Compiled by Edward E. Hill, 1965
The National Archives in Washington, D. C., holds much of the original Bureau of Indian Affairs records for Indians. These original records must be viewed in person at the National Archives.
Introduction ... Table of Contents ... Appendix I-III
... Index: A-Em ... Em-Mo
Entries: 1-74 ... 75-120 ... 121-197 ... 198-284 ... 285-355 ... 356-443 ... 444-521 ... 522-576 ... 577-643 ... 644-711 ... 712-784 ... 785-860 ... 861-940 ... 941-998 ... 999-1040 ... 1041-1112 ... 1113-1182 ... 1183-1243 ... 1244-1362 ... 1363-1401
The Construction Division was established in 1939. There had been an earlier Construction Division in operation from April 1908 until March 1909; when it became the Construction Section of the Education Division. Except for a period from 1910 to 1914, when it was consolidated with other sections of the Education Division, the Construction Section remained in the Education Division and its successor, the Administrative Division, until 1931. From then until 1939 it was under the supervision of the Finance Officer.
The Construction Division was responsible for the construction and repair of schools, hospitals, agency buildings, water and sewerage systems, housing facilities for employees, heating and power plants, and other structures. The Division was not ordinarily concerned with the construction of roads and bridges, irrigation works, or homes and farm buildings for Indians. Such work was usually handled by the Roads, Irrigation, and Rehabilitation Divisions, respectively. The Division of Extension and Industry and the Civilian Conservation Corps -- Indian Division were also engaged in construction work. The Director of Construction (known as the Chief Supervisor of Construction until 1939) was in charge of the activities of the Construction Division. Supervising construction engineers (at first called superintendents of construction) were in charge of area offices.
The Construction Division functioned until about 1948, when it was replaced by the Division of Buildings and Facilities (soon renamed the Branch of Buildings and Utilities).
The records of the Construction Division now in the National Archives consist of only one series of records. The records relate to construction work that was financed by the Public Works Administration (PWA), as provided by Title II of the National Industrial Recovery Act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 200), and later legislation. Other records concerning construction activities are under the appropriate headings of the central classified files of the Bureau (entry 121). There are other records concerning PWA Indian projects in Record Group 135; Records of the Public Works Administration.
1931-43. 73 ft.
Incoming correspondence, copies of outgoing correspondence, memoranda, narrative reports, statistical reports, completed forms, estimates, specifications, court records, blueprints, schedules, tables, graphs, photographs, clippings, catalogs, samples of materials, and other kinds of records concerning construction projects that were financed with PWA funds. These records pertain chiefly to projects for the construction and repair of school buildings, hospitals, housing facilities for employees, sewerage and water systems, heating and power plants, and other structures. There are also some records concerning irrigation projects. There are very few records concerning road and bridge projects, since these projects were not ordinarily handled by the Construction Division. The records relate to surveys, plans, estimates, bids, equipment and materials, construction progress, inspections, legal questions, employees, and other matters. Most of the correspondence was conducted with field officials of the Bureau; but there is also some with other agencies, officials of private companies, and others. There are some records dated earlier than 1931 and a few dated later than 1943. Many of the projects were begun by the Bureau before the PWA program was set up.
The records are arranged by project number, which was assigned by the PWA. There are many gaps in the numbers, chiefly for irrigation and road projects with which the Construction Division was not concerned. The records for each project are divided by type. Included in the project files is general correspondence that was once a part of the central classified correspondence of the Bureau (entry 121). There are also copies of correspondence and other records maintained in the Construction Division -- with separate folders for records concerning subjects such as bids, finances, procurement instructions, and final inspections. Several kinds of statistical reports, quantity survey and cost estimates, mimeographed copies of specifications, and blueprints are usually separate within the project file. Although there is no set order for the several kinds of records, the correspondence folders are usually first. For each project the records of each type are usually arranged chronologically. The several kinds of project records are not always included in each project file; and some of the project files contain almost no records. Sometimes projects were combined, in which case there are usually cross-references. At first the projects were numbered according to type of project and thereunder alphabetically by name of jurisdiction. This system was abandoned, however, as new projects were begun.
