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Fisher, Henry C. (pp. 177, 180) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in March, 1862, the second son of William Fisher, of Fishertown, a sketch of whose life will be found in this volume. Henry first attended a neighborhood school until he was fourteen years old, at which age he was so well advanced in his studies that when he went to Franklin High School, at Clinton, Missouri, he immediately went into the classes that contained many of the country teachers of that county. Remaining at Clinton for two years, he went from thence to Drury College, Springfield, Missouri, which college sends a number of scholars annually to Harvard and Yale. In this institute Henry remained three years, leaving one year before graduating, not seeing the necessity of taking in the extra branches. But it may be here added that nothing is wanting to complete the polish and education of this young man, who is everything that might be desired. After leaving college he went into business with his father, who is owner of an extensive mercantile house at Fishertown, which is now under the management of Henry. The young man has also a good-sized ranch of his own, comprising one mile square of pasture, 1,200 head of steers, and about 300 acres of good farm land, in excellent cultivation, close to Checotah, where he also owns several buildings and lots. His home residence, in Fishertown, is one of the neatest and most elegant homes in the country, ornamented by beautiful pleasure grounds, which are supplied with varied assortments of the very choicest flowers and shrubs; also a garden and orchard, complete in every respect. Mr. Fisher married Miss Lucy Willison, February 23, 1882, the fifth daughter of J. D. Willison and Hettie McIntosh. Her father was a white man, well and favorably known in this country, while Hettie McIntosh was a daughter of General McIntosh, of historical celebrity. By his marriage, Mr. Fisher has three children---Carrie, Ollie and Eloise Belle. Mrs. Fisher, whose photograph is in this book, is now possessor of the knee-buckles and a punch-spoon owned by George Washington. She received them through her family on the McIntosh side, who were related rather closely to Martha Washington. Of a handsome and pleasant expression is the subject of our sketch, while his height (six feet one inch) and his weight (175 pounds) command general respect. His complexion is exceedingly fair (though one-third Indian). His education is uncommonly good, and he deserves the popularity which he enjoys among his people. Henry Fisher's wife was teacher for four years in the Creek public schools previous to her marriage. She has no superior as to high connections, as will be seen by those who read the history of the Muskogee people.

Adams, H. W. (pp. 181, 182) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in April, 1837, being the son of John Adams, mayor of St. Charles, Missouri, who died in 1868. John Adams was the youngest brother of Robert H. Adams, United States Senator, who died during senatorial service. H. W. Adams was first instructed by his father, a man of superior education, and after some years' study joined his parent in agricultural pursuits. In 1855 he left home, and worked at the carpenter trade in Arkansas. In 1859 he moved to Skulliville, Choctaw Nation, and was soon appointed architect contractor for Fort Coffee and New Hope Academy buildings, besides many other institutions. When the war broke out he joined Company B, First Arkansas Cavalry, and was in several hard-fought battles among them that of Wilson Creek, where fifteen of his comrades fell. Later he joined the Commissary and Quartermaster's Department, where he remained until disbanded at Black Jack Point, in May, 1865. Mr. Adams married to Pauline E. Phillips, sister to N. B. and T. Ainsworth, of Oak Lodge, in November, 1868, after which he opened a mercantile store at Tuskahoma, C. N. In 1876 he lost his wife, and soon afterwards, began prospecting for mineral with the late Joseph Hodges, second cousin to John Tyler, ex-President of the United States. Since that time Mr. Adams has successfully followed the business. He is the discoverer of Nos. 4 and 5 Shafts at Lehigh; Nos. 1, 2 and 3 at Colgate; Nos. 8 and 10 at McAlester, as well as the Simpson and Alderson mines. Mr. Adams has two sons, John S., aged twenty-one years, and Edward Bates, aged seventeen years. Both of these young men have received a liberal education and are filling business appointments. Mr. Adams is a gentleman of large experience, large heart, and enthusiastic love for the South. This spirit of patriotism is one of his leading characteristics.

Lerblance, Elijah Hermigine (pp. 182, 184) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in March, 1836, and is the son of Hermogene Lerblance, a Louisiana Frenchman, and Vicey Gentry, daughter of Elijah Gentry, a white man who married a full-blood Catawba Indian. The subject of this sketch moved from Alabama to the Creek Nation, with his parents, at the age of twelve, after which he attended the Asberry Mission Manual Labor School for a term of fifteen months. At the age of seventeen years he commenced learning the blacksmith trade, and while thus employed he married Miss Bosen, daughter of Amos Bosen, King of the Hitchetee Town. By this marriage he had five children---W. P., born June 17, 1856; F. W., born November 10, 1858; Sarah, born December 10, 1860; W. L., born March 23, 1864; and Jeannette, born July 4, 1866. His wife died a devout Christian and member of the M. E. Church, in 1872. In 1857 Mr. Lerblance moved to Cussetah, where he worked in the government blacksmith shop until the outbreak of the war in 1861, when he joined the Confederate service as a private---was made sergeant in three months, and in 1862 rose to the rank of lieutenant, which office he held until the termination of the war. Afterwards he returned with his family to the farm he had commenced to improve, near the old council grounds, in the Creek Nation, his property consisting of an old wagon, a pair of oxen, two cows and calves, one pig and thirty-five cents in cash. From this time until 1880 he spent his life partly on the farm and partly in the blacksmith shop. In 1881 he embarked in the cattle business with W. E. Gentry, the title of the firm being W. E. Gentry & Co., the result of the partnership at this date being 2,500 head of cattle, one store in Checotah, with a stock of general merchandise amounting to $12,000, one gin at the same place, the house occupied by the druggist, C. G. Moore, at Checotah, as well as about a half interest in the Indian Journal, published at Eufaula. In February, 1878, Mr. Lerblance married Miss Nellie Fife, daughter of Job Fife, a farmer and son of Jimmie Fife, of noted fame in Pigott's History. The surviving issue of this marriage is Francis H., born December 2, 1879; Addie, born September 26, 1882; Howard P., born November 17, 1885, and Lizzie C., born April 29, 1888. Mr. Lerblance owns one of the finest residences in the vicinity of Hitchetee, 200 acres of farm, one square mile of pasture, 400 head of cattle, 50 mules and horses, a large stock of hogs, and a comfortable home in Checotah. Mr. Lerblance served four years as Clerk of Muskogee District and eight years as Supreme Court Clerk. At three different periods he served as District Judge of Muskogee District. He was once elected National Treasurer, but declined to serve. In 1891 he filled the unexpired term of Samuel Bradley, in the House of Kings, who died in May of that year. Mr. Lerblance was opposed to the sale of Oklahoma, fearing it would cause the opening of the entire Indian Territory. He thought it would be wiser to use it for grazing purposes, and thereby secure funds sufficent to satisfy the United States Government for her claim on said lands, originating under treaty of 1866. Judge Lerblance is a gentleman of good address, pleasant manners, and intellectually far above the average. As a business man he has few superiors, as will become plain to those who read his record. He also bears an excellent reputation as a judge, and taken on the whole, there are few men who stand bigger in his nation than E. H. Lerblance.

Stidham, Hon. George Washington (pp. 185, 187) Biographical Index
The deceased George W. Stidham was born in Alabama, November 17, 1817, son of Hopaychutke (which means white explorer). Hopaychutke was by birth Scotch-Irish, and came to the United States, settling in Alabama among the Creeks, while yet a young man. His adventurous disposition and love of travel is supposed to have suggested his characteristic title. George W., losing his father at the age of twelve years, and the opportunities for education being rather limited at the time, was not a college graduate, but, in spite of such disadvantages, he acquired great knowledge through his own industry and early contact with the world; and this, notwithstanding the fact that he did not learn to speak English until he was twenty years of age. In 1837, or thereabouts, he emigrated to the Creek Nation, settling at Choska, on the Arkansas River. His first office was that of agent's interpreter, and about this time he married his first wife, in 1841, or thereabouts. He was next appointed as national delegate to Washington, and visited the capital in that capacity no less than fifteen times, from year to year. It was during his stay in that city in the year 1855 or 1856, that Mr. Stidham met Miss Thornsberry, a Virginia lady of great attraction, and married her---his first wife being some time dead. During the war Mr. Stidham was elected first chief of the Southern Creeks, but was counted out, and therefore never took his seat. ON the return of the refugees after the conclusion of the war, he was appointed Chief Justice, and was holding that office when the present constitution was formed, in the year 1867. After the adoption of the constitution he held the office for several terms of four years, and was Chief Justice at the time of his death, March, 1891. Mr. Stidham also represented his town, that of Hitchetee, in the House of Warriors for several terms. When more recently elected to this office, the people proposed to raise him to the House of Kings, but he preferred the Lower House and remained there. Some time before the war Mr. Stidham opened a mercantile establishment at the Creek agency, near Muskogee, but was obliged to join the refugees, and went, with others, to Hopkins County, Texas, where he purchased a section of land, and a tract of 6,000 acres on the spot where Texarkana now stands. These lands were bought for him through the instrumentality of General Albert Pike, but, unfortunately, Mr. Stidham mislaid the deeds of the latter tract, and the official records having been destroyed during the war, he was unable to establish his claim, and lost this valuable piece of property. At the conclusion of the rebellion the subject of our sketch returned to the Creek agency, resuming his former clerk, became a partner in the store, purchasing Mr. Stidham's interest three years later. Mr. Stidham then opened out a new business, which he placed in the hands of J. G. Meagher, but finally sold out to Mr. J. Parkinson in 1883 or 1884. The deceased, during those years, took an active interest in agriculture, and may be said to have been the first man who planted wheat in the Creek Nation. Importing a quatity of the seed, he distributed it among the citizens of his neighborhood in the year 1855. He was also the first to grow cotton in the vicinity of Muskogee, and was instrumental in the introduction of the first threshing machine into the nation. In company with C. C. Belcher, John Barnwall, J. McD. Coodey and two others, G. W. Stidham was one of the first chartered members of the first Masonic Lodge in the Creek Nation, and was made Master under the dispensation granted to the first lodge. At the time of his death he was a Royal Arch Mason. Mr. Stidham, by his first wife, has two living daughters, one of whom is the wife of Captain G. W. Grayson. By his second wife he had a family of five --- George, Mrs. Bailey, Albert, Mrs. Bennett and Theodore. The death of Mr. Stidham, which occurred in March, 1891, cast universal gloom over the Creek Nation. No citizen of the country was more highly esteemed; none were more progressive or more useful in preparing the people for the the great change that civilization was bringing about. His influence was great, and his example such as will be long remembered by the rising generation. It may be safely said that the name of George Washington Stidham will live in the memory of his people until the last drop of Creek blood is merged and lost in the irrepressible current of Anglo-Saxon blood.

Murphy, Rev. D. C. (pp. 381, 382) Biographical Index
D. C. Murphy was born in Hickman County, Kentucky, the son of James Murphy, of Cork, Ireland. Mr. Murphy was educated at the county schools and soon after his father's death commenced laboring on his mother's farm, where he remained until fourteen years of age. The twelve months following he spent endeavoring to learn the printers' trade in Hickman, Fulton County, Kentucky, but a certain wild vein in his nature conquered his disposition to learn the trade and he ran off without a farewell, wandering he cared not whither, and with no other object than the gratification of a love for excitement and adventure. Mr. Murphy's life for the twenty years following is, to use his own words, "better forgotten than recalled" ---being wild and reckless in the extreme. He was virtually dead till his conversion in 1869, which happened at a Methodist meeting in Henry County, Tennessee. In 1871 he moved to Sebastian County, Arkansas, and in 1875 became a licensed preacher, though he did not commence preaching until 1881, when he joined the Claremont circuit under Rev. Y. Youing, presiding elder. After eighteen months at this point, the subject of our sketch moved to the Caney circuit, where he remained for four years. About 1885 he was ordained by Bishop Granville, at Skulliville. When on mission work among the Osage Indians, Mr. Murphy organized the first Protestant church ever established in their nation. It was situated on Candy Creek, and had but seven members. Later, in the town of Pawhusky, he established a membership of eighteen, seven of whom were full-bloods. But the mission was not a success, as was proven when the board ordered Mr. Belcher to supersede Mr. Murphy. The new incumbent being a college graduate, the board concluded to try his educational experience among the aborigines, but to no purpose, as the few converts made through the agency of Mr. Murphy soon fell away, returing to their worship of the Great Spirit. Soon afterwards the board abandoned missionary work among the Osages. Mr. Murphy has been stationed for the past twelve months at Eufaula, among the Creek Indians, whom he finds very susceptible to religious training. They generally, however, fall in with the creeds of their parents, or the first missionaries who happened to fall among them. Mr. Murphy has been married three times. First to Barbara Pewitt, in Fulton County, Kentucky; secondly to Adeline Pewitt, of Williamson County, Tennessee, by whom he has eight living children, and lastly to Mrs. Lucy Lowry, who is now living.

Allen, Rev. David M. (pp. 455, 456) Biographical Index
Rev. David M. Allen was born April 25, 1840, at Denmark, Tennessee, second son of Rev. D. J. Allen, a prominent member of the Memphis conference; president of the Franklin Female College, Holly Springs, Mississippi; and pastor of the Asberry Church, Memphis, Tennessee. David's mother was a Miss F. Alison, and was married to Rev. D. J. Allen at Marion Court, South Carolina. David attended public school until he was thirteen years of age, when he went to Florence University, Florence, Alabama, where he remained three years. He went to the Indian Territory in 1864, with General Maxey, and in 1877 embarked in the cattle business, continuing the same till 1885, when he became a convert, and at once began the work of elder in the Presbyterian church. He was licensed the same year to preach, and the following year (October, 1886) was ordained to the full gospel ministry. The Rev. D. M. Allen's first Christian work was at Oowala, where he built up a strong Presbyterian church, which is still upon the minutes of the assembly. In 1887 he was transferred to Fort Gibson, where he worked for three years, when the church grew from a membership of 31 to 97, and was then the most prosperous church in the presbytery. In 1890 Mr. Allen was sent, by order of the presbytery, to Vinita, at which place he has a flourishing church, with an united membership and a large congregation. In connection with his regular work, Mr. Allen has held evangelistic meetings throughout the county, and has met with wonderful success. November 30, 1871, Rev. David M. Allen married Miss Mary Price, daughter of Charles Price and Elvira Nave, who was niece of Chief John Ross. Mrs. Allen is a lady of education and refinement, lovable, charitable and an enthusiatic Christian worker. Rev. Mr. Allen is about five feet eight inches, and weighs about 140 pounds; is of gentelmanly address and intellectual appearance, with considerable force of character. As a preacher he is classed among the foremost in the territory; while he is also regarded as one of the most devoted of Christian workers, whose example has not only in the past, but will in the future lead many of his admirers to turn their minds more from things of the earth, and build themselves a permanent mansion. Long may his influence be felt among the people of Vinita and its surroundings.

