The Rutherford Coat of Arms

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Steven D. Rutherford

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The Rutherford Coat of Arms

by Gary Rutherford Harding




The Coat of Arms

Originally coat of arms were embroidered on the surcoat of the armoured knights. The term is now used for the shield [escutcheon] when arms are displayed. The term coat of arms is now used even when displayed elsewhere than on the coat. In the days when knights were so encased in armor that identification was difficult, the practice was introduced of painting their identifying insignia on their shields. Originally, these were only granted to individuals, but eventually were made hereditary by King Richard I, during his crusade to Palestine.

The Rutherford Blazon:

"Argent, an orle gules, and in chief three martlets sable, beaked of the second."

Defined as a system of pictographic history, blazoning is the intial step in understanding the Rutherford coat of arms. Blazoning is the description of a coat of arms in the technical language of heraldry. The rules of blazon are well defined and noted for their precision, simplicity, brevity and completeness. Blazons are an ancient response to an information storage problem. It has never been easy to store vast archives of coats of arms, so heralds devised a precise written system for describing them. In this way, relatively small amounts of space were required to store large quantities of armorial data. The language of blazonry has its own vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Blazons are supposedly devoid of punctuation, but as you can see with the Rutherford blazon, many armorials or books that contain blazons use punctuation. "Argent, an orle gules, and in chief three martlets sable, beaked of the second."

A blazon has a proper order of describing arms:

i. Give the field, its color and the character of any partition lines

ii. The charges, and first those of most importance, their name, number and position

iii. Marks of difference, cadency or baronet's badge

Repetition is studiously avoided in the language of blazonry. If you look at our blazon you will see a good example, if two charges [figures] have the same color the second is described as "of the first", "of the second", etc. depending on where in the blazon the color is first mention. So "beaked of the second" does have a precise meaning in blazonry. We'll discuss and translate our blazon in the following article bit by bit.

The Achievement of Arms

The complete design ensemble of a coat of arms is called an achievement of arms and can be broken down into the following component parts.

The Shield

The shield or escutcheon is the most important part of the coat of arms and displays the primary heraldic symbolism of the arms. The escutcheon of the Rutherford arms is usually in the shape of a shield. It originally represented the war shield of a knight, upon which his arms were displayed. Indeed, the escutcheon may be the only component of many coats of arms. The shield or escutcheon is also known as the field. It's upon this "canvas" that the charges or bearings [figures] are blazoned [painted]. So in our Rutherford blazon the first word "Argent" refers to the shield, escutcheon or field. Argent simply means silver, but the convention for actually painting the shield made the use of white paint synonymous with silver. So what it says is "the shield is silver or white". Argent [the root of the word Argentina] also stands for peace and sincerity. There's a basic guide to the colors or tinctures, along with their meanings, at the end of the article.

The Charges

Charges are the figures or anything occupying the field of an escutcheon. Some coats of arms are divided into geometric partitions, the Rutherford arms are not. Most coats of arms include symbols or "charges". Many of these symbols consist of fairly simple geometric shapes known as ordinaries and sub-ordinaries. The Rutherford arms employs a sub-ordinary called an "orle". An orle is a smaller shield-shaped figure or charge within the larger shield itself. This is where we can return to our blazon and see the next phrase, "an orle gules". This simply means "a red shield". Gules is another tincture or color meaning red or bloody. The orle stands for preservation or protection and when coupled with the color red [gules] signifies military strength and magnanimity. A red orle also echos the arms of another important Scottish family; the Baliols. The Rutherford arms contains an orle which is the principal armorial figure of the family. By some it is taken as an inescutcheon voided or cliche' that is, it is redundant, the orle repeats the basic shape of the shield. The orle was used in the arms of those who had given protection and defense to their king and country. It may be interpreted as a sign of those families who were very active in defending the Borders. The Rutherfords were defenders of the Scottish kingdom, perhaps under the Baliols, against the English.

The field also contains three martlets, "and in chief three martlets sable, beaked of the second". "Three martlets sable" would indicate that the martlets are black and "beaked of the second" means that the martlets have beaks that are colored the same as the first color mentioned, i.e. red [gules]. "In chief" would indicate that the martlets are displayed at the very top of the shield. Martlets are not blackbirds or crows, they are mythological birds resembling a swallow, but having short tufts of feathers in the place of legs.