This series relates to the termination of the federal trust relationship with the Menominee tribe in Wisconsin and the Klamath tribe in Oregon. Most documents relate to the relinquishing of federal control over the reservations' road systems. There are extensive maps and reports relating to the public roads systems, especially in regards to the Menominees. The issue was complex, involving financial concerns more so than engineering concerns. Many of these records are from the 400 series of the Central Classified Files. There are also tribal minutes, mainly for the Klamaths. A "Superintendents Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 1938" for the Klamath agency is also included. (new entry)
Arranged into three subseries. The first is unarranged while the latter two are arranged alphabetically by name of area. The first, general correspondence, is grouped by subject such as road maintenance, legislation concerning airports on Indian reservations, overall economic development, highway funding, surveys, and audits and reports. The second subseries lists road construction projects. These files contain correspondence, recommendations, resolutions, and maps. Correspondence includes requests for construction and repairs sometimes illustrated with photographs of washed out roads and bridges. Control schedule project location maps are the final subseries. The maps feature the road improvements drawn onto an existing map in colors corresponding to a specific time frame along with the project number. The different colors are used to differentiate between fiscal year, calendar year, and budget year projects. (new entry)
The Emergency Conservation Work (later the Civilian Conservation Corps) program was established by an act of Congress approved March 31, 1933 (48 Stat. 22). Work on Indian reservations was included from the beginning of the program. Activities within the Bureau of Indian Affairs were handled briefly by the Forestry Division. On May 22, 1933; a separate Indian Emergency Conservation Work Division (IECW) was established; it was headed by a Director and it included several field districts. When Emergency Conservation Work became the Civilian Conservation Corps on July 1, 1937, the name of the Indian unit was changed to Civilian Conservation Corps -- Indian Division (CCC-ID). Daniel E. Murphy was the Director of both the IECW and the CCC-ID throughout their existence.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs had full responsibility for the selection and training of enrollees and also for the management and operation of CCC work on Indian lands. The Director of the CCC approved all allotments of funds.
The dual objectives of the CCC-ID program were to provide employment for Indians and to accomplish useful conservation work. In addition to the work projects, there was an Enrollee Program to provide for the training, recreation, and welfare of the Indians. The work projects included fire prevention work, road and trail construction, weed and pest control, construction of telephone lines, fence construction, erosion and flood control work, water supply projects, planting of trees and forest improvement work, and many other conservation works.
The CCC-ID field work was terminated on July 10, 1942, but the Washington office force continued to operate for some time in order to wind up its affairs.
There are other records concerning CCC-ID affairs in the central classified files of the Bureau (entry 121). Also available are records concerning Indian activities in Record Group 35, Records of the Civilian Conservation Corps.
1933-44. 87 ft.
Included are letters received, copies of letters sent, reports, memoranda, photographs, plans, maps, specifications, tables, schedules, lists, forms, applications, agreements, minutes, circulars and other procedural material, financial records, clippings, and catalogs. The records relate to project proposals, surveys, work programs, work progress, training, enrollee programs, allotment of funds, accounts, equipment, materials, camps, buildings, water supply, investigations, and many other subjects. Most of the correspondence is with field officials of the CCC-ID; but there is also some correspondence with other officials, representatives of private companies, and others. These records are actually files that were maintained separately from the central classified files of the Bureau (entry 121) but that were classified by subject by the same decimal system and arranged in the same way as those files -- alphabetically by name of jurisdiction (with "General Service" records first) and thereunder by decimal subject classification, year, and file number of base letter. Records in the individual files are usually arranged chronologically. The years given above are those of the base letters for files; there are some earlier and later individual documents. Usually there is no cross-reference in the central classified files to indicate that a particular file is with the records of the CCC-ID.
The first manual consists of bound circular letters arranged numerically in ascending order. The first manual is of Indian Emergency Conservation Work, Office of Indian Affairs, and has an index at its beginning. The second is a handbook of the Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps. The third manual pertains to accounts and statistics, CCC- ID. It also includes a War Department manual, Technical Duties of Finance and Disbursing Officers, and a GAO Bulletin, Classification of Objects of Expenditure. (new entry)
1937-42. 8 ft.
Letters received, copies of letters sent, reports, memoranda, photographs, clippings, tables, lists, circulars and other procedural material, requisitions, camp menus, and other kinds of records concerning the CCC-ID Enrollee Program. The records relate to training and education, recreation, vocational guidance and job placement, follow-ups on former enrollees, camp facilities, health, food, and other subjects. The correspondence is chiefly with field officials of the CCC-ID. Nearly all these records are designated as part of the 346 classification of the general decimal classification system for the Bureau; and most of the records assigned to this classification are in this series rather than with either the central classified files of the Bureau (entry 121) or with the general records of the CCC-ID (entry 1000). There are "General Service" files for each of the CCC-ID field districts, arranged in numerical order; files for agencies and other jurisdictions, arranged alphabetically by name of jurisdiction; and some files for records relating to subjects, which are divided into broad groups designated as "EP 2," "EP 3," and "EP 4." The base letters for files are dated from 1937 until 1942, but there are individual documents dated as early as 1933. Records in the individual files are arranged for the most part chronologically.
