attend the inauguration of General Harrison as President of the United States. Dennis remained in New Jersey three years, completing his education in August, 1844, his father dying on July 17th of the same year.

In the fall of 1844 Mr. Bushyhead established a mercantile business close to where the Cherokee Orphanage is now located, which business he carried on until the spring of 1847. The following year he became Clerk of the National Committee, and in 1849 crossed the plains to California, being one of the first who ever undertook that perilous journey. During his absence he visited Sacramento, the Feather River, and various points of note, starting for San Francisco, Cal., in October, 1851, with the intention of there meeting some Cherokee friends and returning home by steamer. But they taking passage on a schooner, Dennis declined to accompany them, and , instead of returning home, went back to the mines of Callavaris County. In the meantime the ill-fated schooner was lost, while the subject of this sketch sailed for home via the Panama route, arriving safely at Fort Gibson on the last day of March, 1868, having spent eighteen years in the far West. Mr. Bushyhead opened business in Fort Gibson in 1871, and began to interest himself in politics about the same time. In November of that year he was elected treasurer of the nation, held the office four years, and was re-elected in 1875 for the following four years. In August, 1879, Mr. Bushyhead was elected Principal Chief of the Cherokees, and was re-elected in 1883 for the four years following. In 1889 and 1890 ex-Chief Bushyhead was elected Delegate to Washington, and in November of the latter year was one of the three commissioners who treated with the government in the sale of the Western Reservation.

Governor Bushyhead married Mrs. Scrimcher, of Fort Gibson, in September, 1879. By this marriage they had four children --- Jesse C., now a physician at Claremore; Eliza, Catherine and Dennis Jr.

Governor Bushyhead again married in October, 1883, his wife being Eloise P. Butler, daughter of James L. Butler, of South Carolina (brother to Senator Butler), and grand-niece to Commodore Perry. By this marriage Mr. Bushyhead has two children --- James Butler, born October 6, 1884, and Francis Taylor, May 10, 1887. Mrs. Bushyhead was educated at the national schools and completed her studies in Philadelphia. She is a lady of great personal beauty and possessed of many accomplishments, added to which she is a loving wife and a tender and affectionate mother. Ex-Governor Bushyhead is a rather large, well-built man, with a fine face indicative of strength and motive power. He was at one time a most prominent man, but his party is out of power at the present time.

Perryman, Joseph M. (pp. 120, 121,122) Biographical Index
This prominent citizen was born near Muskogee, Creek Nation, in 1833, the third son of Mayes Perryman, who held many high ofices during his life-time. The young man was sent to school at Coweta Mission until 1853, when he began his studies for the Presbyterian ministry, continuing the same for three years. Before the breaking out of the war he was licensed to preach the gospel, but when the tocsin of war was sounded he joined the Confederate service under Colonel D. N. McIntosh, and held rank in various capacities until the close. When the war ended he went to Wappanucka, Chickasaw Nation, and was there ordained for the Presbyterian ministry of the Creek Nation. It was then that Mr. Perryman organized what is known as the North Fork Presbyterian Church. At this period he took charge of the mission school under the South Presbyterian Synod, and held the position for four years.

The state of the country, together with a train of circumstances, conspired to force Mr. Perryman to the front in the political arena, and he was elected member of the National Senate, which office he filled for eight years. In 1874 he became treasurer of the nation, and held the position until 1878 or 1879. It was during this period of office that a great change occurred in the religious convictions of Mr. Perryman, which led to his change of faith. Abandoning the Presbyterian, he became a staunch believer and member of the Baptist Church, and was soon afterwards ordained minister. But the political condition of the country demanded his services, and so forbid his taking an active part in missionary work, for in 1883 he was elected Governor of the Creek Nation, and held the office for four years. In 1890, although anxious to retire from politics, Mr. Perryman was again induced to accept preferment, being elected by the council to fill the responsible position of President of the Board of Education, which office he holds at present. Indeed, it appears as though he were destined to "walk in high places," by far the greater portion of his life having been spent in fulfilling executive, legislative, and administrative duties. It must not be forgotten that Mr. Perryman has also had considerable experience on the bench, having occupied the honorable position of Judge of the Supreme Courts in or about the year 1873. He was also Superintendent of Public Schools about 1866. A member of the blue lodge of Masonry, our subject has filled the offices of secretary and junior warden in that order.

September 1, 1879, Mr. Perryman married Miss Ellen Marshall, daughter of Nicholas Marshall, who died during the war time. By his first wife he had three children, now married, viz., Mrs. Ellen McIntosh, Mrs. F. Allen, and Robert Perryman. His present wife was educated for a teacher, having taught for two years before her marriage, and is at present giving public instruction in Eufaula, where she is universally admired and respeceted. Mr. and Mrs. Perryman have a beautiful home in Eufaula, furnished with everything that can add to the comfort and luxury of life. They are very popular among their people.

Bennett, Leo E., M.D. (pp. 122, 123, 124) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born at Wyandotte, Kansas, November 27, 1857. His father, Dr. James E. Bennett (deceased), was a physician and surgeon --- graduated of the University of Maryland. He served in the Fourteenth Kansas Cavalry throughout the war, after which he was postmaster in Fort Smith, Arkansas, during Grant's administration.

Leo received his education at Rugby Academy, Wilmington, Delaware, and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, graduating in medicine at the University of Tennessee in 1883. Between the years 1869 and 1872 he served his apprenticeship in the newspaper business at Fort Smith, Arkansas.

