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McSpadden, James W. (pp. 324, 325, 326) Biographical Index
James W. McSpadden was born October 21, 1848, in Belcher County, Alabama, the eldest son of Rev. T. K. B. McSpadden, who came to the country and joined the Indian Mission Conference held at Fort Gibson in 1870. The reverend gentleman devoted himself to Christian labors for seven years and died in 1877 beloved and respected by all who knew him. The subject of this sketch attended neighborhood school until 1861, when he accompanied his father (a lieutenant in the Confederate army) all through the campaign. After the war James was sent to the Phoenix Academy, North Alabama, until he was twenty-one years of age, when he became clerk in a store at Harrisonville, Missouri. Here he remained two years, coming to Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, where his father was residing. After a short time spent in the Cherokee capital, the subject of our sketch returned to Missouri and there remained but twelve months, when he again visited Tahlequah and married Miss Annie Thompson, daughter of Dr. J. L. Thompason, April 18, 1872. Returning to Missouri, Mr. McSpadden purchased an interest in a flouring mill, which he dispposed of in one year and returned to the nation, where he worked at different points as salesman for nine years, after which he and Mr. Evans purchased the Tahlequah Flouring Mills, and in April, 1891, he purchased his partner's interest, and is now conducting the business alone. Mr. McSpadden has four children---Florence Wilson, Richard Vance, Mary Jane, and James W., junior. His wife died September 20, 1891. Mr. McSpadden is five feet ten inches in height and weighs 130 pounds. He is a man of good education and good business qualifications, is very popular in the community. His mill property is worth about $6,000, while his residence cost $2,000. He is also owner of town property to the amount of $800 or thereabouts. Mr. McSpadden is a Mason in the Royal Arch Chapter, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Adair, Walter Thompson, M.D. (pp. 326, 327, 328) Biographical Index
Walter Thompson Adair was born in December, 1834, near the old Georgia gold mines, Georgia, son of George Washington Adair and grandson of the well-known Black Watt Adair. In 1867 Walter moved with his parents on the Arkansas line, twelve miles south of Cane Hill, his father being principal chief of the treaty party at the time of their removal from the old nation. His mother was Martha, daughter of Judge Martin, first treasurer of the nation. Walter was placed in the national male seminary until seventeen years of age, and began the study of medicine in 1855, taking his first course of lectures in St. Louis, and graduating from the St. Louis Medical College in the winter of 1857-58, the celebrated Dr. Charles A. Pope being dean of the faculty at the time. Having graduated, Dr. Adair commenced practice in the neighborhood of the orphan asylum, and continued until the war broke out, when he became staff surgeon of Stand Watie's command, being afterwards promoted to chief surgeon, first Indian division, on the staff of Gen. D. H. Cooper, in 1864. Dr. Adair served in all the engagements of the department. After the war he devoted himself to private practice, until he was appointed medical superintendent of the high school, in 1876, serving twelve years. In 1889 he became medical superintendent of the Cherokee Orphan Asylum, and served until August, 1891. Dr. Adair has been married three times. His first wife was Mary Buffington Adair, by whom he has two children---Mary Ellen (Wilson) and William Penn. His second wife, whom he married in 1871, was Ruth Markham, daughter of Le Roy Markham, who also left him two children, Joseph Franklin and Lola, while his present wife is named Fannie, daughter of Val Gray, by whom he has one boy, aged six years. Dr. Adair devotes his life to the practice of his profession, and is widely popular in that capacity. HIs home is at Cooy-yah, near Pryor Creek, on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. Dr. Adair is well-informed in the history of his people, and recalls distinctly many important events which took place when he was quite a youth, among them the assassination of Wash and Andrew Adair, and Boudinot and the Ridges. Dr. Adair is a brother of the late William Penn Adair, one of the most illustrious of modern Cherokees.

Poole, Charles Walter (pp. 328, 330) Biographical Index
Charles Walter Poole was born October 25, 1859, on the Neosho River, Indian Territory, eldest son of John Poole, who married Sarah Harlan, daughter of a prominent Cherokee, and who was killed on Lees Creek, Indian Territory, during the war, by bushwhackers. John Poole was a Missourian by birth. Charles attended public and high schools in the Cherokee Nation until his eighteenth year, when he accepted a clerkship from W. C. Patton & Co., at Vinita, with whom he continued until April, 1885, when he came to Chelsea to engage in the mercantile business, which he now carries on successfully. Mr. Poole married Miss Emma G. Musick, of St. Louis, daughter of William R. Musick, a manufacturer of steel ranges in that city. Mrs. Poole, prior to her marriage, was one of the first teachers at Worcester Academy, Vinita. While there she first met her husband, and was wooed and won. They have a bright, interesting little boy, born September 25, 1889. Mr. Poole is related to many of the most prominent Cherokee families, the Adairs, Starrs, Harnages, and others. He is an energetic, wide-awake young man, with a good knowledge of business, being a pioneer merchant of Chelsea, and a member of its council ever since the incorporation of the town. Mrs. Poole is a highly cultured, educated lady, and has identified herself with her husband's interests in the Territory, where she is very well known and very popular.

Knight, Thomas Rogers (pp. 330, 331) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born in November, 1845, in the Cherokee Nation, oldest son of Joshua Knight and Mary A. Rogers. Thomas was sent to Attleberry Academy, Pennsylvania, in 1852, and there remained three years, after which he went to Neosho and Newtonia, Mo., where he remained until 1858. Returning home he went to the Baptist Mission School, and there studied until the outbreak of the war, when he joined the Confederate army and served until the close. On his return home he embarked in stock-raising and agriculture, and carried on the business until 1884, when he moved to Vinita and was appointed on the United States Indian police force. In 1888 he became a United States deputy-marshal, but resigned in the fall of 1890. He is still, however, on the Indian police force, being first lieutenant of that body. In April 1870, he married Miss Rachel Sixkiller, sister of the celebrated Sam Sixkiller. By this marriage he has six children---Victoria, Josiah S., Morris F., Thomas H., Fannie and May. Mr. Knight is five feet ten inches in height and weighs 165 pounds. He is a fine-looking, intelligent man, and well educated. As an officer he has few equals, being brave, energetic and efficient. Officer Knight is secretary of the Masonic Lodge at Vinita, where he has a nice home, and is owner of a small herd of cattle.

Hitchcock, Isaac B. (pp. 331, 332) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born February, 1825, in Pope County, Arkansas, son of Jacob Hitchcock, of Massachusetts, and Nancy Brown, of East Hartford, Conn. Jacob Hitchcock, father to the subject of our sketch, settled among the Cherokees in 1820, and died in Lee County, Iowa, in July, 1865. Isaac, being a delicate boy, spent his youth at home, deriving most of his knowledge from reading and parental instruction. In 1847 he commenced teaching, and taught at Fort Smith for a short time, after which he attended Sequoyah national school for three sessions. Before the war Mr. Hitchcock taught in the Cherokee and Creek Nations, being associated with the Tallahassee Presbyterian Misson in 1854 and 1855. During the war he went North with his family, and afterward re-commenced teaching at Fort Gibson, and from thence taught at various points in the Cherokee Nation. Mr. Hitchcock during his lifetime has disseminated knowledge in the States of Kansas, Arkansas, Iowa, and Missouri. In 1857 he married Miss Eliza Ann Duncan, daughter of Rev. John Duncan, a leading Cherokee councilor. She was a graduate of the Cherokee High School, and a lady of accomplishments. By this marriage Mr. Hitchcock has two sons---T. B. Hitchcock and Iraeneus Hitchcock---and a daughter named Etta, married to Mr. Samuel Burns. Mr. Hitchcock was teaching at the national male seminary when it closed last season. He is an excellent Cherokee scholar, and writes and sings in that language with great ease, but his chief business is literature, he being a correspondant for various papers and journals. Mr. Hitchcock intends to travel through the States next year with a band of Cherokee singers and lecture at various points.

Adair, John Thompson (pp. 332, 333, 334) Biographical Index
John Thompson Adair was born December 22, 1812, the son of Walter Adair, a half-breed, and Rachel Thompson daughter of William Thompson, a white man. John was born on Painter's Creek, near Tulula Falls and received his earliest education at the neighborhood schools until his twentieth year, when he entered the Lawrenceville Academy, Georgia, and there remained for five months. On leaving that institution he entered a mercantile house, and after serving his time to the business, purchased a stock of goods in New Orleans in 1837, and with them proceeded to the State line, or eastern border of the Cherokee Nation, near Evansville, Arkansas, where he commenced business and carried it on for two years. In 1843 he was elected associate judge of the supreme court, and was re-elected every four years for a term of thirty years. In 1853 he was sent to Washington as National delegate, and there for the first time met with Hon. Sam Houston, Governor of Texas. At the outbreak of the war he went to Rusk County, Texas, and while there disbanded twenty-seven slaves, which he had owned for many years. During his absence of four years he was appointed an overseer of the negroes in the vicinity where he resided.  On his return to the Cherokee Nation he was re-elected associate justice and held that office till 1877, being chief justice during the last term. In 1879 he was appointed superintendent of the female seminary at Park Hill, which office he held one term. Soon after his appointment had expired, the building was consumed by fire, but, on its being re-built, he was re-appointed in 1889 and again in the fall of 1891, and will continue superintendent until the end of 1893. In 1887, he was elected chairman of the court of citizenship for two years. In 1840 Mr. Adair married Miss Penelope Mayfield, daughter of Jesse Mayfield, part French and Cherokee. The issue of this marriage is Louvenia, Oscar, Edward, Evarts, John Harrell, Samuel and Houston. Mr. Adair has lived on his present place, and beneath the same roof, for 54 years. He has a farm of 100 acres of good land which is now rented out; while he, himself, has taken up his abode at the national female academy. Mr. Adair has over 400 acres of land near Henderson, Rusk County, Texas. Although eighty years of age, the subject of our sketch does not look to be over fifty-five. He is active and sprightly, with a fresh complexion and unwrinkled face. He is a gentleman of pleasant address and is thought well of by everyone.

[Since above was written, Mr. Adair took sick with lagrippe and died December 24, 1891, sincerely and deservedly regretted.]

Miller, William W. (pp. 334, 335) Biographical Index
William W. Miller was born February 24, 1856, in Franklin County, Missouri, the eldest son of J. W. Miller, a well known and prominent farmer in his county. His mother was a Miss M. B. Bell. William attended public school until sixteen years of age, when he entered Lone Hill Academy, Franklin County, and there remained four years, when he graduated in mathematics and returned to his father's home. Remaining there two years, William came South and settled in Vinita, I.T., opening a livery stable, and continued the same for two years. After this he embarked in farming and stock-raising, and in 1885 purchased the hardware establishment of A. H. Goody Koentz, in Vinita, and located on the main street, which business he still carries on. Mr. Miller married Miss Ellen H. Blythe, daughter of James C. Blythe and Jemima Rodgers. Mr. Blythe is one-fourth Cherokee, and has been postmaster in Vinita for several years. By this marriage Mr. Miller has two children---Roy, born May 18, 1881, and Ray, born October 15, 1883. Mr. Miller is a gentleman of pleasing manners and good address, and is a first-class business man. His establishment may be said to be the only exclusive hardware house in the Cherokee Nation, and he carries a fine stock of about $15,000. Mr. Miller has also 400 acres in cultivation and a beautiful residence in town, besides two business lots. Mrs. Miller is a lady of superior education and many accomplishments. She is kind and charitable, and greatly beloved and respected by all who know her. Mr. Miller and his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church.

Carr, David (pp. 335, 336) Biographical Index
David Carr was the son of Elijah Carr, first cousin of Paddy Carr and second cousin to Charles Weatherford, of Alabama, the latter being son of the great warrior and hero of Fort Mimms, while the former is well known in the history of his country. David Carr's mother was one of the Grayson family, of high reputation among the Muskogees. The subject of our sketch was born in 1841, and educated at the neighborhood schools; but, his parents dying when he was still a boy, he was deprived of many chances of enlightenment. He married, when scarcely twenty-one years old, Angelina Grayson, an aunt to Captain G. W. Grayson. She died the following year, and David married her sister, Caroline, by whom he had three children---Israel, now aged twenty-one years, Emma and Liddie. David's father was the owner of a large plantation and negroes near Fishertown, a part of which is now the property of Mr. William Fisher, but the war destroyed the value of the property, and David went on a small farm on North Fork known as the Hobulchehoma place, which he has since sold (in 1887) to Pilot Grayson. Mr. Carr entered politics through the doorway of the House of Warriors, filling an unexpired term to commence with, after which he went to the House of Kings by election for four years. He also occupied the honorable and highly responsible position of surpreme judge for two terms, at different periods. During his last term an occurrence took place that has no parallel in the history of the Muskogees, and which, at the time, called forth almost endless criticism. It was the inauguration, or swearing in, of two principal chiefs within a period of one week. The election being over, J. W. Perryman and his party called at the residence of Judge Carr, announcing the election of the former and the necessity of the judge's official services. The party accordingly repaired to the House of Kings, and J. W. Perryman was there legally sworn in as first chief of his nation. Five or six days later Esparhecher and his party arrived, demanding the services of Judge Carr, and claiming that Esparhecher had a majority of the national vote. The judge could do nothing less, or more, under the circumstances than submit to their solicitations, and Esparhecher was also sworn in. The matter, however, was referred to Uncle Sam, the contending parties visiting Washington, where the dispute was decided in favor of Perryman, who accordingly took his seat as principal chief. Although Judge Carr is not a man of extensive book knowledge, yet he has gathered considerable good, practical experience, which, combined with the natural quickness and shrewdness of the Irish race (which blood predominates in him) renders him quite equal to emergencies on all occasions. During his youth he traveled through the States and Mexico, coming in contact with all classes of men. Mr. Carr has a farm of 100 acres in cultivation near Okmulgee, and a ranch fifteen miles in the country, with 1,200 head of cattle, besides horses and other stock. He is six feet high, of muscular build and prepossessing in countenance. He is kind-hearted, charitable and generous even to a fault, having a large host of friends among all classes of men.