The use of the martlet as a charge has two basic meanings in the symbolism of heraldry. The first and most common association is with service in the various crusades in the Middle East and Iberia. The heralds of continental Europe claimed that the beaks and legs were lost in the Holy Land fighting the Muslims. Presumably they were adopted by ancient warriors to signify their surviving a crusade. In England the martlet tends to keep its beak, and the Scottish author of "A System of Heraldry" published in 1722, Alexander Nisbet [a Rutherford descendant and Clan Hume member], stated that in England they also kept their legs, although these were very short. As you can see, all three Rutherford martlets have both beaks and feet.

The martlet has a second signifigance. When the martlet is used as a 'difference' on the shield, it indicates that the bearer is the fourth born son of the owner of the coat of arms. There is, however, no documentation of a Rutherford [or three, one for each martlet] fighting in the crusades or of a 4th son of a Lord Rutherford establishing these arms. Knowing the strictness with which the Scots have historically approached heraldry, the martlets are not placed casually. It's likely that one or both of the possible scenarios is part of Rutherford history.

The Helm

The helm [helmet] was added to arms before the beginning of the 14th century and in the 16th century to indicate the rank of the bearer. The helmet is positioned above the shield and beneath the crest. In England a helmet of steel with the visor closed would indicate that the bearer of the arms was not a knight , noble or royal. However, this convention is not used in Scotland. Helmets that face forward are indications of a royal or, at least, noble family connection. The helmet in the Rutherford arms is always shown in profile facing to the dexter, that being the helm's right or the viewer's left. The various distinctions of the helmets postion and metal to ascribe rank were not in use until after the enrollment of the Rutherford arms, i.e. they don't apply to arms of such antiquity.

The Crest

The crest is the oldest of armorial bearings having its origins in ancient Greece and Rome. In heraldry it is represented attached to the top of the helmet or above the shield. Originally the crest was the ornament of the helmet, or headpiece, and also afforded protection against a blow. In the early rolls it was scarcely noticed, but in later armorial grants it came into general use. In the early days of the crest it was given only to persons of rank. The blazon for the Rutherford crest, "A marlet sable beaked gules" means "a black martlet with a red beak." The various branches or cadets of the Rutherford family were identified in battle by the crests which they carried. All Rutherfords used the same basic arms, but employed 'difference' at the crest to specify a particular Rutherford cadet. The armorial custom however is to make difference on the bordure not the crest.

The Wreath

The wreath or torse is a set of twisted cords colored with the principal metal and color of the shield The wreath is situated above the shield and/or helmet and below the crest.The wreath being a twist of two silken cords, one colored like the principal metal and the other like the principal color in the arms, presents two options for the Rutherford arms. The tincture/color of the cords would be argent [either silver or white] and gules [red].

The Motto

The motto is a phrase or sentence alluding to the family, the arms, or the crest. Sometimes the motto was a traditional war cry, especially among the Celts, which was common in the days when each chief tennant and baron under the crown brought into the field and led his own tennants and retainers into battle. It is written on a scroll above the crest or below the shield. Mottoes are often written in Latin, French and English. In Celtic countries it is not unusual to find mottoes in the native Gaelic language. The motto has some connection with the name of the bearer, the deeds of his ancestors or as sets forth some guiding principle or idea. Mottos, like arms, were sometimes punning. The Rutherford motto, "Nec sorte nec fato" - "Neither by chance nor by fate" has few equals.

The Mantle

The mantle originally was a representation of the piece of cloth that protected the helmet from the heat of the sun. It became more decorative and was usually shown in the principal colors, usually a metal and a color of the shield. The Rutherford mantle is tinctured gules or red.

The Tinctures

The colors used on coats of arms are relatively few. They are called "tinctures".
The colors and their meanings:

Or (yellow or gold): Generosity and elevation of the mind
Argent (white or silver): Peace and sincerity
Gules (Red): Warrior or martyr; Military strength and magnanimity
Azure (Blue): Truth and loyalty
Vert (Green): Hope, joy, and loyalty in love
Sable (Black): Constancy or grief
Pupure (Purple): Royal majesty, sovereignty, and justice
Tawny or Tenne (Orange): Worthy ambition
Sanguine or Murray (Maroon): Patience in battle, and yet victorious


I was told many years ago that a family's coat of arms was "frozen history" and should be researched to the maximum if one wished to read a family's past. In this spirit, I've been looking for years for a definitive answer as to what is the origin and signifigance of the Rutherfurd-Rutherford coat of arms, particularly the "orle gules" [red shield] and the "three martlets sable" [three black martlets].