Bertholf, Isaac W. (pp. 458, 459) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch is the fourth son of the late Rev. Thomas Bertholf, the well-known Indian missionary, and Nancy Keys, daughter of Isaac Keys, of Tahlequah district. He attended public schools for some time, and completed his education at the national male seminary in 1856. After some five years spent on the farm, Isaac joined the Confederate service in 1862, under Stand Watie, and served in the battles of Cabin Creek, Bird Creek, Honey Springs and other lessor engagements. At the outbreak of the war, Rev. Thomas Berthold and Isaac's mother refugeed close to the mouth of the Washita River, and on their return to the ranch on Bird Creek in 1867, they found that Opothleyoholo's men had killed or driven off their entire stock of cattle and destroyed the home by fire. Rev. Mr. Bertholf, who had become missionary teacher at Asberry Mission in 1859, in 1867 returned to that point, while Isaac assisted him on the mission farm till his father's death, July, 1868. No good man was ever more sincerely or deservedly regretted than Rev. Thomas Bertholf, whose name will be long cherished among the Indian people. After his father's death, Isaac moved to Canadian district for one year, and in 1869 opened a farm on the Arkansas River of 120 acres, which he sold out in 1880, and moved twenty miles south of the head of Elk Creek (or Durdeen Creek) and there cultivated a fine farm. In conjunction with his brother-in-law, Stand Gray, they have a farm extending fully two miles. Some of the land is immensely valuable, being underlaid with solid iron ore thirteen feet thick, and in another spot coal three feet thick. He has a good house, 200 head of cattle, 12 head of horses and mules and a large stock of hogs. Mr. Bertholf was appointed tax collector in 1870 for four years, and in 1889 was elected auditor of the nation, which office has just expired. His place is situated two and one-half miles from the survey of a future railroad, and five miles from Checotah. Mr. Bertholf is a man of excellent sense, and highly trustworthy in every respect. The development of his iron claim will no doubt result to him in great wealth.

Stidham, George W. Jr. (p. 459) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March 17, 1859, the son of G. W. Stidham, deceased, who was the most prominent man of his day among the Creeks. His mother was a Virginia lady -- a Miss Thornsbury -- of an old and highly respected family. Young George was sent to the neighborhood school until the age of fifteen years, when he went to the Henderson Masonic Institute, Henderson, Tennessee. Here he remained for five years, one year in the interim being spent at home. After this he spent twelve months in the School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, and from thence to the Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, where he remained one year, after which he returned home and commenced the practice of medicine. But he finally concluded to discontinue his profession, and so entered the mercantile house belonging to his father. Here he remained for five years, after which he became a stockman, which business he carries on to the present day. He is owner of 1,000 head of stock cattle, and has an enclosure of 1,200 acres, 200 of which are in cultivation. Mr. Stidham married Miss Bucknor, daughter of Rev. H. F. Bucknor, the oldest missionary in the Creek Nation. The issue of this marriage is: Ottie, born July, 1887; Lela, April, 1889, and Sarah, 1891. Mr. Stidham was clerk of the supreme court for one term, member of the board of education for one term, and executive or private secretary under Samuel Checote and Ward Coachman during their respective administrations. At present he is clerk of the upper House of Kings. Mr. Stidham is a member of the Masonic Lodge at Eufaula, has held the office of senior deacon for three years, and now holds that of senior warden. He is a young man of superior education and business ability, possessing an affable and gentlemanly address.

Gordon, William Frederick (pp. 190, 191) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in July, 1856, the son of William Gordon, a half-breed Scotchman and Creek Indian. His parents dying while he was quite young, William was carried North during the war, and stayed at Osage, near the Sauk and Fox agency. At the conclusion of the war he went to school at Drury College, Springfield, Missouri, for two years. In 1879 he entered the mercantile house of his half brother, Sam Brown, at Wealaka, with whom he worked for three years. After this he took charge of his step-brother's cattle at Red Fork for one year, and then moved back to the Sauk agency, where he clerked for J. B. Childs for five months, at the end of which time he entered the employment of H. C. Hall, at Red Fork. In 1883 he was elected to the House of Kings, and held the office one term. His people might have well re-elected him, or done a great deal worse, considering that, for a man so young and inexperienced, he took a leading part in killing a bill that was introduced by a man named Railey, of St. Louis, that provided for the fencing and inclosing of a tract twenty-five miles square. This measure passed the House of Warriors and was introduced to the Kings by a well-known citizen of Muskogee. Young Gordon thereupon rose to his feet and told the assembled body that the Creeks had no land to lease to the white men, and that the bill should be tabled at once. It was done, and Railey returned to the bosom of his family, a sadder yet a wiser man. Mr. Gordon has had some rough experience during his life. When the notorious Belle Starr and her gang attacked the store of Sam Brown, Gordon, while endeavoring to guard his step-brother's property, received a blow on the head from a breech-loader which almost stunned him. During the Esparhecher war he was clerking with two six-shooters in his belt, ready, as he says himself, to fight for old Esparhecher till the "crack of doom." Mr. Gordon married Lucy Pagoquay, a Euchee girl, but they soon separated. By this marriage, however, he has one son, named Billy, aged six years. Mr. Gordon afterward married Eliza Chiso, but she died without issue, in twelve months after their marriage. William Gordon is lightly built and nearly six feet high. He is quick and impulsive, like all of his people, and courageous almost to a fault. In truth, it may be stated that he does not understand the definition of the word fear. He is well educated in the Indian languages, and speaks fluently the Creek, Sauk and Fox and Euchee languages, while his knowledge of the English tongue is very creditable to his scholastic opportunities.

Fisher, William (pp. 214, 215, 216) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch is the son of Samuel Fisher, two-thirds white, and a farmer and stock-raiser by occupation. His mother was three-fourths Indian. William received his first schooling in Alabama, and coming to this nation in 1847, was sent to the Shawnee Mission, Kansas, where he spent about two years. In 1850 he married Miss Sarah P. Lampkins, a white woman, from Tennessee, after which he commenced farming on a small scale. By this marriage he had nine children, five of whom are living --- Henry C., Emma, Martha, Samuel and Annie. In 1855 he commenced trading in the mercantile business on a limited scale, and by the outbreak of the war he had a large stock of goods, but, being obliged to desert his home, he lost everything. He then joined the Confederate army, under Col. C. McIntosh, and continued in the service until the close, holding the ranks of sergeant-major and first lieutenant throughout the campaign. Returning to his home, Mr. Fisher refurnished his store to a moderate extent, and has been ever since increasing his stock of goods, until he now carries $6,000 worth of general merchandise. He is also owner of about 2,000 head of cattle, 60 head of horses, and a large bunch of hogs, besides a gin and mill valued at about $2,000. Mr. Fisher's ranch is beautifully situated, fifteen miles west from Fishertown, commanding a fine view. His residence is furnished with all the modern comforts. His pasture is fully one mile in circumference. Mr. Fisher is five feet eleven inches in height, of excellent intelligence and superior business capacity, of which his record is a sufficient evidence. Although part Indian, yet he shows a large preponderance of white blood. He is popular and influential among his people, and served them in the National Council for eight years, until 1879, when his increasing business required him to forsake politics. During the years which followed, Mr. Fisher refused several most important offices, among them that of Supreme Judge.

Williams, Rev. Mason Fitch (pp. 191, 192, 193) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born February 18, 1851, at Louisville, Kentucky, the only son of the late Rev. Mason D. Williams and Caroline M. Fitch. Rev. Mr. Williams was organizer and pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian Church, Louisville, and died in 1852. His son, Mason Fitch, graduated from Princeton College, New Jersey, in 1871, and came to the Creek Nation, Indian Territory. In 1875 he took his degree as doctor of medicine from the University of Louisville, Ky., and commenced the practice of medicine in Muskogee, Indian Territory. In 1881 he took charge of a drug store at that place, the business being his own, and also continued his professional practice until the fire of 1887, in which he lost his stock of goods. After that he entered the ministry and took charge of the Presbyterian Church, of which he is at present the pastor. Mr. Williams married Mrs. Mary E. Worcester Mason, widow of Dr. Charles Y. Mason, of Mississippi, March 9, 1872. By this marriage they had three children, two of whom are living --- Henry Cummings, born October 4, 1873, and Leonard Worcestor, born July 8, 1875. Mrs. Williams is the youngest daughter of Samuel Austin Worcestor, D. D. (prominent in Cherokee history), and sister of Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson, of Muskogee. Rev. Mr. Williams is a man of fine physique, about five feet eight inches in height and weighing 175 pounds. His address is courteous and his manners refined and affable. His education is varied and extensive. Before joining the ministry, his reputation as a physician was such as to insure him the largest practice in the country, while he undoubtedly was among the few most skillful practitioners in the Indian Territory. Since taking charge of the Presbyterian Church, Mr. Williams has increased the membership from fifty to eighty-five. He has also been instrumental in the many improvements and remodeling and seating of the church. He is local surgeon for the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, and his ministerial work covers a radius of about eight miles. His medical practice is now chiefly confined to the poor, and to the inmates of the Presbyterian school and United States jail.

Halsell, William Electra (pp. 193, 194) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born June 7, 1851, in the State of Kentucky, fourth son of E. Halsell, Esq., who moved to Texas at an early date. William attended public school until eighteen years of age, when he started in the stock business and carried it on until 1882. During those years, in partnership wiht his brother Glenn, they accumulated a large herd of cattle, selling out for $300,000. Moving to Vinita, Cherokee Nation, the Halsell brothers bought another large herd, and in the spring of 1884 dissolved partnership. Glenn, going to California for his health, died in 1886. William, the subject of this sketch, married Miss Alice Crutchfield in January, 1872. She is daughter to John Crutchfield, at one time a leading stockman in Wise County, Texas. By this marriage Mr. Halsell has four living children. Willie Edna, born July 16, 1873, died July 11, 1884. To the deceased little girl the Halsell College, at Vinita, is dedicated, the college having been erected chiefly through the assistance and support of Mr. Halsell. Ewing, the oldest surviving child, was born February 12, 1877; Eva, born February 21, 1886; Clarence, born November 4, 1889; Mary, March, 28, 1891. Mrs. Halsell is a lady of great refinement and superior education, and one of the most hospitable and popular persons in Vinita. She is a member of the M. E. Church South, and is president of the Home Mission Society, Vinita. Mr. Halsell is a tall, dignified, commanding and intellectual looking gentleman of great business ability, and ever ready in his generosity to assist in forwarding charitable institutions of any kind. He now owns 30,000 head of cattle in the Territory besides 6,000 in Texas and 1000 head of an improved grade of horses. His real estate in Texas is worth from $10,000 to $12,000, and he owns one hundred lots in the town of Vinita. He has also some 1,000 or 1,500 acres of land in cultivation. His residence in Vinita is one of the finest in the Indian Territory. Mr. Halsell is a Masonic member of old standing.

McIntosh, Rev. William F. (pp. 194, 195, 196) Biographical Index
William F. McIntosh was born near the line of Alabama and Georgia, November 12, 1824, the second son of Chilly McIntosh, of great reputation, and grandson of old General McIntosh. His mother was Miss Porter, whose parents emigrated at an early day from Pennsylvania to Alabama. William F. attended a neighborhood school when twelve years of age, and in 1837 went to Coweta Mission, where he remained one season, after which he commenced assisting his father in agriculture, until he married Miss Eliza Ilands, January 8, 1848, by whom he had six children, two of whom are living --- Sarah and Samuel. His wife dying in 1862, he afterward married Miss Bettie Bertholf, who was part white and Cherokee, by whom he had three children, one of whom is living ---named Thomas. His wife dying in 1875, he married, in 1881, Mrs. Grayson, widow of the late Tom Grayson. By her he had one child, named Lena. On returning from a missionary or preaching tour in the nation, he was appointed by the Government as commander of a company organized by the Creeks to protect the border against Kansas Jayhawkers and other illegal trespassers. He continued commander until the company joined the regular army at the breaking out of the war, when, after one year's service, they were mustered out. Mr. McIntosh then devoted himself assiduously to the preaching of the gospel, reorganizing all the churches in his district, which were in a very poor condition. When the new constitution was adopted, Mr. McIntosh was appointed District Judge of the North Fork District, now known as Eufaula. This office he held for a length of time, but was suspended one month before the lapse of his term, in consequence of some false reports being made to the first chief, Samuel Checotah. The friends of Mr. McIntosh then called together the district members for investigation, and, finding the imputations entirely false, the chief reinstated Judge McIntosh, but he refused to again accept the office. In 1881 he was elected prosecuting attorney, but owing to his religious scruples he would not accept the office. In 1887 he was elected a member of the House of Warriors, which office he held until 1891. Mr. McIntosh has been forty-two years (or more) a preacher in the Baptist Church, which religious body he has largely advanced throughout the country. He is highly thought of among his people ---- a pure, devout Christian, setting all other considerations aside to aid in the christianizing of his people. He is about five feet nine inches high and weighs 140 pounds; of gentlemanly bearing, handsome of feature, and would be taken for a white man in any country. As a hunter he had some strange experiences, and it may be said that few, if any, Western men have killed more deer than he has. He has been all over the Indian Territory on hunting trips, and is, to the present day, recognized as the father of the chase among his people.

Jackson, Clifford L. (pp. 196, 197) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in Dayton, Ohio, in 1857, the fourth son of George Jackson, an Englishman, and Anne A. Gillis, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Cliffor obtained his education in the country schools in Pettis County and in the private schools of Sedalia, Missouri, and under private tuition. In July, 1878, he commenced reading law, and in 1889 was appointed deputy circuit clerk of Pettis County. In 1880 he was admitted to the bar, and commenced the practice of law in Sedalia, Missouri, in 1882. In 1884 he was nominated as prosecuting attorney for Pettis County, by the Democratic party, but was defeated by a majority of 130 in a vote of 8,000. In 1886 he located in Soccorro, New Mexico, and in 1887 was appointed district attorney of the Second Judicial District of New Mexico by Governor E. G. Ross, and resigned in February, 1889. In April, 1889, he moved to the Indian Territory and located at Guthrie, and on the 1st of September, 1889, was appointed general attorney for the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad for the Indian Terriotry, and has been engaged in law practice in Muskogee since that time. Mr. Jackson is a man of gentlemanly appearance and address, highly educated, and possessed of great legal ability.