Couch, Marion Walker (pp. 337, 338) Biographical Index
Marion Walker Couch was born March 17, 1842, in Mississippi, third son of John Couch, a prominent farmer and stockman. His mother was a Miss George, of the well-known George family, of Tennessee. Marion had no opportunity for education during his youth. From his fourteenth year he accompanied his father to Texas, California and elsewhere until, in the year 1861, he joined the Fourth Confederate Cavalry, and as a private served throughout the war. After its close he moved to the Cherokee Nation, and commenced farming and raising stock, which he still continues. In 1884 he established a mercantile business in Chelsea, and may well be considered as the organizer of that town. In 1890 he sold his business to Mr. Poole. In 1863 Mr. Couch married Miss Mary Wright, a Cherokee by blood, by whom he has four children, named John Franklin, Jessie Thomas, Robert Lee, and Nannie. Mrs. Couch died in 1876, whereupon in May, 1877, Mr. Couch married Miss Victoria Riley, daughter of Samuel Riley, a Cherokee, of Coody's Bluff. Mrs. Couch's mother was a Miss Rider, sister of B. W. Rider, a leading farmer and stock-raiser, and also a Cherokee. By this marriage there are five living children---Mary, Clara, Cherokee, Marion and James, ranging in ages from eleven years to twelve months old. Mr. Couch has 600 head of cattle and 300 acres of farm in cultivation. He has also a fine two-story brick store and three residences (besides his own) in Chelsea, which he rents out, and some fifty town lots. Mrs. Couch is a lady of superior education, is kind and charitable, and a devoted wife and mother. Mr. Couch is six feet in height, a man of fine business qualifications, and wholly self-educated. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and the Home Mission Society. He is also a Mason of old standing, and is now a Master Mason in the Vinita Lodge, No. 10

Chouteau, Benjamin C. (pp. 345, 347) Biographical Index
Benjamin C. Chouteau was born in 1835, in Johnson County, Kansas, the only son of Cyprian Chouteau (of French descent), who was an Indian trader. Benjamin's mother was Miss Rogers, a full-blood Shawnee and sister to Graham Rogers, at one time second chief of the Shawnees. Benjamin attended public school until his sixteenth year, after which he went to California and followed mining, at which he was not very successful. He spent twenty-five years of his life traveling in British Columbia, Oregon, Idahao, etc., and in November, 1877, arrived back in Vinita, Cherokee Nation. Here he purchased a small place south of town and went to farming, which business he now continues. In 1885 he was elected member of the Cherokee Council, which office he held for two years. In February, 1891, Mr. Chouteau started in the general mercantile business in Vinita, and in the same year associated himself with Mr. Thomason, the firm being known by the name of Chouteau & Thomason. These gentlemen carry a stock of about $16,000 in general merchandise. Mr. Chouteau owns about 400 acres of improved farm ten miles from town, and 40 head f cattle, besides horses and mules. In 1880 Mr. Chouteau married Mrs. Shaw, daughter of Charles Tucker, once chief of the Shawnees, the most prominent man of his day amongst his tribe, and one of three who made the treaty with the Cherokees. By this marriage he has four children---Benjamin C., Edgar G., Albert C. and Blanche, ranging in ages from twelve to five. He has also a step-daughter of eighteen or nineteen years of age, named Corea Shaw, who is living with the family. Mrs. Chouteau is a lady of good education. She is kind and charitable, and has a host of friends. Mr. Chouteau is fully six feet in height, and is a gentleman of fine appearance, with a good address and a thorough practical business education. He is half Shawnee by blood. His sister married Carl Guinnette, a leading architect in Kansas City, Missouri.

Wyly, Robert F. (pp. 347, 348) Biographical Index
Robert F. Wyly is the son of W. C. Wyly, a Georgian, and grandson of General James R. Wyly. His mother was Elizabeth Starr, of Green County, Georgia. Robert F. was born September 15, 1827, in Habersham County, Georgia, and attended school in Cedartown, same State, between the years 1844 and 1849, after which he began mercantile business at old Cassville, Georgia, and married Miss Amanda C. Williams, daughter of Major Lowry Williams, of Cherokee extraction, in 1850. By this marriage he had two children---Oliver L. and Florence S. (Mrs. Rogers). Robert F. came to this nation in 1857, and settled on Beattie's Prairie, near the Arkansas line. February, 1858, he married Miss Mary J. Buffington, daughter of Joshua Buffington, and step-daughter to John A. Bell, Hooley Bell's father. By this marriage he had seven children---Percy, Robert Lee, Julia (Mrs. Johnston), Capitola V. (Mrs. McSpadden), Albert Sidney, Buffington and Zoe. Mr. Wyly took his negroes to Smith County, Texas, in 1858, where he had a large plantation, and grew cotton extensively in Smith and Rusk Counties until 1862, when he joined Walker's division of infantry, Confederate service. Before entering the army Mr. Wyly was present at the Oak Hills fight, August 10, 1861. Eager to experience the shock of battle, he persuaded old Kilgore, father to the well-known Buck Kilgore, to permit him to mount his (Kilgore's) horse, and take the veteran's place in the line of fight. The old gentleman did so, while young Wyly "rushed into the field," and when the battle was over returned without a scratch. Not so with old Kilgore, who, although comparatively in the rear, must have been shot dead and so trampled and mutilated that his body was unrecognizable amid the wounded that lay upon the field of blood. Strange incident, that he who sought danger should find safety by the very act of exchanging places! Mr. Wyly soon became captain of a company, and was engaged in the battles of Mansfield, Ducksport, above Vicksburg, and Jenkin's Ferry. The colonel, lieutenant-colonel and major being absent at the latter fight, Captain Wyly took command of the regiment and led them gallantly to the front. In 1868, on the restoration of peace, Captain Wyly returned to the Cherokee Nation. IN 1877 he was elected district judge, Delaware district, being the first white man ever elected by public vote among the Cherokees. He held the office eight years, by re-election, and on its expiration he ran for the senate, but was defeated by a few votes. During the Bushyhead administration he was appointed attorney-general to represent the nation on citizenship, and served two years, until 1888. He also served on special occasions as circuit and supreme judge. In 1889 he was appointed editor of the Advocate, the national organ, and held the office until the fall of 1891. Judge Wyly was chief justice of the superior courts of Georgia in 1856 and 1857. The subject of our sketch had three ancestors in the battle of King's Mountain, viz., Colonel Ben Cleveland, Colonel John Sevier and Colonel William Clarke. Judge Wyly is a tall, handsome, stately-looking gentleman, highly educated and intellectual, and possessing great force of character. Politically, as he says himself, he is a "dyed-in-th-wool" Democrat, which phrase is sufficiently expressive to suit the occasion.

Benge, George W. (pp. 349, 350) Biographical Index
George W. Benge was born in Sequoyah district in 1850. The families from which he is descended, are noted in history for their intelligence and patriotism. He received a good education in the public and private institutions of the country. His first entree to public life was in 1873, when he was appointed deputy sheriff of Illinois district, in which capacity he served for two years. He was then elected clerk of the same district for two years. In 1881 and 1883 he was elected national auditor, serving four years in that office. During these years he showed his peculiar fitness for public trust. The law provides that if any district clerk shall fail to perform his duties with regard to reports and the collection of revenues, the auditor shall withhold part of his salary, for such failure. The promptness with which Mr. Benge enforced this law, marks a period of history of the treasurer's office, in which a delinquency cannot be found, that is not fully accounted for. Mr. Benge removed to Tahlequah in 1885, and was elected solicitor of that district. In 1887 he was elected judge of the northern judicial district, which office he is filling at present. In 1891 he was nominated by the National party for the office of principal chief, but was defeated by his opponent J. B. Mayes. Mr. Benge, in July, 1877, married Miss Fannie Barnes, daughter of Thomas Barnes and Miss Foreman, sister of Stephen Foreman, a prominent religious teacher among the Cherokees. By this marriage he has eight children---Jessie, Alexander, Mamie, Fannie, George, Abbot, Houston, and Eliza. Mr. Benge is owner of 150 acres of good farm land, and has a fine residence in Tahlequah, besides some other town property. He is a consistent member of the Presbyterian Church, and bears an enviable reputation for honesty, sobriety and other good qualities. He is also a legislator of great ability, and is heart and soul devoted to the National party.

French, Robert M. (p. 350) Biographical Index
Robert M. French was born July 28, 1848, in Flint district, Cherokee Nation, second son of Robert M. French, and Margaret W. Fields. His father was a Virginian, and came to the Cherokee Nation in 1833 or 1834. He afterwards went West with Colonel Coffee, to trade with the Western Indians, and located on Red River, at what is now known as Coffee's Bend. His wife (Robert's mother), was a member of the celebrated Fields family. Robert attended district school until twelve years of age, and at the outbreak of the war was employed as despatch bearer by General Cooper. At the conclusion of the war he became a cowboy, and continued in this capacity for many years. In 1872 he was appointed deputy marshal, under General Fagan, which office he holds to the present day. In 1879 he was elected high sheriff of the Cherokee Nation, and continued in that position for four years. In 1891 Mr. French was appointed as constable by Judge Shackleford, which office he now holds. Mr. French married Miss Jane Annie Thompson, December 8, 1880, eldest daughter of  Johnston Thompson, one of the oldest and wealthiest merchants in the Indian Territory. By this marriage they had five children, four of whom are now living, viz.: Johnston Thompson, born September 2, 1881; Thomas Fox, born July 9, 1883; Joseph A., born April 3, 1887; Richard T., born January 19, 1889. Mr. French's residence is one of the finest brick houses in the Territory. It is two and a half stories with a basement, finely finished and corners of blue granite. It is located on the edge of town, where Mr. French has about 40 acres of land in cultivation. The subject of our sketch is five feet ten inches in height, and weighs 130 pounds. He is a man of good appearance, intelligent and enterprising. As an officer he is widely known, having the greater potion of his life held the position of deputy marshal. Mr. French is almost entirely self-educated, having left school when not quite twelve years old.

Carter, John R. (pp. 351, 353) Biographical Index
John R. Carter was born August, 1834, near Tahlequah, the son of David Carter, who came to the present nation at an early day and settled on the Barren Fork, Tahlequah district. His mother was Jane Reilly, daughter of Richard Reilly, a half-breed and a prominent man in the old nation. The subject of our sketch went to the Essex Indian School, near Tahlequah, at six years old, and afterwards to Reilly's Chapel, finishing his education at the national male seminary after two and a half years' study. In 1854 he went to California, crossing the plains to Stockton with a herd belonging to Richard Keys and Martin Scrimscher. On his arrival he went in search of gold to Mariposa, and was lucky enough on one occasion to strike a nugget that sold for $400. But he and his party being rather extravangant, they did not save any of their earnings. On their Westward trip the party had several narrow escapes from the Cheyenne Indians. They had to keep nightly watch, and their pickets were several times run into camp on the Pawnee Fork of the Arkansas. On their return homeward they took shipping, and their vessel was captured off the coast of Nicaragua, during the Walker invasion. He and his friends were sent to Greytown December, 1857, from whence they returned to the nation via New Orleans. IN 1858 Mr. Carter married Miss Sarah, daughter of Charles Rogers, ex-judge of Coowescoowee district. During the war he was in Colonel Stand Watie's command, First Cherokee Regiment. He was detached as guide to Colonel McIntosh, but taking sick en route to the Opothleyoholo fight, was carried back to Fort Davis. After his recovery he fought at Honey Springs and the Bayou fight, and was the last of the rebels that saw Colonel Taylor alive. This brave man is supposed to have been killed, after capture, by a Pin Cherokee. Mr. Carter, in the latter fight, had a hole shot through his hat close to his forehead. In August, 1891, the subject of our sketch was elected member of the national council for Coowescoowee district. He is now living in Sequoyah, where he opened a general mercantile business in the fall of 1888. He has also charge of the United States postoffice, has 300 acres of land in cultivation, 200 head of stock cattle and 30 head of horses. About three years ago, while absent from home, his residence was burned to the ground. Four hundred dollars in cash being laid away within the building, suggests the probability of incendiarism, as none of the gold could be found among the ruins. Mr. Carter is a gentleman of good appearance and address, affable and kind-hearted, but without any disposition to push himself into public prominence. He is brother to Judge Ben W. Carter, a leading citizen in the Chickasaw Nation.

Barritt, Henry Clay (pp. 353, 355) Biographical Index
Henry Clay Barritt was born in Champaigne County, Ohio, September 1, 1830, second child of Captain Abner Barritt of the United States army during the war of 1812, and originally from Maryland, but who went to Ohio at an early age, and there became a prominent pioneer. Henry Clay's mother's maiden name was Rebecca Diltz, of Green County, Ohio, a well known family in that part of the State. Mr. Barritt received his education in the public schools of the county, and attended the Wittenburg College, Springfield, for a short time. His father dying when he was only fifteen years of age, he was forced to provide for himself by earning his living on a farm for six years. In September, 1852, he married Miss Elmira R. Reighart, daughter of John Reighart, of Huldesburg, Pa., member of a leading Dutch family. In 1852 they moved to Ottumwa, Iowa, where Mr. Barritt purchased a large farm. Here they remained till 1864, when they moved to Powsheek County, and in 1876 to Montezuma, Iowa, where Mr. Barritt engaged in the hotel business. In 1877 they moved back to Ottumwa, from thence to Crawford County, Kansas, from thence to Litchfield, Kansas, and in 1880 to Lamar, Missouri. Remaining there eighteen months, they moved to Golden City, Missouri, Appleton City, Missouri, Clinton, Missouri, and from thence to Savannah, Choctaw Nation, in all of which places Mr. Barritt conducted the hotel business. In August, 1886, he moved to Vinita, Cherokee Nation, and there took charge of the old Frisco House for three years. In April, 1891, Mr. Barritt assumed charge of the Cobb House, just then completed. Mr. and Mrs. Barritt have eight living children, viz.: Jerome, born July 29, 1857; Mary, July 12, 1859; George J., April 16, 1863; Frank, March 24, 1865; Kate R., December 24, 1867; Charles F., December 23, 1869; Julia P., August 31, 1871; Ernest G., September 6, 1874. Mr. Barritt in his recent career has had a great many ups and downs, but he is now well situated, and doing a promising business in one of the best hotel buildings of the territory. Besides his hotel fixtures, Mr. Barritt has three lots in the city of Houston, Texas, and other property. Mr. Barritt is a fine, energetic man, six feet high, and weighing 215 pounds. His wife is a lady of good education and highly thought of by all.

Duncan, James W. (pp. 355, 356) Biographical Index
James W. Duncan, born in 1861, is the son of Morgan H. Duncan, a white man, and Penelope C. Craig, a Cherokee descended from Granny Ward, one of the most remarkable women of her time. Young Duncan came with his parents to the Cherokee Nation in 1869, settling in the Delaware district, near the line of Chetopa, Kansas, on the Neosho River. He attended the neighborhood schools until seventeen years of age, after which he went to the Vinita school, and at the age of twenty-three years entered the national male seminary, Tahlequah, graduating from there in 1885. Immediately afterward he was appointed to teach at Carey's Ferry, and after one term became principal of the Vinita school, having two assistant teachers and one hundred sixty-nine pupils. Mr. Duncan, however, resigned his position before he had taught quite one year, in order to enter Emory College, Oxford, Georgia, where he remained four years, graduating with his B.A. degree in 1890. On his return he was elected professor of English and history in the Cherokee Male Seminary, and taught until the close of the term. Mr. Duncan, during the last general election in his country, took an active part in the defense and support of the National party, speaking publicly at the meetings in Delaware and Coowescowee districts. In these addresses he spoke long and fluently in behalf of education----a subject upon which there are few young men in his country as well able to converse. Mr. Duncan is a gentleman of far more than ordinary ability, with a thorough English and classical education, and fitted to occupy a professorship in a college of high standing. But the salaries paid by a nation to first-class teachers are not sufficient to retain their services for any length of time, and the young man educated for the professor's chair soon becomes a clerk or a farmer, or something else calculated to lead to a better remuneration. Mr. Duncan is a single man, and lives at Tahlequah, but has a farm of 300 acres in Coowescowee district.