In the fall of 1883 he removed to Eufaula, Creek Nation, where, in addition to the private practice, he was employed as United States examining surgeon for pensions and surgeon of the Missouri Pacific Railway. Dr. Bennett, on account of the illness of his father, returned to Fort Smith in the spring of 1884, and there engaged in practice. In the fall of the same year he was married, at Eufaula, to Louie, youngest daughter of Judge G. W. Stidham, Chief Justice of the Creek Nation. About six weeks afterward his father died, and this event was followed by the death of his mother eight months later. In the spring of 1885 Dr. Bennett located near Eufaula and recommenced practice. Just two years afterward he purchased the material of the Indian Journal and moved it to Eufaula. Selling out in a few months, he bought a new plant and started the Muskogee Phoenix (February, 1888), which he conducted until April, 1889, when he was appointed United States Indian Agent for the Indians of the Union Agency, embracing the five civilized tribes, which position he still holds; and at this writing (October, 1891) has been appointed "Special Disbursing Agent" to make payments to Delaware Indians of nearly a half million of dollars, and for which he gave a bond with sworn security of more than one million and a quarter dollars, filling the bond in less than twenty-four hours.

Agent Bennett owns 1,000 acres of improved farm land in the Creek Nation, besides two eighty-acre farms in Arkansas. He is also owner of good town property in Muskogee, Eufaula and Wagoner; add to this one hundred head of cattle and twenty horses. Agent Bennett is one of the incorporators and a director of the First National Bank of Muskogee, as als of the Adams Hotel Company, of the same town. He has been president of the Muskogee Live Stock Association, representing some 80,000 head of cattle, for three years. He was also President of the Indian National Fair Association in 1888.

At the present time Mr. Bennett is United States Commissioner for the Western District of Arkansas; also treasurer of the Board of United States Examining Surgeons for Pensions, at Muskogee. The subject of our sketch is a member of the Astrea Chapter, No. 14, Order of the Eastern Star. He is serving his third term as Grand Master of Masons of the Indian and Oklahoma Territories, being a member of Muskogee Lodge, No. 28. He is Grand Scribe in Muskogee Chapter, No. 3. He is also a member of the Oklahoma Council,Royal and Select Masters, and Sir Knight Generalissimo in Muskogee Commandry, No. 1; is Past Grand Chancellor and Supreme Representative of the Knights of Pythias of the Indian Territory, and a member of Phoenix Lodge, No. 3 (so named in honor of the newspaper founded by him.). Mr. Bennett has two children --- Gertie Ethel, aged six, and Louie Abie, aged four years.

In personal appearance Agent Bennett is tall and rather slight, refined and intellectual-looking. His address and bearing indicate refinement and an education above the average. Few men have risen so rapidly or attained so much in such a brief period as Agent Bennett. Not only does he stand high with the present government, but with the people of all races and denominations. He is a gentleman of high moral rectitude and a good Christian.

Guy, Gov. William Malcolm (pp. 125, 126, 127, 128) Biographical Index
So long as the noble or virtuous man breathes the breath of life, so long shall malice and envy strive to feast at the expense of his reputation. But only let death intervene, and behold the halo gather round his name. Who is there among the Chickasaw people at the present day ready or willing to cast a slur upon the memory of Cyrus Harris, the great and good; though, while he lived, see him surrounded by traducers and political enemies numberless? Verily does history repeat itself in his nephew, William Malcolm Guy, who, following the example of his uncle, permitted the "rule or ruin" faction to seize the reins of government rather than plunge his country in a disastrous war. Yet for this act of self-sacrifice --- laudable in his uncle --- Guy is nnot unfrequently branded with timidity.

William Malcolm Guy was born at Boggy Depot, Choctaw Nation, February 4, 1845, the son of Colonel William Richard Guy, who served faithfully in the Florida war. William Malcolm Guy was sent to a neighborhood school in the Chickasaw Nation, but being of a rather wild, adventurous disposition, ran off to Mississippi, where he went to school until the breaking out of the war in 1861, when he joined the Seventeenth Mississippi Regiment under Colonel Fetherstone. In the campaign which followed from the fight at Bull's Run until the battle of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863, where the gallant young soldier was wounded in the head and had his left arm shattered by a musket ball, Guy was everywhere in the front ranks. When stricken down he lay twelve hours on the battle-field before removal to the field hospital, and it was three days before his wound was operated upon, his youth and vigorous health alone saving his life. Before his complete recovery he was made a prisoner and sent to Baltimore, where he remained until exchanged to City Point, Va. At the conclusion of the war, instead of returning home, he entered college at Marshall Institute, Mississippi, where he stayed for two years, coming back to Boggy Depot in 1868, where he found his three married sisters residing. Soon afterward he moved to Mill Creek and aided his uncle, Cyrus Harris, in the stock business. In 1870 he entered the field of politics, being elected secretary of the Chickasaw Senate, in which capacity he served six years, off and on. In 1883, he was elected Representative of his county, and in 1885 and 1886 distinguished himself in the Upper House, where he gained the reputation of being an incorruptible as well as a wise legislator.