McCombs, Rev. William (pp. 197, 198, 199) Biographical Index
William is the eldest son of Samuel McCombs and Susan Stinson, and grandson of Zacharias McCombs, and was born July 22, 1844, seven miles east of Fort Gibson. His father was one of the hundred State Dragoons selected by the Government of the State of Tennessee to go West and prepare for the emigration of the Indians. After serving in this department, he remained in the employment of the Government at Fort Gibson until 1850. Mr. McCombs was a Scotchman by birth, and emigrated at an early date. Mrs. McCombs was a half Creek and white woman, of the Stinson family, prominent in the nation. In 1855 the subject of this sketch was sent to a neighborhood school, but, his father dying soon afterward, he was obliged to look after his mother and sisters and work for them, until the breaking out of the war, when he joined the First Creek Regiment, under Col. D. N. McIntosh, and was mustered out as adjutant. The general was frequently heard to say that if all his men were like McCombs, he would fear neither strength nor numbers. Mr. McCombs married Miss Sallie Jacob, March 17, 1864, on Red River. This lady was daughter of Tacosar Hargo, a prominent Creek Indian of the Tulsa Canadian Town, being a great hunter and ball-player. In May, 1868, he was licensed and ordained as minister of the Baptist Church, which calling he has followed until the present time. He has also served as moderator. As a preacher of the gospel, he is looked upon as the most fluent speaker of the aboriginal language in the Creek Nation. His Christian labors have been largely devoted to the Christianizing and elevating of the full-blood Indians. Whe he first went among them they were very backward in the knowledge of Christ, but they have recently been advancing with great rapidity, owing chiefly to his individual efforts. In 1871 Mr. McCombs was elected to the House of Warriors, and served four years, and in 1875 became Superintendent of Public Instruction, holding that office six years. In 1881 he was elected to the House of Warriors, and re-elected in 1889, and is now serving in that capacity. Mr. McCombs has seven children living --- Lizzie (Mrs. Colbert), born August, 1865; Sudie, September, 1867; William Penn, November, 1873; Susie (now Mrs. Ewing), April, 1879; Tooker, August, 1880; Bettie May, 1882, and G. W. Grayson, April, 1887. The oldest of Mr. McCombs' children have been educated in the States, while the others are receiving the best instruction that the nation affords. He has 120 acres in cultivation and a good, comfortable home; is a gentleman of fine address and good personal appearance --- about five feet eleven inches high and weighs 185 pounds. He is one-fourth Creek Indian by blood. Although Mr. McCombs is self-educated, yet he would pass in any society as a collegian. He is a member of the Masonic Order (Eufaula Lodge, No. 1), and has been such since 1874.

Ross, Hon. Joshua (pp. 199, 202) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in 1833, at Wills Valley, Alabama, the son of Andrew Ross, and nephew of the celebrated John Ross, principal chief of the Cherokees for forty years. His mother was Susan Lowry, daughter of Major George Lawry, a prominent Cherokee. Joshua came to the nation with his parents in 1836, and was educated partly at Fairfield and Park Hill Missions and Reilly's Chapel, after which he proceeded to Ozark Institute, Arkansas, graduating in 1855 at the Male Academy, Tahlequah, and at Emory and Henry College, Virginia, in 1860. For his education at the last named institution he is indebted to Major George M. Murrell, of Park Hill, Indian Territory, who sent him thither and defrayed his collegiate expenses. Joshua commenced life as a teacher in the Female Seminary at Park Hill, in 1861, but the war broke out in six months afterward, and he went to Fort Gibson and clerked in the sutler's store until the close. Here he married Miss Muskogg Yargee, daughter of Milly McQueen, of the McGibbery and Francis family and a grand-daughter of the Big Warrior, by whom he has five children living, viz: Rosa (now Mrs. Miles), Susie, Joshua Ewing, John Yargee and Jennie Pocahontas. Mr. Ross first held office as member of the Grand Council of the Five Tribes, held at Okmulgee, Creek Nation. In this capacity he was appointed on five occasions as a representative. In 1874 Mr. Ross was eleced Secretary of the Indian International Fair Association, held annually at Muskogee. He continued in this office until last year, when he became president of the institution. (The post of President was formerly filled by F. E. Severs, R. L. Owen, Leo E. Bennett, P. N. Blackstone and J. A. Foreman respectively). Mr. Ross has been for some time attending to pension and bounty claims, as an accommodation for the people. In April, 1891, he engaged in partnership with W. F. Seaver, opening a law office in the court house building at Muskogee. As an instance of the perseverance and energy of Mr. Ross, he won the annual bonus premium given by the Journal of Agriculture in 1873 for the largest number of subscriptions sent in, he having gained by a large majority, despite the fact that he was living in a thinly populated country, and was compelled to ride an immense distance to accomplish his purpose. Mr. Ross is a highly educated man. While attending Emory College he came within one of winning the medal for oratory and elocution; and at the Male College, Tahlequah, carried off the first honors of his class. He is at present writing a history of his cousin, W. P. Ross, and publishing his speeches in book form, the proceeds of the sale to be used in erecting a monument to the memory of that illustrious citizen.

Standiford, J. F. (pp. 202, 204) Biographical Index
J. F. Standiford is a native of West Virginia, part of his life having been spent in Illinois and Kansas. He came to Muskogee, Indian Territory, in the spring of 1878, and there erected his art gallery and residence, engravings of which will be found in the grouped illustration. Mr. Standiford is the only licensed photographer in the Indian Territory, and has, without comparison, the neatest and best equipped gallery in the nation. He is ably assisted in his work by his wife and sister, the latter doing all the negative retouching, etc. A novel feature in the finishing department is a revolving printing room, a most complete addition to his gallery, and wholly an invention of his own, there being not another of its kind in existence. Another original device --- his own recent invention --- is an ingenious electric retouching apparatus, which is novel and useful. Mr. Standiford is, unquestionably, one of the finest photographic artists in the Southwest. A large number of the best engravings in this volume have been made from photographs taken by J. F. Standiford.

Connell, Tamaya (pp. 204, 206) Biographical Index
Born at Opocheaholo, Alabama, in 1829, the son of Naboktche, a full-blood, who died about 1835, Tamaya and his mother emigrated to this country with the last of the Creeks, settling down close to Fort Gibson. His mother being without help, Tamaya was obliged to devote his time to her support, and was therefore deprived of the chances of education. At the  age of twenty-four he was made chief of the Little River Tulsie Town, which office he held four years, during the old constitution. At the outbreak of the war he moved to Osage Mission, and in twelve months joined the Federal army, under General Talsifixico, holding the rank of corporal in Company I. He fought in five battles --- Kane Hill, Salt Creek, White Water, Fort Gibson and Bird Creek, where he was wounded in two places, escaping death in an almost miraculous manner, the buckle of his belt and his cartridge-box breaking the force of the bullets and turning them aside in both instances. Tamaya was married to a half-breed Spanish and Indian woman named Hattie, by whom he had six children, named Martha, Mary, Moses, Peter (dead), Ellie and Susan. His family are all married and doing for themselves. Tamaya Connell has been a member of the House of Kings for the past eight years, and has been just re-elected for the coming term. He was prosecuting attorney, since the new constitution was adopted, for a period of two years. He has also been a captain of Light Horse for the same period, and is now captain of the Creek police during council term. He is a man of good standing among his people, a lawyer by profession and a fine speaker in the native language. He is five feet nine inches high, and has a kindly and benevolent countenance, which is a true reflection of his character.

Turner, Clarence W. (pp. 212, 214) Biographical Index
Born June 18, 1857, in Cleveland, Ohio, the eldest son of J. E. Turner, of Muskogee, and Julia Ayers. Clarence moved to Fort Smith with his parents, September, 1867, where he attended a neighborhood school until 1870. In 1874 he went to Jones' College, St. Louis, where he remained three months. In 1870 he moved with his father to Okmulgee and assisted him in the mercantile business.  In the fall of 1875 he and William Harveston bought out J. E. Turner, and they remained in partnership until 1880, when Clarence purchased Harveston's interest in the business and conducted it until 1881, when he sold out to James Parkinson. In 1882 he came to Muskogee and there purchased Mr. J. S. Atkinson's hardware store. The following March Mr. Byrne bought an interest in the establishment, the firm being known under the title of Turner & Byrne. In 1887 the entire business portion of Muskogee was burned down, including the house of Messrs. Turner & Byrne. After this they erected a fine two-story and basement brick building, 52x100, at present the largest business house in Muskogee. In November, 1889, Mr. Turner purchased his partner's interest and is now sole proprietor of the establishment. He carries a stock of about $45,000 of hardware, machinery, wagons, furniture and farming implements, and does the most extensive wholesale business in the Indian Territory, while his retail trade covers a large section of the country. He is the owner of 3,000 head of cattle and a good improved farm of 500 acres, besides a nice residence in Muskogee. In 1877 Mr. Turner married Miss Murray, a Cherokee, by whom he had one child ---William D. ---born April, 1878. In 1884 he married Miss Tookah Butler, daughter of Ed. Butler, of old North Fork Town and a merchant in that place. Mrs. Turner is part Cherokee and a lady of superior education and many accomplishments. By this marriage he has two children --Tooka, born August 3, 1886, and Clarence W., born October 7, 1889. The subject of our sketch is five feet eight and a half inches in height, and weighs 165 pounds. He is a man of gentlemanly address, and is, undoubtedly, one of the best business men in the Indian Territory. His great success is to some extent due to his popularity, as he is very highly esteemed by all who know him.

Foreman, Rev. Stephen (pp. 216, 217) Biographical Index
The subject of our sketch was the son of a Scotchman named Foreman, by a Cherokee wife. HIs father dying while Stephen was eight or nine years old the boy was thrown, to a great extent, on his own resources. Being very industrious, however, and exhibiting a good deal of ambition, his friends aided him in procuring an education. During his youth he worked pretty hard, and spent such money as he could accumulate on his schooling. Dr. Worcester, the celebrated Presbyterian missionary, took him in charge in his eighteen year and gave him a classical education. Stephen then went to Richmond, Virginia, and there attended college for some years, after which he completed his education at Princeton, New Jersey, and was soon authorized and licensed by the Presbyterian Board to preach the gospel among his own people. For many years Rev. Stephen Foreman was associated with Rev. S. A. Worcester, and during the lives of these illustrious men they translated the New Testament from English to the native (Cherokee) language. When the Cherokees were removed from their old homes in Georgia Rev. Stephen was given charge of 500 of their number, whom he conducted safely to the new country about the year 1837 and '38. During his lifetime Mr. Foreman filled in turn almost every public office but that of chief, but he was especially devoted to religious and educational matters, and was the first superintendent of public schools ever appointed in the Cherokee Nation. After the war Mr. Foreman took charge of the missionary field discontinued by the Presbyterians, and out of his meager and hard earnings erected a church at Park Hill Mission which cost him $800. Not alone did this philanthropic gentleman erect a fine house of worship, but he erected a temple of Christainity in the hearts of the people. His labors unfortunately, however, came to an end on the November 20, 1881. He died at Park Hill, and his dying request was that if the Presbyterian Board desired the field which they had abandoned during the war it should be given to them. The work so well commenced is still being continued, and the remains of the loved and honored missionary, Stephen Foreman, are laid away in the Park Hill Mission graveyard. He left a family of five living children: John A., Austin W., Flora E., Minta R. and Jennie L., now Mrs. C. McClellan.

Ellis, Jackson W. (pp. 217, 218) Biographical Index
Jackson W. Ellis was born in Sweet Town, Cherokee Nation, in 1859. In youth he attended the public schools, and as early as sixteen years of age went to work on a farm. Jackson was the only son of the late Edward Ellis, who, with his brother Samuel, was killed at Fort Gibson during the war while corraling the horses of their company. At the age of twenty-one he was appointed deputy sheriff of Tahlequah district, also sheriff of commissioner's court; and later, in 1872, deputy warden of the national penitentiary, and in the same year commissioner of the quarantine district. In 1876 he went into the drug business until 1878, when he clerked for the two years following in a mercantile house. In 1885 he was appointed Deputy United States Marshal for Western District of Arkansas, and the same year was apppointed on the Indian police force. He had not been employed in this capacity over six weeks, when in self-defense, he shot down Bud Trainer on the streets of Tahlequah. Jackson then moved to Fort Gibson, where he was appointed city marshal. Here he shot and killed Dick Van, who resisted arrest. Dick was the murderer of Captain Sixkiller, of the Indian police, and a noted desperado. From thence he went to Atoka, where he was appointed officer of the peace. During his four years here he shot and killed Harry Finn, a desperado who had killed his father in Missouri, and was following the business of whisky peddler. This was followed by the shooting and capture of Charley Carter, a desperado and murderer, whom the officer was tracing for some time. Jackson Ellis also shot and captured Watson and Whitrock, both whisky venders and desperate men. In all these instances Officer Ellis never outstepped the bounds of duty; such is the public verdict, and all law-abiding citizens feel themselves indebted to this fearless officer for clearing the country of so many "terrors to society." In 1890 the subject of our sketch, in partnership with D. J. Folsom, commenced the practice of law in Atoka, but the former was soon after appointed constable for the second division United States court at South McAlester, under Judge Shackelford, which office he is now holding. Jackson Ellis married Miss Beatrice Becklehymer, by whom he had two children, neither of whom survived, their mother following them to the grave in 1883. In 1885 he married Miss Cordelia C. Smith, daughter of N. J. Smith, of Cherokee, principal chief of the eastern band of Cherokees. Mrs. Ellis is a young woman of great personal attractiveness, highly educated and possessing talents which, in the social scale, place her on a footing with the most accomplished of her sex. Jackson Ellis is fully six feet five inches in height, a fearless determined man and a fine specimen of his race.

Archer, Thomas Jefferson (pp. 218, 219) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March 17, 1861, the seventh son of Dr. James Archer of South Carolina, a leading physician. His mother was a Miss Key. Thomas attended district school until he was fourteen years of age, when he went to Osage Mission Kansas, where he remained one session. After this he went to Muskogee and there clerked in a hotel until April, 1882, when he opened a small store on Verdigris River, twenty-one miles east of Tulsa. When the Fisco was completed to Mingo he removed to that point, and on its completion to Tulsa he followed the road there, where he conducts a store at the present time. In 1887 he put up his present store building, one of the finest in town. Mr. Archer is agent for the Weir Plow Company, the Bain wagon and Buckeye machines, and carries a general mercantile stock of about $7,000. In April, 1889, Mr. Archer married Miss Annie Mobray, daughter of George W. Mobray, of Tulsa, who has recently emigrated from England, and is pastor of the M. E. Church. By this marriage they have one child, a daughter, named Mabel Grace, born June 18, 1891. Mrs. Archer is a lady of refinement and education, and is an uncommonly good musician. Mr. Archer is five feet eight inches in height, and weighs 150 pounds. He is a man of gentlemanly and intellectual appearance and of good business capacity. He is owner of some 500 head of cattle and ten to fifteen saddle horses.

Hardridge, Eli E. (pp. 219, 221) Biographical Index
Eli E. Hardridge was born in February, 1858, the son of Jonathan Hardridge (or Hardage), who was a son of Josiah Hardage, a half-breed. His mother was a full-blood, named Lucy New. Jonathan Hardridge came to this country and settled at the mouth of Cane Creek, where Eli was born. The young man was at first sent to the Checotah neighborhood school, and afterward went to Tallahassee Mission, where he remained nearly five years, defraying the expenses of his own clothing and other incidentals by laboring during vacation. For this Eli is entitled to great credit. After leaving Tallahassee he was sent, at the expense of the nation, for three years, to Wooster College, Ohio, where he went through his Freshman course, but was obliged to leave before graduating, owing to the failure of his health. Young Hardridge, with his mother, father, aunt and cousin, John Berryhill, refugeed in Texas, south of the Red River line, at the outbreak of the Civil War. His father built a log house and planted a small patch of corn, which, with the assistance of game, was their main support during the long years of exile. Eli's father at one time manufactured a pair of shoes and traded them off to a United States citizen for a cow, which they killed and ate. In 1866 the family returned to the Creek Nation and settled at High Springs, near the old council grounds, and farmed for some years, his father dying in 1868. In 1884 Eli was appointed clerk to Judge Dick Bruner, at Tuskegee, which office he held one season. In 1885 he was elected by the council as janitor to both houses, and held the office during the next year. In 1886 to 1887 he was appointed to do special work for Judge Harlan at the Muskogee courts, and in 1888 filled the same place under Judge George Sowers for a period of twelve months. In 1890 he was called to fill the unexpired term of Cussetah Micco in the House of Kings, and was one of the youngest members that ever served in that body. On September 1st he was elected to the House of Warriors, to represent Cussetah Town. Mr. Hardridge has a farm in cultivation, which he tends himself. He has, also, a small stock of cattle and ponies. His mother, who learned the English language at Tallahassee is now residing at Okmulgee, while her son takes charge of the farm. The subject of our sketch is a young man of intelligence, is bright and ambitious, and speaks English fluently.