The White Monks of Citeaux - the Cistercians

So what is the connection between the Cistercian coat of arms and the Rutherfords? Well, they both, obviously, have an "orle gules" or red shield. My big question initially was "Is this significant or merely coincidence?", and my answer was written right on the Rutherford coat of arms "Nec sorte - nec fato" - neither by luck nor chance. Too many pieces began falling together and not "by chance". I'm certain there must be a connection.

I've researched all of the standard works on heraldry and the only coat of arms that I've found with an "orle gules" was that of a Rutherford ancestor, Sir Walter de Lindsay. Not surprisingly, Sir Walter de Lindsay had strong connections with the Cistercians. Kenneth Davis Rutherford in his "The Rutherfords of Britian - a history and guide" theorizes that the orle comes from the Baliol family, who also have strong Cistercian connections. However, the Baliol orle is argent [white] not gules [red] as is ours.

The other search has been for the "three martlets sable" [three black martlets]. Martlets are either the indicator of a forth son becoming a progenitor or they indicate service in the crusades. Since the Cistercians were at the very center of the second crusade which took place at about the time of the mysterious Rutherford progenitor "Robertus Dominus de Rodyforde", my interests were peaked. So I've been researching the Cistercian monastic order and their connections to the Rutherfords for quite sometime now and would like to share briefly what I've found so far.

It didn't take long to find a Cistercian order with Rutherford connections. Melrose Abbey was founded in 1136 just 2 miles upstream from the town of Rutherford. Melrose Abbey was not only founded by the Cistercians but has some of the oldest Rutherford records yet documented. Even so the Cistercian/Rutherford story begins in far away Burgundy in a remote area called Citeaux not in Scotland.

On March 21st, 1098 just a year before the Crusaders would storm over the wall of Jerusalem, a Benedictine monk by the name of Robert of Molesme led twenty-one of his followers into the inhospitable brush and swamp of Citeaux, Burgundy. There he would set up a new abbey. Robert was fed up with how the Benedictines were not observing the rule of St. Benedict. He believed that by establishing an Abbey in a secluded wilderness he could begin with a fresh slate and minimal distractions. Unfortunately, the monks of his former abbey at Molesme were unhappy with his departure and begged the Pope to make him return - which he did. He was replaced at Citeaux by Alberic. Alberic died in 1109 and his successor was found in the former Prior, Stephen Harding, who was an Englishman. He is the first personality in the history of Citeaux whom we have to recognize as a genius. Born before 1066, and of noble Anglo-Saxon blood, he received his first education in the monastery of Sherborne in Dorsetshire. Tellingly, during the troubled years following the Norman Conquest, he fled together with his fellow monks to Scotland. In his pursuit of higher learning, Stephen went on from Scotland to Paris and later, as a pilgrim, he visited Rome, where he was assured of his monastic vocation. When, on his way back, his attention was called to the promising new venture of Molesme. He possessed all the learning and experience the era could furnish him and was uniquely qualified to be the new leader of Molesme. Saint Harding was also a continuing contact with England and Scotland and encouraged many to come from Britian to Citeaux. Many claim it was Alberic who is responsible for the white mantle of the Cistercians, but it is more likely to have been his successor, the Abbott Stephen Harding. Harding's most notable contribution to the cause came when he accepted a young man from Fontaines named Bernard who came to the abbey with thirty of his relatives seeking membership in the order. Saint Harding welcomed them warmly.

Bernard was born in 1090, of noble Burgundian stock at Fontaines, near Dijon. Bernard would soon rise in the eyes of the order of Citeaux and soon set up his own abbey at Clairvaux. The land, like so many of the Cistercian abbeys, was granted by Burgundian nobles. In fact, no less a noble than Hugh Count of Champagne, who would eventually become a member of the Knights Templars. St. Bernard of Clairvaux was indeed "the man of the twelfth century". When he entered the novitiate at Citeaux in 1112, there was hardly more than a small desperately struggling community; yet when he died in 1153, the Order possessed 343 houses all over Europe, with a respect and influence no other religious body enjoyed. The young Abbott Bernard was instrumental not only in preparing the rule of order for the Cistercians but also for a new order of knighthood, called the Knights Templars. The zenith of St. Bernard's earthly career was the moment when his pupil, a former monk of Clairvaux, Eugenius III (1145-1153) was elected Pope. It was on Eugenius III's order, that Saint Bernard launched the Second Crusade in 1147. By his preaching, he moved hundreds of thousands of people even in places where they could not even understand his language, such as in Scotland.