Guy was first brought out for Governor by his uncle, ex-Governor Harris, in the summer of 1888, against William Byrd, C. E. Burris and ex-Governor Jonas Wolf; but, notwithstanding a large majority accorded to him at the polls, the race, as is usual when there are more than two candidates, resolved itself into a legislative contest of a most exciting nature, which resulted in a majority of one for Guy. The new executive had no sooner been installed than he proceeded to select officers. This he did without partiality and with due regard to their fitness, distributing the favors equally between his own political friends and those of the opposite faction; but he had no sooner done so than a member of his own cabinet, hailing from the opposite ranks, and on whom he had conferred the office because of his poverty and inability for hard work, turned upon his benefactor, and, falling into the ranks of enemy, lent himself to every scheme which might serve to damage or confuse the new administration. Following closely on this was the Governor's treaty with the Santa Fe Railroad, whereby he received, upon his own responsibility (and in accordance with the constitutional provisions), a large sum of money for the benefit of the nation, but which action was used with great efficiency to prejudice the fullbloods against him. When this was to some extent accomplished, Hon. Lem Beynolds, a statesman of unquestionable ability and the recognized central figure of the opposition group, proceeded to shake the foundation of every institution conducted by the party in power. One of the results of this move was the appointment of Professor Harley, a white man, as lessee and superintendent of the Chickasaw National Male Academy, in the room of Judge Ben Carter, brother-in-law of Governor Guy. This was accomplished by securing a majority in the Legislature.

The Byrd party, through constant misrepresentations, finally gained a decided advantage in both Houses, so that when the Governor's term had elapsed and he was again elected by a majority of fourteen of the public vote, the Legislature called for a count and ruled out sufficient names to seat William Byrd, who was duly sworn in as Governor of the Chickasaw Nation.

On the night of September 26, 1888, the deposed chieftain arrived in Tishomingo with a following of nearly two hundred men, and, placing himself in readiness for a coup d' etat, entered the capital next morning, concealing his presence until the members repaired to the House and proceeded to business. Governor Guy forced the honorable Speaker to read the election returns in the condition they were in before their alteration, and to immediately announce the result of the same, which he did after considerable hesitation --- not, however, until the Hon. Sam Paul had delivered a speech that was too logical not to have a mighty influence upon the argument. Judge Duncan was then called upon to officiate, and Guy was inaugurated governor of the nation. A little later a member of the Byrd faction, under the crafty advice of Colonel Reynolds, made a motion to adjourn sine die, which was seconded, and the members rose to their feet and hurriedly left the town. The majority of the Guy men remained at the capital for two days, after which the governor received orders from a higher power to disband his forces. About this time, while the turbulence of party spirit was at its height, Guy was waylaid and his life attempted; but, having the prudence to travel with a body-guard, he escaped death at the hands of his would-be assassin.

Soon after these occurrences Major Heath was sent from Washington to report the condition of affairs at the Chickasaw capital. On first arriving he met with Governor Byrd, and shortly afterward invited both contestants to meet him. They did so, and came to an understanding that the decision should rest with the authorities at Washington. Guy was without the shadow of a doubt as to the result. Why should he hesitate to have it settled by arbitration? The United States Indian Agent had unhesitatingly pronounced him governor by a majority of the public vote. Meanwhile the Byrd faction wore a gloomy aspect --- all save one, the placid leader himself, who could ill conceal the smile of triumph which threatened to completely over-run his countenance. At length the decision arrived, and its results was equally astonishing to both parties. Byrd was governor, not by the unanimous wish of his people, but by express desire of the United States authorities at Washington. Readers, place whatever construction you will upon the foregoing, it capable of but one rendition, and "he who runs can read." There are still some members of the Guy party who condemn their later leader for hesitating to assert his own and his people's rights; but when we consider the loss of life that such a course would necessitate, as well as its disastrous result to the tribal government, we are bound in all justice to admit that Guy acted with a moral heroism only to be met with in men of a superior stamp. Upon himself personally it was a great hardship to relinquish the leadership of his people without striking a blow, surrounded as he was by nearly three-fourths of the available fighting men of his country.

The deposed governor made a few comments about the state of affairs; but, viewing the situation philosophically, and pleased that none had suffered to gratify his ambition, retired to his bachelor home, and there, with his usual energy and industry, spent the two years which followed in the extension and improvement of his farm. Soon afterward the press announced to a numerous circle of relatives and acquaintances that ex-Governor William Malcolm Guy had broken the bonds of celibacy by marriage with Miss Maggie Jane Lindsay, daughter of the late John Lindsay, Knoxville, Tenn., a pretty and refined young lady of nineteen years of age. The ceremony was performed within the limits of the home circle, at the residence of his brother-in-law, Judge B. W. Carter, at Ardmore, only the old bachelors of his acquaintance being invited to be present on the occasion.