Martha, Hotulke E. (pp. 221, 223) Biographical Index
The second chief of the Creek Nation was born two years after the close of the Red Stick War. His father was General Bullet (in the aboriginal language, Thecham Hargo), of the Okchaye Town. His mother was Semarharke, a follower of Hoppercheaholo. Hotulke E. Martha and his people belonged to the anti-McIntosh party, remaining in Alabama till from 1833 to 1836. The subject of this sketch entered into public life five years after coming to this country (in 1841), and has been ever since a lawmaker during the old, and since the establishment of the present constitution. From 1867 to 1887 he was member of the House of Kings, and since then has been second chief. During the war Hotulke E. Martha served as lieutenant in the Confederate army under General Cooper. After this he devoted his attention to farming and has 125 acres in cultivation. He belongs to the Bear clan, is not a member of any church or secret society. He has a family of three children, living: Wiley Bucknor, Marcia and Ida. Hotulke E. Martha is a kind, good man and greatly beloved by his people.

Davis, Charles A. (p. 223) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born July 3, 1851, at Clarksville, Arkansas, second son of Ben Davis, of Clarksville, Arkansas, a prominent merchant before the war. Charles' mother was the daughter of Charles Poston, of Springfield, Missouri, a trader at that point. Charles went to Kane Hill College, Arkansas, for three years. Leaving there in 1871 he opened a livery business in Clarksville, Arkansas, and carried it on until 1875. In that year he sold patent pumps in Texas, and in 1876 began farming and raising stock in the eastern portion of the Cherokee Nation. In 1889 he opened a grocery house in Chelsea, which business he still carries on. On October 30, 1877, he married Miss Alice V. Russell, daughter of John Russell, a farmer and stockman. Her mother was a Miss McClure, a part Cherokee. Mr.and Mrs. Davis have four children -- John, born October 19, 1883; Lyta, born March 12, 1887; Arthur, born March 10, 1889 and Mabel, born January 31, 1891. Mr. Davis carries a stock of about $1,500, is the owner of his building, an improved farm of 300 acres, some horses and cattle, and a nice town residence. He is about five feet eight and a half inches and weighs 137 pounds, is a pleasant, agreeable-mannered man and possesses good business qualifications. He is a member of the Odd Fellows' lodge.

Willison, James Dandridge (pp. 223, 225) Biographical Index
James Dandridge Willison was born in December, 1852, the second son of J. W. Willison and Catherine McIntosh, sister to the present Colonel D. N. McIntosh, one of the leading men of the Muskogee Nation. James' father was a white man from Virginia, who settled in Jefferson, Texas, at an early day, having emigrated with his father from England in 1704, being a member of Sir William Calander's family. The subject of our sketch has the old family Bible, printed in 1585, which contains this record. At the age of twenty-two Mr. Willison settled fifteen miles south of Muskogee, and began farming and raising stock. Five years afterward he moved to Eufaula, and in three years to Fort Gibson, where he remained until 1891, when he returned to Muskogee and went into the hotel business. He is now proprietor of the Elliott Hotel, on the east side of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad track. Mr. Willison married Miss Mary Mackey , in June, 1879, the eldest daughter of W. T. Mackey, ex-auditor of the Cherokee Nation. By this marriage they have four living children --- Howard, Dandridge, Irene Bowers and James Mackey. Mr. Willison has a pasture of 35,000 acres south of town, in which he grazed for other parties 13,000 head of cattle the season. He has 400 acres of farm, with a good residence situated thereon, besides horses, oxen and a large stock of hogs. His freighting outfit cost him $2,000. He has also been engaged for six years in the lumber business. Mr. Willison is five feet ten inches high, and weighs 140 pounds. He is a man of gentlemanly appearance, intelligent, and possessing sound business judgment. Although Mr. Willison has refused political honors and remained conservative in questions involving national interest, yet he is a man of very considerable popularity, and would doubtless make a successful politician, if he so desired.

Cobb, John O. (pp. 225, 227) Biographical Index
Born June 4, 1842, the seventh son of Sylvester Cobb, of Tennessee, the subject of our sketch attended public school until seventeen years of age, when he commenced railroading, and continued the business for three years, when the war broke out and he joined the Federal army, holding the positions of private, second and first lieutenant, and finally, captain of his company. After the close of the war he came to the Cherokee Nation with Colonel John J. Humphrey, at that time agent for the Cherokees. In 1867 he established a trading post at Webber's Falls, Canadian District, under the firm name of Cobb & Hutton. Here he remained until 1874, when he went to Gibson Station, where he sold goods, and in 1877 moved to Claremore, where, in the same business, he had a large trade and a good stock ranch. In May, 1880, he started in the livery business at Muskogee, purchasing Hammer & Cunningham's interest. Here he remained until the spring of 1882, when he again embarked in the cattle business, near Muskogee, continuing the same until 1886. After the big fire in the before-mentioned town, Mr. Cobb purchased Dr. Williams' old stand, where he erected a good frame building and furnished it with a large and varied assortment of drugs, school books, stationary, jewelry, paints, etc., together with a fine display of toilet ornaments and other fancy goods. He carries on hand a stock of from $7,000 to $10,000. Mr. Cobb owns a farm of 300 acres in cultivation, with an orchard containing about 6,000 fruit trees, two and a half miles from Muskogee. He is also owner of 150 to 200 head of cattle and about forty-five head of stock horses of a superior grade, many of them bred from his fine Hambletonian horse Felix, which stands sixteen and a half hands and weighs nearly 1,500 pounds. Mr. Cobb married Miss Eudora Moffett, March 4, 1869, eldest daughter of Robert Moffett, a white man, who married a Cherokee citizen. By this marriage he has four living children, named Henry, Lulu, Eudora and Belle. Mrs. Cobb died May 30, 1881, after giving birth to twins, who only survived their mother a couple of months. Mr. Cobb is a gentleman of refinement, highly educated, and a thorough business man withal. He is five feet ten inches in height, and weighs 150 pounds. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church and of the Grand Army of the Republic.

Thompson, William Presley (pp. 227, 229, 230) Biographical Index
This promising and popular young lawyer was born in Smith County, Texas, November 19, 1866, the son of James Franklin Thompson, of Scotch-Irish parentage, and one-sixteenth Cherokee. His mother was Miss Callie E. McCord, of South Carolina, and whose family are to-day influential and wealthy landed proprietors in the northern part of Scotland. When but three years old, William moved with his parents to Beattie's Prairie, Delaware District, Cherokee Nation, from Smith County, Texas, and there attended the public schools until he was fifteen years of age. In February, 1882, he entered the Male Seminary, and in 1884 took the degree of B. S., at the age of seventeen. He then received the appointment of teacher at Oak Grove, in the Going Snake district, and taught for one year. In September, 1885, he entered the Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, and attended the literary department for three years, acquiring a substantial knowledge of the modern languages and classics. In 1888 he became a law student, entering that department and graduating in June, 1889. Thus the subject of our sketch completed a two-year course, obtaining his degree of LL. B., in nine months' time. William's father dying while his son was but eight years of age, he was, therefore, thrown upon his own resources in boyhood, and for this reason is deserving of great credit for completing his own education. In the summer of 1889 Mr. Thompson was admitted to the Tennessee Bar, and, immediately afterward, to the practice in the United States Courts at Muskogee, Creek Nation. In the same year he was elected clerk of the Lower House of the Cherokee Legislature and served two terms, until November, 1891, when he was elected clerk of the Senate, serving but seventeen days until he resigned to assume the position of secretary of the treasury, at a salary of $1,500 per year. Early in the campaign of 1891 Mr. Thompson was called upon by the Mayes men to assume the charge of the Indian Sentinel, the organ of the Downing party. It was then that the subject of this sketch first exhibited his characteristic qualities, combining the elements of a first-class journalist with the tact and shrewdness of a thorough statesman. Incalculatable was the influence brought to bear throughout this canvass by the Sentinel and its fearless editor, who, laying aside all personal risk, "hewed to the line," until the chips almost completely covered or obscured some members of the opposite faction. Mr. Thompson was the first who ever brought about a joint canvass of the country, the various candidates meeting and expressing their opinions upon the issues of the day. At the close of the campaign Mr. Thompson resigned his editorial seat on the Sentinel and returned to his law practice, in conjunction with Messrs. Hastings and Boudinot. With the former he has been in partnership since July, 1890, and with the latter since November, 1890. His connection with Mr. Hastings (now attorney-general) dates from their school-days to the present, having been playmates, scholars, teachers, and now, law partners. And it may be well said of the firm of Thompson, Boudinot & Hastings, that none stand higher in the Cherokee Nation, while few can boast of an equal reputation. Mr. Thompson's practice, as a third partner, reaches to $2,000, or thereabouts, his work extending to the United States Courts of Fort Smith and Muskogee, and the Supreme, Circuit and District Courts of the Cherokee Nation. Mr. Thompson, while at college, distinguished himself as a debater and a fluent speaker, as well as a good essayist, and there are few in his country who can equal him in these acquirements. He is owner of a farm of 200 acres in cultivation, in the Delaware District, which is well stocked, while he has also a quantitu of timbered land. His yearly income at present represents $4,000, which is unusally large for a young man his age. To briefly sum up the characteristics of our subject, Mr. Thompson appears before the world as a prepossessing gentleman, with a polished address, genial and friendly in society, while his education is far beyond the average. Beneath all this, however, he possesses a force of character and a spirit of enthusiasm that are destined to overcome great obstacles and render their possessor (with sufficient ambition) an illustrious citizen of his country.

McKellopp, Albert Pike (pp. 230, 232) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born September 25, 1858, at Choska, Creek Nation, fourth son of James M. McKellopp, whose father came from Scotland in 1810, and settling in Alabama, married a sister to Moses Perryman, brother of Lewis Perryman, father of the present chief. James M. McKellopp, father of the subject of this sketch, was robbed and then murdered by Quantrell and his bushwackers, at Choska, in 1864. His mother, who was daughter to Henry Marshall, of a prominent Creek family, died in 1865, from exposure, at Fort Gibson. Albert attended school at Tallahassee for three years, and from thence, in 1876, was sent by the nation to Wooster University, Wooster, Ohio, where he took the gold medal for Latin when graduating from the preparatory class. Here he remained five years. His first national office was that of clerk of the House of Warriors, in October, 1881, which office, by successive re-elections, he retains to this present day. In 1882 he was elected national tax collector, and retained the position three terms. In 1888 he became inspector of the Muskogee district, which office he still holds. He was appointed in 1889 a member of the board of examiners for national teachers. In 1890 he was elected delegate to represent the Creek Nation at Washington. For the past four years he has been private secretary to the principal chief. In August, 1889, he married Mrs. Stidham, daughter of James F. Cooper and Lydia Gosnold, both of Willow Springs, Missouri. Mr. Cooper was in the Mexican war, and was sergeant-major in the Union Service. Mrs. McKellopp is of French and English descent. She was born in November, 1865, at Hillsborough, Illinois, and taught school for some years in the nation, and while visiting the Teachers' Institute she first met her present husband. Mrs. McKellopp is a most accomplished person, highly educated, and excellent conversationalist and very attractive and fascinating. She was an active member of the Teachers' Institute in 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890 and 1891, and was honored by the position of president in 1888, and secretary in 1889 and 1890. She organized the Womans' Home Mission Society and Sunday-school, of which she was president, and she is a member of the Baptist Church, Muskogee, and assisted in the work of the evangelical mission in 1888. The subject of this sketch has one child, named Arthur Albert, by a former marriage with Miss Florence Wade, daughter of F. S. Wade and Berenice M. (Coleman) Wade, the latter one-quarter Cherokee. Mr. McKellopp is five feet ten inches high and weighs 135 pounds. He is a gentleman of good address, and is cultivated and refined in manner. He owns a handsome residence near Muskogee, with a farm and stock in connection. He is also a lawyer of considerable note and practices in the district and supreme courts.

Davis, Wm. H. (pp. 232, 233) Biographical Index
William H. Davis, familiarly known as "Kinney" Davis, was born in the Flint District, April 8, 1838, the son of William A. Davis, M. D., a Virginian of Welsh and Irish descent, and Mary Burns, daughter of Arthur Burns, who married a Lowry. Dr. Wm. A. Davis was one of the delegates that made the Ridge treaty, and happened to be present at the killing of John Ridge, being called upon in his professional capacity to attend Mrs. Ridge, who was then in bad health. Kinney's father settled in Flint district in 1838, where the subject of this sketch attended public school until fourteen years of age, when he entered the Tahlequah Male Seminary, and graduated with Chief Mayes and Dr. William Campbell, they being the only survivors of the graduating class of that season. Mr. Davis commenced teaching after he left college, and continued until the outbreak of the war, when he enlisted in Stand Watie's Cherokee Regiment and served until the end of 1861. He next joined Bryant's Battalion, and afterwards was transferred to the Second Cherokee Regiment under Co. W. P. Adair, where he served as commissary of the regiment. He was recommended for brigade commissary, but the war closed before he received his commission. After the campaign Mr. Davis was recommended by Chief Thompson and elected by council as member of the Board of Education. He was re-elected December, 1877, and in June, 1881 was again elected under Chief Bushyhead. In January, 1888, he was once more called upon under the Mayes administration to fill the office of member of the Board of Education, which office expired in 1890. He was then apppointed principal teacher in the Cherokee Orphan Asylum, and held that position until the fall of 1890. In 1870 Mr. Davis married Eliza Lowry, daughter of Anderson Lowry, who was a son of Greorge Lowry, for many years second chief of the Cherokees, and the only national celebrity whom the Cherokees have ever honored with a monument, which is located in Tahlequah, the capital. Mr. Davis has six children: Lowry, Percy, Kinney, Eugene, Mary and Andrew Jeff Davis. Mr. Davis has been four times on the Board of Education, and has been each time chairman. He is a modest, unassuming gentleman, whose knowledge, nevertheless, is extensive and varied, being deeply read on many subjects. His reputation for honesty of purpose and action stands high, while his goodness of nature endears him to all of his acquaintances. Mr. Davis resides close to Manard Post Office, Tahlequah district.

Parris, E. P. (p. 234) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in Tahlequah District, September, 1857, the son of Johnson Parris and Delilah Chicken, both half-breeds. After having received his education in the Illinois district schools, he was appointed deputy sheriff under R. M. French at the national prison, which office he retained three years. In 1880 he entered the business establishment of W. T. Rasmus, at Tahlequah, and there remained until 1884, when he was employed by Messrs. Smith & French for two years, and later by John A. French (after the dissolution of the firm) for three years. Mr. Parris then went to work for Messrs. Laurence & Co., until his apppointed as deputy United States constable for the Indian Territory, in 1890, which position he resigned in the fall of 1891, being elected Sheriff for the Tahlequah district over Jay Clarke and Naked Head, which office he holds at present. Mr. Parris has been a suppporter of the National party for fourteen years. He is a member of the Masonic Order and the "Palm and Shell," and is an ambitious, progressive and promising young man.