1933-37. 4 in.
Letters received and copies of letters sent -- with some memoranda, bulletins, and other records. There are requests for funds, which were sent to Fechner and returned to the Bureau with his approval. Included is some correspondence with other persons in the Washington office of Emergency Conservation Work, particularly with Safety Engineer S. M. Lauderdale. Arranged chronologically. For later correspondence with Fechner, see "59225-36-344 General Service" in the general records of the CCC-ID (entry 1000).
1933-36. 10 in.
Letters received, copies of letters sent, memoranda, reports, photographs, and other kinds of records relating to beetle control, blister rust control, leader camps, health, and forestry. Arranged by subject and thereunder chronologically. Apparently these records were never integrated into the general records of the CCC-ID (entry 1000), although some of the files have file and classification numbers.
1937-42. 2 ft.
Narrative reports that are illustrated with photographs depicting CCC-ID activities. Sometimes there are only mounted photographs, with captions, or merely loose photographs. Arranged alphabetically by name of agency or other jurisdiction.
1936-42. 4 in.
This magazine was published by the Bureau. The records include copies of the magazine, articles proposed for publication, photographs, letters received, copies of letters sent, memoranda, and other records maintained by the Safety Division of the CCC-ID concerning articles submitted for publication in the magazine. Arranged chronologically. For other copies of the magazine, see entry 998.
The Rehabilitation Division was formally established in 1936 to carry out the Indian Relief and Rehabilitation Program; but persons had been assigned to work on the program development the previous year. Early in 1936 President Roosevelt allotted to the Indian Service about $2 million, appropriated under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935. Later on funds were allotted from appropriations provided by the Emergency Relief Appropriation Acts of 1937, 1938, 1939, and 1941. Most of the funds were provided through the Work Projects Administration (WPA); but the Resettlement Administration and its successor, the Farm Security Administration, also participated.
Major emphasis was placed on the "rehabilitation" part of the program. This consisted of work projects serving the dual purpose of providing employment for the Indians and of accomplishing needed work. There were projects for the construction and repair of homes, barns, and other structures; for water development and distribution; for the clearing of land for gardens and small farms; and for other improvements for Indian land holdings. There were also "self help projects," which included canning, sewing, handicrafts, operation of mills and dipping vats, and other community projects. The "relief" part of the program consisted of direct relief through distributions of commodities and cash.
Director Xavier Vigeant was in charge of the program for most of its existence. Agency superintendents were in charge of field work. On October 29, 1941, the Rehabilitation Division was consolidated with the Extension Division; but separate records for the Rehabilitation Division were maintained until 1944. By that time the funds allotted under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1941 had been exhausted. The WPA was abolished in 1943.
It is necessary to make a distinction between the WPA projects supervised by the Rehabilitation Division and the Public Works Administration (PWA) projects. The latter were mainly larger scale construction projects and were handled in the Bureau by the Construction, Roads, and Irrigation Divisions.
There are other records concerning the work of the Rehabilitation Division in the central classified files of the Bureau (entry 121) and with the "New System" files (entry 122). There are individual project records in Record Croup 69, Records of the Work Projects Administration. It is frequently difficult, however, to locate records for a particular project. In Record Group 96, Records of the Farmers Home Administration, there are records concerning the Indian rehabilitation activities of the Resettlement Administration and the Farm Security Administration.
1935-44. 2 ft.
Memoranda, reports, lists, schedules, tables, letters received, copies of letters sent, manuals; circulars, orders (including Executive orders), other procedural material, maps, estimates, justifications, forms, congressional bills, and other kinds of records concerning the rehabilitation and relief program. Records relate to legislation, budgets and allotments, program proposals, surveys, accomplishments, relations with other divisions and other agencies, regulations, organization, office procedure, personnel matters, and many other subjects. These records are designated by the "New System" file classification "76039 -- Rehabilitation -- General Correspondence." Theoretically they should be with the project records described in entry 1007; but they have been considered as a separate series because they differ in content and arrangement. They are arranged by subjects to which are assigned alphabetical-numerical symbols (for example, G-3-E-0.1). The subjects and symbols are different from those used for the project records. Records in the individual files are usually arranged chronologically.