Founded in the year 1098, the Cistercian order came to the British Isles in the lifetime of the first generation. The first English monastery was founded at Waverley in Sussex in 1128. In 1132 St. Bernard sent monks to Rievaulx in Yorkshire, and ten years later to Mellifont in Ireland. The Order flourished in both countries, as it did in Scotland and Wales, until the Reformation, when all the monasteries were dissolved.

The mother Cistercian Abbey - Rievaulx Abbey

Dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the Cistercian monastery at Rievaulx in Rye, Yorkshire, was established in 1132 when Bernard of Clairvaux had sent William Espec to set up a monastery. Rievaulx became the center of Cistercian life in England and later in Scotland. A historical school developed there in the late 12th Century, and its literary tradition, begun by St. Aelred, continued until the 14th Century. The monks also made significant contributions to the study of agriculture. Rievaulx had five daughter houses, including one at Melrose, the first Cistercian monastery in Scotland.

The moving force behind the Abbey of Rievaulx was Saint Aelred. The son of Eilaf, a Saxon priest, Aelred was educated at Roxburgh just 2 miles downstream from the town of Rutherford. Roxburgh was the ancient Scottish capital and the very center of 12th century Scotland. At Roxburgh, Aelred was known for his intellectual talents for he had been sent to the Scottish court for an education that would ensure his future as a noble and courtier. He succeded, to the extent of being made Master of the Household of the King of Scotland, our ancestor David I. As the steward to King David of Scotland, Aelred found success at the court unsatisfying and at the age of 24 he entered the Cistercian monastery at Rievaulx in Yorkshire.

Saint Aelred left in about 1133 to join the Cistercian community at Rievaulx. He was the first abbot of Rievaulx's daughterhouse in Revesby, Lincolnshire, but he returned to Rievaulx in 1147 to be abbot. In this position, the saint was not only superior of a community of 300 monks, but he was head of all the Cistercian abbots in England and Scotland. Causes were referred to him, and often he had to undertake considerable journeys to visit the monasteries of his order. Such a journey in 1153 took him to Scotland where he was to meet with King David for the last time. Later, upon his return to Rievaulx, he received the news of David's death and wrote a sympathetic sketch concerning the character of the late king and saint.

Saint David was the son of King Malcolm III and Queen Saint Margaret of Scotland. As King of Scotland from 1124, he was very successful. He ruled with firmness, justice, and charity. David established Norman law in Scotland, set up the office of chancellor, and began the feudal court. It was during this period that he learned of the Cistercian monk Saint Ailred of Rievaulx. Scottish monasticism began to flower from the start of David's reign and countless almshouses, leper-hospitals, and infirmaries were established. It is believed that the Hospital at Rutherford was founded by Saint David at this time.

The monasteries founded under David's patronage were superb architecturally as well as spiritually. The king refounded Melrose Abbey on the main road from Edinburgh to the south, and it remained one of the richest houses in Scotland. David also founded Jedburgh Abbey in 1138, filling it was monks from Beauvais in France, as well as, the Abbeys at Dryburgh and Kelso which encircled the "lands of Rutherford." All of the great Abbeys of Roxburgh are Benedictine orders of various ilks. However, the rule of St Benedict came first to Scotland with the Cistercians of the Bendictine Reform. It was the great St Bernard of Fontaines, founder of Clairvaux and 50 other abbeys who sent the Cistercians of CIairvaux to Rievaulx in Yorkshire, around 1132, and by whose grace King David of Scotland built for them a further monastery in the Tweed valley at Melrose.

Three Sable Martlets - a search for a Rutherford Crusader

The Crusades, particularly the 2nd Crusade, centered around the same families who had founded the abbey at Citeaux, the Cistercian order and who were the "Norman" families who were given estates and land by King David I following the Norman invasion of 1066. These families made up the lion's share of the most famous of knightly orders during the Crusades; the Knights Templars. Even though the Cistercians were a peaceful order, as early as 1124 a serious attempt was made to extend the activity of the Order toward the Holy Land. The major concern was for the safety of Christian pilgrims.