Wolfe, Thomas Leroy (p. 356) Biographical Index
Thomas Leroy Wolfe was born in Tahlequah, April 12, 1871, the son of John W. Wolfe and Belle Gibson, daughter of Leroy Gibson, a white man. His grandfather, Thomas Wolfe, was one of the old settlers, and in conjunction with Blue Jacket, built the first house in Tahlequah. His father, John W. Wolfe, was district judge for some time, and at present resides within one-half mile of the capital. The subject of this sketch is the eldest of three sons. He was sent to the Tahlequah public school in 1879, and there continued till 1883, when he began work in the office of the Cherokee Advocate, devoting his time to the newspaper business for two years. In 1885 he entered the Indian university and completed a collegiate course in 1887, after which he joined the staff of the Advocate for a short time. Later he became a clerk in the mercantile establishment of R. C. Adams, as well as assistant postmaster at Viau, Illinois district. Leaving there at the end of one year, he took a position in W. T. Culbertson's store, Savannah, Choctaw Nation. Later on Mr. Wolfe traveled for the  Arrow, Telephone and Advocate, three Cherokee newspapers, and was special reporter for the first named paper during the election campaign of 1891. Mr. Wolfe is an intelligent, well educated young man, and quite popular with his acquaintances. Like most of his name in this nation, he is a member of the national party.

Canard, Thomas (pp. 356, 358) Biographical Index
Thomas Canard was born at Cane Creek in the year 1841, the third son of Yahartostanuggee, a full-blood Indian and king of the Eufaula Town. His mother's name was Polly, daughter of a white man. Thomas went to Asberry Mission for eight years, leaving that institution in 1857 and remaining at his home until 1861, when he married Miss Negaya, daughter of the king of the Thlopthlocco Town, and thus started in life on his own responsibility. By this marriage he had one child---Wisie, born March 18, 1865. In the meantime he joined the Confederate service as sergeant, and, after the usual experience, returned to his home. After the death of his first wife he married Yanar, grand-daughter of Thalarth-hayo, king of the Kealiger Town, by whom he has five children---Jefferson, born June, 1870; Lucy B., April, 1873; Louisa, November, 1875; Felix B., December, 1879, and Lolie B., March, 1885. In 1867 Thomas was elected as light-horseman, which office he held four years. Soon afterward he was elected district judge of Weanoka, which office he holds at present, and has been re-elected for the coming term. Mr. Canard has 100 head of cattle, 100 acres of farm in good cultivation, and horses and hogs sufficient for his own use. He is a member of the Methodist Church, has a good education and a kind disposition, which renders him very popular among his people. Mr. Canard is about two-thirds Indian, is five feet nine inches in height, and weighs 160 pounds.

Moore, Mrs. August R. (pp. 358, 359) Biographical Index
This gifted lady is the eldest child of W. S. Robertson, principal of the Tallahassee Mission School, and was born at the Mission in October, 1851. She was educated and graduated at Dayton, Ohio, in June, 1870, after which she returned to Tallahassee and taught under her father for ten years, until the school building burned down in 1880. The school, however, was continued for some time in a portion of the building with a small number of pupils. On her father's death, which took place the following spring, Miss Robertson was appointed principal pro tem., after which she received the appointment of superintendent, which she held for one year, when the institute was rebuilt for the colored people. Miss Robertson married Mr. J. H. Cregg in 1877, the issue of their marriage being one girl, which died in infancy. In 1882 she married Mr. N. B. Moore, who was judge of the supreme court at that time. They were married in Oswego, Kansas, November 20, 1882, after which they went to live on the Arkansas River, twenty miles west of Muskogee. About two years afterward Mrs. Moore was appointed as principal and superintendent of the Nuyaka Mission, which office she has held to the present day, with the exception of one years --- September, 1888, until September, 1889. Mrs. Moore is grand-daughter of Rev. S. A. Worcester, D. D., of the Cherokee Congregational Mission. She herself is a devout member of the Presbyterian Church. During her first ten years under the Presbyterian Foreign Board, her salary was paid by the Rev. T. K. Beecher, of the Congregational Church, Elmira, New York.

Wisdom, Colonel Dew Moore (pp. 363, 364) Biographical Index
Dew Moore Wisdom was born February 3, 1836, at Medon, Madison County, Tennessee, being the eldest son of William S. Wisdom, the leading merchant and landowner of McNary County, Tennessee, and widely known throughout the State. His mother was a Miss Jane Anderson, of an old family, from the eastern part of Tennessee. Dew studied at the neighborhood schools until sixteen years of age, when he went to Cumberland University, Lebanon, graduating and securing his B. A. degree in 1857. Soon afterward he commenced the practice of law in Purdy, Tennessee, and there remained until the outbreak of the war, when he was elected captain of Company F, Thirteenth Tennessee Infantry, Confederate service. Early in the war Captain Wisdom was twice wounded, once in the mouth and once in the face---a bullet knocking out his front teeth at the battle of Belmont. At Shiloh he was wounded in the left thigh, and at Pittsburg Landing was further disabled so as to render him unfit for infantry service. Accordingly he joined the cavalry, and was for fourteen months lieutenant-colonel of what was known as Julius' Battalion, under General P. D. Roddie. When General N. B. Forrest took charge of the West Tennessee and North Mississippi departments, Mr. Wisdom was apppointed to the colonelcy of the Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment, and served in this rank until the close of the war. While with General Forrest he was four times wounded, receiving in all seven wounds during his entire service. After the war Colonel Wisdom resumed the practice of law in Mississippi and as soon as the reconstruction period was over was elected to the State senate, State of Mississippi, from Tishomingo County. He served in this office for one term, and moved to Jackson, Tennessee, where he became proprietor of the Tribune, a weekly, devoted to the grand old Democratic party, which paper he was identified with for fourteen years. In 1871 he as appointed clerk and master of chancery court for Madison County, which office he held for twelve years, or two terms, having been re-elected. In 1882 Colonel Wisdom engaged in the publication of the Fort Smith Herald (having moved to that town), but sold out his interest in 1883, when Cleveland was elected President, and was appointed chief clerk of the Union Agency, Muskogee, serving four years until removed from office by Benjamin Harrison, since which time he has been practicing law in the United States courts, Muskogee. Colonel Wisdom married in January, 1862, at Inka, Mississippi, Miss Anna Terry, a young lady of great accomplishments and superior conversationalist. By this marriage he had four children---William, aged twenty-seven; Lucille, aged twenty-two (now Mrs. Eberle); Fentress, aged twenty-one, and Terry, seventeen. Colonel Wisdom is five feet inches in height, weighs 250 pounds, and is a man of intellectual and gentlemanly appearance. He is highly educated, and as a lawyer ranks far above the average. Few professional men are more widely or more favorably known throughout the Indian Territory than Colonel Wisdom, while his attachment to the lost cause, and the sufferings he has endured on many a battle-field, render him dear to every loyal Southerner.

Dick, John Henry (pp. 364, 366) Biographical Index
John Henry Dick was born January 1, 1869, in the Flint district, Cherokee Nation, the second son of Charles Dick, a member of the Grand Council in 1875. His mother was Margaret Tickaneskie, a full-blood, whose father was one of the party that killed Ridge, one of the signers of the treaty in 1835. John was educated at the Indian University, Tahlequah, and on its removal to Muskogee attended at that point, spending four years in the institution until 1888, when he was elected to the office of assistant interpreter of the lower house. In 1890 he taught school in Coowescowee district for a short time, till in the fall when he served as interpreter on one of the house committees. In 1891 he took the place of Charles Tehee, translator of the Cherokee Advocate, the national organ, and at the general election in August, 1891, was elected to the office of district attorney for Tahlequah district. The subject of our sketch is a bright, intelligent and promising young man, prepossessing in appearance and highly esteemed. Mr. Dick is by nature a snake-charmer, possessing an extraordinary power over these reptiles, which enables him to carry them about his person without danger from even the most venemous of the species. His present home is in Tahlequah, and he is unmarried.

Bailey, Ward Howard, M.D. (p. 366) Biographical Index
Ward Howard Bailey was born May, 1848, at Waldon, Scott County, Arkansas, the second son of Dr. W. H. Bailey, who was appointed physician of the missionary schools of the Creek Nation, and moved to the country with his family in 1852, remaining till the outbreak of the war, when he returned to Fort Smith in 1862. Young Bailey, who was educated in the Kentucky School of Medicine, first commenced practice at old North Fork Town, in the Creek Nation. When the railroad was built he removed to Eufaula, and in 1878 married Miss Ella Stidham, eldest daughter of Col. G. W. Stidham by his second wife, Miss Thornberry, of Washington City. Col. Stidham was the most prominent man of his day among the Creeks. By this marriage Dr. Bailey had two children---Georgia Ella, aged six years, and Ward Howard, aged three years. The doctor is a man of superior education, and a fine physician, having had twenty-one years' experience among the Creeks, among whom he is exceedingly popular.

Daugherty, Mathew (pp. 366, 367, 368) Biographical Index
Mathew Daugherty was born September 24, 1839, in the State of Arkansas, third son of James Daugherty. He attended school till he was ten years of age in Texas County, Missouri, after which (in 1849) he moved with his father to Denton County, Texas, where he went to the neighborhood schools till 1854, after which he entered McKenny College, Clarksville, Texas, and in 1857 commenced the study of law, which he continued until the outbreak of the war, when he enlisted in the Choctaw and Chickasaw mounted rifles. After the close of the war he admitted to the bar, and elected to the office of county judge, which position he held till 1868 and resigned. Since that time he has been practicing his profession in Denton County, and at this writing is contemplating a removal to the Cherokee Nation, of which he is a citizen, and intends settling in Tahlequah, where he will practice in the courts of that district. In November, 1868, Mr. Daugherty married Miss Josephine Stimler, daughter of John Stimler, a merchant of Denton, by whom he has four children---Stimler, Mathew, Lawrence and Mosby. Their mother died in 1873, at Granbury, Hood County, Texas. Mr. Daugherty owns property to the amount of about $4,000, in town; a fine residence and 1000 acres in Wise County, Texas, together with 500 acres in Denton, Texas. He is five feet, seven inches high, weighs 145 pounds, and is a man of deep and varied knowledge, having a profound mind which he still continues to cultivate in the various branches of learning. Mr. Daugherty is also an excellent lawyer, and is very popular in Denton County.

Wolfe, Rev. J. Edward (pp. 368, 370) Biographical Index
J. Edward Wolfe was born September 12, 1849, at Hampton, Adams County, Pennsylvania, oldest son of Jacob Wolfe, a popular merchant of the same place, and Mary Connor, of Scotch and Irish descent. Edward attended public school until the outbreak of the war, when he became an apprentice to the printer's trade in the Gazette office, Hanover, York County, Pennsylvania. Here he remained several years, attaching himself for a while to the Carlisle Volunteer, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Later he held a position in the government printing office, at Washington, D. C., after which he was led into evangelistic work through the Rev. E. P. Hammon, with whom he went to Philadelphia and Newport, Massachusetts. At this point he was city missionary, and remained for one year. During this time he had many rough and strange experiences. In order to aid him in his battle against rum, he established a newspaper, which soon stirred the ire of the whisky-sellers, and he was prosecuted for libel by a notorious rum-seller. Being refused bail, he was imprisoned for three days, and during this time the paper was issued from the jail. The consequence was that on December 11, the election day, the temperance party carried the day by a plurality of 929. On this day he was assaulted by a cowardly, prize-fighting rum-seller, who knocked him down and treated him in a brutal manner. But this did not in any way weaken the courage of Brother Wolfe who, after this event, had many friends to assist him in his good work. In 1878 he moved to Quincy, and from there to Uxbridge, Mass., from thence to Bethel, Providence, Rhode Island, and on to Washington, D. C., where he engaged in evangelistic work. In 1881 he moved to York, Pennsylvania, where he remained three years, taking a trip to Mexico through the Indian Territory, where he remained a short time, holding meetings at various points along the line. He was soon afterward made Presbyterian evangelist for Texas, and in 1888 settled in Vinita, Indian Territory, as independent evangelist, where, in connection with his wife, he opened an Indian orphanage based upon the "faith and work" system. In this school he now has a number of orphan children, who are being educated and taught different trades, while cared for and supported by Evangelist Wolfe and wife, through the occasional assistance of friends interested in the work, and partly by products from the orphanage farm, situated about five miles from Vinita, Indian Territory. Mr. Wolfe married, in 1874, to Miss Kate Timberlake, daughter of A. W. Timberlake, at one time president of the board of education. Mrs. Wolfe is connected with some of the leading Cherokee families. By this marriage they have two children. Evangelist Wolfe is about the middle height, heavily built and fair-complexioned, with great force of character written upon his countenance. His manner is cheerful and sympathetic; his language is fluent, rising at intervals to the very summit of oratorical grandeur. What matters if he has his faults, so long as Brother Wolfe has it in his power, and uses that power, to lead men to Christ and wean them from the world, which he has undoubtedly succeeded in doing, as the writer of this biography can cheerfully testify. "The good that a man does outlives him," and begets such good that virtue continues to be immortal. Rev. Mr. Wolfe is conducting a religious paper entitled John 3, 16, which is having a large circulation.

Adair, Arthur F. (p. 371) Biographical Index
Arthur F. Adair was born August 28, 1858, at Mayesville, Cherokee Nation, son of John L. Adair and Mary J. Jeffreys. In early boyhood he was sent to the primary schools, and completed his education at the national male seminary, Tahlequah, about 1883. Arthur commenced life as a school teacher; receiving charge of the Blue Springs school, ten miles from the capital, which he taught for five months. After this he went to Webber's Falls and taught the Prairie Grove school for ten months, which was followed up by two sessions spent likewise in the Coowescowee district institutions. The subject of our sketch then accepted a clerkship in the store of Messrs. Rasmus & French, but soon afterward was employed by Chief Bushyhead, through special act, to arrange the census rolls. In September, 1885, Arthur Adair married Mollie E. Miller, daughter of Louis Miller, part Irish and Cherokee, by whom he had three children, only one of which is living---Arthur Lynch, seven months old. The eldest a little girl, two and a half years of age, unfortunately died of membraneous croup. Mr. Adair after spending some time farming, taught several sessions in the Flint and Going Snake districts, and was apppointed to the Tahlequah public school for ten months, and one re-appointed. For some time he has been connected with the firm of J. L. Adair & Son, being manager for his father who devotes little of his time to the business. Mr. Adair lives in the north-east end of Tahlequah, where he has a dwelling house and six acres of land. He is also owner of some very promising mineral claims, which with others are undeveloped. Mr. Adair like his father, is a gentleman of education and refinement, generous and liberal, and in consequence is popular with everybody.