Ward, Darius E. (pp. 128, 129) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born November 23, 1854, at Beattus Prairie, near Mayesville, on the line of the Cherokee Nation. Darius was the eldest son of the Rev. James Ward, the first Moravian missionary that came among the Cherokees. He married a grand-daughter of Chief Lowrey, illustrious in the nation's history. Darius Ward is therefore a Cherokee by blood. In 1862 his father was assassinated,  close to his home, whle hunting some stray stock. The country was in a state of political agitation at the time, and numerous murders were committed. The above outrage was perpetrated by a party of "Pin" Indians, who followed up their crime by visiting the house of the dead minister and forcing Mrs. Ward and her family of helpless children to mount on horseback and accompany them twenty-five miles into the wilderness, away from any human habitation. Here they were left to their fate, and would, no doubt, have perished, were it not for a special providence which endowed the mother with a courage and fortitude sublime. The love for her children was such that the unfortunate lady made almost superhuman efforts to retrace her steps, and, strange as it may appear, struck a direct path for home, reaching there in two days, having carried two of her children every step of the way. Finding the house deserted on her arrival, and ready to sink with weariness, she started out with her oldest boy in search for her husband. They had not gone more than a quarter of a mile before they found the remnants of his body scattered over a considerable tract, having been torn to pieces by the wolves. His shirt was also discovered, and found to contain a number of bullet holes. The terrible shock which followed the event, in a very short time caused death to this heroic and devoted mother. Being a stanch adherent to the Moravian church, she expressed a wish that her children should be brought up under the guidance of the church, consequently Darius, the subject of our sketch, was sent to Nazareth Hall, Nazareth, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, where he spent five years in being educated, with several Cherokee boys of the Ross family. From there Darius moved to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where he was apprenticed to William Walp & Co., cabinetmakers. Here he remained four years and a half, after which  he went to Philadelphia, where he began house-carpentering under instruction, and returned to Bethlehem in the fall of 1875, where he married Miss Sarah C. Ritter of that place. In 1876 he removed to Vinita, Indian Territory, and became a builder and contractor, doing a large business throughout the country. In 1887 he was appointed inspector of public buildings by the administration in power, which office he held until a change took place. In 1884 Mr. Ward moved to Tahlequah, Indian Territory, and there, in 1885, took charge of J. W. Stapler's hardward establishment, which appointment he holds at present. Mr. Ward has six children --- Minnie E., J. Herbert, James D., Hindman H., Sydney R. and Gertie. Mr. Ward is five ten inches and weighs 178 pounds. He is a man of good, sound sense, well educated and courteous in manner and address.

Porter, General Pleasant (pp. 161, 162, 164) Biographical Index
This illustrious citizen of the Muskogee Tribe was born in that nation, on the Arkansas River, September 26, 1840. His father, Benj. E. Porter, of Norristown, Pennsylvania, was a white man of Irish descent. HIs mother was a daughter of Tartope Tustennuggee, Chief of the Okmulgees, while his grandmother was a sister to Samuel and Benjamin Perryman. General Porter is a grand-nephew to R. W. Porter, ex-Governor of Pennsylvania. When ten years of age, Pleasant was sent to the Presbyterian Mission School at Tallahassee for five years, after which he engaged in farming until the outbreak of the war, when he enlisted in the Confederate service as a private soldier, receiving various promotions until he reached the rank of first lieutenant. After the war he devoted much time to the re-establishment of the schools which had been long closed, and for several terms acted as school superintendent. In November, 1872, in St. Louis, he married Miss M. Keys, the daughter of Judge Reilly Keys, who has been for twenty years Chief Justice of the Creek Nation. By this marriage he had three children, William Adair, Pleasant S., and Annie Mary. His wife dying in 1886, he married Miss Mattie L. Bertholf, cousin to his deceased wife, by whom he had four children, three of whom died in infancy. The survivor, two and a half years old, is named Lenora E. Mr. Porter has served six years in the House of Warriors and eight in the House of Kings; of the latter he was presiding officer for one term. He has also been a delegate to Washington during thirteen different sessions of Congress, attending to the interests of the people, and he has contributed largely to the success of many of the most important measures affecting the welfare of the people. As a diplomatist, General Porter has few superiors, here or elsewhere. In the Esparhecher war General Porter  took an active part. He was given complete military authority, and the nation was placed under martial law, consequently he wielded unlimited power, which he used in a manner highly creditable, as but few lives were lost ere the insurrection was quelled and peace restored. Upon two other occasions General Porter quelled distrubances, which, but for his superior diplomacy, might have terminated in a series of civil wars. General Porter is a large agriculturist, having a farm of 4,000 acres, 800 of which are in cultivation. He has also about 2,000 head of stock, and property to the value of $50,000 in Muskogee. He is a tall, handsome, distinguished-looking man, with a military bearing and polished manners. He is well read on most subjects, and is greatly interested in the education of his people, that they may soon be prepared to accept citizenship and statehood.

Flournoy, D. H. (pp. 164, 165) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March 1, 1848, in Nachedotches, Texas, and is son of Samuel Flournoy, originally from near Lexington, Kentucky, and at one time owner of a large plantation and a number of slaves. Samuel Flournoy organized a company in 1846 and went with Samuel Houston to the Mexican war. The subject of our sketch, D. H. Flournoy, was educated at a private school until the age of sixteen, when he joined the Confederacy, serving under Colonel Crump until the close of the war. On his return home he worked in the cattle business until 1871, when he married Miss Anna Wilson, daughter of Captain John Wilson, of Wood County, Texas. After this Mr. Flournoy engaged in farming in Wood County until 1884, and then returned to the Indian Territory, locating on Grand River, and there remained for five years farmiing. In 1885 he removed to Tahlequah, the capital, and engaged in the hotel business, which he continued until his removal to Chelsea, in January, 1891, where he has followed the same business until the present. By his marriage Mr. Flournoy has six children, five of whom are living and are named respectively: Ellen M., born August 9, 1872; Lella J., born April 15, 1874; Roligh D., born July 15, 1876; Walter G., born February 2, 1882; and Clara May, born September 2, 1884. Mrs. Flournoy is a cousin of the late Chief Mayes. She is a lady of accomplishments and well educated, possessing many good social qualities, which endear her to all who have the pleasure of her acquaintance. She is connected with some of the leading families of the nation --- the Adairs, Thompsons, Fields, etc. Mr. and Mrs. Flournoy are worth about $3,000 in real estate and other property, some of which is located in Texas.