In 1118 the Knights Templars had been founded to protect the pilgrim routes in the Holy Land by Hugh de Payen. This was in the reign of Baldwin II. Baldwin II granted quarters in Jerusalem on the site of the Temple of Solomon; hence the name Knights of the Temple or Knights Templars. The secular overlord was the Count of Champagne with spiritual leadership given by St. Bernard of Clairvaux. The Templars had as yet neither distinctive habit nor rule. Hugues de Payens journeyed to the West to seek the approbation of the Church and to obtain recruits. At the Council of Troyes (1128), at which he assisted and at which St. Bernard was the leading spirit, the Knights Templars adopted the Rule of St. Benedict, as recently reformed by the Cistercians. They accepted not only the three perpetual vows, besides the crusader's vow, but also the austere rules concerning the chapel, the refectory, and the dormitory. They also adopted the white habit of the Cistercians, adding to it a red cross. Later that year the Grand Master of the Knights Templars, Hugues de Payen, visited Scotland. This was at the same time as St. Bernard was giving his enthusiastic support to the Knights Templars in his famous treatise entitled "In Praise of the New Warfare" (De Laude Novae Militiae).

The original nine Knights Templars:

i. Sir Hugh de Payen - a vassal of Hugh de Champagne and a relative by marriage to the St Clairs of Roslin, Scotland

ii. Sir Andrť de Montbard - the uncle of Bernard of Clairvaux and another vassal of Hugh de Champagne

Sir Geoffroi de St Omer - a son of Hugh de St Omer

Sir Payen de Montdidier - a relative of the ruling family of Flanders

Sir Achambaud de St-Amand - another relative of the ruling house of Flanders

Sir Geoffroi Bisol

Sir Gondemare - a Cistercian monk

Sir Rosal - a Cistercian monk

Sir Godfroi

The Cistercians and the Knights Templar were so closely linked by ties of blood, patronage and shared objectives that many Templar scholars believe that they were two arms from the same body. In fact, two monks who had joined the order with St. Bernard were actually knights who had taken the names of Gondemar and Rosal on their profession as monks. In February of 1117 St. Bernard came to this monastery released and Gondemar and Rosal from their vows and then blessed these two monks and their seven companions, prior to their departure to Jerusalem. This departure was not immediate and did not take place until November of 1118. The seven companions of the two ex-Cistercian monks are listed above. The document records that St Bernard nominated Hugh de Payen as the first grand master of the Poor Militia of Christ. Later in 1154, by the act of Louis VII, King of France, the church recognised the supreme authority of the Grand Master of the Order of Knights Templars over his order. The Grand Master was answerable only to the Pope.

Almost in unison with the Cistercians, the Templars were growing in wealth, power and influence. Like the Cistercians, the Templar order was free of taxes and tithes and were expert at all manner of farming, industry and commerce. As we've discussed, the connection with the Templars is not merely one of coincidence. The very rule of the Templar order held the Cistercians in highest regard and there is no doubt of the many cooperative ventures between the two. For example, if a knight was expelled from the order, he did not merely rejoin a secular life. The knight was required to seek shelter in a Cistercian monastery in the hopes that he could be rehabilitated. In fact one Templar Master who quit the order sought shelter in the cloisters of the Cistercians and lived out the balance of his life there.

Gerard de Rideford - the Tenth Master of the Knights Templars

What we know of Sir Gerard de Rideford is that he came to the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the ill-fated Second Crusade urged on by St. Bernard of Clairvaux. He served with the contingent from Flanders, but his ties to Scotland are well demonstrated. He spoke English and was in communication with the King of England. At the end of the crusade Gerard chose to remain behind. As a younger son, he had nothing to return to in Europe, so he took service with Count Raymond III of Tripoli. Gerard hoped to be given the next available fief. Upon the death of William Dorel in 1180, Gerard expected Raymond to give him in marriage the sole heiress, Lucia of Botrun, along with her vast holdings. Raymond gave the Lady Lucia to a wealthy merchant from Pisa, in exchange for the ladyís weight in gold. Her weight is recorded as being "ten stone", or 140 pounds. Lucia went on the scale and the gold went into Raymondís coffers.