Simpson, John F. (p. 372) Biographical Index
John F. Simpson was born December, 1824, in Prince William County, Virginia, the son of J. W. Simpson, of Bardstown, Kentucky, who is now ninety-two years of age. John F. came to Kentucky at the age of twelve, and was educated at the public schools. After a residence of some ten years in Louisville, he moved to Eufaula in the Creek Nation (in 1872), and in the year following embarked in the hide and fur business, which he continues until the present day. In 1870, Mr. Simpson, while in Arkansas, met Miss Susan Crabtree, daughter of the late Mr. William Crabtree, a prominent citizen of the Creek Nation, and they were married the same year in that State. Soon after coming to Eufaula he commenced improving land, and now owns 60 acres close to town, as well as 115 acres two miles further out. Mr. Simpson and his father-in-law were the first who ever grew cotton in the Creek Nation, having hauled a wagon load of the seed from a gin in Texas, situated on the spot where now stands the City of Texarkana. The first crop was a complete failure, owing to an early September frost. This occurred in 1873. Afterwards Mr. Simpson bought and shipped the first bale of cotton ever ginned in the Creek country. The subject of this sketch has seen some active service under General Taylor in the Mexican war. He joined the first regiment that enlisted for a twelve months' service on that occasion, which regiment was the First Kentucky, under Colonel Ormsby. During these twelve months he served at the battle of Monterey, and other engagements of lesser note. Mr. Simpson has a family of six children---Hattie, aged eighteen years; Robert Lee, aged seventeen years; John, aged fourteen years; Kate, aged twelve years; Mary, aged ten years, and James, aged eight years.

Adair, Roland Kirk (pp. 372, 374, 375) Biographical Index
Roland Kirk Adair was born November 17,1855, in Saline district, Cherokee Nation, son of B. Adair, who before the war was a prominent merchant at Locust Grove. His grandfather, Washington Adair, was one of the leading men in the Cherokee Nation. Mr. Roland Adair was educated at the public schools until 1874, and in the autumn of the same year entered Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, graduating with honors in 1877. Roland Kirk followed the career of a teacher from that time until 1881, when he married Miss Rachel Landrum, daughter of D. D. Landrum, of Delaware district, a prominent citizen. He then began farming five miles north of Chelsea, Cherokee Nation, and continued agriculture till April, 1891, when he disposed of his farm and began merchandising at Chelsea. Prior to his removal there, he was appointed to the board of town commissioners of Chelsea, which position he held for two years, and in December, 1891, was elected mayor of the town. By his marriage with Miss Landrum, he has five children---Charles B., born February 19, 1883; Robert McLeod, born July 4, 1884; David William, born December 6, 1885; Sue T., born January 6, 1886; and Sadie Kirk, born July 6, 1889. Mrs. Adair is an intelligent, cultured lady, of a liberal disposition, and very popular among her friends. Mr. Adair's mother was a Miss McNair, daughter of Nicholas McNair, a citizen by marriage. Mr. Adair besides his store, owns a farm of 150 acres, 50 acres of which are in cultivation, 100 head of cattle and other property. He is a wide-awake, progressive and energetic man, and educated far above the majority, and, it may be added, that he is one of that type of men whose example invariably stimulates a new country, or a young settlement, to rapid development in civilization.

Harris, Colonel Johnson (pp. 375, 376) Biographical Index
Johnson Harris, was born April 19, 1856, the youngest son of William Harris, a white man, and Susan Collins, daughter of Parker Collins, a half Cherokee. Johnson attended neighborhood school until 1876, when he entered the male seminary, Tahlequah, and there remained for one year, when he commenced teaching in the public schools. In 1881 he was elected member of the senate to represent the Canadian district, and filled the same office three different terms. In 1887 and 1889 he was elected as national delegate to Washington. After the inauguration of Chief Mayes, Colonel Johson Harris was appointed executive secretary, and held that position until 1891, when he was elected national treasurer in place of Henry Chambers. In 1877 he married Miss Nannie Fields, daughter of Richard Fields, by whom he has three children, a girl and two boys. Colonel Harris again married, this time to Miss Mamie Adair, daughter of William Penn Adair, March 4, 1891. Mrs. Harris is a lady of many accomplishments, among them that of art, her attainments in that field being quite considerable. She graduated at the Kirkwood Seminary, in Missouri. On the death of Joel Mayes, principal chief, December, 1891, Colonel Harris was put in nomination as his successor, and was elected, by a large majority, by the council then in session, as chief executive of the Cherokees. Few men have ever attained to such a high position so early in life. Mr. Harris having served the people only ten or eleven years. Governor Harris resides in Tahlequah. He is the owner of a considerable herd of cattle and a fine farm. Personally, he is a handsome, intellectual looking man, six feet high and weighing 210 pounds. His education is far above the average, being well read on most subjects and a good conversationalist. Few men can boast of such a wide spread popularity as Governor Harris.

Jacobs, Judge Isaac (pp. 376, 377) Biographical Index
Isaac Jacobs was born January 26, 1854, in Sculliville County, Choctaw Nation, oldest son of S. L. Jacobs and C. Belvin, both of Choctaw origin. Isaac attended public school until the age of fourteen years. At seventeen he commenced farming, which, in connection with stock-raising, he continues until the present day. In October, 1889, he started in the mercantile business with his brother, W. F. Jacobs, at Muldrow, and they are now doing a very fair trade. Mr. Jacobs married Miss Amanda Pettit, of Sequoyah district, daughter of Thomas Pettit, a prominent Cherokee in his neighborhood. Mrs. Jacobs died in August, 1880, without family, since which time Mr. Jacobs has remained single. In 1887 he was appointed deputy clerk of Sequoyah district, and August, 1889, was elected district judge. In August, 1891, he was re-elected for a second term, and is filling his office to the satisfaction of all. Judge Jacobs is five feet six inches in height and weighs 140 pounds. He is a man of strict integrity, and highly respected in the country, having a host of friends among all classes. Judge Jacobs owns 125 acres of land in cultivation, a small herd of cattle, and, in connection with his brother, carries a stock of merchandise to the value of $2,000. They also own the store building, while the judge is owner of a nice residence in Muldrow. Judge Jacobs is a member of the Masonic Lodge No. 29, Walnut Grove.

Alberty, Ellis C. (pp. 377, 378) Biographical Index
Ellis C. Alberty was born July 20, 1860, the eldest son of James Alberty and Martha Wright, a daughter of Cornelius Wright, who held some prominent offices in his nation. His father was a leading farmer and stock-raiser, and one-half Cherokee by blood. Ellis attended public school until he was fourteen years of age, when he went to the male seminary at Tahlequah, and there remained five years, after which he spent three years at college in New Hampshire, where he graduated, and returned to his home in the Cherokee Nation. In 1885 he became a teacher in the male seminary, Tahlequah, and held that position for three years, afterward taking the post of first assistant at the orphan asylum, where he also taught for three years. On leaving there he began farming at Chouteau. In July, 1877, he married Miss Sue M. Eaton, daughter of Richard Eaton, of Going Snake district. By this marriage they had two children---Cecil, born April 23, 1888, and Lizzie, born October 10, 1890. In August, 1891, Mr. Alberty was elected prosecuting attorney for Coowescowee district, which office he still holds. Mr. Alberty owns about 20 head of cattle, a stock of hogs, some mules, and 75 acres of land in cultivation on Grand River, besides several town lots in Chouteau and a good residence on his home place. Mr. Alberty is a fine, tall, intelligent-looking gentleman of good manners and address. He is well educated and as a prosecuting attorney has given every satisfaction, gaining the confidence and respect of his people. Mr. Alberty is a member of the Congregational Church. Mrs. Alberty was a teacher in the nation's public school for over six years. She is a lady of refinement and culture, a good wife and a loving mother.

Thompson, Johnson (pp. 378, 380) Biographical Index
Johnson Thompson was born February 10, 1822, in Cass County, Georgia, the third son of James Allen Thompson, a white man, and Martha Lynch, a Cherokee, daughter of Geter Lynch, a United States citizen, who was a brother-in-law to Judge J. Martin, of considerable prominence in the Cherokee Nation. Johnson attended missionary and private schools until he was fifteen, when his father emigrated to the present Cherokee Nation with the Boudinots, Adairs, Mayes and Ridge families, after the treaty of 1835. Here he went to school in Viniard Township, Arkansas, and later to Bentonville in the same State, until he was eighteen years of age, when he entered J. M. Lynch & Co.'s establishment as a clerk, Mr. Lynch being his uncle. Here he remained until he was twenty-one years of age, when he married Miss Eliza C. Taylor, January 5, 1843, daughter to Richard Taylor, who was second chief of the Cherokees. Her mother was daughter to George Fields, prominent in the capacity of United States officer, and who drew a government pension till his death. Mr. Johnson Thompson embarked in the mercantile line, in the winter of 1846 and 1847, in which business he has been engaged up to the present, except during the war. When the campaign commenced, he joined the Confederate service, in the capacity of quarter-master of the First Cherokee Regiment, after which he got a certificate of disability, and retired to a farm which he had purchased in the Chickasaw Nation, on Red River. After the war he began farming on Grand River in connection with his mercantile business, and there remained until 1868 or 1869, when he removed to Vinita. Leaving Vinita in 1876, he settled in Tahlequah, and resumed the mercantile and stock business, which he is still pursuing. He carries a stock of from $12,000 to $15,000, including boots, shoes, dry goods, hardware and farming implements. He owns about 200 acres of improved farm lands at different points, and about 100 head of stock cattle, as well as the stone building in Tahlequah, in which his business is carried on. He has five children---Thomas F., James A., Robert J., Joe M., and Jane Annie (the wife of R. M. French, high sheriff of Tahlequah.). Joseph M. is practicing physician and medical superintendent of the male and female institutes at Tahlequah, and is a graduate of the Missouri Medical College, St. Louis. The subject of our sketch is five feet ten inches high, and weighs 200 pounds. He is a man of good appearance, sound education and business ability. Mr. Thompson is one of the oldest merchants now living in the Cherokee Nation, who is still in business. He is also one of the first members who joined the Masonic lodge in the Cherokee Nation, after the first lodge was organized; he has taken the degrees in the Chapter. Mr. Johnson Thompson is good hearted and charitable, and has done many a kindly act for the needy and destitute.

Neilson, Francis Alexander (pp. 382, 384) Biographical Index
Francis A. Neilson was born in Oxford, Mississippi, June 2, 1860, eighth child in a family of twelve of W. S. Neilson, a prominent merchant of Oxford, and before the war a very wealthy man. Francis A. received his education at the State University, leaving his sophomore year at the age of twenty-one, after which he began a mercantile life as book-keeper in a large general merchandise store in Oxford, and remained in this occupation for three years. In 1885 the subject of our sketch went West to Arkansas City, Kansas, and there formed a partnership in the hardware business, but this becoming uncongenial Mr. Neilson went to Bartholsville, Indian Territory, and entered the employment of J. H. Bartles, as book-keeper, and remained three years. In March, 1888, he was married to Ella May Pratt, step-daughter to J. H. Bartles, and immediately moved to Claremore, where he engaged in the mercantile business, which he still continues successfully. Mrs. Neilson's father was Lucius B. Pratt, eldest son of Rev. John G. Pratt, of an old Boston family, and many years  agent to the Delawares. Her mother was Miss Nannie May "Journey Cake," daughter of Rev. Charles J. Journey Cake, present chief of the Delawares. Mrs. Neilson is a highly educated lady, and is accomplished and refined above the average of her sex. By this marriage Mr. Neilson has two children---Nonie, born March 12, 1889, and Ada May, born May 8, 1891. Mr. Neilson's mother was a Miss Mary C. Bowen, of East Tennessee, and a member of a very wealthy and aristocratic family. Mr. Neilson has, in addition to a large stock of merchandise, two farms aggregating 1100 acres, 700 of which are in cultivation, with good buildings and orchards thereon. He also owns 90 acres of land near Kansas City, valued at some $20,000, also 320 acres in the Texas Panhandle, 50 lots in Caney, Kansas, and 31 lots and 11 buildings in Claremore, making him one of the wealthiest men in the Cherokee Nation, while his mercantile business alone, successfully conducted of itself, is capable of yielding a comfortable competence. Mr. Neilson is six feet high, weighs 165 pounds, and is an active, energetic, brainy man, calculated to make a very decided mark in the world.

Robb, A. W. (pp. 384, 386) Biographical Index
A. W. Robb was born January, 1840, in Vera County, Pennsylvania, the fourth son of William A. Robb, of Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Young Robb attended neighborhood schools until thirteen years of age, when he went to Washington College, Iowa, where he remained one year. Most of his time was spent upon a farm until he arried at twenty years of age. In the fall of 1860 he went to Kansas, and in the following year entered the Federal service (militia force). Soon, however, he joined the regulars, and in July, 1862, became a first lieutenant, Company F, Third Indiana Horse Guards. He thus served until 1865, when he was mustered out. Mr. Robb commenced filling government contracts in 1866, and finished in 1869. Then he entered mercantile business at Baxter Springs, and there remained until 1871, when he opened out in Muskogee under the title of Atkinson & Co. He continued the partnership with Mr. Atkinson until 1875, when he sold to Smith & Angier. Attaching himself to Mr. Patterson's business for some time, he finally formed a partnership with that gentleman in 1876, and has been ever since his partner and business manager of that wealthy and prominent firm. The establishment carried a general stock of goods, worth about $40,000, when it was burned down in 1887. Then the present building, a fine two-story brick, was erected. This establishment carries as large a stock as the old house. In Wagoner, Creek Nation, Messrs. Patterson & Robb have a branch house stocked with goods to the amount of $25,000 iin general merchandise, and commanding a large trade. Mr. Robb married Miss Martha Requa, January 23, 1864, daughter of George Requa and Mary Austin. Mr. Requa came to the Union Mission, Indian Territory, in 1825, where he remained until the Osages moved North. Mrs. Robb was born in Bates County, Missouri, in 1841. The issue of their marriage was four children, three of whom are living --- Mollie (now Mrs. Sampson), born October 2, 1865; Kate, born September 29, 1870 (now Mrs. Evans, wife of Rev. A. G. Evans, Presbyterian minister in Pendleton, Oregon), and Jessie, born December 13, 1872. In height Mr. Robb is six feet two inches, and weighs 195 pounds. He is a man of fine physique, pleasant and affable in manner, with a great deal of personal magnetism, and possessed of business qualities far above the average. He is a devout member of the Presbyterian Church, and a charter member of the Masonic lodge of Muskogee, in which he is a Master Mason.

Tarvin, George Washington (pp. 386, 387) Biographical Index
George W. Tarvin was born December 14, 1828, a son of Elijah Tarvin, of Baldwin County, Alabama, and Elizabeth Tate. His grandfather, William Tarvin, came from England at an early day, settling in Buck County, Georgia, and afterward marrying Mary Miller in Pensacola, Florida, in 1783, where he opened a trading house. Mr. G. W. Tarvin's mother, Elizabeth Tate, was second daughter to David Tate, and granddaughter to Colonel John Tate and Sehoy McGilleroy, and great-granddaughter to General Alexander McGilleroy, who came from Scotland in 1735 and amassed a large fortune in this country. He was colonel in the British army in 1776 and 1790, and was commissioned by George Washington as brigadier-general. He was a highly intellectual man. George Washington Tarvin, his great-grandson and subject of this sketch, was born in Baldwin County, Alabama, and in 1852, with his mother's family, moved to Fort Bend County, Texas, bringing with them seventy negros, and starting in agriculture in the Brazos bottom. Here he remained until the outbreak of the war, when he joined the Confederate service under Colonel Elmore, Second Texas Infantry. After two years he returned home to assist his mother, who was alone on the plantation, and, procuring a substitute, remained with her until the close of the war, when he left for Mexico, and there took up his stay ten years, devoting his time to the mercantile business. Returning from Mexico, he began clerking in a store in Texas, and in 1870 or 1871 went to San Angelo (same State), where he clerked for a Mr. Withers for some three years. In 1885 he moved his family to Muskogee, and remained a short time at this place, moving out on the Verdigris River, where he farmed for one year, after which he moved, on account of his daughter's health, to Vinita, Cherokee Nation. From thence he went to Red Fork, and from that place to Okmulgee, in 1888. Mr. Tarvin was married November, 1855, to Miss Phoebe Harris, of New York, by whom he had one girl, born 1857 and now Mrs. Thomas, of Okmulgee. His wife died July 7, 1858, and he remained single until December 26, 1872, when he married Mrs. M. B. Hammett, widow of the late Charles Hammett, of Galveston, Texas, in the hardware business at that town. Mrs. Tarvin was second daughter of Jacob Kates, of Wimmerton, Delaware, well and favorably known in that country, and whose father came over when the Swedes first settled in that place. By this marriage he has one daughter, named Annie, born April 9, 1876. Mr. Tarvin is grand-nephew of William Weatherford, a man who was of great prominence in the Creek Nation, and the hero of the fight at Fort Mimms. Mr. Tarvin is five feet eleven inches in height, and weighs 160 pounds. He is quiet and reserved, having all the traits of a true Southern gentleman, and is very popular.