Ross, William P. (pp. 234, 235, 236, 237, 238) Biographical Index
William Potter Ross was a native of the old Cherokee Nation, and was born August 28, 1820, on the Ross ancestral farm, at the foot of Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga, on the Tennessee River. His father came over the sea from Scotland. His mother was a Cherokee, and a sister of Chief John Ross. In childhood he was trained at home, and in youth was a bright and promising boy, of good deportment, which attracted the attention of his uncle, who claimed the pleasure of bearing the expense of his education, for his father's fortune of $10,000 was lost in the payment of security for a defaulter. This rich and rare opportunity for travel and mental cultivation was fortunately accepted, and improved. The love, admiration and desire to advance the fortune of talent and merit in his clan and young kin, thus manifested by the offer of John Ross, inspired the will of Wm. P. Ross to develop his mental powers for the work of educated manhood found in the fields of the Cherokee Nation. An educated man, he loved his uncle, supported his administrations and defended the old man to the end of his life. He was sent to the mission school in Wills Valley, Alabama; Greenville, East Tennessee; Lawrenceville, New Jersey, and graduated at Princeton College, with the honors of his class in 1842. While he was pursuing his classical studies in the North, the reluctant Cherokee Indians had left forever their mountain homes in the land of Alabama, Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee, and, forced by the treaty of 1835, had emigrated to the sunset hills of the Indian Territory, where they fortunately united in one nation with the Western Cherokees of Tah-lou-teskee, near the mouth of the Illinois River. They ran the lines and named judicial districts, elected officers under a constitution formed from the act of union and treaties; located Tahlequah, the capital, in 1841; accepted missions, opened eleven public schools, and organized Bible and temperance societies. The foundation of the Cherokee government was thus laid and the officers elected for terms of two and four years ---- when William P. Ross, returning South, to Lookout Mountain, followed the path of emigrated Cherokees West, and found his father's house at Park Hill, in the summer of 1842. After teaching the Indian children of Fourteen Mile Creek, in their log cabin school-house, a Methodist church of Rev. John Fletcher Boot, and after hearing the wampum explained by Assistant Chief Major George Lowry to the chiefs and warriors of twenty-one nations and tribes, in a grand June council of peace assembled, in the month of October, 1843, William P. Ross appeared for business at the capital, under the council shed of Tahlequah. He was welcomed by the Chief, presented and introduced to the Senate and Council. He was chosen clerk of the Senate, and during that session of the National Council was elected editor of the Cherokee Advocate. Its first number appeared in September, 1844, with the significant motto: "Our Country, Our Rights, Our Race." A leading aspiration of the national journal was to encourage and stimulate the Indian mind in the cultivation of science, law, religion and agriculture, and, next, to enlighten the world with correct information and true Indian news. Its prospectus and editorials, in composition and sentiment, were fine specimens of English literature and very able productions of the accomplished young Cherokee editor. William P. Ross drafted many acts found in the Cherokee code of laws, assisted council and chiefs to build on the foundations laid in treaties and constitution, the schools, seminaries and asylums of the Cherokee Nation, where many Cherokee youth have been educated, who will read and learn in the history of the nation that he was the firm friend of youth and a wise patron of schools for nearly fifty years of his public life with the rulers of the Cherokee Nation. Often, from 1846 to 1886, he was the peer of eminent Indian delegations to Washington City. His arguments before the Interior Department and Congressional Indian committees disclosed his perfect knowledge of Indian treaties and proclaimed him an Indian master of English composition and American eloquence --- a writer, orator and statesman. Diligence, ability and fidelity won him the respect and friendship of learned statemen. He wrote the amendments to the constitution required by the treaty of 1866, which the people, in convention, adopted after he was made principal chief by the National Council, to fill the vacant seat of John Ross, who died in Washington City in the summer of 1866, and was buried at Park Hill, Cherokee Nation --- the inscription on the granite monument is: "Chief John Ross." In 1870 Wm. P. Ross represented the Cherokee Nation at Okmulgee, in the grand Indian council provided by treaty for the Indian Territory, and there his voice was heard with admiration and confidence, as that of an elder brother, by the Indian delegates from other nations and tribes. In 1874 the National Council seated him in the vacant chair of the lamented Chief Lewis Downing. After administering the laws for the two unexpired terms of the illustrious dead chieftains with impartial ability and great satisfaction to his people, W. P. Ross retired to private life, but was soon called from his vineyard, farm and orchard to fill the editorial chairs of the Indian Journal at Muskogee, the Indian Chieftain at Vinita, and the Indian Arrow at Fort Gibson and Tahlequah, newspapers owned and operated by stock companies. He was stockholder and Cherokee Vice-president of the Indian International Fair Association and Agricultural Society, at Muskogee. Again called to public service by his national friends, he was made President of the Board of Education. A judge of the court on citizenship claims, he dispatched business will fidelity and intelligence, being an able and experienced attorney at law. In 1890 he represented Illinois district in the Senate, and was made chairman of the Cherokee committee appointed to navigate six million acres of land west of Meridian 96 with the United States Commission. No agreement was reached and the commission was recalled, and retired, with thanks and compliments to the venerable chairman for his respectful management of the business. His last important speech in the Senate of the Cherokee Nation was on a bill to operate, sustain, continue and endur the Cherokee Male and Female Seminaries. Education will teach the Cherokees to improve their homes and impart the influence of power to protect their lands forever. Such were the sentiments of William P. Ross in the closing speech of an honored public life, prolonged to nearly fifty years of active and eminent service rendered his people of the Cherokee Nation. His life is a part of the Cherokee  history. Full of years and honors, William P. Ross died a senator of the Cherokee Nation, Monday morning, July 28, 1891, aged seventy-one years. In conversation, on Sunday, he said to his wife Mrs. Mollie Ross, that he never did an act of which their children would ever be ashamed; that he believed in the great hereafter, rewards and punishments, death and immortality, eternity and God. He knew the Way of Life and was a Christian. Under a meridian sun, Tuesday, July 29, 1891, the remains of William P. Ross were laid to rest by the hands of his kin, his neighbors, his Presbyterian friends and his Masonic brothers from Tahlequah, Fort Gibson and Muskogee, in the Cherokee National Cemetery, on the prairie hill near Fort Gibson, the town of his home, under the green branches of the cedar planted there by himself. That evergreen is an emblem of the immortality of a well-spent life. The name and virtues of William P. Ross, loved in life and lamented in death will go to posterity through traditions and history as a Cherokee writer, orator and statesman.

Kinney, John V. (pp. 247, 248) Biographical Index
John V. Kinney was born February 14, 1828, in Girard, Pennsylvania, the eldest son of Sidney Kinney, a farmer and stock-raiser. His mother was a Miss Tower, of German descent. John attended public school until he was about eighteen years of age, when he assisted his father for one year on the farm. When nineteen years old he went to Michigan, and was there connected with the livery and stage business for some years, when he moved to Leavenworth, Kansas, and became a wagon-master for the government on the plains, and continued in that capacity until 1862. Joining the Federal army, under Col. Moonlight, he remained in the service until the end of the war, and, after its close, commenced farming in Leavenworth County, where he remained until 1868, when he went to the Cherokee Nation with the Delaware tribe. On his arrival he once more commenced farming and stock-raising, and continues the business to the present day. In August, 1858, he married Miss Eliza Ketchum, daughter of the Rev. Charles Ketchum, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, North, who was three-fourths Delaware, and highly revered and beloved by his people. He was well known in Washington City, where he served as a delegate for his tribe on several occasions. Rev. Charles Ketchum was also second chief of the Delawares, and filled other responsible positions. Mrs. Kinney is a lady of good education and refinement, and is greatly respected by everybody. Mr. Kinney is a man of fine physical form and intellectual appearance, with a good practical education and business ability. He is generous and hospitable and therefore quite popular. His property consists of 650 acres of land in cultivation, near Lenopah Station, and a good residence, with orchard and gardens. His farm is known as the Hickory Creek Springs. He has also 35 head of cattle, 20 head of horses and about 100 head of hogs.

Wilson, John Franklin (pp. 248, 250) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born August 21, 1861, in Quitman, Wood County, Texas, the only son of John W. Wilson and Ellen Thompson, a Cherokee by blood. After his parents died in 1869, he was sent to school in the neighborhood for four years, and in 1878 went to Alexander Institute, Kilgore, Texas, where he remained one year. Returning to Wood County he commenced farming, and continued it for two years, after which he attended bar for Col. G. W. Haines, of Quitman, for about the same length of time. Moving to Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, he accepted a position as clerk for Johnson Thompson, of that place, for twelve months, after which he entered R. M. French's establishment, remaining in that position but seven months, until he purchased the livery stable built by Mr. Alberty, and embarked in the livery business, in which he still continues. Dr. Wilson married Miss Ida Jeffers, of Berryville, Arkansas, July 29, 1889, a daughter of John Jeffers, a white man, and brother of Drs. Captain Adair, of Tahlequah. By this marriage they have one child, born May 7, 1890. Dr. Wilson's stable consists of sixteen horses, four buggies and five hacks, while his building and lot is valued at $2,500. He is also owner of a farm of 250 acres, two miles west of town, sixty acres of which is in good cultivation, and as small stock of cattle, hogs, etc. Dr. Wilson is six feet high, weighs 195 pounds, and is a man of fine intellectual appearance, full of energy and enterprise and very popular.

Smith, Charles Scott (pp. 252, 255) Biographical Index
This gentleman was born in September, 1849, the eldest son of Rev. J. G. Smith, a Baptist minister of Eufaula, and of the Creek tribe of Tuckabatche Town, and a very prominent man among his people. At six years of age Charles commenced attending neighborhood school, and continued until 1862, when he went to Fort Smith to complete his education. But at the outbreak of the war he returned to his father's home, and with others, joined a band of refugees that sought safety on Red River, Chicksaw Nation. Here he remained until 1866. Two years later he went to the Buchanan School, Cane Hill, Arkansas, where he remained four months. When the new Cane Hill college was built young Smith attended during two terms, leaving that institute in 1870, at his father's death, and assuming charge of the family until 1873, when he married Miss Lou Grayson, daughter of Jim Grayson, of Eufaula. By this marriage he had three children --- Ada, aged twelve years; Jay, ten years, and Horace Greeley, six years. In 1871 Mr. Smith was elected clerk of the House of Representatives, serving one term. In 1875 he became one of the associate judges of the supreme court, holding that honorable position until 1887, when he concluded to resign from judicial and political life. Mr. Smith has 800 acres of farm land, 300 of which is in pasturage. He has also a small stock of cattle, horses and hogs. Mr. Smith is a man of superior judgment, good education, and is very popular. He is about five-eighths Indian, but would pass anywhere for an Anglo-Saxon.

Robison, William (pp. 255, 257, 258) Biographical Index
Born, Feb. 8, 1833, near Muskogee, Creek Nation, the eldest son of Dr. Alexander Robison and Elizabeth Reed. Dr. Reed was a white man from Columbus, Ga., and government physician by appointment for the Creeks during their emigration West. He married in 1832, the daughter of a United States citizen known by the name of Long Reed, who married a full-blood Creek of the Thlopthlocco or Deer clan. The subject of our sketch went to a neighborhood school near the mouth of Little River at the age of nine or ten years, and at about fifteen went to Shawnee Mission, two and a half miles from Westport, Mo., where he remained one year, moving to Asberry Mission, when, after one session he left for Alabama, sojourning two years at the Warrior Stand Academy. William's father, being a practical man, induced his son to learn the blacksmith's trade, which he did, devoting more than two years to its accomplishment. But on returning home, young Robison found that he could make a living much easier than with an anvil and so became a clerk for G. F. McClish, a Chicksaw, who had a store at the mouth of Little River.  About this time, 1856, he married Miss Adeline McClish, oldest daughter of Judge Jas. McClish, of Tishomingo, and first judge of that nation after the completion of the Chicksaw constitution. By this marriage they had six children, five of whom are still living, viz.: Josephine, born December, 1856; Alina R., born 1857; George F., born 1861; William R., born 1864; and Amos R., born 1870. When the war broke out Mr. Robison joined the Confederate service under Col. John Jumper --Seminole battalion. In this service he was elected first lieutenant. At the first re-organization he was elected captain, and when they re-organized into a regiment, Mr. Robison was made lieutenant-colonel, which post he maintained with honor until the surrender. After the war he opened a mercantile business at the mouth of Caddo Creek, after which he moved his business to the Creek Nation, and was elected district judge of Deep Fork, serving a term of two years, when he was elected member of the House of Warriors, and afterward school superintendent. After serving one year in this capacity, he became interpreter to the House of Kings for four years, and afterwards member of that body, which office he held for twelve years. In 1891, he was appointed superintendent of Wetumka National Labor School, which institute he is now in charge of. Nov. 1, 1872, he married Mrs. Cherokee Barnett, widow of Washington Barnett, brother to Timothy Barnett, national treasurer. By this marriage he had two boys, Ellis Edwin, born July, 1873, and Robert Clem, born October, 1874. During the Esparhecher rebellion, Colonel Robison was appointed by Samuel Checotah as commander of the national forces, with headquarters at Okmulgee. The first fight took place at Rock Fork Creek, near Springfield, Col. Robison having seven of his men killed, they being taken by surprise when in camp. The Colonel, with one thousand men followed Esparhecher for forty miles, until overtaken by Agent Tuft, who requested Col. Robison to return to Okmulgee, that he would endeavor to make peace with the disaffected parties, which was afterward accomplished. Col. Robison, however, had to move from his home place, as it was in the enemy's settlement; so he opened a livery stable in Muskogee and continued the same for four years, when he sold out and moved to his present home on Van's Lake, between the Arkansas and Verdigris. The subject of our sketch has 150 head of cattle, 25 horses, and 200 acres under fence, 150 of which is in cultivation, with a good house, garden and orchard. He has also a fine residence and other property in Muskogee. Col. Robison is 6 feet 2 inches high, and weighs 150 pounds. He is of good appearance and good address --- a man of wide knowledge and sound judgment. No man in the nation is more widely and favorably known, and he has a host of friends among all races and color. Col. Robison has nine children living.