Shortly after this affair, Gerard turned his back on the secular world and joined the Knights Templars. He was unable to serve as a knight for Count Raymond, a man for whom he showed open distrust. Gerard de Ridefordís rise in the Order of the Temple was meteoric. In approximately 1183, he became Seneschal of the Order, second only to the Master of the Temple, Arnold de Torroga. Two years later, he himself rose to the office of Master of the Temple. Sir Gerard de Rideford as Grand Master was absolute ruler over the order and answered only to the Pope. In fact so important was the Grand Master of the Templars that many served as advisors to monarchs. One Master in a letter threatened a king with the possibility of his being removed from the throne. Powerful military leaders as they were, the Grand Masters were still governed by the same Templar Rule as the rest of the order, with some special privileges to befit their rank. Each Grand Master was equipped with five horses as opposed to the three that a knight of the order received. The Grand Master was given an entourage to escort him consisting of a sergeant on horse as well as a valet. The purpose of the valet was to attend to the Master and carry his lance and shield. Others in the company of the grand Master were advisers, cooks and interpreters.

In March of 1185 King Baldwin IV, known as the Leper King of Jerusalem, finally succumbed to his illness. During a palace coup the Templars seized the city of Jerusalem. Princess Sybilla was crowned Queen. She then placed the crown on the head of her husband, Guy de Lusignan, a landless adventurer. Gerard de Rideford was heard to have shouted, "This repays for the marriage of Botrun!" Forgetting his oath as a Crusader, Raymond III of Tripoli, the former regent, rebelled openly against the new king. In the winter of 1186-1187 Count Raymond betrayed his oath again and became a secret ally of the famous Sultan of Egypt, Saladin. Gerard de Rideford saw this as further cause to denounce Raymond as a traitor to the Crown and to the Cross.

An embassy from King Guy de Lusignan was dispatched to negotiate. The embassy set off on April 29, 1187. Count Raymond, as leader of the party, got word of a reconnaissance in force, sent by Saladin and commanded by his son, Al-Adfal. Rather than attacking the enemy, Count Raymond gave quarter to the enemy and left them unharmed. Gerard de Rideford was incensed, and ordered Jacques de Molay, the Marshal of the Order, to summon 90 knights from the Templar castle at Caco. Along with the 40 secular knights from the Nazareth garrison he went in search of the muslim army. They found the muslims near the Springs of Cresson and learned the force led by Al-Adfal was very large. Jacques de Molay, along with the Master of the Hospital, told Gerard de Rideford that they did not want to attack. Gerard de Rideford reminded the knights of their vows but came short of suggesting cowardice. Eventually the remaining 123 knights rode to the attack. The muslim victory was almost total. By the time it was over, only three Templar knights, including Sir Gerard de Rideford, managed to cut their way out of the melee.

Count Raymond of Tripoli found himself shamed into making peace with King Guy de Lusignan due to the defeat at Cresson and his betrayal. The kingdom needed to show a united front against Saladin. A series of raids into the kingdom escalated into the invasion everyone feared would come, and King Guy called for the ban and arriere-ban, the mustering of every able-bodied male of the Kingdom to defend it. The troops of Crusaders mustered at the Springs of Saffuriya, a well-watered oasis with plenty of grazing for the horses. Its position was key in the defense of the kingdom, and if they stayed at the Springs, they could effectively checkmate the forces of Saladin.

Scouts rode in, reporting an attack on Tiberius. The city had fallen, but the castle still held out. The wife of Count Raymond was there, along with his children. Master Gerard and Raymond de Chatillon urged to press the attack. Count Raymond pointed out that the way to the city was through a waterless plain and that the army would risk defeat if it went to Tiberius. "Tiberius is my city!" Count Raymond declared, "My wife and children are there. But better to lose all of these rather than the Kingdom!" Raymond again was accused of being unknightly by Gerard de Rideford. Later that evening, Gerard went to the kingís tent, declaring that the Templars would sell their mantles rather than let a Christian city go so easily and the Countess Eschiva fall into the hands of the muslims. He again called Count Raymond a traitor and a coward, unwilling to save even his own family. These arguments won King Guy de Lusignan over and the order to march was given.