Knight, Robert D. (p. 388) Biographical Index
Robert D. Knight was born March 25, 1846, at Chouteau, Cherokee Nation, the youngest son of J. S. Knight, a Marylander, and a Cherokee lady, daughter of William Rogers, one of the old settlers. Robert attended several schools in the State of Pennsylvania, after which he spent three years at the academy in Bridgeton, New Jersey, finishing his education at Newtonia, Missouri. Leaving school in 1861, Robert entered the Confederate service, and served until the close of the war. After devoting ten years to farming, Mr. Knight moved in 1876 to Vinita, and there began the business of architect, contractor and builder, which employment he still pursues. In 1890 he opened a planing mill and factory in his town, putting up the first gasoline engine ever introduced in the Indian Territory. The factory is fitted with all modern improvements. Mr. Knight was superintendent of construction (on the part of the nation), of the Cherokee Female Seminary, a building which cost $65,000. He erected the national colored high school, near Tahlequah, which cost $10,000, as also the brick work of the Halsell Institute. In April, 1875, Mr. Knight married Miss Louisa West, daughter of W. West, of Greenville, Missouri, by whom he had one living child, named Herman. Mr. Knight is over six feet in height, and weighs 190 pounds. He is a fine, intelligent looking man, of first class business qualifications and is very popular. His factory and stock are valued at $3,000, while he has about ten town lots, and a few houses rented in Vinita, besides his own home and 160 acres of farm land in cultivation. He is also owner of the Vinita World, a paper established in 1890. [We have recently learned that the title of that paper has been changed to the Vinita Globe.]

Ratcliffe, Edgar N. (pp. 388, 390) Biographical Index
Edgar N. Ratcliffe was born March 5, 1857, at Hillsborough, Texas, the fourth son of James T. Ratcliffe, a leading lawyer of Hillsborough, and Miss Whiteside, daughter of Mr. Whiteside, a well known merchant and silversmith of Ashville, North Carolina. Edgar attended public school until fifteen years of age, after which he entered Trinity University, Tehuacana, Texas, where he remained until eighteen years of age, when he became a  clerk for Alfred Young, of that town, remaining until he was twenty, and then established a mercantile business for himself, which he conducted until 1884, and, selling out, removed to Vinita, Indian Territory, where he started a grocery store, and in 1888 extended his business to general merchandise, which he carries on at present. In September, 1881, Mr. Ratcliffe married Miss Era Foster, daughter of Robert Foster (a large stockman from La Grange, Bastrop County, Texas) and Jane Fields, of a leading Cherokee family. By this marriage they have four children---Fred Foster, born May 28, 1884; James Wilton, born September 23, 1886; Robert Furnis, born June 23, 1889, and Mary Era, born September 25, 1891. Mrs. Ratcliffe is a graduate of Trinity College, Tehuacana, Texas, and is a lady of many accomplishments. Mr. Ratcliffe carries a stock of $18,000 in general merchandise, and does the most extensive business at the present time in Vinita. The store building is also his property, besides 200 acres of farm in cultivation. He owns, in partnership with Mr. Skinner, the Vinita roller mills, and he is also owner of five business and residence lots, a fine residence and a good deal of land in Texas. He is vice-president, and was chief organizer of the First National Bank of Vinita, capital $50,000. Mr. Ratcliffe is a man of fine intellectual appearance, gentlemanly in manner and address, and is possessor of rare business qualifications. He is a progressive man in the proper sense, and very popular in Vinita.

Small, James, M.D. (pp. 390, 392) Biographical Index
James Small was born October, 1841, in McMinn County, Tennessee, seventh son of Rev. James Small and Mary A. Wallace, of Scotch descent and from Wane County, Kentucky. James Jr. attended neighborhood schools until 1861, when he joined the Federal army, enlisting in the Second Kansas Infantry, and from that entered the Sixteenth Missouri Cavalry, in which he served till the close of the war. In 1864 he married Miss Mary Noe, of Lee County, Virginia, by whom he had five children---Mary J., born April 3, 1866; Amy A., March 23, 1868; Nellie A., June 23, 1872; Robert Walter, July 19, 1878, and James Arthur, January 12, 1884. After the close of the war, James took charge of the old homestead, his father being dead. Remaining two years, he began reading medicine with Dr. E. H. Moore, of Ash Grove, Missouri. The following year he moved to Yellville, Arkansas, where he studied with Dr. U. M. Noe, his brother-in-law. After remaining with him three years, in 1871, he began the practice of his profession in Isabella, Missouri, and there continued until 1879, when he went to the American Medical College, St. Louis, where he graduated in 1880. After a short practice in Isabella, Missouri, he moved to Marion County, Oregon, remaining until 1882, when he returned to Oakland, Arkansas, at that time a small place, but which, with the assistance of the doctor, soon became a flourishing little town. He was postmaster in Oakland, and gave it the name which it bears at present. In 1887 he moved to Douglas, Missouri, where he had an extensive practice, and was appointed postmaster at Smallett, in the same county, where his home is; the office is now in charge of his wife. In September, 1891, he moved to Okmulgee, Creek Nation, and in October was appointed resident physician to the Nuyaka Mission, which position he now holds. Dr. Small, at his home place, owns a fine farm of 120 acres, and some cattle, horses, and other stock, besides a comfortable residence, orchard, garden, etc. He is six feet high and weighs 190 pounds, is intellectual and highly educated, having a natural talent for the profession which he represents so creditably, being only too well qualified to fill the responsible position which has been recently offered him.

Springston, John L. (pp. 392, 394) Biographical Index
John L. Springston is the son of Anderson Springston, half-breed, and Sallie Elliot, daughter of Jack Elliot, a white man, who married a quarter Cherokee. Anderson Springston was born in Tennessee, and after coming to this nation practiced law in the Delaware and Tahlequah districts. John L., the subject of this sketch, was born October, 1845, and educated at the public schools, Delaware district. About the time he was ready to enter the Upper Alton Academy, the war broke out, and he joined the Indian Home Guards, Third Regiment, Company I, under Col. M. A. Phillips, Federal army. He entered the service January 1, 1863, and served until May 31, 1865, during which time he was at the battles of Cabin Creek, Honey Springs, and other engagements of the kind. While attending school in 1859, he was appointed clerk of the supreme court of his district, and served in the various courts in the same capacity until 1872, when he was elected sheriff of Saline district for two years. In 1874 he became executive secretary under Chief W. P. Ross, and also held the office of interpreter. From November 1875 to 1879, he was Cherokee translator of the Advocate, or national organ, and in 1879 was re-appointed to that office by Chief Bushyhead, and held it until 1887. During the first two years of Bushyhead's administration, he was clerk of the senate, and national (or executive) interpreter throughout the entire administration. He also acted as interpreter of the special commission on citizenship. In 1859 Mr. Springston began the practice of law, and has, since the advent of the Mayes administration, devoted the best part of his time to attending to pension and other claims. He is also attorney of record at the United States court, Fort Smith, as well as the different departments of the United States Government at Washington. Mr. Springston was first married in 1867, to Sarah Eliza Mosely, granddaughter to George Fields, of Saline district, by whom he has two daughters--Ruth and Elizabeth. By a second marriage he has also two daughters, Viola Dacre and Wenona. In 1885 he married Miss A. C. Gray, daughter to Adolphus Gray, a white man, from North Carolina, by whom he has one son, five years old, named W. P. Boudinot. Mr. Springston is six feet high, weighs 236 pounds, and is a splendid specimen of his race, of excellent address and considerable force; he is capable of strongly impressing a jury. He is very popular, and a loyal adherent to the national party.

Mitchell, James F. (pp. 394, 395) Biographical Index
James F. Mitchell was born November, 1856, in Green County, Indiana, being the eldest son of James H. Mitchell, of Muskogee, Indian Territory, formerly a stock-raiser and agriculturist, who recently retired from business, owning to ill health. His mother was Miss M. G. Crabtree, whose family were from Ohio, and who moved to Indiana when quite young, and married Mr. Mitchell in 1836. James F. attended district school until the age of seventeen, moving West with his parents, he then followed school teaching until he was twenty-two years of age, after which he attended normal school at Fort Scott, where he completed his education July 1, 1881, at the age of twenty-five years. Mr. Mitchell commenced teaching in the public schools of Kansas soon afterwards, and was appointed deputy registrar of deeds of Butler County, under the administration of Dr. J. McGuinness. Since that time he has had charge of the Bloomfield Academy, a graded school in Bloomfield, Arkansas, on the Indian Territory line. In 1889, he moved with his parents to Muskogee, Indian Territory, and in September, 1891, was given charge of the public school in Eufaula, Creek Nation, which appointment he now holds. The subject of this sketch is a young man of excellent education, full of energy and thoroughly devoted to his mission. His mother, now fifty-five years of age, is corresponding secretary of the W. C. U. Association of the Indian Territory, and missionary supervisor of jails.

Brewer, James Richardson, M.D. (pp. 395, 396) Biographical Index
James R. Brewer was born in February, 1849, at Black Forest, Gibson County, Tennessee, seventh son of Dr. James M. Brewer, of Tennessee, and grandson of Sterling Brewer, who for twenty years was speaker of the Senate of Tennessee. Dr. Brewer is brother to the Rev. T. F. Brewer, superintendent of the Harrell International Institute, of Muskogee. In 1859, the subject of our sketch entered Yorkville Academy, Tennessee, where he remained until 1865. During 1867 and 1868 he attended Andrew College, Trenton, Gibson County, Tennessee, after which he attached himself to the mercantile business until 1873, in Columbus, Kentucky. In 1874 he began the study of medicine with Dr. Sale, and later with Dr. J. M. Taylor, of Corinth, Mississippi. Attending a course of lectures at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, he commenced practice in the summer of 1876, and continued the same in Franklin and Washington Counties, Arkansas, until the fall of 1877, when he returned to the above mentioned university and completed his course of lectures. Afterward he resumed practice in Washington County, Arkansas, moving to Columbus, Kentucky, in 1879, and from thence to Franklin County, Arkansas, in 1880. Three years later he came to Muskogee, Indian Territory, and in November 1886, moved to Pierce City, Arkansas, where he remained five months. Going from thence to South West City, Missouri, he located there until 1888, when he returned to Muskogee, Indian Territory, where he is now residing. In March, 1878, he married Miss Ella Lee Cook, daughter of William Cook, a leading man in Columbus, Kentucky, and teasurer of that city for forty years, as well as treasurer of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. Mrs. Brewer is a lady of superior attainments and many accomplishments. Dr. Brewer is five feet seven inches in height, and weighs 135 pounds. He is gentlemanly in appearance and affable in manner, highly educated, and stands in the front rank in his profession. He has a large practice in Muskogee, where he has many friends.

Wolfe, Richard M. (pp. 400, 402, 403) Biographical Index
Richard M. Wolfe was born November 16, 1849, the son of J. H. Wolfe and Elizabeth Saunders, daughter of D. Saunders, a prominent Cherokee. When Richard was but five months old, his father left for California to search for gold in order, as he said himself, to properly educate his son, but unfortunately he never returned. At the age of seven Richard went to school for three months, and then again in two years later, passed five months at a public school. From the outbreak of the war till its ending he remained at home to take care of his mother and in 1865, when he had almost forgotten the book learning he had acquired, attended school for three terms, dropping off at McGuffy's fourth reader. He was then 21 years of age, and the only support of his mother and grandmother, so that he was obliged to work in the fields and snatch the brief intervals between crop times to educate himself. Despite his limited opportunities, he was enabled to teach the public school at Tyners' Valley soon after he became of age, and the year following became mission teacher at the Moravian Mission, Spring Creek, which institute had but five pupils at the commencement of the term, but increased to fifty-six, before he resigned, in twelve months from the date of his appointment. The refusal on the part of the board to increase his salary, was the cause of Mr. Wolfe's resignation. He, therefore, devoted his attention to farming for some time, and in November, 1872, married Susan E. Shelley, daughter to L. W. Shelley, a district judge, Tahlequah district. He soon, hosever, returned to teaching at the Tyners' Valley school, and remianed there for two years. In 1875 he was elected clerk of the lower house, but during the same session, being appointed as interpreter, he resigned the former office, and held the latter for four years, till 1879---being once re-elected in the meanwhile. Afterwards he was elected to the senate, and during the term was commissioned to go to Washington as a national delegate. While absent with Chief Bushyhead at the capital, Mr. Wolfe's mother died (December 23, 1879). He returned in seven months, and was elected to again visit Washington in the years 1881, 1882, and 1890, besides once on a special mission in 1883. In 1880, or thereabouts, Mr. Wolfe was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Judge Rufus Adair on the supreme bench, and received the commission of chief justice. In 1887 he was elected to the senate from Going Snake district, and was re-elected in the fall of 1891. In 1889 he served as attorney for the nation on the citizen commission, until the dissolution of the same. Mr. Wolfe has a family of five children, Jesse B., Mitchell W., Mary J., Alice, Richard and Thomas. He is the owner of 130 acres in cultivation, 100 head of stock and 10 head of horses. He is an able lawyer and practices in the United States courts, as well as the courts of the Indian Territory. Although but forty-two years of age, there are few men in the legislative department of the Cherokee Nation who possess such influence as Senator Richard Wolfe. Yet, withall, in manner and address he is quiet and subdued. Without any apparent aggressiveness, bombast or display, his words weigh heavily and sway many an older member of the senate. It is very possible, therefore, that Mr. Wolfe will fill the highest office in the nation at some future period. The Tahlequah  Capital Daily News of November 14, 1891, says: "Mr. Wolfe is an orator who has few equals in his country; he is intellectual and versatile, a profound reasoner and, in the senate, an antagonist worthy of any foe."