Haynes, Samuel Jonathan (pp. 165, 166) Biographical Index
Born in 1861, the son of John Haynes, a full-blood, of the Bear Clan, and Lucy Thompson, also a full-blood Creek, the subject of this sketch was sent to school in Shieldsville, and thence to Asberry Mission and Jackson, Tennessee, where, after two years' study, he completed his education. On returning from college he went to clerk in the mercantile house of S. B. Severs, Okmulgee. In the spring of 1881 he entered the store of Mr. Parkinson, in the same town, and remained until the following year, when he was elected an officer in Captain Freeman's Light Horse. Here he served two years, during which time he took part in two skirmishes in the Esparhecher war, viz., at Pecan and PoleCat creeks. During part of 1883 and 1884 he was captain of the Light Horse, after which he was elected clerk of the district court for two years, being then appointed as stock superintendent of the Okmulgee district, and commissioned to collect one dollar per head on all cattle passing through his district. In 1884 he commenced the practice of law, which he continues until the present. In 1890 he was appointed interpreter for the House of Warriors; and for four years (commencing in 188) clerked for the judiciary committee, and in 1890 gave part of his time to copying in the executive office. By this combination he realized nine dollars per day during the session of 1890. Mr. Haynes married Sarah, daughter of Judge E. H. Lerblance, in 1884, by whom he has one girl, Stella, aged four years. He is the owner of a farm of forty acres, which is rented out. The first law case which fell into the hands of Mr. Haynes was that of the nation versus Tarpley Carr, for the killing of Jim Barnett, in which Haynes & Bruner were attorneys for the defendant, and cleared their client. The subject of our sketch is a pleasant man, with a good natured countenance, and a fair complexion, considering that his parents were full-bloods. He speaks the English language remarkably clearly and is a very fair scholar.

Needles, Thomas B. (pp. 166, 167, 168) Biographical Index
Born April 26, 1835, in Monroe County, Illinois, he is the eldest son of James B. Needles, of the State of Delaware, his mother being a Talbott, from Virginia. Thomas went to the public schools until eighteen years of age, when he entered his father's mercantile establishment at Richview, Illinois, clerking with him until 1860, when he opened business on his own responsibility  at Nashville, Illinois. In 1861 he was elected clerk of Washington County (same State), and held the office sixteen years, after which ( in 1876) he was elected State Auditor for Illinois, and held the office four years, after which he was called to the State Senate from Washington County, in 1876, and enjoyed the honor of representing his constituency for eight years. About this time he became president of the Washington County Bank, which office he still retains. In March, 1889, he was appointed United States Marshal for the Indian Territory by President Harrison, which position he holds at present. In1861 Mr. Needles married Miss Sarah L. Bliss, of Richmond, Illinois, by whom he has two daughters, Jessie (now Mrs. Genung, of Muskogee) and Winnifred. For the past twenty years Mr. Needles has been a prominent politician, and was a member of the Republican State Central Committee for several years. He is a member of the Odd Fellows --- Nashville Lodge No. 37 -- was Grand Master of the State in 1870, and represented the State as Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of the United States for four years. He has been Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge for several years, and holds that office at present. He is also a Free Mason of old standing, and has taken the Knight Templar degree in that institution. United States Marshal Needles is a handsome, intellectual-looking gentleman, possessing great executive ability, as well as personal magnetism. He is five feet seven inches in height and weighs 170 pounds. His home is in Warrensville, Illinois, where his family reside, while his offices are now situated in the Court House building, Muskogee, Indian Territory.

Dunzy, Henry (pp. 168, 169) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born June 13, 1837, and is the second son of Frederick Dunzy, of German and English descent, who came to Illinois in an early day, where Henry afterwards went to the neighborhood schools until he was sixteen years of age. After this, Henry commenced running an engine at Farmington, Missouri, at the Valley Ford Iron Works. There he remained for two years, when he took the position of engineer for Mr. Casey, retaining that office eighteen months. At the age of twenty-one he came to Arkansas, settling close to Fort Smith, where he assumed the charge of a large merchant mill. Here he remained one year, moving to the Choctaw Nation, where he took charge of a mill for Dr. Boyd. In 1858 (November 15th) he came to Wewoka, Creek Nation, and erected a mill for Tim Barnett, of the noted Barnett family. At the outbreak of the war he joined the Confederate service, under Chilly McIntosh, of the Second Creek Regiment. After the war he took charge of the public blacksmith shops, under pay of the Creek Government, until 1887, when those institutions were discontinued. Since then he has been in the farming and stock business. In the fall of 1864 he married Miss Muskogee Barnett, eldest daughter of Monarcha Barnett's second wife, a half-breed and a woman of good education, and among the best interpreters in the nation. By her he had two children, one of whom is living, named Jackson R. Brown, born January 11, 1866. Jackson is a young man of superior intelligence and good education. He has a general merchandise store at Wetumpka, with an excellent stock of goods. The subject of our sketch has about forty head of cattle, fifteen head of horses, and seventy acres of good improved farm. His pasture contains one-quarter of a square mile, and he has a neat and comfortable house, with orchard and garden. He is about five feet seven inches in height and of good appearance and gentlemanly manners, honest and upright in all his dealings.