1935-44. 22 ft.
Letters received, copies of letters sent, reports, memoranda, lists, forms, resolutions, legal papers, minutes, financial records, clippings, photographs, maps, plats, and other kinds of records concerning rehabilitation and relief work at individual agencies and schools. The records relate to project proposals, surveys, work progress, accomplishments, distribution of goods, allotment of funds, accounts, legal matters, personnel matters, and many other subjects. Most of the correspondence was exchanged with agency superintendents. The records are arranged by an amplification of the "New System" used by the Bureau for its general correspondence during 1936. A few files have been converted to the decimal system (see entries 121 and 122). These records are part of the 76000 series ("Rehabilitation") of the "New System," Numbers from 76001 to 76110 were assigned to the records for the individual agencies in alphabetical order; and the records are arranged in the same alphabetical order. Thereunder the records are arranged by subjects to which are assigned alphabetical-numerical symbols. The headings most frequently used are "P-1-a--Current Program," "P-1-b--Data for Later Program," "P-2--General Correspondence," and "P-13--General Correspondence--Relief." Some or all of these headings (and occasionally additional ones) are used for the records of each agency. The "P-2" headings are the most extensive. The records relating to any one agency and filed under any one heading are usually arranged in chronological order. In the main "New System" series (entry 122) there are cross-references to only some of these segregated files.
1935. 1 ft.
Completed questionnaires, submitted by agency superintendents, concerning rehabilitation needs; narrative statements concerning reservations) memoranda; letters received (mainly transmitting or explaining the questionnaires); copies of letters sent; and other kinds of records relating chiefly to rehabilitation needs on Indian lands and to proposed projects. There are a few 1934 and 1936 documents. Arranged alphabetically by name of agency or school.
1935-41. 2 in.
These analyses, prepared in the Bureau, consist of narrative and statistical summaries of expenditures and accomplishments on projects. Arranged alphabetically by name of agency or school.
1936-42. 7 in.
These reports consist chiefly of photographs and a few plats, with captions showing project accomplishments. There are a considerable number of "before" and "after" scenes. Sometimes included are narrative statements and tables. Arranged alphabetically by name of agency or geographical area.
Arrangement is alphabetical by name of agency with the exception of a few unarranged files at the beginning. These records document the efforts of the Resettlement Administration and its successor, the Farm Security Administration to assist Indians. The work included: repair of homes, barns, and other structures; building of new structures; clearing of land for farming and gardening; and water development and distribution. Maps and photographs accompany some of the projects. The lands purchased by the government were known as "sub-marginal lands". There is substantial information for certain agencies and nothing for others despite the presence of file folders for them. There are "Title Clearance Reports", a list of projects approved by President Roosevelt, and "Final Opinions on Tracts" which provide comprehensive information on the overall program. (new entry)
Unarranged, although abstracts from the same county and general time period are clustered together. Part of this series stemmed from Executive Order #7868 of April 1938 that transferred lands from the Department of Agriculture to the Bureau. Each individual file consists of an opinion of the Attorney General addressed to the Secretary of Agriculture, a warranty deed conveying land from the individual to the United States, receipts for purchase price, and finally, an abstract of title prepared for the Resettlement Administration. The project number is written on each one (either LI-OK-4 for Delaware Country or LI-OK-5 for Adair County). On some files, there are only opinions from the Attorney General and warranty deeds but no abstracts. These were withdrawn from the Central Classified Files. (new entry)
Arranged alphabetically by name of project. The projects were generally named for an agency, or on occasion, for a county. Each project was identified by an alphanumeric code: e.g. LI-OK-4 for Delaware County, OK or LI-MT-6 for Ft. Peck reservation. Form SL-4 "Offer to Sell Land to the United States" and Tract Ownership Data forms are the most common documents. Correspondence related to land purchases between officials of the Resettlement Administration and the BIA Commissioner and Director of the Land Division is included. Some files contain aggregate statistics for a project including acres and prices, often with hand-written annotations. There are some reports on proposed submarginal land purchases. Folders entitled "Duplicate of Project Material" are found for certain projects while records are not present for other projects despite file markers so indicating. A few maps and photographs are scattered among the records. (new entry)
Unarranged. Contains an extensive collection of copies of executive orders relating to submarginal land projects. The correspondence is sorted by subject or by official of the Resettlement Administration. Most is with BIA officials. There is also a Project Master File listing land purchases by the Resettlement Administration reported on Treasury Form PSC-13-A: "Record of Federal Real Estate". Some of the correspondence is truly disarrayed and of a miscellaneous nature. This series is related to Entry 1010A with some documents being exact duplicates. The somewhat disorganized nature of this series and Entry 1010C may be due to these records being among those files scattered during the 1972 takeover of the BIA by Indians. (new entry)
The Indian Organization Division (or Organization Division) was established in 1934 to supervise the organization of Indian tribes as provided by the Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler-Howard Act) approved June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984). This act authorized the organization of tribal governments for political purposes and the incorporation of tribes in order that they could engage in economic enterprises. In 1943 the Division became the Division of Tribal Relations (known later as the Branch of Tribal Relations). More recently it was known, successively, as the Branch of Tribal Affairs and the Branch of Tribal Programs. In this inventory it is designated as the Indian Organization Division because almost all the records described are for the period before 1943.