Thompson, Joseph M., M.D. (pp. 403, 405) Biographical Index
This popular young physician was born February 8, 1865, near Red River, Chickasaw Nation, during the ar, and whilst his family were amongst the Cherokee refugees. He is the son of Johnson Thompson and Eliza C. Taylor, both Cherokees. In 1866 his parents went to Grand River, east of Vinita, Delaware district, where at eight years, Joseph was sent to a neighborhood school. At the age of fifteen years he went to the male seminary, and there remained three years, graduating a short time afterward at the Indian University, then located at Tahlequah. From this he began reading medicine under Dr. Allen, which was followed up by a three years' medical course at the Missouri Medical College, St. Louis, from which institution he graduated in 1885. Dr. Thompson commenced practice the same year in Tahlequah, and in 1887 married Lulu Elliott, daughter to George W. Elliot, a white man. By this marriage he has two children---Christine, two years, and Eddie, three months old. In the fall of 1888, Dr. Thompson, although but twenty-three years of age, was appointed by the council as medical superintendent of the public institutions of the Cherokee Nation, a most arduous and responsible position, for which there were five candidates. These public institutions comprise the male and female seminaries, national jail and insane asylum, for which services he receives an income of $1,500 per year, the commission hlding good for four years. Reference is made to the asylum and other public institutions elsewhere in this volume. Dr. Thompson has a farm of 70 acres in cultivation within ten miles from town, and a handsome residence in Tahlequah. Despite the fact that his time is almost entirely occupied in discharging his duties to the nation's wards, he is sought after in private practice to such an extent that he is forced to refuse many calls. Though kept busy, Dr. Thompson occasionally finds leisure for a few hours with dog and gun, and on such occasions makes fur and feather fly. He is a good sportsman in the true sense, but no participant in gambling, whisky drinking, or even the use of tobacco. Dr. Thompson is a courteous, refined gentleman, and as a physician is skillful beyond his years. He has undoubtedly a bright future before him.

Hicks, Richard Watson (pp. 405, 406) Biographical Index
Richard W. Hicks was born in 1855, the son of the late ex-Judge Jay Hicks, of the Flint district, who died in 1869. Richard's mother was a Miss Kate Levi, a full-blood Cherokee. Although a most successful school-teacher, Richard Hicks' education was confined to the neighborhood school at Pleasant Valley, which he attended for about four years. In 1886, at the age of thirty, he commenced teaching in Sequoyah district, after which he taught two terms at Rabbit Trap, Tahlequah district. He was next sent to open the Hickory Creek School, in Coowescowee district, and proved his adaptability for his calling by successfully taking charge of sixty-nine pupils. He held this position for five years. During the last term he taught at Four Mile Branch School, in Tahlequah district, and is at present (during vacation time) looking after his farming interest twelve miles west of the capital, where he has forty acres in cultivation and some cattle, horses and hogs. Mr. Hicks married Miss Emma Dora Scovell, daughter to Thomas H. Scovell, of Illinois, in September, 1890. By this union he has one child---Claude Jay, born October 7, 1891. Mr. Hicks, although an active supporter of the Downing party, has never offered himself as a candidate for office, although well fitted to represent his people in the legislature. He has had great success teaching, and is a straightforward, reliable man, quiet and unpretentious in disposition.

Rucker, George R., M.D. (p. 408) Biographical Index
George R. Rucker was born in Randolph County, Missouri, in March, 1862, the son of J. M. Rucker, of Muskogee. He was educated at the public schools until 1881, when he took a course in the industrial university, Fayetteville, Arkansas. In 1882 he entered the Missouri Medical College, St. Louis, and studied for two terms, graduating in 1887. He then commenced practice in the Cherokee Nation, and the following year moved to Eufaula, Creek Nation, where he resides at present. Dr. Rucker is local surgeon for the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, and is insurance examiner for the Mutual and Equitable companies. He is also secretary for the Creek Medical Examining Board. Physicians practicing in this nation, who have not secured diplomas in the States, are required to stand examination by the board, and pay $25 license; while those who have diplomas, are only called upon to register and pay a fee of $5 each. Dr. Rucker pronounces the Creek Nation very healthy, there being very little sickness beyond the ordinary light malarial attacks. The doctor married Miss M. Hampton, daughter of J. M. Hampton; his wife is a Creek Indian by blood on the mother's side.

McClellan, William Peter (pp. 409, 410) Biographical Index
William P. McClellan was born December 28, 1855, in Boonesborough, Washington County, Arkansas, fourth son of E. W. McClellan, a white man of Scotch and Irish descent and a native of Alabama, who emigrated to Western Arkansas in 1833 and embarked in merchandise; he married Miss Sarah J. Truesdale, of Indian. William Peter went to Cane Hill College, Arkansas, at thirteen years of age, and, after five years' schooling, commenced clerking for his brother, Charles M. McClellan, a merchant and stock-raiser at Tahlequah, for whom he worked five years. In October, 1877, he married Miss Rachel L. Adair, daughter of J. L. Adair, one of the leading men in the nation. Mrs. McClellan is a lady of many accomplishments, and of a gentle and lovable disposition. In 1880 he moved to Coowescowee district where he commenced farming and stock-raising in 1889. Disposing of his interest there, he returned to Tahlequah and became a clerk for J. L. Adair, which position he held until November, 1891, when he was elected superintendent of the male academy, which office he holds at present. Mr. McClellan has five children---Mary E., Pearl, Edward W., William A., and Charles T. He is six feet two inches in height, and weighs 189 pounds---a gentleman of prepossessing appearance, courteous and pleasant in address. Mr. McClellan is an educated, reading man, and ambitious and energetic. He is quite popular in the country in which he is an adopted citizen.

Buffington, J. D. (p. 410) Biographical Index
J. D. Buffington was born March 26, 1846, the son of Ezekiel Buffington and Louisa Newman, daughter of Jonathan Newman, county judge of Washington County, Arkansas, for eighteen years. J. D. attended school in Going Snake district, until the outbreak of the war, when he and his family refugeed in Fannin County, Texas, until 1866, when he returned to the nation and devoted his time to farming. In 1876 he married Miss Fannie Morris, daughter of Isaac Morris, a white man; her mother was a Daugherty, a family prominent among the Cherokees. By this marriage Mr. Buffington has five children---Stella, Etta, Grover, Vada, and J. D. In 1884 he was elected to the senate for one term, and in 1891 to the house of representatives, which office he is now holding. He has 150 acres in cultivation in Going Snake district, near Cincinnati, Arkansas. Mr. Buffington is a quiet, pleasant mannered gentleman, honorable and reliable, and greatly respected by all who know him. He is connected with some of the first families of the nation.

Perryman, George B. (pp. 410, 411, 412) Biographical Index
George B. Perryman was born April 17, 1847, on the Verdigris River, eighteen miles east of Tulsa, the third living son of Lewis Perryman, a prominent Creek politician. George was chiefly educated at his home, and at the age of eighteen began farming and stock-raising, which business he still continues. George has always avoided politics, although several times requested to accept preferment by his people. In 1868 he married Miss Alex, a full-blood Creek, by whom he has six children---Moses S., born July 14, 1870; Ella L., May 14, 1874; Emeline, February 14, 1875; Ebenezer G., August 19, 1978; Mamie E., September 15, 1880, and George B., March 13, 1884. Mr. Perryman has about 3,000 head of cattle and about 1,000 acres of farm land in cultivation, also 200 head of horses, some of which are of an improved grade. His residence in Tulsa, is one of the handsomest in the Cherokee Nation. In this town he has a number of residence lots. Mr. Perryman weighs 210 pounds, and is over six feet in height. He is a fine looking man, with a thorough business head, while like his brother, Chief Legus Perryman, he is affable in manner, and charitable and kind to all with whom he comes in contact. Mr. Perryman is a member of the Presbyterian Church; he is, however, liberal and progressive in all his ideas.

Scott, James A. (pp. 412, 413) Biographical Index
James A. Scott was born July 15, 1847, at Elk Mills, McDonald County, Missouri, third son of James A. Scott and Fannie M. Thompson. James A., Sr., was State senator for Crawford and Franklin Counties, Arkansas, for several years, and a very well known and highly reputable man. Young James, the subject of our sketch, at fourteen years of age, went to work for his uncle, a merchant of Little Rock, until 1868, when he entered the employ of the Memphis and Arkansas River Packet Company, remaining with them until 1871, when he went into farming and stock business in Missouri. In the fall of 1873 he came to the Indian Territory, and remained until 1878, when he became a commercial traveler for a Neosho, Missouri, wholesale house, and remained with that firm until they closed out in business, after which he took a position with the Alkire Grocery Company, St. Louis, and traveled for them through the Indian Territory, Arkansas and Texas, remaining with them until 1886, when he moved to Muskogee, Indian Territory, and became connected with Lewis & Moss, of that town, which position he is holding at present, the firm being known by the title of Moss & Co. They carry a stock of general goods, from $10,000 to $12,000, and do a lively business. J. W. Scott was married in December, 1874, to Miss Sallie M. Anderson, of Nashville, Tennessee, a lady of many accomplishments and personal attractions. By this marriage there are five children---a boy and four girls. Mr. Scott is a pleasant gentleman, very popular, and although self-educated, none would recognize the fact, as he is a ready conversationalist on various subjects, and an excellent business man.

Crabtree, William F. (p. 413) Biographical Index
William F. Crabtree was born October, 1846, in Lafayette County, Arkansas, and moved to Eufaula in 1873. He was sent to school at Rondo, Arkansas, just before the war, but soon joined the Confederate service, attaching himself to the courier battalion whose headquarters were at Washington, Arkansas. After the war, in May, 1866, he married Miss Hattie Carter, daughter to Dr. T. A. Carter, of Ozark, Arkansas, by whom he has four children---Bettie, Hattie, Fount and Anna. The former young lady, aged fourteen years, is by nature an artist, having given convincing proofs of this fact through several oil paintings, which contain great merit, considering the age of the artist. Mr. Crabtree spent six years in the mercantile business at Eufaula, and moved to Muskogee in 1885. Since 1881 he has devoted his attention chiefly to the purchase and shipment of stock. In 1889 he was appointed by the Creek council as national tax collector, which position he still holds. He owns a nice residence in Muskogee, and a business building, together with 15 acres of land, in town. He has also a large pasture and 100 acres of farm on the Arkansas River. Mr. Crabtree is a pleasant, hospitable gentleman, and very popular.

Shepard, Harrison O. (pp. 413, 414) Biographical Index
Harrison O. Shepard was born in December, 1865, at Mount Vernon, Indiana, the sixth son of Joseph W. Shepard and Mary E. Barter, an English lady by nativity. Harrison went to the public schools until sixteen years of age, and commenced the study of law at nineteen with Grove & Sheperd, of Anthony, Kansas. He remained with that firm for two years, and was admitted to the bar in January, 1887, when he became a partner with the above named firm, and practiced until the establishment of a United States court in the Indian Territory in 1889, since which time he has been located at Muskogee, in charge of the firm's branch office. In 1889 he married Miss Mary Eugenia Mott, daughter of John Mott, Sr., of New Harmony, Indiana. By this marriage they have one child, named George Mott, aged two years. Mr. Shepard is a young man of gentlemanly appearance and courteous address, with an excellent education; and is enjoying a very fair practice in the United States Indian courts, and has a good prospect before him. His office in Muskogee is finely equipped, and contains an extensive library; he also is connected with the firm of Sheperd, Cherry & Sheperd, Salt Lake City.

Patterson, J. A. (pp. 414, 415, 416) Biographical Index
This prominent and wealthy citizen of Muskogee, was born in September, 1819, at Lincoln County, Tennessee, the second son of William Patterson and Annie Newberry, of the same place. He attended neighborhood school until thirteen years of age, when his father moved to Cherokee County, Alabama. Here the young man assisted his parents until his father's death in 1848, when he assumed the responsibility of taking charge of his mother, sisters and brothers. In 1854 he came to the Creek Agency in the employment of Colonel Garrett, the agent, and afterwards became teacher of a Creek school for two years. In 1856 he entered the general mercantile store of Stidham & Bright, at the agency; with these gentlemen he remained until 1860, when he opened business with D. W. Stidham, at Shieldsville, and here continued until November, 1861, when the war broke out, and they removed their stock of goods back to the agency. Soon afterwards he became sutler for the refugee Creeks, at Fort Washita, which position he retained until the close of the war, after which he went into business with Major J. Harlin, in cattle trading and merchandise, at Tishomingo, Chickasaw Nation. Closing out in twelve months, Mr. Patterson returned to the agency, and in 1867 again connected himself with Judge Stidham in the mercantile trade, doing an immense business all over the nation, and continuing the same for at least six years. In 1873 he opened at Muskogee, and later on took A. W. Robb as a partner in that place. Soon afterwards he opened a branch house at Eufaula, and appointed C. E. Foley as manager, giving him a share in the profits of the establishment. Messrs. Robb & Foley had both clerked for him previou to this time. Mr. Patterson's establishment in Muskogee, is one of the finest buildings in the Indian Territory, and contains a stock of $45,000 or upwards, while the Eufaula building is one of the largest in that town, and contains a stock of $30,000 or over. Mr. Patterson is also interested in the establishment of T. O. Boyer & Company, Wagoner, Indian Territory. He is one of the oldest white residents in the Creek Nation, coming at the same time as Captain Belcher, Mr. Whitlaw, L. P. Job, and Shelton Smith. No business man is more universally known in the Indian Territory; his success from the outset until the present has been something remarkable, and it is said by some that he never made a failure in his life. He is a man of fine business qualifications, gentlemanly exterior, and pleasant manners. Mr. Patterson is five feet ten inches in height, and weighs 140 pounds.

Starr, Ellis (pp. 416, 417) Biographical Index
Ellis Starr was born June 17, 1853, on Lee's Creek, Cherokee Nation, the only son of Leroy Starr, of Flint district. Ellis' mother was a Miss Vann, daughter of Andy Vann, who died in Cuba many years ago, and who was second chief at the time of his death. Ellis' grandfather, Ezekiel Starr, was one of the most prominent men in the nation, and died while in Washington, D. C., serving as delegate for his people, about the year 1847. Ellis attended public school until he was nine years of age, and at the close of the war went to Evansville Academy, Arkansas, where he remained two sessions. After having spent eight months in Texas, Ellis again attended school until his eighteenth year, when he entered the mercantile store of E. E. Starr, and there clerked three years. At the age of twenty-two he again devoted himself to study, entering the national male academy, where he remained ten months. In 1879 he was elected interpreter of the national council, which office he held for two years, and in 1881 was elected sheriff for Flint district, which office he held for two years. In 1885 Ellis Starr was elected district prosecuting attorney, and was re-elected in 1887 and 1889. In 1891 he was defeated by twelve votes out of 460 in the district. He is still practicing law, and has a large practice in his community. In 1872 he married Miss Martha Locust, a full-blood Cherokee from North Carolina, who came to the nation in 1871. By this marriage he has seven children, six of whom are living --- Mary, born November 19, 1873; Maggie, December 11, 1876; Daisy, May 1, 1879; Dora Ann, August 31, 1883; Florence, January 24, 1886; Charles Caleb, January 18, 1890. Mr. Starr has about 100 head of cattle, 8 head of horses and mules, a good stock of hogs, and three farms (comprising in all about 250 acres in cultivation), a good home, orchard, garden, etc. Mr. Starr is above the middle height, weighing about 145 pounds. He is quick, vivacious and intelligent---well educated, a good lawyer and an excellent all-around business man, reliable and popular among his people. Mr. Starr is a member of the Masonic order.