Evans, Walter N. (pp. 169, 170, 171) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born September, 1843, in Lebanon County, East Tennessee, and is the eldest son of Dr. James P. Evans, of that State, a citizen of the Cherokee Nation and a leading physician and scholar, having contributed to the chief medical journals of the United States. His mother (a white woman), Miss Melville Noel, was a daughter of Dr. Noel, originally from Virginia. Walter was educated in Green County, Tennessee; Fayetteville, Arkansas; Springfield, Missouri, and Van Buren, Arkansas, until the spring of 1861, when he joined the Arkansas State Troops, in the Confederate service. Later he was attached to the First Cherokee Mounted Rifles, General Pike's Brigade, of which his father, Dr. Evans, was staff surgeon. Afterwards he joined General Stand Waite's command, and with them remained until the termination of the war, when he and his father moved to Fort Smith, Arkansas, the latter dying in September, 1866. Walter soon afterwards began school-teaching in the Cherokee Nation, and later taught among the Choctaws, moving to Texas in 1872, where he continued teaching until 1874. In 1873 he married Miss Bettie Fritts, who died in a few years, childless. In 1875 he returned to the Cherokee Nation, and in 1876 married Miss Charlotte Adair, daughter of Sam Adair, a member of one of the first families of the nation. Mrs. Evans dying without issue in 1877, Mr. Evans married Miss Fannie Jane, daughter of R. W. Walker, by whom he had three children: James P., Robert H. and Effie M. His third wife died in 1883, and in 1891 he married Eliza, eldest daughter of Sam Sixkiller, of considerable prominence in the Cherokee and Creek Nations. In 1882 Mr. Evans opened a drug business in Tahlequah, which he still continues, with a $5,000 stock. He owns 250 acres of good farm land, in cultivation, and a small stock of cattle, besides town property to the value of $3,000. Mr. Evans is a pleasant gentleman, a good conversationalist, and well-informed on almost all subjects.

Hawkins, Pink (pp. 171, 172) Biographical Index
Born in 1816, at Alabama, on the Tallapoosa River, he is the son of the once well known Sam Hawkins, who married Jane McIntosh, daughter of the great Creek Chief, General McIntosh, Sam Hawkins was captured the same day that his father-in-law was killed, and suffered martyrdowm for the same cause. Sam's brother Ben was wounded, but escaped, afterwards moving to Texas and settling among the Cherokees in that State, by whom he was afterwards murdered, it is said, at the instigation, or at least with the knowledge of, Governor Sam Houston, the Texas liberator. It is but justice to remark, however, that there are no positive proofs implicating the great Texan in the death of Ben Hawkins, further than that Hawkins was a stumbling block in the way of Houston's designs, and his death would have removed the obstacle. Pink Hawkins, the subject of our sketch, was sent for three months to school at the Creek agency, near Muskogee, after which he moved to within twenty miles of Nacogdoches, Texas, at the age of eighteen or twenty marrying Miss Annie Pigeon, by whom he had one daughter. Mr. Hawkins had a large plantation in this part of the country, which he worked with a negro labor, having over twenty slaves. The Mexican war was the means of ruining him, as the negroes made their escape across the lines, and the subject of our sketch returned to the Creek Nation without a dollar, settling on the Canadian River, near Eufaula. In the same year he married an orphan girl named Aggy, by whom he had one son, who died early. His wife dying in five years, Mr. Hawkins married Mrs. Liddie Benson, a widowm by whom he had five children, four of whom are living, John, Billy, Louisa, Michael and Rose. John is between forty-five and fifty years of age. Mr. Hawkins has a farm close to Deep Fork, eighteen miles from Okmulgee, and a small stock of cattle. When the war broke out he joined General Chilly McIntosh, and was at the Newtonia, Elk Creek and Red Fork fights, rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel at the close of the war. The subject of our sketch served fourteen years in the House of Warriors, filling one unexpired term, that of Wacie Hargo. At the commencement of the new constitution he was second chief for four years, and was offered the nomination for first chief, but refused the honor, as well as that of supreme judge and other important offices, perferring to attend to his farming interests. Before and during the war Mr. Hawkins was Chief of the Hillubie Town, under the old constitution. Mr. Hawkins, though seventy-four years of age, is a fine specimen of his race, straight, broad-chested and in excellent health, in appearance not over sixty, and more energetic than the majority of men are at the age of sixty. He is a man of good understanding and unblemished honesty, and is greatly beloved by his people.

Patterson & Foley (pp. 172, 173) Biographical Index
Cornelius Foley, the junior partner in the above firm, was born in Davenport, Iowa, in 1857. In 1881 he opened business in Eufaula with James A. Patterson, one of the largest and most successful merchants in the Indian Territory. The career of this firm, from the commencement until the present, has been exceptionally prosperous. Not only do they command a large retail custon, but their jobbing business throughout the nation is very extensive. Messrs. Patterson & Foley have a branch house at Hoyt, Choctaw Nation. At their headquarters in Eufaula they carry a stock of at least $40,000 worth of goods, and purchase annually from $70,000 to $80,000 worth of cotton. James A. Patterson, the senior member of this firm, is generally looked upon as the wealthiest merchant in the Indian Territory, having large business interests in Muskogee and Waggoner, while his junior partner is a director of the First National Bank in Muskogee and part owner of the Adams Hotel. Mr. Foley has also some good residence property in the States of Texas, Kansas, Arkansas and Colorado, and is considerable stockholder in the National Bank of the Republic, St. Louis. Mr. Foley is one of the most popular men in the nation, besides being a most successful merchant. He is unmarried.