The Hattin campaign took place in the heat of July, and it is written that no one could remember such a hot summer. The Crusader's line of march took them over harsh, rocky desert countryside, with few watering holes, and those dried in the heat. Even though the distance was only fifteen miles, about a dayís march, it was fifteen miles spent in purgatory. As Saladinís advance scouts reported the Crusader army approach, he ordered horse-archers into the saddle. These troops fired thousands of arrows into the slow moving Crusader ranks, delaying their march even further. After eight hours of constant attack, the Templars still held the rearguard. They were waning in number and nearly separated from the main body by the ferocity of the attack. King Guy de Lusignan ordered a halt for the evening, and when Count Raymond got the news, he cried, "Alas, Lord God! The Kingdom is finished, we are all dead men!"

The Christian camp spent an uneasy night under the watchful eyes of Saladinís army. Kept awake by the sounds of sudden attacks, which never came, the sounds of comrades being sniped at by arrows and the singing from the muslim camp. Just before sunrise, Saladin set fire to the scrub-brush surrounding the camp setting off a confusion of black smoke.

The Crusaders had camped on a pair of hills called the Horns of Hattin, within site of Tiberius and the Sea of Galilee. Tiberius was inaccessible to the Crusaders for it was located a couple of hundred feet down a cliff face. With an enemy army between them and relief, they could see and smell water, but couldnít even reach it. Their position was made even more perilous by the desertion of their infantry, who refused to march further. They watched as muslim cavalry slaughtered the infantry as they gathered on one of the Horns, and knew they were trapped, with no escape. By the end of the battle, most of the nobility of the Kingdom were captured. All of the surviving Templars (230 brothers, according to Brother Terricusí letter to the Templars in England) and the surviving Hospitallers were beheaded, except Master Gerard de Rideford. He was kept alive to secure the surrender of several Templar castles during Saladinís sweep of the Kingdom.

Tiberius fell shortly thereafter, the Countess Eschiva personally giving the keys to Saladin. Her husband Count Raymond escaped the battle, cutting his way out before the final push to take the Horns of Hattin, and died, it is said, of shame soon after. With Saladinís victories, castles and towns surrendered to him and received generous terms until, ultimately, Jerusalem herself fell. The only major city remaining to the crusaders was Tyre, where Lord Conrad de Montferrat held firm.

In September of 1187, Master de Rideford was freed, after securing the surrender of the Templar castle of Gaza. He is next heard of as being part of the muster of troops assembled by the now freed King Guy of Lusignan as he prepared for his siege of Acre. As Guy was now a widower, his right to the throne was in question. This may explain the attack on Acre, as a way to stabilize a shaky grip on the throne. Little did they realize that the siege would last three long years, cost countless lives and, ultimately cost de Rideford his life.

He was killed on 4 October 1189. The sources vary as to how he died. Ambroseís "LíEstoire de Eracles Empereur et la Conqueste de la Terre de Outremer" states he died in battle, refusing to leave the field. Ibn al-Athir states that he was later captured and executed. Saladin likely considered de Rideford too dangerous to keep alive, particularly after releasing him following the Battle of Cresson. In any case, his life was marked by religious devotion and personal achievement peculiar to his time. In the company of Kings, he was the one Crusader there because of his own accomplishments and not because of his birth - "Nec sorte, nec fato"!

The 23 Grand Masters Of The Knights Templar
From 1118-1314 CE

1118-1136 ..... Hugh dePayens - Founding member of the order

1136-1146 ..... Robert de Craon

1146-1149 ..... Everard des Barres

1149-1153 ..... Bernard de Tromelai

1153-1156 ..... Andre de Montbard - One of the founding members of the order and the uncle of St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

1156-1169 ..... Bertrand de Blanchefort - The Grand Master responsible of rthe traditional seal of two knights on one horse.

1169-1171 ..... Philip de Milly

1171-1179 ..... Odo de St Amand

1179-1184 ..... Arnold de Toroga

1185-1189 ..... Gerard de Rideford - Grand Master at the Battle of Hattin

1191-1193 ..... Robert de Sable - De Sable was responsible for the purchase of the Island of Cyprus from Richard I.