Crabtree, William B. (pp. 258, 259) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in Alabama, in 1817, the son of a Mr. Crabtree who emigrated from Ireland in his youth. William B., in 1837, went to Miller County, Arkansas, settling on McKinney Bayou, near Red River, where he commenced farming and continued it until the close of the war, when he lost 250 bales of cotton by fire, at a time when that staple was worth fifty cents per pound. Parting with nearly one hundred slaves, Mr. Crabtree moved to the Creek Nation, where he had many strange and varied adventures. It should hav been stated before that this gentleman served in the war between Texas and Mexico, and there acquitted himself honorably. In his sojourn in Texas he had opportunities of gratifying his love for hunting, as game was at that time plentiful, and Mr. Crabtree was a celebrated hunter ---one of the great bear-hunters of that day; a day which was remarkable for men of the Davy Crockett stamp, of which the subject of our sketch might well be numbered. Returning from Mexico, Mr. Crabtree became an extensive slave-trader, purchasing large numbers in the Creek Nation and elsewhere and carrying them South, where they brought a much higher price. Mr. Crabtree married a Miss Priscilla McGirth, whose father was a man of considerable prominence among the Creeks in the old country. After this he moved from the Alabama Reservation, at his own personal expense, a considerable band of Indians. By this marriage Mr. Crabtree had nine children, three of whom are still living --- Susan (now Mrs. Simpson), born in 1841; William F., born in 1846, and James H., born in 1849. For some time before his death Mr. Crabtree showed symptoms of failing health, and, with the hope of relief, went to Eureka Springs, where he died of kidney disease in the fall of 1882. His body was sent for burial to Eufaula, where he had lived for many years, beloved and respected by all who knew him. He was a self-educated man, of qualities such as are certain accompaniments to success in business. He died worth about $10,000 in cattle and other property. Mr. Crabtree was generous and charitable, of unquestionable integrity, and greatly beloved by all who knew him. He was a fine-looking man, six feet high and weighed 220 pounds.

Daniels, Robert Buffington (pp. 259, 260) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born January, 1815, the eldest son of Judge James Daniels, a prominent Cherokee. Robert was educated in the States, and at twenty-one years of age married Miss Ann Taylor, second daughter of Richard Taylor. After the marriage they settled on Bates Prairie, Cherokee Nation, where he followed farming until the outbreak of the war, when they refugeed in the Choctaw Nation until 1865. The war being at an end, Mr. Daniels and his family returned to their home on Bates Prairie, but, being penniless, with difficulty managed to secure a living until appointed a member of the supreme bench, which office he held one term, when he became chief justice of the nation. In August, 1871, he was elected second chief, and on the following January 16th (his birthday) he died, deeply regretted by the entire Cherokee people. He was a man of good practical education and force of character. In 1882 Mrs. Daniels moved to Vinita after her daughter's marriage and her son's death, and is now living in a nice residence. She is seventy years old, though she appears much younger. She is kind and charitable and much beloved and respected.

Belcher, Christopher C. (pp. 264, 266) Biographical Index
Christopher was born in Abington, Va., September 10, 1830, the only son of G. W. Belcher of the same town. His mother was a Miss Eliza De Noyle, of French descent. Christopher first went to school in Virginia, and from thence to his uncle L. C. De Noyle, of Nashville, Tenn., where he remained till seventeen years of age, going to school at the academy there for a time and from thence to the State University, where he remained about four years. After this he moved around for a time until 1848, when he came to the Cherokee Nation, and from thence after a year, to the old Creek agency in the Creek Nation. He then commenced clerking for John A. Mathews, general merchant, of that place, and remained with him for two years. In 1851, he went to Briartown, Cherokee Nation, where he took charge of the store of John Barnwall, general merchant, of that place. Here he remained for fifteen months, when he went to Missouri, spending nearly two years in that State, until his former employer, Mr. Barnwall, wrote for him to return and take charge of his mercantile interests, which he did for  a term of three years, finally becoming a partner in the business and retaining the same for five years. At the outbreak of the war he joined the Confederate service under General Pike as a captain, remaining with his company till the end. In 1865, he came to Okmulgee and settled on a farm until 1867, when he moved to Shieldsville, five miles north, to assume charge of Parkinson & Co.'s store at that point. Before long Mr. Belcher purchased the business himself, moving to Okmulgee---which town was just established. Here he remained until 1873, when he sold his stock and trade to a Mr. Parkinson, turning his attention to farming and stock-raising, which he still continues. In 1884 he was appointed postmaster at Okmulgee, retaining the office until the present time. Mr. Belcher was married to Mrs. Kiney (widow of George Kiney), a Creek lady and a niece of the celebrated Paddy Carr, by whom he has no family. In 1855 he was adopted by the Creeks, by a special act of council---an honor and mark of favor never before or since bestowed, except in one other instance. This fact is a pretty good proof of Mr. Belcher's great popularity among the Indian people. Mr. Belcher was among the first few charter members of the Masonic order in the Creek Nation, his connection with the order being cotemporneous with the late G. W. Stidham, who was the first Master Mason in the Creek country. The subject of our sketch is owner of a fine farm, as well as 300 head of cattle, horses and hogs, and a comfortable residence in the town of Okmulgee. Mr. Belcher is five feet six inches in height, gentlemanly and prepossessing in manner, and a universal favorite with all classes of men.

Boudinot, William P. (pp. 266, 267, 268) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch is brother of the late E. C. Boudinot, a well-known man, not only in the Indian Territory, but throughout the United States, and whose sketch is elsewhere given in this volume. W. P. is four years the senior, being now sixty-one years of age. The lives of both ran very much in the same groove until their return to the nation upon coming of age. W. P.'s Eastern education qualified him to fill various subordinate positions in the Cherokee Government, beginning with the clerk of the Senate, or "National Committee," as it was then called in 1851-52, and ending with delegate to Washington City in 1887. At times during the interim he edited the national journal, the Cherokee Advocate, assisted to compile and revise the laws of the nation several times, supervised the public schools, and served as one of the secretaries of the executive department. While not engaged in official work he practiced law in the local courts. W. P. Boudinot, like his deceased brother, is a man of ability and talent. He is a natural musician and a forcible writer, and while he does not claim to be a poet he has written verses of undoubted merit. Being as he is a native Cherokee Indian, some readers may be curious to know how one of the race has succeeded in a field of literature where so many have failed, therefore we have obtained his permission to publish the following poem, which we have especially chosen for its picturesque wierdness---a quality characteristic of most of the poetry and music of the Indians. It was only after great persuasion that we prevailed upon the writer to favor us, as Mr. Boudinot is the most modest and unpretentious of men. The verses, we are told, were written when he was a mere boy. The idea in his mind seems to have been that human beings are all followed from cradle to the grave by a relentless and ever-present doom.

The Spectre
by W. P. Boudinot

There is a spectre ever haunting
All the living ones on earth;
Like a shadow it attendeth
Every mortal from his birth,
And its likeness is a demon's,
Horrible with mocking mirth.

And it never sleeps an instant,
Never turns away its eye,
Which is always fixed and greedy
Gazing on us ardently;
When at night we sleep it watcheth,
At our bedside standing by.

Low it crouches by the cradle
Where the new born infant sleeps,
Watching with the watchful mother
When it smiles and when it weeps,
Unseen, silent, absent never,
'Round the dreaming babe it creeps.

Thus from life's fist faint beginning,
Till the dreaded close appears,
Does this still, unknown companion
Dog us through our flying years;
And it mocks our silly pleasures
As it mocks our useless tears.

[Thus attended the unconscious mortal grows up and enjoys life, until he begins to notice the passage of time, and the coming sunset.
Then he perceives that something is half following, half urging him along.]

And we feel its icy fingers
Tracing wrinkles on the brow,
While its breath, so cold and deadly,
Turns the raven hair to snow,
As we hobble on our journey
With a stumbling step and slow.

[The mortal, now an old man, is anxious at last to know where he is being led or driven to.]

Whither, pleads the weary traveler,
Whither, whither do we fly?
But the darkness now descending
Shuts the scene from human eye;
Still is heard the faint voice pleading---
Never cometh a reply.

[Save that which the poet himself gives us.]

On the footsteps of each mortal
From his first to latest date,
When he joys, or loves, or sorrows,
Wretched, happy, humble, great,
Mocking glides the silent phantom---
Child of clay it is thy fate.

That a boy of fourteen or fifteen years of age, and an Indian boy at that, should have written such verses as the above, is an interesting fact, and indicates the possession of a vivid poetic imagination. It will be observed that but few words of more than two syllables are brought into use, and if poverty of expression be urged by the critic, the young writer's surroundings and opportunities should be considered, as well as his tender years. We should like to here produce one of Mr. Boudinot's later and consequently more mature poems, but being circumscribed, are therefore obliged to refrain from that pleasure. It is to be hoped that before very long he will collect together the fugitive children of his brain and give them to the world in book form.

Adams, John (pp. 268, 270) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born October 16, 1844, at Cleveland, Ohio, the second son of Ezekia Adams. At the age of seventeen years he began railroading, becoming a conductor on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad and other roads for twelve or fifteen years. He also spent eight or nine years in the eating-house and hotel business. In 1889 Mr. Adams moved to Muskogee from Eufaula, where he was located six years. Here he bought out the M. K. and T. House, which he conducted during the building of the Hotel Adams. On its completion, January 17, 1890, he assumed its management, and on this day the grand opening of the hotel was celebrated, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad running special trains at reduced rates from Missouri, Kansas and Texas, bringing in fully 350 persons, who were banqueted in a sumptuous manner. This fine hotel has a dining-room with seating capacity of 185 persons, fine offices, waiting-room, lunch-room, ticket office, barber shop and bath-rooms. The parlor---an elegant room----is richly and tastefully furnished. There are fifty guestrooms, funished in a most tasteful manner, some with folding-beds and others in antique oak suites, and again others in the XVI Century style. There are few hotels in any of the States so thoroughly and elegantly equipped. The dining-room funiture will contrast favorably with the rest of the establishment, while the attention afforded to guests is highly satisfactory. The building is steam-heated throughout and lighted with gas, and has a fine water and sewerage connection. The former is supplied by a four-inch pipe connected with the Missouri, Kansas and Texas engine-room, which serves as a great protection in case of fire. The building is also supplied with fire-escapes. Muskogee being the end of the division, the Hotel Adams feeds all the passenger train guests, and is doing a surprisingly large business.

Mr. Adams, the principal and manager, is especially adapted to that position. His long experience in the business, combined with his courtesy and affability of manner, renders him exceedingly popular, so that under his supervision the hotel will no doubt continue to be a resort of great popularity among those who visit the Indian Territory. The building cost $40,000.

Cobb, Samuel S. (p. 270) Biographical Index
Samuel S. Cobb was born December 12, 1865, in Bradley county, Tennessee, the youngest son of J. B. Cobb, a citizen of the nation by marriage and one of the largest farmers in that country. Samuel's mother was a Miss Eva Clingan, of the Fields and Blythe families. He attended school at home until he was sixteen, when he entered the Cherokee Male Seminary and there remained two years. In 1884 he became a pupil of the State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kas., graduating after four years' study in 1889. Coming to the Indian Territory, he went to work in the office of The Brother in Red, a weekly paper published at Muskogee. Here he remained one year, till July, 1890, when he opened a drug store at Wagoner, and on the 6th of August in the same year was appointed postmaster, which position he still holds. Mr. Cobb has a drug stock worth about $2,500, and with his uncle, S. S. Cobb, of Vinita, is owner of the building as well as the business conducted therein. The subject of our sketch is six feet one inch in height, weighs 190 pounds, and is a young man of prepossessing appearance, affable and courteous in manner and well educated.

Skinner, Nathaniel (pp. 271, 272, 273) Biographical Index
Nathaniel Skinner was born April 8, 1851, at Harrison county, Kentucky, third son of Nathaniel Skinner, of that county. His mother was a Miss Cleveland. Nathaniel attended public school till fifteen years of age, completing his education at Sedalia after one year's schooling in that city. His family moved from Kentucky to Cooper County, Missouri, in 1856, Nathaniel went to western Kansas and thee embarked in the cattle business, remaining till 1871, when he moved to Vinita in the Cherokee Nation, and there carried on the business, buying and shipping cattle to Northern markets. In 1878 he opened a stock ranch and still carries on the trade.

In March, 1879, Mr. Skinner married Miss Nannie Kell, daughter of Louis Kell, a prominent Cherokee and at his death a member of the National Council. Mrs. Skinner was a half-Cherokee, a beautiful and accomplished woman, but unfortunately died on her twenty-eighth birthday, January 28, 1889. At the time of her death Mrs. Skinner was treasurer of the Methodist Home Mission Society, and a good Christian, ever ready to extend a helping hand in poverty and sickness. By this marriage Mr. Skinner has three children---Louie, John and Ray.

Messrs. Skinner & Radcliffe have a large mercantile house in Vinita and do an extensive business. Mr. Skinner has 4,000 head of cattle, and in 1891 handled 10,000 head, shipping 6,000 to market. He has also 700 acres in cultivation and six building lots with fine store building and residence in Vinita, where he resides. Mr. Skinner is about five feet eight and a half inches and weighs 150 pounds, a gentleman of good appearance and address and deservedly popular with all classes. As a business man he has few superiors, having great force of character and decision, while his courteous manner gains him many friends.

Scott, John S. (pp. 273, 276) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in Jefferson County, Ohio, in April, 1837, the second son of Merchant Scott, of Jefferson County, Ohio, of Irish and Scotch descent. His mother's name was Mary Stringer, of Irish descent. John attended school in Jefferson county, Ohio, until fourteen years of age, and moved with his family to Humboldt, Kansas, in 1857. Three years later he commenced business on his own account, and continued it until the town was burned by Confederate bushwhackers, after which he immediately recruited a company of Indians and entered the Federal service in May, 1862, as first lieutenant. In June of the same year he was captured and incarcerated at Fort Smith, and in August following he was exchanged at Cassville, Missouri, and returned to his regiment. In October, 1862, he was mustered out by Major Van Antwerp, General Blount's adjutant-general. In the same year he commenced the sutler business, at Bentonville, Arkansas, for the Second Indian Regiment, and moved with them to Fort Gibson in the spring of 1863, continuing in that department until 1865, when he was mustered out. After the war he went to Kansas, and returned to Fort Gibson in 1871 and there established a small store, with a limited stock of general merchandise. In the same year he married Miss Margaret Coody, daughter of Daniel Coody, a Cherokee and niece of General Ruecker's wife. By this marriage he has one boy, Walker, born August 14, 1872. Mrs. Scott dying in 1873, he married Miss Belle Harnage, daughter of John G. Harnage, a noted man among the Cherokees, having filled almost all the principal national offices. By this marriage he has four children, viz.: Gibson R., born October 19, 1877; Emma, born August 16, 1881; John S., born June 21, 1883, and Raphael, born September 11, 1889. Mr. Scott at present carries a stock of $18,000 to $20,000 in general merchandise. He has a fine two-story brick building, fifty by seventy-five feet, an engraving of which will be found in this volume. Mr. Scott handles a great deal of cotton annually, he has considerable farm interest, and a fine two-story residence, barns, gardens, orchards, etc. He is a man of gentlemanly bearing, five feet ten inches in height and weighs 150 pounds. He is cheerful and affable in manner and very popular. As a business man he has few superiors, possessing as he does the full confidence of the public, and the respect and esteem of all who know him. Mr. Scott is also postmaster at Fort Gibson.