Burdett, Joshua (pp. 174, 175) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born at Fulton, Mo., October, 1862, being the son of George F. Burdett, late of Lancaster, Ky., but at present practicing law in Clarksville, Texas. Joshua, after his mother's death, was, at an early age, thrown much upon his own resources, as his father married a second time, and the young man, being of an independent disposition, undertook his own education and advancement. After a course of study at Fulton and St. Louis, Joshua entered the mercantile house of C. W. Samuels & Co. (his cousin), at Fulton, where he remained for five years. In 1881 he moved to Eufaula, in the Creek Nation, and in the following year entered the mercantile establishment of Messrs. Patterson & Foley. For eight years he devoted himself arduously to business, until 1890, when he embarked in the hardware line, establishing, in conjunction with C. Foley, what is known as the J. Burdett Hardware Company. Messrs. Burdett and Foley are thorough business men. Their stock of goods includes buggies, wagons, harness, saddlery, furniture, carpets, lumber, cement, etc., and their trade is very extensive. In 1887 Mr. Burdett married Miss Sudie Crabtree, a daughter of the late G. M. Crabtree, of Eufaula, a citizen of the Creek Nation. Few young men have improved the occasion so well, or made better use of their citizen privileges, than Mr. Burdett. Within a few years he has cultivated 500 acres of land and fenced 640 acres of pasturage, within two mile of Checotah. He has also 1,000 head of beef steers and 500 head of stock cattle at his ranch. In the town of Eufaula Mr. Burdett has no less than twelve acres, four nice dwellings and a blacksmith shop. His private residence is a model of neatness and taste. Mr. Burdett has a policy of $5,000 in the Equitable Life Insurance Company.

Pasco, Gilbert W. (pp.175, 176, 177) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in Fon du Lac, Wisconsin, April 20, 1848, and is the son of Cyrus W. Pasco and Marilla, daughter of William Dilts, of Ohio. Gilbert was educated at Fon du Lac, graduating at the High School, and commeced reading law with Charles Eldridge, of the same place. He finished his legal education under J. L. Lowe, of Washington, Kansas, after which he was elected County Clerk of Washington, Kansas, which office he held for four years. After practicing two years in that town, he moved to Sherman, Texas, in 1878 and there remained until 1888, when he went to Dallas. Here he practiced until 1890, when, owing to ill-health, he was forced to move to the Indian Territory. The United States Court being opened at Muskogee, Mr. Pasco moved his family to that town, where he soon began to enjoy a lucrative practice. He is at present associated in business with Mr. W. M. Harrison, also a prominent lawyer. Mr. Pasco married Miss Eunice M. Walker, daughter of C. W. Walker, of Worcester, Mass., by whom he has one boy, named Ben, aged eight years. Although the subject of this sketch possesses the elements necessary for the qualification of a grand criminal lawyer, yet he has bestowed his attention almost wholly to civil law, making a specialty of real estate and commercial cases. He has been successful in some of the largest legal transactions in the Southwest, involving thousands of acres of land. His cases involving real estate practice extended over the counties of Lamar, Fannin, Dallas, Denton, Hunt, Grayson, Collins and Clay, Texas. During the war Mr. Pasco served in the Federal Army under Colonel C. C. Washburne in the early part of the campaign, and later on joined Custer's expedition in pursuit of Kirby Smith. G. W. Pasco is a tall, well-built man, possessing a remarkably handsome face, as well as a good cheerful countenance. His magnetism is above average, but he is modesty personified, and from lack of appreciation of his own personal merits, is relegated to a seat with his professional contemporaries, instead of being at the head of the bar, or somewhere in its vicinity. He is, however, a young man, and has time to achieve a great deal before his prime of life has passed.

Brown, Samuel W. (pp. 187, 189) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in June, 1843, at Van Buren, Arkansas, the eldest son of  S. W. Williams, a lieutenant in the United States army. His mother was a grand-daughter of Cussine Barnett, of Euchee fame, one of the most prominent men of his day among that tribe, and part Scotch by blood. The subject of this sketch obtained his name from the trustee of the school which he attended --- S. C. Brown, a prominent Indian --- who took a great interest in Sam. After attending the neighborhood school for a short time, Sam went to the Tallahassee Mission, Creek Nation. Here he remained six or seven years, and left, owing to ill health, taking a trip to New Mexico with a cattleman named Warfield. In 1862 he returned, to find the country in a state of excitement, induced by the outbreak of the Civil War. He accordingly joined the Confederate army for self-protection, his relatives having all gone North. He remained in the service until 1863, when he went North and joined the Federal service, remaining with it until the end. In 1866 he returned to the Creek Nation, and in September married Miss Neosho Porter, daughter of a Mr. Porter from New York, who married a Miss McKelop, of Scotch and Indian descent. By this marriage he had five children --- Madison H., born Januay 9, 1869; Rachel S., December 30, 1871; Celestia Annie, September 24, 1874; Samuel W., June 9, 1879, and Neosho, December 3, 1882. IN 1867 Mr. Brown was elected a member of the House of Kings, which office he held for eight years, during which time he was appointed district judge, holding the position for three years, after which he was obliged to resign, owing to ill health. In 1875 he was re-elected to the House of Kings, and served until 1881. In 1882 he became treasurer, and held the office for four years. In 1881 he embarked in the mercantile business at Wealaka, and continued until 1891, when he sold out to Esparhecher, one of the late candidates for principal chief. From 1887 to 1891 he was a member of the House of Warriors, and from that went to the House of Kings. Mr. Brown has 700 head of stock cattle, 60 head of stock horses and mules, and about 200 acres of land under fence and chiefly in good cultivation. He has also a comfortable home, containing garden and orchard. He is a member of the Baptist Church, and his children are receiving a good education at the principal schools of the nation. Mr. Brown is about five feet six inches, of gentlemanly appearance, and a man of considerable prominence in the Creek Nation. He is looked upon as chief of the Euchee band--- a tribe remarkable for its distinctiveness -- a history of which will be found in the historical pages of this volume.