1193-1200 ..... Gilbert Erail

1201-1208 ..... Philip de Plessiez

1209-1219 ..... William de Chartres

1219-1230 ..... Pedro de Montaigu

(???)-1244 ..... Armond de Perigord

1245-1247 ..... Richard de Bures

1247-1250 ..... William de Sonnac

1250-1256 ..... Reynald de Vichiers

1256-1273 ..... Thomas Berard

1273-1291 ..... William de Beaujeu

1291-1293 ..... Tibauld de Gaudin

1293-1314 Jacques de Molay - Last Grand Master of the Order

The Knights Templars in Scotland

Following the Crusades, the the Knights Templars allied themselves with the St. Clairs [Sinclairs] family of Scotland.The St.Clairs [Sinclairs] became the traditional guardians of holy relics such as a portion of the True Cross, a sacred stone, and several sacred apocryphal scrolls. These are said to be hidden somewhere inside Rosslyn Chapel which was built by the St. Clair family for that purpose. Rosslyn Chapel is constructed on the model of the Temple of Solomon. Some even believe it was built as a Chapel for the Holy Grail, which the Knights Templars had buried within its vaults. Remember that St Bernard of Clairvaux had founded the monastery at Citeaux to protect "a great secret". By the way, Lady Elizabeth Rutherfurd of Edgerston was the 13th de jure Lady of Sinclair, wife of Lord Andrew Sinclair.

Another advocate of the Knights Templars and the Cistercian Order was our ancestor Robert the Bruce. Robert I was born in 1274 had missed the Crusades by a generation. His father Robert Bruce, the Earl of Carrick died on April 4, 1304 in the Holy Land. In 1291 with the fall of Acre, the Holy Land was slipping from Christian grasp. The Templars and other Crusaders returned home from utter defeat following the coronation of Robert the Bruce at Scone on March 27th, 1306. In Scotland the Templars found a home and refuge. Many were aware of the "great secret" that the Knights Templars were supposed to be keeping. There were many outside of the order who were driven by greed to discover what it was and how to profit by that knowledge. In Scotland a papal inquisition was held at Holyrood Abbey in 1309 to try the Templars. The Templars were accused of heiracy for the veneration of a cloth which "bore a man's face". This cloth is known to us today as the "Shroud of Turin". At this inquisition only two knights, Walter de Clifton and William de Middleton appeared. The others ignored the order to appear and joined the army of the Scottish monarch Robert the Bruce instead.

In the year 1312 the Knights Templars were dissolved by papal decree and subjected to a cruel persecution. However, no order of suppression was ever issued in Scotland and charges against the order were found "not proven". Under its excommunicated King, Robert the Bruce, Scotland provided a sanctuary for the Knights Templars.

In 1314, the Templars fought at the Bruce's side at the battle of Bannockburn on the 24th June, midsummer's day [the Feast day of John the Baptist]. The Templars distinguished themselves at the battle of Bannockburn and after the battle a new order was formed called the Royal Order of Scotland, into which the Templars were admitted. Robert Bruce, King of Scots also created the Order of St. Andrew of the Thistle, to which was afterward added that of Heredom, for the sake of the Scottish Masons, who had made a part of the 30,000 men who had fought against 100,000 English soldiers. He reserved for himself and his successors the title of Grand Master and founded at Kilwinning the Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Heredom.

Melrose Abbey and the town of Rutherford were on the main marching line between England and Scotland. Even though Robert the Bruce had come from having a handful of supporters to controlling a good deal of the country, Melrose Abbey was completely destroyed by the English following their defeat at Bannockburn. However, the reconstruction of Melrose Abbey was soon begun through the personal donations of Robert the Bruce. In 1329 Robert the Bruce died and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey in the Kingdom of Fife. A year later, a group of Scottish knights tried to take the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land. The group is led by a near cousin to the Rutherfords, Sir James Douglas "the Good". Sir James had also played a major role in the defeat of the English Army at the Battle of Bannockburn and was one of the signatories of the Declaration of Arbroath, at Arbroath Abbey, in 1320. On the death of Bruce in 1329, Sir James was entrusted with the monarch's heart in order to carry it on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The Good Sir James was a lifelong friend and supporter of the Bruce and died in Spain carrying the Bruce's heart to Jerusalem. Sir James had joined with the King of Castille in his crusade against the Moors and was killed leading a charge against a superior enemy force. The Bruce's heart was recovered from the battlefield, returned to Scotland and laid to rest at Melrose Abbey.

The Rutherford coat of arms, bearing a red shield and 3 black martlets, was first quartered in the year 1260.