Whitmire, Eli H. (pp. 276, 277) Biographical Index
Eli H. Whitmire was born June 13, 1859, the son of George Whitmire and Elizabeth Faught. George Whitmire settled in the Going Snake district in 1828, being one of the early settlers. He was for some time judge of his district, and gave his name to the school where his son received his early education ---- viz., the Whitmire Primary School. Here Eli attended until old enough to go to the Male Seminary in Tahlequah, where he studied for some time, leaving that institution to enter the Indian University, where he remained from 1876 to 1880. Having received an excellent education, Mr. Whitmire devoted himself to teaching his first school being that of Tyler's Valley and the next the Whitmire school, above referred to, where he taught for seven years. In 1886 he married Mary, daughter of Elias Wright. After clerking in a mercantile house in Cincinnati for one year, Mr. Whitmire returned to the Whitmire school, where he taught for a term and a half. In 1887 he was elected to the Senate, and during his office term of two years rendered himself remarkable (in conjunction with R. W. Lindsay) by holding out for a high price of lease for the grazing privileges of land west of 96, always sustaining the chief in his various vetoes on that occasion. By this effort the amount was raised from $125,000 to $200,000. At the expiration of his term Mr. Whitmire was elected secretary of the Board of Education. During the past year he has not sought an office, although he takes a lively interest in politics, having done so ever since he left school. Mr. Whitmire was probably the youngest man that ever obtained a seat in the Cherokee Senate, and he secured a larger majority than anybody else in the district. He has a farm of 100 acres in cultivation, on the Barren Fork. Mr. Whitmire is a Master Mason, and belongs to the Flint Lodge. He is a gentleman of good appearance and address---quiet, dignified and well educated. He is very popular, and calculated to make a success in public life, although he has no political ambition at present.

Trott, William Lafayette (pp. 277, 279) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March, 1844, in Woodberry, Tennessee, third son of Rev. J. J. Trott, a noted missionary among the Cherokees, and who was arrested with Rev. Worcestor and others by the Georgian Guard, for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Georgia. William's mother was a Miss Rachel P. Adair. The young man attended Franklin College, Nashville, Tennessee, for five years, when, with his father's family, he removed to the Cherokee Nation. Rev. J. J. Trott, however, did not move wiht the emigration to the new country, but remained in Tennessee until 1857, and then came to the present Cherokee Nation. At the outbreak of the war the family moved North, except William and his brother Timothy, who joined the Confederate army, while their brother, James C., joined the Federals. William was one of the first settlers in Vinita, going there in 1868 and establishing a livery business. In 1884 he became a lumber merchant, which business he is still pursuing. Mr. Trott has always been a progressive man. In 1891 he competed for the senatorial seat in the representation of Coowescoowee district on the issue of allotment, and, strange to say, was only defeated by a small majority. Mr. Trott will advocate the measure, as he considers it the only salvation of his people. He has been superintendent of Sunday-school (Presbyterian) for the past seven years. Mr. Trott married Miss Lue J. Moore, a Missouri lady, the issue of the marriage being three children, two of whom are living, named William Henry, born December 4, 1877, and Dott Fay, born March 13, 1884. He has also adopted and raised a niece of his wife, a Miss Nannie Stafford, who is residing with the family. Mrs. Trott is a lady of education and charitable and kind mother. The subject of our sketch, William Trott, is a man of fine intellectual appearance, a good business man and a true Christian, if it be given men to judge each other correctly. He is very popular, and has the interests of his country at heart. Mr. Trott, besides his lumber yard, is also interested in farming and fruit growing, and has taken a pominent part in the progress of his town, so much so that the people of Vinita elected him as their mayor, which office he has honorably and creditably held for three terms.

Teague, William W. (p. 279) Biographical Index
William W. Teague was born December 23, 1864, at Hagerstown, Ind., the son of W. R. Teague (a man of prominence in his country) and Emily E. Hendricks, a North Carolinian. William attended public school until fifteen years of age, after which he went to school in Kansas until eighteen years old. In 1879 he moved to Muskogee, Creek Nation, where he entered the employment of Cass Bros., merchants, with whom he remained until 1887, when he went to Wagoner and took charge of Miller & Co.'s mercantile store. Here he worked two and a half years, when he was made postmaster and held that office the same length of time. In April, 1891, in conjunction with Mr. McQuarie, he opened a mercantile establishment at Wagoner. These gentlemen carry a stock of, say, $6,000, and are owners of their stone building, while Mr. Teague has a nice residence in town. In 1891 he married Miss Georgia Hubbard, daughter of Colonel H. H. Hubbard, a Cherokee by blood. Mr. Teague is a member of the Masonic and Odd Fellows' lodges, is a gentleman of pleasant address, well educated and very popular.

Strange, William J. (pp. 280, 281) Biographical Index
The subject of htis sketch was born September 29, 1860, in Walker County, Georgia, second son of William Strange, a stockman and ex-sheriff of Walker County, having served eight years in that capacity. William's mother was the daughter of Henry Boss, also a stock raiser of Walker County. William, after attending public school till seventeen years of age, entered the mercantile business at Ringgold, Georgia. Selling out three years later, he moved to Vinita, Indian Territory, and began clerking for W. C. Patton & Co. Here he remained five years, till 1885, when he moved to Chelsea, and there embarked in the mercantile business on his own account, and is conducting it at the present time. In 1886, he was appointed postmaster, and still holds the office. In October, 1887, Mr. Strange married Miss Mary, daughter of A. C. Raymond, then a merchant at Vinita. Mr. Strange carries a stock of $2,000 in general merchandise, and owns about 1,000 head of cattle, 50 head of horses, and a farm of 600 acres, 350 of which is in cultivation, near Chelsea, besides some real estate property. Mr. Strange is nearly six feet in height, weighing 185 pounds. He is a man of intelligence and good business ability, is kind and courteous in manner, and much respected in the community. He is a member of the Methodist Church and a Master Mason of Vinita Lodge, No. 5. His wife, Mrs. M. Strange, is a graduate of Worcester College, Cherokee Nation, and is a lady of refined and attractive manners, exceedingly popular among all with whom she is acquainted; she also is a member of the Methodist Church.

Hildebrand, Joseph M. (pp. 281, 282) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born November 22, 1822, in the old nation, East Tennessee, the third son of Michael Hildebrand, of Knoxville, Tennessee, of German descent, and who married a daughter of U. S. Indian Agent, Joseph Martin. She was one-fourth Cherokee, and grand-daughter of the celebrated Granny Ward of national fame. Joseph received his education by private tuition, and emigrated West in 1842. In 1845, he began farming and raising stock in the Cherokee Nation, and continues that business at the present time. In 1867, he was elected judge of Coowescoowee district, and held the office four years. This was his last official position, as he never would again mingle in politics, no matter to what extent pressed or encouraged by his people; although he is, notwithstanding all this, a very true and devoted friend of the Cherokee people. In 1843, Mr. Hildebrand married Miss Lucy Starr, daughter of Tom Starr, of Flint district, a man of considerable prominence in his country. By this marriage they had three children, named Resea, Josephine and Alice. In 1852, Mr. Hildebrand married Miss Levaca Patterson, daughter of John Patterson, of Poke County, Tennessee, a prominent man in his country. In 1855, he married Miss Gentry, of Fort Gibson, who died in 1872 without family. In 1870, Mr. Hildebrand married Miss Mary King, who had one daughter named Ellie, born in 1871. Mrs. Hildebrand leaving her husband soon afterwards, he again married July 16, 1874, this time to Miss Martha Fields, a Cherokee, who died in 1890. In 1891, Mr. Hildebrand married Mrs. M. Cory, widow of the late Dr. Cory, of Silver Springs, Arkansas, with whom he is now living. Mr. Hildebrand is five feet eleven inches in height and weighs 175 pounds. He is a fine, handsome looking man, of good address, and is kind, charitable and true in his contact with his fellow-men. Mr. Hildebrand is looked upon as a good Christian, and is popular wherever he is ____. He has 90 acres of land in cultivation, 50 head of cattle, ____ some 7 head of horses, and a stock of hogs. He owns a good comfortable home wherein peace and harmony prevails.

Parkinson, Terry A. (pp. 282, 283) Biographical Index
Terry A. Parkinson was born May 12, 1866, in Coffee County, Kansas, and is the eldest son of James Parkinson, a merchant of Okmulgee, Creek Nation, and Red Fork. His mother was a Miss E. J. Randall, of Missouri. Terry attended the public schools until fourteen years of age, after which he spent two years in the Missouri College, completing his education with a business course of two months' duration in St. Louis. After this he became book-keeper for his father at Okmulgee for one year, and then moved to the Red Fork store, where he remained four years. In the fall of 1888 Mr. Parkinson purchased 1,000 head of cattle (steers) and grazed them on the Cherokee strip, marketing them the following summer. In 1890 he went to Wagoner, and there purchased a half interest in the mercantile business of Miller & Co. In February, 1891, his father purchased the old half, and the firm is now known by the name of Parkinson & Co. They carry a stock of general merchandise amounting to about $10,000. On June 4, 1891, Mr. Parkinson married Miss Addie Cobb, daughter of J. B. Cobb, a Cherokee. Mr. Parkinson is an intelligent gentleman and a good business man, and is highly thought of in the community. Mrs. Parkinson is a lady of great refinement and amiability, and is generally looked upon as one of the prettiest women in the country.

Taylor, John M. (pp. 283, 284) Biographical Index
Born August 14, 1860, at Murphy, North Carolina, he is the second son of James Taylor and Addie Manchester. James Taylor was the representative of the eastern band of North Carolina Cherokees, and removed with his family to this country in 1880. He assisted the Cherokee Nation to defeat the suit brought by the eastern band of North Carolina before the Supreme Court of the United States. John's mother was a daughter of Wm. H. Manchester, an Englishman who settled in North Carolina at an early day. John was sent to school at the public institutions of the nation until his fifteenth year, after which he spent three years at Louden College, East Tennessee. Afterward he joined a party of civil engineers under Colonel M. H. Templeton on a government surveying expedition in North Carolina. For three years he continued in this employment, until 1880, when he went to Chouteau, Cherokee Nation, where he worked on a cattle ranch, remaining there one year and a half. After that he worked on a farm for two years, and in 1884 began interesting himself in Cherokee politics, taking up the National party. In 1885 he became a practicing lawyer, and still continues the practice of the profession. When the United States courts were opened in the Indian Territory, Mr. Taylor was admitted to practice, and was the first Indian by blood appointed United States Commissioner, which office was conferred upon him by Judge Isaac C. Parker, and which he is holding at the present time. In November, 1890, Mr. Taylor was appointed postmaster at Claremore, Indian Territory. He is also mayor of the town and United States deputy marshal, as well as assistant prosecuting attorney and deputy-sheriff of Coowescoowee district. Mr. Taylor is a gentlemanly-looking man, bright, witty and intelligent. His father is still living in Murphy, North Carolina, where he owns 22,000 acres of land, and is one of the most influential and popular men of his country.

Starr, Caleb W. (pp. 289, 290) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in Going Snake district in 1858, son of Joseph Starr and Lilah Adair. Caleb was but five years of age when his parents died, and therefore was denied the educational advantages he would have otherwise enjoyed. During the war he refugeed at Boggy Depot, in the Choctaw Nation, and afterward went to school at Cane Hill, Arkansas. Caleb went farming and raising stock for several years after the war, and then entered the Western Independent printing office at Fort Smith, Arkansas. Having learned the trade, he devoted his services to the typographical department of the Indian Progress, published by Boudinot & Co., Muskogee, and later worked for the Cherokee national organ (published at Tahlequah) for six years. Mr. Starr acted as deputy sheriff under special appointment for six months. In 1884 he was appointed deputy high sheriff, and held that office until 1886, after which he became high sheriff, and held that office until 1888. At this time he was also a member of the Indian police. In August, 1891, Mr. Starr was elected a member of the senate for Tahlequah district, and is holding that office at present. He is a tall, erect and dignified-looking young man, of quiet disposition, steady and attentive to business and strictly temperate, using neither alcohol or tobacco.

Drew, John T. (pp. 290, 291) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born January 18, 1850, son of John Drew, one-half Cherokee and colonel in the Confederate army, who died in 1865. His mother was a sister to the present Judge Scales, of Webber's Falls ---Charlotte Scales. John T. was partly educated at McKenzie College, Texas, and completed his education at Cane Hill Academy, Arkansas. During the war he was a refugee in the Chickasaw Nation, and after its close devoted himself to farming, in the neighborhood of Webber's Falls, Cherokee Nation. In 1877 Mr. Drew was appointed district attorney, and held the office one year. In 1878 he was clerk of the Senate, and in 1879 was elected attorney general of the antion. In 1884 Mr. Drew was elevated to the honor of supreme judge, and was chief justice on three special occasions. Having served three years on the supreme bench, Judge Drew was appointed secretary of the treasury in 1891. On December 7, 1891, on the appointment of a new mayor for Tahlequah, Mr. Drew was elected town clerk, and is now filling that appointment.

In 1877 Mr. Drew married Miss Mollie McCoy, daughter of James McCoy, by whom he has five children. Mr. Drew is a member of the Nationals, and a man of considerable ability and influence with his party, as will be seen by the number of important positions which he has occupied.

Mills, William Richard (pp. 291, 292) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born July 4, 1855, the son of James Lloyd Mills, a white man, and Elizabeth Fields, daughter to Richard Fields and grand-daughter to the well known Dick Fields, who was murdered by Bowles in the State of Texas. Mr. W. R. Mills was born in the neutral strip, and refugeed with his mother and brothers during the war at Boonsborough, Ark., while his father was serving as lieutenant in Stand Watie's command. After the war his father settled on the west side of Grand River, having had all his property in the strip confiscated during his absence. William first attended school in the Coowescoowee district, and from thence went to the National Male Seminary, Tahlequah, where he completed his education in 1881. In the fall of 1883 he married Miss Laura McClelland, daughter of the late White McClelland, a merchant of Boonsville. By this marriage he has two children: Eddie, five years, and Annie, three years old. Mr. Mills was elected a member of Coowescoowee district August, 1891, and is at present holding that office. He has a farm of 160 acres, a stock of cattle, and a good house and orchard within five miles of Pryor Creek Station, on Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. Mr. Mills is a gentleman of good address and prepossessing appearance, with plenty of good sense and ambition. His father is still living and in good circumstances. On his mother's side he is connected with some of the leading families in the nation.

Bynum, Robert Newton (p. 292) Biographical Index
Born February 17, 1858, in Jackson County, Alabama, is the second son of J. M. Bynum and Mary Proctor, a daughter of Samuel Proctor, of Alabama. Robert attended public school until sixteen years of age in the State of Arkansas, whither he had moved in 1867 with his parents. He remained at home until 1874. After which he began farming and stock-raising on his own responsibility; in 1888, he sold out and removed to Tulsa, Creek Nation. Here he purchased the mercantile stock and premises of H. W. Reed, and started in that business, which he still continues. In 1878, he married Miss Electra B. McElroy, daughter of John H. McElroy, of Tulsa. By this marriage they have four children --- Arthur H., born September 17, 1879; Willie, born August 1, 1883; May, born march 5, 1886; and Zella, born December 11, 1889. Mr. Bynum is five feet eleven inches in height and weighs 165 pounds. He is an intellectual looking man, well educated and of excellent business qualifications. He carries a stock of $7,000 in merchandise, having sold over $38,000 worth of goods during the past year. Mr. Bynum is also the owner of a good residence and a small herd of cattle, besides horses, hogs and other property.