Porter, John S. (pp. 417, 418) Biographical Index
John S. Porter was born August, 1853, the son of Porter, a white man who was raised among the Indians, and came to the Creek Nation with the first settlers. John was sent to the Asberry Mission School and there remained for four months, after which he studied at Cane Hill College, Arkansas, for some time, marrying while yet a young man. He was united to Miss John, a Creek citizen, and soon afterward accepted the position of clerk to Mr. Severs, of Okmulgee, which office he retained for two years. In 1877 he commenced farming and stock-raising, and has now accumulated 1,000 head of stock cattle, some of them highly graded. His farm consists of 475 acres in cultivation, which is chiefly rented out, but he retains 125 acres which is cultivated by hired hands. In 1879 Mr. Porter was sent to the House of Warriors to represent the Cussetah Town, which office he held for four years, but declined to run for the second term. Meanwhile he was elected by the council to the office of national auditor for four years, after which he was called upon to fill the unexpired term of John Micco, in the House of Kings, which office he is now holding, having been re-elected in September, 1891. Mr. Porter has served on the Indian police force for twelve years, and is, perhaps, the oldest officer except Captain C. La Flore. During the Esparhecher war he was appointed captain of the home guard. Throughout Officer Porter's service he has been a strong factor in preserving peace in this country, and has done some efficient work in capturing and ridding the nation of thieves and desperadoes. Among those who were captured by him, was Wiley Bear, who is now in prison on several muder charges. The unfortunate Wesley Barnett was killed by deputy marshals at Mr. Porter's house in 1889. The subject of our sketch has a family of three children; Nathaniel, aged sixteen years; Benjamin, aged eleven years, and Lucy, aged six. The eldest son is now being educated at the Indian University, Muskogee. Mr. Porter is first cousin to General Pleasant Porter, and is a man of great popularity among the Creeks.

Hutchings, William T. (pp. 418, 420) Biographical Index
Wm. T. Hutchings was born in September, 1858, in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, the third son of Dr. John M. Hutchings, a man of considerable prominence in his State. His mother was a Miss Sallie White, daughter of Dr. Richard White, of Chatham, Virginia. After a preparatory education at a village school, William was sent to Bingham School, North Carolina, at the age of fourteen years. Here he remained two years, when he went to Richmond College, Virginia, and studied at that institution for two and a half years, but was obliged to leave during the middle of a session, owing to ill health. Shortly after his return home he began reading law in the office of E. E. Boulden, at Danville, Virginia, and there remained two years. In 1880 he went to Eastman's National Business College, at Poughkeepsie, New York, and, graduating, entereed at Yale, New Haven, where in June, 1881, he graduated in law. Immediately afterwards he began the practice of his profession, at Danville, Virginia. In February, 1886, he was elected index clerk of the House of Representatives at Washington, which position he held until December, 1887, when he returned to Danville, and continued the practice of law. Remaining there until 1880, he moved to Fort Smith, Arkansas, and practiced in that city till 1889, when he came to Muskogee, Indian Territory, where he is at present located. Mr. Hutchings was married in May, 1885, to Miss Mary E. Key, second daughter of Dr. John P. Key, a leading physician, of Brenham, Texas. By this marriage they have two children, Nellie Blair, aged over five years, and Mamie, aged three. Mr. Hutchings is about five feet ten inches in height and weighs 140 pounds, is a man of fine education, and, as a lawyer, is rapidly making his mark. He has a good practice in the United States courts, which practice is considerably on the increase. Mr. Hutchings is pleasant and affable and quite popular with the profession.

Paschal, Ridge (pp. 420, 421) Biographical Index
Ridge Paschal was born July, 1845, at Van Buren, Arkansas, the second son of George W. Paschal, supreme judge at Arkansas, and author of Texas Digest of Decisions and Texas Digest of Laws, besides other legal works. Ridge's mother was Sallie, only daughter of Major Ridge, and sister of John Ridge, prominent Cherokees. His father came to the old nation in 1833, being at that time an officer attached to the staff of Scott and Wolfe. When the Cherokees moved West, he went to Van Buren, Arkansas, and resumed the practice of law, becoming attorney for the treaty party of the Cherokees. The subject of our sketch attended Wharton College, Austin, Texas, until 1860, when he was sent to the Virginia Military Institute, where he remained until 1861. Ridge, like the other members of his family, was devoted to the Union, therefore identified himself with the Federals until the close of the war in 1865, when he went to Galveston, Texas, and became editor of Flake's Bulletin, the organ of the Republican party in that State. Afterwards he entered the law office of J. R. and George W. Paschal, at San Antonio, Texas, and while studying, was the associate editor of the San Antonio Express. His brother dying soon afterward, he entered into partnership with his father, and retained charge of the firm's business from 1868 to 1874. In 1868, he was admitted to the bar, and 1869 became United States commissioner for the Western district of Texas, with offices at Austin. In 1869 he was appointed clerk of the Supervisor of Internal Revenue of the district of Lousiana, Texas, and Arkansas, which office he gave up in the summer of 1869 to become district attorney of the second or capital district of Texas, which he held until 1870. In 1872 he became a delegate for the Liberal Republican party that nominated Horace Greeley. Mr. Greeley he believed to be the best representative of the American doctrine of protection. In 1874 Mr. Paschal was honored with a special appointment by President Grant, of customs collector for the district of Corpus Christi, embracing the Gulf and 150 miles of Rio Grande frontier, which office he held for four years, after which he returned to Laredo and resumed the practice of law. About 1880 Mr. Paschal purchased and edited Los Dos Laredos, a paper printed partly in Spanish and partly in English. In the same year he became United States commissioner at Laredo, and soon after, delegate to Texas Republican convention, where he led the party that carried for Grant over the combined influences of the opposition. Although Mr. Paschal had supported Greeley in 1872, yet Grant appointed him to office afterward, which action so impressed Mr. Paschal that nothing would induce him to go back on the old general. However, when Garfield got the nomination, Ridge supported him warmly. In 1884, the subject of our sketch came to the Indian Territory, and settled at Vinita, where he practiced in the home courts and the federal courts at Fort Smith. In 1877 he went on the editorial staff of the Cherokee Advocate, and in 1889, when the United States Court was established at Muskogee, Judge Shackleford was confronted with the fact that, though there were lawyers from every section of the Union presenting him with licenses, none but Paschal's bore the broad seal of the United States Supreme Court. In 1890 the said judge appointed him United States commissioner for the first division, with office at Tahlequah, Indian Territory. Mr. Paschal married Mrs. Virginia Casman in August, 1880. She is the daughter of Colonel Anthony Winston, of Texas, a man of considerable prominence in the Confederate service. The subject of our sketch is five feet nine and a half inches, weighs over 170 pounds, and is remarkably active and muscular. His education, professional and otherwise, is far beyond the average. As a Republican politician, he is widely known throughout the State of Texas, where he has always taken a front seat among his partisans. Mr. Paschal is also a powerful and effective writer.

Perryman, Thomas Ward (pp. 422, 424) Biographical Index
Thomas W. Perryman was born July 24, 1839, at Big Spring Town, on the Verdigris River, second son of Lewis Perryman and Hattie Ward. Thomas is a half-brother to Chief L. C. Perryman, now governor of the Creek Nation. He was sent to Tallahassee Mission School about the year 1849, where he remained until 1858, when he returned to his father's home and assisted him in the stock business until the breaking our of the war, when he joined the Federal army, enlisting at Burlington, Kansas, as a private in the First Regiment of Home Guards, and serving until the conclusion of the war. After this he opened a mercantile business at Choska, in partnership with his brothers. In this he continued for about three years, when he opened out a farm and commenced stock-raising on a small scale. In about 1858 he taught the public school at Broken Arrow, Creek Nation, after which he clerked at Fort Gibson, returning to Tallahassee Mission in a short time, and studying theology under the Rev. W. S. Robertson for three years. During his stay he married Miss Ella Brown, one of the teachers in that institute, by whom he has four living children--Ida B., born September, 1876; Tommie and Arthur (twins), born July, 1879, and Walter Lewis, born February, 1885. In 1871 he was elected district attorney, and served six years. In 1883 he was elected to the House of Warriors as member, where he served as chaplain. In 1887 he was re-elected, and in 1891 went to the House of Kings, which office he holds at present. In the fall of 1875 Mr. Perryman was licensed to preach the gospel by the presbytery of Neosho, Kansas, and in 1876 was ordained by the prebytery of Kansas at a special meeting at Wealaka, Creek Nation. A short time afterward he was placed in charge of the Western district, which was almost entirely composed of full-bloods. Mr. Perryman's zeal was such that he soon improved the condition of things. He was also accessory to the building of a missionary school among these uneducated people. But at present there are some good scholars and a number of good Christians at the Nuyaka Mission. Soon after its opening, Mr. Perryman had charge of one of the girls' colleges, and held the office five years, and Rev. Mr. Perryman was pastor of the institute. The subject of our sketch owns about 600 head of cattle, 200 acres of farm land and 600 acres in pasturage. He has a comfortable home at Broken Arrow, eighteen miles from Tulsa. Mr. Perryman is a man of good education, and has always been an industious scholar. He assisted Mrs. Robinson in the translation and revision of the greater part of the New Testament into the Creek language. Mr. Perryman went as delegate to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of America, which met at New York in 1889, and from thence visited the City of Washington. He is looked upon as one of the most useful men in the ministry throughout this nation, while his exemplary Christian life is a worthy example to his people.

Dickson, Thomas Benton, M.D. (pp. 424, 425) Biographical Index
Thomas B. Dickson was born February 14, 1863, at Adairsville, Georgia, the third son of Thomas Dickson (a leading farmer and stock-raiser), and Tillie Stallings, daughter of Rev. Mr. Stallings, a Baptist minister, of Atlanta, Georgia. Thomas attended public schools until the age of twenty-one, moving from Georgia to Collinsville, Alabama, about 1875. While completing his education in Memphis, Tennessee, the subject of our sketch, determined to become a physician, and, attended the Memphis Hospital Medical College, in 1886. After practicing nearly three years in the State of Arkansas, Dr. Dickson came to Chelsea, Cherokee Nation, at the end of 1889, and is still located at that point. On March 25, 1891, he married Miss Cynthia Parrott, daughter of William Parrott, a prominent Cherokee during the War of the Rebellion. Mrs. Dickson's mother was a Miss Carter, sister of John Carter, representative in the national council. Mrs. Dickson is a kind, gentle lady, as well as being refined and accomplished. Dr. Dickson is nearly six feet in height, and a man of fine, intellectual appearance; he is well educated, and, as a physician, has the confidence of his people; he is both generous and charitable, and therefore exceedingly popular. Dr. Dickson has 350 acres of farm, 175 of which is in a good state of cultivation; he also has four lots in Chelsea, and a small, but neat residence.

Kinney, John (pp. 425) Biographical Index
John Kinney was born March 31, 1853, near Lawrence, Kansas, son of Denny Kinney, a full-blood Cherokee. John attended public school till 1865 and in 1867 moved to the Cherokee Nation. For the first year John did little more than enjoy himself hunting and riding around, after which he began farming. In 1875 he commenced learning the carpenter's trade, which trade he still continues, in connection with farming. Mr. Kinney married Miss Niday, February 14, 1888. She is the daughter of Jacob Niday, a white man. Mr. Kinney has 60 acres of farm in cultivation, a good, comfortable residence, four head of horses and a stock of hogs. He does considerable business at his trade. Mr. Kinney is above the middle height, and is a man of intelligence and good, practical education. He is a member of the Baptist Church, and looked upon as a good, charitable Christian, and is very popular.

Fuller, J. S., M.D. (pp. 425, 426, 427) Biographical Index
J. S. Fuller was born November 19, 1850, in the State of Arkansas. He is the third son of W. A. Fuller, of Tennessee, and Miss M. Morgan of the same State. James attended county schools until he was twenty years of age, when he went to Cane Hill College, and Cincinnati, Arkansas. He began the study of medicine in 1883, and attended the medical college in St. Louis, since which time he has been practicing in Fort Gibson, while he is also in the mercantile and drug business. In October, 1888, he married Miss Rosa Percival, daughter of William Percival, one of the oldest merchants in the nation, and an adopted citizen. By this marriage he has one child---Nell, born February 18, 1890. In his mercantile business he carries a stock of $16,000, and in his drug business about $3,000. He is the owner of a gin, valued at $3,000, 160 acres of farm, 20 head of stock horses, and a nice residence on the edge of town. Dr. J. S. Fuller is about five feet ten inches in height, 140 pounds in weight, and of gentlemanly appearance and address. As a citizen he is most popular, and as a physician has a large practice and considerable experience.

Morgan, Gideon (pp. 427, 428) Biographical Index
This well-known citizen of Tahlequah was born April 3, 1851, in Athens, Tennessee, the son of Major William Morgan and grandson of Colonel Gideon Morgan, of Stonewall Jackson's army. His father was an officer in General John H. Morgan's command, and was killed at the battle of Lexington, Kentucky, in 1862. The Morgans originally came from Wales. Colonel Gideon Morgan, already referred to, married Margaret Sevier, a granddaughter of General Sevier, who was half Cherokee, through his family connection with the Lowreys. Martha Mayo, daughter of G. W. Mayo, a white man, was mother to the subject of our sketch. He was educated by a female tutor, Miss Bettie Messimer, of Monroe County, Tennessee, until his twentieth year, when he came to Fort Gibson (in 1871), and in three years afterward married Mary Llewellan Payne, the most beautiful young woman of her time, and equally accomplished. Since then Mr. Morgan has spent most of his time farming, and at the present owns 70 acres of land on the edge of Fort Smith, one acre of which he has sold for $370. His ranch, twelve miles from the capital, contains 100 acres in cultivation, and a fine orchard. He also owns the Capital Hotel and a residence with four acres of land, beside the Baptist Mission House, in Tahlequah. In 1879 Mr. Morgan was a strong supporter of the National party, but declined a nomination for the senate. In 1891 he ran for circuit judge on the Liberal ticket, and was defeated; this is the only office which he ever sought. Mr. Morgan is a progressionist, and believes in allotment---never failing to speak out his opinion. In 1889 he was secretary of the building committee for the female seminary, and was associated with Jas. S. Stapler, the banker, and Johnson Thompson, the merchant prince of the nation. These gentlemen donated more to the grounds upon which the seminary is erected than they ever drew in salary for the time and labor bestowed on the enterprise. Yet it is no doubt an honor to be connected with the erection of such a beautiful structure, and with such a good object in view. The building, which is described elsewhere in this work, cost the sum of $63,000, less $13 turned over to the treasurer by Mr. Morgan. Mr. Morgan has a family of six children, viz.: Houston M., Mary L., Martha L., Margaret E., Emanda P., Sallie M. and Gideon, who died one year ago. Mr. Morgan is a pleasant, sociable gentleman, who devotes much of his time to home and its associations, and, until quite recently, taking no hand in politics. He can, however, and probably will, in future, take an active part in the all-absorbing question of allotment, in which he appears greatly interested.