Cobb, Samuel S. (pp. 180, 181) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March 10, 1840, at Morgantown, Tennessee, the sixth son of Sylvester Cobb. Samuel attended public school until seventeen or eighteen years of age, when the war broke out and he joined the Union army (Fifth Tennessee Infantry) as a private, gaining the captaincy of his company before the conclusion. After the war Samuel went to Webber's Falls, Cherokee Nation, and for seventeen years sold goods in connection with his brother John and a Mr. Thomas Hutton. Selling out in 1885, Samuel and the latter gentleman embarked in cattle, and in 1890 built a large three-story brick hotel, with forty bed-rooms, in Vinita, which is known as the Cobb House, and is one of the finest buildings in the Indian Territory. Mr. Cobb married Miss N. E. Vore, daughter of Major Vore, a citizen of the Cherokee Nation through his marriage with Miss Vann. Mr. and Mrs. Cobb have two children---Artie, born February 16, 1885, and Samuel A., born February 14, 1888. Mrs. Cobb is a lady of good education, and a loving wife and mother. Mr. Cobb is a man of more than ordinary intelligence and ability, and, as a business man, has few superiors. He is owner of the Cobb Hotel, which cost $20,000, and is President of the First National Bank of Vinita, with a capital of $50,000. He has also 2,000 head of cattle, 200 head of graded horses and mules, some town lots, and 1,000 acres of farm in cultivation. Mr. Cobb was with General Sherman in his campaign through the South, and has taken part in twenty-seven engagements.

Brown, Robert Sherman (pp. 380, 381) Biographical Index
Robert Sherman Brown was born in Pennsylvania in 1864, the son of Robert Kennedy Brown and Nancy Jane Cook, of Pennsylvania, both of whom died when their son was a boy. Moving, while Robert was an infant, to a point thirty miles north-east of Okmulgee, they sent their boy to school at Parker's Landing, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, where he remained five years. On his return Robert went to work on a ranch in Texas, for twelve months, after which he returned to the Creek Nation, and, his parents being dead, he went to Thomas Perryman's place, Broken Arrow (Perryman had married his sister), and there remained until he was employed to do missionary and other work at Nuyaka. Here he remained four years, and in the meantime married Miss Eliza Bell, in 1888. This accomplished young lady was educated at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, spending seven years at that institution, after which she taught school for a time at Cussetah, Creek Nation. Mr. Brown on leaving the mission, soon afterwards went to clerking for Esparhecher, in his store at Tiger, where he remained till August, 1891, when he was employed at the Parkinson mercantile house, Okmulgee, which position he occupies at the present. While on a ranch close to Vernon, Texas, the subject of our sketch, with the cowmen of that district, narrowly escaped having a serious difficulty with the State rangers, who were sent out by the governor to quiet a disturbance, which was daily expected. Mr. Brown has a family of two children --- Oliver Conrad, aged two years, and Myrtle, five months. He is a young man of excellent address, good business qualities, kind and hospitable to all, and therefore very popular. His wife is a daughter to George Bell, a half Cherokee and white. Her cousin, Annie Harlan, is widow to the later Wesley Barnett, a well known outlaw, whose unfortunate career is much to be regretted, considering the fact that he was connected with some of the best families of the country, and not only this, but he was a descendant of the illustrious Timpoochee Barnett, of historic fame. Mr. Brown is brother-in-law to T. W. Perryman, a half-brother to Chief Perryman, while Mrs. Brown is niece to the celebrated Esparhecher.

Brown, Martin R. (pp. 456, 458) Biographical Index
Martin R. Brown was born February, 1868, at Fort Gibson, second son of John L. Brown and Anna E. Schrimsher, daughter of Martin Schrimsher, a white man, intermarried with the Cherokees, and very prominent in the nation. Martin attended neighborhood school until 1879, after which he went to the male seminary at Tahlequah, and attended it for four sessions. In 1881 he commenced teaching school at Garfield and Fort Gibson, where he was engaged two years. For some time he had been studying pharmacy, and in 1883 opened a drug store at Fort Gibson, which he soon sold out, and embarked in the cattle trade. About 1885 he was elected on the board of education and served three years. He also served two years as clerk of the Illinois district, after which he again entered the drug business at Tahlequah, where he is now located, and carries a $5,000 stock of goods. In the fall of 1891 he moved into a new brick building opposite the capitol, one of the finest buildings in town. In April, 1887, Mr. Brown married Miss Nannie McNair, daughter of C. McNair and Rachel Mayes (sister of the present chief). By this marriage he has two children, Annie E. and Catherine. Mr. Brown has about 100 head of cattle, 25 head of stock horses, and real estate in Tahlequah valued at $2,000. In height he is about five feet ten inches and weighs 150 pounds. Mr. Brown is a gentleman of good address, affable and pleasant in manner and quite popular; he is connected with the oldest and best families in the Cherokee Nation.

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