Starr, John Caleb (p. 293) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in Flint district, Cherokee Nation, October, 1870, the son of James Starr, born in Georgia, and Emma Rider, daughter of John Rider, a prominent Cherokee during the Tom Starr war. John Caleb --- or Cale, as he is usually named--- was sent to school at the Olympus and Saga public institutions, and graduated at the Male Seminary, Tahlequah, obtaining the degree of bachelor of science December 12, 1890. After this he entered the commercial college at Fort Smith, and there graduated May 28, 1891. On leaving Fort Smith Caleb became a bookkeeper for a short time, and afterward taught in the Saga public school, leaving that position to fill a clerkship on the senatorial committee, to which office he was elected by a unaminous vote in November, 1891. The subject of our sketch is a young man of great promise, who by steadiness and perserverance will no doubt attain to eminence among his people. He is connected with the late illustrious Tom Starr, of whom so much falsehood has been written, and is a first cousin to the present senator, Charles W. Starr. His father is an extensive farmer, having 1,200 acres of land in cultivation on Grand River, near the Missouri line.

Robinson, Jefferson (pp. 293, 294) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born August 10, 1849, son of Watie Robinson and Diana Conrad, daughter of Hair Conrad, the first signer of the Constitution of 1839. Jefferson was educated at the public school in Tahlequah, and during the war served in the Federal army under Colonel Phillips, of the Indian Home Guards, being present at the battle of Cabin Creek and other engagements. At the conclusion of the war he followed lead mining for a livelihood for eight years, at Joplin, Mo. In 1875 Mr. Robinson married Miss Lou Rountree, by whom he had one son named Evans, born in 1880. In 1887 he married Annie O'Reilly, of Irish descent, daughter of John O'Reilly. For many years Mr. Robinson worked in and around Tahlequah, supplying water to the citizens and otherwise employing his time to the best advantage, conducting himself honorably and soberly throughout. The citizens of Tahlequah, to show their appreciation of Mr. Robinson's diligence and usefulness, appointed him mayor of their chief town in December, 1891, which office he is now filling to the satisfaction of the citizens.

Moore, William P. (pp. 294, 295) Biographical Index
Born July 8, 1833, at Waterloo, Ill., third son of James B. Moore, who was a son of Eric Moore, the first American born in the State of Illinois. William's mother was a Pinckhard, of Illinois. The young man attended public school, and at the age of twenty went into the mercantile business, there remaining until the outbreak of the war, when he joined the Federal army, and was mustered out as colonel of the Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry. After the war he went to Texas and engaged in the cattle trade. In 1871 he moved to the Creek Nation, where he began selling goods. Remaining in that business four years, he, in connection with others, engaged in purchasing and shipping live stock. This he continued until 1885, after which he devoted most of his time to farming and stock-raising. In May, 1891, Mr. Moore was appointed postmaster at Tulsa, which office he now holds. In January, 1871, he married Miss M. J. North, daughter of A. North, of Butler, Bates County, Missouri. By this marriage they have four children---James A., Laura L., Jennie B. and May. Mr. Moore is six feet two inches and weighs 200 pounds. He is a fine, intellectual-looking man, of good business capacity and pleasing manners and address. He owns a comfortable home in Tulsa, and the postoffice building.

McQuarie, John Harold (pp. 295, 296) Biographical Index
John Harold McQuarie was born March 4, 1852, in the Dominion of Canada, the second son of George McQuarie and Sarah Brown, of the same country. John attended public school until fourteen years of age, after which he went to the Wyoming Plains, where he worked for the Union Pacific Railroad as check clerk for two years. Leaving there, he went to Wilson County, Kansas, where he purchased land, and farmed for one year, after which he moved to Texas. Remaining but a short time in the Lone Star State, he went to the Creek Nation, and there managed a farm for D. M. Hodge, a prominent ploitician. His next move was to enter the employment of F. B. Severs, being employed on his ranch and in his business house for about five years, after which he opened a hotel at Muskogee. Here he remained until May, 1888, when he came to Wagoner and went into business with Miller & Co. (a mercantile firm). Mr. Miller selling out soon after to Terry Parkinson, Mr. McQuarie sold his interest to James Parkinson. In 1891 he opened in the same business with Mr. Teague, and is now conducting it successfully. February 24, 1883, Mr. McQuarie married Miss Alice Atkins, cousin of General Pleasant Porter. By this marriage he has one boy, born December 1, 1884, named Ray. After the death of his first wife, he married Miss Mary Spriggs, daughter of John Spriggs, a Cherokee living some miles from Vinita, but unfortunately the lady died October 31, 1891, leaving him a widower for the second time. Mr. McQuarie's business house carries a stock of $6,000, or thereabouts; he has also a small herd of cattle, a fenced pasture (one mile square), two houses in Wagoner, and a farm near Chouteau, Cherokee Nation. Mr. McQuarie is a pleasant, popular man, of good business ability. He is a member of the Masonic order and Knights of Pythias.

Gibson, Charles (pp. 296, 297, 298) Biographical Index
Charles was born March 20, 1846, and went to Asberry Mission School at the age of ten, where he remained for three years. Leaving there he returned home and commenced farming with his father, John C. Gibson, a white man, who married the niece of Opothleyoholo, one of the most intelligent of the Creek Indians, and a leading man and chief for many terms. Charles remained with his father until the end of 1865, when he joined the Confederate army, in which service he spent six months. On December 20, 1868, he married Miss Susan Williams, grand-niece of the celebrated Tom Starr, of Cherokee fame. By his marriage he has no issue, but such is the kindness of himself and wife, that they have partly raised thirty orphan girls. If this is not good evidence of generous hearts and true charity, works are of little avail. In 1869 Mr. Gibson commenced clerking for Mr. Fisher, of Fishertown, with whom he remained two and a half years. After this time he went to work for the Messrs. Grayson Brothers, of Eufaula, in whose employment he still remains. At one period he was a member of the firm, but owing to the unsuccessful cotton speculation he had to sell out. On several occasions his people requested him to run for representative of his district, assuring him of success, but having no desire to enter into politics he invariably refused. Charles has been a member of the Masonic Blue Lodge, and was master of the same for two terms. He is a man of sterling worth, while his integrity and honesty is universally known among his acquaintances.

Secondyne, Simon (pp. 302, 303) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born June 15, 1854, in Wyandotte County, Kansas, third son of James Secondyne, who was chief of the Delaware tribe at the time of his death, in 1859. Simon's mother was named Sallie Hill; she was a half-breed Delaware. Simon attended the Delaware Mission School until 1867, and then moved with his mother to the Cherokee Nation, where he again went to school in the district institutions until the age of nineteen, when he commenced farming and stock-raising, which business he still carries on. Simon married Miss Ruth Lyons, September 25, 1881, daughter of a white man named Lyons (who died in Kansas while his daughter was quite young) and sister to "Sarcoxie," a prominent Delaware. By this marriage they have three children---Mary, born July 23, 1883; James, born January 13, 1887, and Alfred, born August 25, 1891. Mr. Secondyne has 400 acres of land under fence, 200 of which is planted in wheat. He has also about 80 head of cattle, 20 head of horses, and a good stock of hogs. He has a good comfortable residence on his own property. Mr. Secondyne is six feet high and weighs 258 pounds. He is a pleasant, cheerful-mannered man, and by nature intellectual and observant. Naturally kind-hearted and charitable, he has a large circle of friends and acquaintances, by all of whom he is greatly respected.

Harris, William L. (p. 303) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born December 21, 1852, in Bedford County, Virginia, the oldest son of J. L. Harris, a well known citizen of that county. His mother was a Miss Elma Anthony, a Virginian. William attended public school until sixteen years of age, when he went to college at Jackson, Tenn. At the age of eighteen years he began the duties of a clerk in the State of Mississippi, and continued the same until twenty-two years of age, when he spent two years more bridge-building in different portions of the country. In 1880 he went west of the Mississippi and, traveled, following various avocations until 1889, when he settled in Wagoner, Creek Nation, and there went to work as a contractor, which occupation he is now following. In January, 1890, Mr. Harris married Mrs. Amelia Percival, widow of the late William Percival, a Cherokee. Mrs. Harris is daughter of Daniel E. Ward, a white man from New York State, his mother being Elizabeth Hildebrand, descended from an illustrious Cherokee stock. She is great-grand-daughter of the celebrated Granny Ward, the most celebrated woman of her day among the Cherokees. Mrs. Harris is proprietress of the Valley House, the chief hotel in Wagoner, which is well kept and furnished with every accommodation. She is a lady of refinement and culture, and is remarkable for her kind and charitable disposition, while her husband, the subject of this sketch, is regarded as a most popular landlord, being attentive to his guests and altogether adapted to conduct a hotel successfully. Mr. Harris is a man of prepossessing appearance, about six feet high and weighing 160 pounds. He is a thorough sportsman, and delights in his gun, dog and fishing tackle.

Foreman, Austin Worcester (pp. 304, 305) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born August 18, 1855, at Park Hill, five miles south of Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, the youngest son of the well-known missionary, Rev. Stephen Foreman, and Sarah E. Reilly, a Cherokee. Austin was sent to the public schools until his thirteenth year, after which he went to Cane Hill College, Arkansas, where he spent five years. On leaving school he went to Louisville, Kentucky, where he studied medicine for three years, and in 1876 graduated at Louisville Medical College. In the same year he went to Virginia, where he remained about twelve months, afterwards settling in Vinita, where he has been practicing his profession ever since. January 13, 1880, he married Miss Emma Ridenour, A Missourian, by whom he has one living child, named Ermina, born November 6, 1881. Dr. Foreman has a fine farm near Vinita, containing 640 acres, a large orchard, and home buildings that cost him $1,200, besides a small stock of cattle, horses, and mules. His handsome residence in Vinita is worth $3,000 while he has a good deal of property which he rents. Dr. Foreman has been practicing in Vinita for fifteen years, and stands among the highest. He has been one of the examining board of physicians for the past two years, also examining physician for several of the leading life insurance companies in the United States. Dr. Foreman is a member of the Methodist Church, and is a benevolent, charitable and good Christian. At one time he was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, but being persecuted for his belief in a certain religious rite by one of the brethren, he felt that he could do better Christian work elsewhere, and therefore joined the Methodists.

Fortner, Benjamin F., M.D. (pp. 305, 306, 307, 308) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born August 15, 1847, third son of M. F. Fortner, who resides eight miles north of Dallas, and is one of the few living who first settled in that country from Kentucky. Benjamin's mother was Miss Hall, of Simpson County, Kentucky, daughter of a prominent farmer in that State. Mr. Fortner attended private and public schools in Texas until his seventeenth year. In 1864 he volunteered in the Confederate service, and served until the close of the war, after which he returned home, and again went to school until 1866. That year his parents moved to Cane Hill, Arkansas, wher Benjamin became a student in the Cane Hill Academy, then under the management of Professor A. H. Buchanan, now President of the University of Lebanon, Tennessee. At this time young Fortner began teaching a private school, and continued it until 1868, when he entered the office of Dr. W. B. Welch, a leading surgeon of that State. Remaining with him until 1872, he graduated from the medical department of the Vanderbilt University, having attended a course of lectures in the winter of 1870-71 at the Missouri Medical College, St. Louis. In 1872 Dr. Fortner, in connection with his old preceptor, Dr. Welch, commenced the practice of medicine at Cane Hill, but in the same year moved to Siloam Springs, Ark., where he remained until the end of 1876. Moving to Fayetteville, Arkansas, he then entered into partnership with Dr. Thomas J. Pollard until 1879, when he located near Claremore, and embarked in the stock business, in connection with medicine. In 1882 he returned to Fayetteville, and there entered into partnership with Dr. Clinton S. Gray, one of the most prominent physicians in the State. Here he remained until 1884, when he removed to Vinita, Cherokee Nation, and there he resumed practice which he continues until the present. In 1886 Dr. Fortner associated himself with Dr. Bagley, of Vinita, and they are now in partnership. In the winter of 1890 Dr. Fortner took a post-graduate course in New York. He was married in October, 1874, at Siloam Springs, to Jennie, daughter of C. D. Gunter. Mrs. Fortner is a lady of good education and pleasing address. The doctor is five feet ten inches in height and weighs 190 pounds. He is a fine-looking, dignified gentleman, and as a physician ranks among the highest in the profession, while his reputation as a surgeon has reached over a wide field of operation in the Indian Territory and adjoining States. Dr. Fortner is surgeon for the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. He has been president of the Medical Association of Railway Surgeons. He has also served two terms as president of the Indian Territory Medical Society, the first Indian medical association ever started on the continent, and now composed of some seventy-five regular graduates. Aside from his professional character, he is pre-eminently a citizen, the patron of education and morality, is connected with all educational institutions of his community, including Willie Halsell College and Worcester Academy. From a heavy practice he has found time to superintend a single Sunday-school for seven consecutive years. He is a Freemason of high degree, and a member also of the Knights of Pythias, and similar secret orders. Dr. Fortner is a man of great popularity in the Cherokee Nation, and, it may be added, would be so in any community where he pleased to reside. This may be readily surmised by the number of important offices which he is called upon to accept.

Clinkscales, Albert Marshall (pp. 308, 309) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born April 15, 1855, at Starrville, S__ County, Texas, third son of John B. Clinkscales (one a ___ planter in South Carolina) and Jane Kay. Albert obtained his literary education at the Academy of Starrville, and commenced the study of medicine with Dr. W. H. Clement, of Mount Carmel, Tex., taking his first course in medicine at the Louisville Medical College, Kentucky. Returning to his medical preceptor, he practiced with him until the following fall, going from thence to Jefferson Medical College, Philadephia, where he received his diploma March 10, 1877. He then returned to Texas and practiced his profession for nine years, and finally in May, 1891, located in Vinita, Cherokee Nation, where, besides his profession, he engaged in stock-raising and agriculture, which he still continues. In November, 1883, he married Miss Annie DuPree, daughter of Dr. W. J. DuPree and Charlotte Bell (daughter of John Bell, descendant of the Bell family of revolutionary days and the Black Hawk War.). By this marriage Dr. Clinkscales had four children, two of whom are living --- Lewis D., born September 12, 1884, and Lucille, born March 18, 1891. Mrs. Clinkscales is a lady of refinement and superior education. The doctor is a gentleman of good appearance, courteous and affable and possessed of a liberal education, while as a physician he ranks among the highest in his profession. Dr. Clinkscales is at present somewhat extensively engaged in stock and agricultural pursuits, and owns a neat residence together with other property in Vinita.

Berry, Virgil M.D. (pp. 309, 310) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born March 14, 1866, in Washington County, Indiana, the oldest son of Rev. Joseph M. Berry, of North Carolina, and Miss J. Lockenborn, of German descent. Virgil attended the Peabody School, Arkansas, until nineteen years of age, when he went to Springfield, Mo., and there studied medicine for four years under Dr. L. Coon, of that place. Afterward he spent two years at the Medical Institute, Chicago (Cook County Hospital), where he graduated in the spring of 1891, going to Wagoner, I.T., where he is now practicing his profession. October 22, 1891, he married Miss Emma K. James, daughter of Wm. James, a well known citizen of Cornersville, Tenn. Dr. Berry is a gentleman of good appearance and address, is highly educated and stands high in his profession, both medical and surgical. He owns a nice house and lot in town and an office on the main street.

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