Gunter, John T. (pp. 428, 429, 430) Biographical Index
John T. Gunter was born October 8, 1855, at Hico, Benton County, Arkansas, the oldest son of C. D. Gunter, a Tennessean. His mother was a Miss Ward (one-eighth Cherokee), from Georgia, her father, James Ward, having come to this nation with the first Cherokee settlers. After having attended public school until seventeen years of age, John entered the Cincinnati Academy, Arkansas, and there remained until his twentieth year. Returning home, he embarked in the stock business, and is still carrying it on. In 1879 John moved to Sequoyah district, and opened a mercantile house, but traded it for cattle in six months. In 1880 he moved his stock to Byrd Creek, Coowescowee district, and starting  a ranch remained for five years. In 1885, selling out ranch and stock, he went to Grand River where he had purchased a farm, and there continued farming and stock-raising until 1888, when he moved to the town of Vinita, and established a livery stable, which he now carries on. In December, 1880, he married Miss Alice Heath, daughter to John Heath, of Benton County, Arkansas; her mother being a daughter to Mr. Kilgore, of Huntingdon, West Virginia. By this marriage they have but one surviving child, named Mabel, born October 13, 1888. Mr. Gunter owns a farm of 300 acres in cultivation, 130 head of cattle, and 41 head of horses and mules, improved stock. His livery stable in Vinita consists of eighteen horses, seven buggies and hacks, and a good building, besides his town residence and a lot covering 20 acres. Mrs. Gunter is a lady of refinement and culture, yet few men can surpass her handling "the ribbons," it matters not how young or fresh the horses. At one time when her husband was absent, she took charge of 150 head of cattle driven on the ranch from Texas, and by herself, for three months, herded and cared for the stock. In the saddle, this lady is as much at home as sitting in her drawing-room, a position which she is eminently fitted to grace. Mr. Gunter is a man of fine appearance, a first-class business man, and pleasant and agreeable in manner.

Canup, W. T. (p. 430) Biographical Index
This promising young literary man was born February 17, 1866, in Cherokee County, North Carolina, the son of F. M. Canup, a Frenchman, and Elizabeth Payne, one-sixteenth Cherokee. He was educated at Tehuacana University, Texas, and through the influence of R. M. Kimbrough, a congressman of Dallas County, became associated with the Dallas Herald, where he worked two years, after which he became an attache of the Dallas News. After the death of Stone, proprietor of the Tahlequah Telephone, Mr. Canup, who was at Vinita, came to Tahlequah and took charge of that paper for two years, after which he sold it to a stock company. Soon afterward, at Webber's Falls, he started the Indian Sentinel, which, after twelve months, he moved to Tahlequah, and sold to a stock company three months later. Though still connected with the Sentinel, Mr. Canup is special correspondent for the Dallas News, Fort Worth Gazette, Cincinnati Post, Sun (New York), Atlanta Constitution, Post-Dispatch (St. Louis) and Kansas City Journal. Mr. Canup is author of "Allumee, the Cherokee Maiden," and "The Fate of William Grimmett," both popular stories and extensively copied by the leading periodicals. He is now writing a history of the celebrated Tom Starr, which is calculated to upset many of the damaging reports concerning that illustrious Cherokee.

Cobb, Joseph Benson (p. 431a) Biographical Index
Joseph B. Cobb was born in East Tennessee, February 21, 1863, the son of Joseph Benson Cobb and Evelyn Clingan, daughter of Aleck Clingan. Joseph's parents came to this nation in 1870, and settled on Grand River. The young man was sent to school in the Coowescowee district, and afterward completed his education at the Tahlequah Male Academy in 1881. In August, 1891, he was elected member of the lower house to represent Coowescowee district, which office he is holding at present. Mr. Cobb has 300 acres of good land in cultivation on the west side of Grand River, besides a herd of cattle and some horses. He is a fine-looking man, tall and well built, and has an excellent reputation in his country. Mr. Cobb is unmarried, and his parents are still living.

Starr, Judge Walter A. (pp. 431, 432) Biographical Index
Walter A. Starr was born in Washington County, Arkansas, March 26, 1845, son of Joseph M. Starr, a prominent Cherokee citizen, who served several terms as judge of Going Snake district, and was afterward a senator. Walter's mother was a Miss Delilah Adair, and her marriage to Joseph Starr took place in the old nation. The subject of this sketch attended the territory schools until the age of sixteen years, and , when the war broke out, entered the Confederate service, serving first under his brother, Captain George H. Starr, until the latter's death, when he was in Captain E. M. Adair's company (Colonel W. P. Adair's regiment), with whom he remained until the close of the war. Returning to the old homestead, he was married in 1869 to Mrs. Ruth A. Albany, widow of Cornelius Albany, and daughter of William and Bessie Thornton, well known Cherokee citizens. Remaining in Going Snake district one year, Judge Starr moved to Coowescowee district and improved a farm, which he sold in a year and opened another place sixteen miles east, which he sold in six years, after having been employed as deputy sheriff of the district three years and acted postmaster at old Claremore for a good part of his sojourn in that neighborhood. Whe the postoffice was removed to the present site of Claremore, judge moved to where he now resides, five miles north of that town. By his marriage Judge Starr has five children, viz.: Emmett McDonald, born December 12, 1870; George Colbert, born June 17, 1877; Mary Bell, born September 1879; Lettie J., born December 24, 1881; Joseph M., born December, 1885. Mrs. Starr is a lady of fair education and a good housewife and mother, caring chiefly for home and children, although of a kindly, sociable nature. When the war was over Judge Starr was reduced to a horse and saddle, but by hard work he accumulated more than a comfortable competence. He owns a farm of 160 acres in good cultivation, with good residence and out-door buildings; 30 head of horses and mules, 200 head of cattle and sufficient modern machinery to run his farm. He is a man of strong characteristics and individuality, and, in appearance, is a good representative of the higher class Cherokee. He is six feet two inches in height, and weighs 205 pounds. Judge Starr was executive councilman from 1883 to 1885, under Chief Bushyhead. At the end of his term he was elected district judge of Coowescowee district, which office he has held ever since.

Lawrence, J. A. (pp. 432, 433) Biographical Index
J. A. Lawrence was born October 18, 1856, in Smith County, Texas, and attended public school until eighteen years of age, after which he went to the Methodist Institute, Sulphur Springs, Texas, where he remained one year. Later he studied twelve months at the high school in Smith County, and commenced teaching the public school in Wood County, in 1878. In 1879 he began the study of law in Tyler, Texas, and in 1880 was admitted to the bar. In 1881 he located at Quitman, Wood County, and practiced law for a couple of years, when he was elected prosecuting attorney, which position he held for four years, having been re-elected in November, 1884. In 1886 he moved to Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, and opened a general mercantile store, which he is still conducting. December 3, 1884, he married Miss Dora Wilson, a Cherokee, daughter of Ben Wilson, and related to the Thompsons, Adairs and Mayes families. Mr. Lawrence carries a stock of about $8,000 to $10,000, and does about $30,000 cash business per year. He has an improved farm of about 200 acres on Prior Creek, and a nice residence in Tahlequah. Mr. Lawrence is five feet eleven inches in height, and weighs 160 pounds. He is a gentleman of good address and pleasant, affable manners, and possessed of a good education, which he knows how to turn to the best possible advantage.

Howie, Thomas (pp. 433, 435) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born July 17, 1828, at Portobello, Scotland, son of William Howie, a merchant, by a Miss Jameson, niece of Sir John Jameson, of County Wexford, Ireland. Thomas attended public school in London until twelve years of age, when he ran away to sea. In 1845 he was in the Mexican war and served throughout. He was afterward one of the 1,400 volunteers who went from New Orleans to Yucatan to suppress the rebellion, only 300 of whom returned. He then served until 1853 on the north-western frontier carrying government dispatches, after which he went to Melbourne, Australia, via London. Turning his attention to mining, he remained in Australia and New Zealand until 1863, after which he went to San Francisco, and from thence into government service at Fort Leavenworth. After the war he settled in the Solomon Valley, organized Mitchell County, and was appointed justice of the peace by Governor Samuel J. Crawford, but, owing to the raids of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, he had to leave that country in 1870, and came to the Cherokee Nation, where he now resides, devoting his attention to farming and stock-raising. In April, 1870, he married Mrs. Mary Tiger, originally from Georgia. Her father was a white man, and her mother was a Miss Adair, niece of Judge Thompson Adair, of Tahlequah, and a cousin of ex-Chief Mayes. Mr. Howie has 200 acres of farm land and 75 head of cattle, besides mules and horses, a flock of sheep and Angora goats, and a stock of hogs, with a good home residence, orchard and garden. Mrs. Howie is a finely educated woman, of a kind and lovable disposition. Mr. Howie is about the middle height and weight, of good education and remarkable literary talents. He is Scotch-English, and of great energy and force of character. Few men have had an equal opportunity of seeing life and character in its every phase as has Mr. Howie.

Adair, Hugh Montgomery (p. 435) Biographical Index
Hugh M. Adair is the son of Walter Scott Adair and Nancy Harris, daughter of Captain Harris, who had charge of the emigration party from the Dahlonega region in 1839. Hugh was born January 30, 1840, in Flint district, and went to neighborhood school until 1855, and later to Tahlequah Male Seminary until that institution closed in 1857. Soon afterward he entered Cane Hill College, and there remained two years. In 1859 Mr. Adair taught school until the outbreak of the war, when he joined Stand Watie's regiment and served until discharged by the medical faculty in 1862. He next moved to Rusk County, Texas, with his mother and brothers, and in 1866 married Miss E. J. Hurst, daughter of W. W. Hurst, by whom he has three children---E. H., James W., and Mary Luella. Returning to Flint district in 1866, Mr. Adair commenced school-teaching, and pursued that avocation until 1889. His wife dying, he married Miss Martha Johnson in 1880, by whom he has one child, Timothy Meigs. On the death of his second wife, Mr. Adair married Mrs. Phoebe Morris, in 1884. For some years Mr. Adair has devoted much time to farming. He is the owner of a farm containing 90 acres in cultivation and a small herd of cattle, hogs, etc. On November 16, 1891, he was appointed editor of the Cherokee Advocate, the national organ of the Cherokees, which office he will hold for two years. Mr. Adair is a quiet, unassuming gentleman, kind-hearted and benevolent, and possessed of a sound and thorough education. He will, no doubt, render the Advocate a most interesting publication and add to its circulation.

Madden, William Arthur (pp. 436, 440) Biographical Index
William A. Madden was born in April, 1853, at St. Mark's, Canada, and moved from there to New York in 1868, where he learned the profession of builder and architect. He left New York in 1871, and moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he followed his profession until 1880, when he went to Kansas City. Leaving there in 1882, he located at Muskogee, Indian Territory, and in 1885 built a factory 36 x 76 feet, which he added to in 1888 until it now measures 108 x 206 feet. This establishment contains a tin shop, a plumbing shop and a paint shop, besides a planing mill not only the most extensive in the Indian Territory but larger than the vast majority of such mills in the United States. Mr. Madden transacts an immense business in the various branches of building. In his factory and out-doors he employs from 50 to 200 men, haivng in his employment the most skillful artisans that can be secured. This fine factory occupies two acres of ground close to the depot, with a good water supply. It is lighted with gas and equipped with the latest improved machinery. Mr. Madden, who is a natural musician, organized a band in Muskogee named Madden's Mechanics', consisting of twelve members, of which he is himself president and manager. The members are furnished with a handsome uniform (see engraving on another page). Mr. Madden deserves great credit for his energy and enterprise, which has been the means of giving employment to so many, and helping the growth of Muskogee.

Bullette, John L. (pp. 443, 445) Biographical Index
John L. Bullette was born April 10, 1852, in Wyandotte County, Kansas, third son of George Bullette and Eliza Connor. His father was of French descent and his mother of Irish descent, both possessing Indian blood. His grandparents on both sides intermarried into the Delaware tribe. In 1859 John L. attended the Baptist Mission School in Wyandotte County, where he remained until 1861, when the war broke out, and he removed with his people to the Cherokee Nation. This move was agreeable to a contract made between both tribes, wherein the Delawares purchased a right and title to the lands and funds of the Cherokees, placing themselves on an equal footing with the latter. John L. commeced farming on a small scale, and for about four years employed his time clerking at various points, until 1875, when he accepted a permanent position with J. H. Bartles, a general merchant of Bartlesville, where he continued for four years as chief clerk in the establishment. After parting on amicable terms with his employer, John L. commenced buying and shipping cattle on a small scale, and followed the business until 1880, when he engaged in the mercantile line on his own responsibility at Claremore. In the same year he married Miss Nellie Conkle, daughter of Captain Conkle, of steamboat fame. In 1881 he was nominated and elected clerk of Coowescowee district for two years, and became deputy clerk in 1883 under his successor. In 1885 he sold out his interest in merchandise, and accepted the position of executive secretary under Chief Mayes, which office he holds at the present date (November, 1891). Mr. Bullette has three children---Mabel Zoe, Grover George and Mary A. He is about five feet eight inches in height, and weighs 146 pounds. He is a man of gentlemanly appearance and address, pleasant and affable in manner, and well educated, possessing good business qualities and plenty of live business ambition. He is owner of a fine farm of 350 acres of well improved land, and a residence at Tahlequah, where he now resides. He also owns town property at Claremore, where he expects to make his future home.

Baldwin, John W., Rev. (pp. 445, 446, 447) Biographical Index
The subject of this sketch was born May 28, 1865, in Benton County, Missouri, the eldest son of Rev. William M. Baldwin, who was deputy sheriff of Benton County under his father, who was sheriff for a number of years. The Rev. John Baldwin's mother was a Miss Elizabeth Haines, originally of Indiana. When a boy John moved with his father's family to Mountain Home, Baxter County, Arkansas, and afterwards to Yellville, Marion County. Until nine years of age he attended public schools, and was then sent to the Mountain Home Academy, where he remained for one term. Entering the Yellville High School and there studying for one session, he returned to his home and devoted himself to the study of the higher branches, classical and mathematical, through private tuition. Afterward he joined his father in the publication of the Marion County Vidette, which they moved to Madison County under the title of the Madison County Democrat, and sold out in October, 1885. Mr. Baldwin then purchased the Ladonia News, of Fannin County, Texas, and conducted the paper one year, returning to Benton County, Arkansas, in 1888. Here he entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, joining the annual conference held at Fort Smith. On November 23, 1888, he married Miss Belle Maxwell, daughter of Lee Maxwell, a well-known citizen of Benton County. Rev. Mr. Baldwin was sent to the Illinois circuit, after which he was chosen for the Chester station, remaining in each district one year, until he was sent to succeed his father in the Prairie View circuit. In June, 1891, by action of the publishing committee of the Indian Mission Conference, he took charge as business manager and assistant editor of the Brother in Red, published in Muskogee, Indian Territory, which office he now retains. Mr. Baldwin has a family of three children---Charles E., Maud and Mabel. He is a young man of great promise, possessing uncommon literary talent, while as a preacher of the gospel he has an excellent reputation for his years. Having spent much of his spare time in study, he has conquered Latin and Greek, as well as several of the modern languages. Rev. Mr. Baldwin has doubtless a bright prospect before him.

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