Other provisions of the Wheeler-Howard Act were carried out by other divisions, the most important being the supervision of new land policies by the Land Division and the management of a credit fund by the Division of Extension and Industry.
1933-37. 4 ft.
Letters received, copies of letters sent, reports, memoranda, minutes of tribal meetings, petitions, resolutions, completed questionnaires, mimeographed statements, clippings, and other kinds of records. They relate mainly to reactions to the act, chiefly before but also after its passage by Congress. Included are records relating to official and unofficial tribal actions and concerning opinions that were expressed by individual Indians, non-Indians, and newspapers. There are also records concerning a survey taken among anthropologists. These records are part of file "4984-34-066 General Service," which was once a part of the central classified files of the Bureau (entry 121). The file is divided into parts mainly according to the different groups of persons involved or by subject and thereunder usually into sections according to the position taken for or against the act. The records in individual sections are arranged for the most part alphabetically by name of jurisdiction or tribe or by name of correspondent. For records concerning actual operations under the act, see entry 1012.
ca. 1934-56. 16 ft.
Letters received; copies of letters sent; memoranda; reports; copies of proposed and approved constitutions, bylaws, and charters; petitions; resolutions; census rolls; voting lists; completed questionnaires; clippings; and other kinds of records concerning the organization of Indian tribes as provided by the Wheeler-Howard Act. The records relate to preliminary surveys; the drawing up and submission of constitutions, bylaws, and charters; determination of tribal membership; elections; opposition to organization; and other subjects. The records are in files most of which were a part of the classified files of the Bureau (entry 121) until 1938. More records were added after the transfer to the Indian Reorganization Division. Arranged by jurisdiction and thereunder by file number. The individual files are often divided into several parts; the records in each part are usually arranged chronologically. There are other records concerning Indian organization in the appropriate classifications of the central classified files of the Bureau.
1934-46. 8 in.
Letters, reports, and memoranda received from field officials and from some central office officials of the Bureau and the Department of the Interior; and copies of letters and memoranda sent to them. Included are some records concerning the officials. There are comparatively few records dated later than 1943. Arranged alphabetically by name of official and thereunder chronologically. For other correspondence with these officials, see the general records concerning organization activities (entry 1012).
Mar. 1936-May 1937.
Arranged in chronological order. Consists of a single file bound together, focused on the issue of the decentralization and realignment of field organizations at the region level. It was probably maintained by Alan Harper, Field Administrator in Charge of Indian Organization. The Indian Reorganization Act provided the impetus for these changes which were suggested by Ward Shepard in the study entitled "Divisional Delegation of Administrative Powers to Regional Administrator". Of note is a summary of replies from the various divisions to the question of delegating authority to regional administrators with a mixture of pro and con responses. Included are proposed organizational charts for Montana/Wyoming which are part of an over-all report for that district. There is also correspondence and memoranda on the proposed Oklahoma/Kansas area. Extensive information on salaries and positions at the districts affected by the plan are included. An April 8, 1937, memo to heads of divisions laid out the new district structure. (new entry)
1934-35. 3 in.
Completed questionnaires, on mimeographed forms, submitted by field officials in Alaska. Arranged alphabetically by name of village. At one time these records were in the custody of the Alaska Division. Among the general records concerning Indian organization (entry 1012) there are questionnaires, on the same mimeographed form, for Indians in other areas and also other records concerning organization in Alaska.
Arrangement is in chronological order. The meetings the minutes of which are recorded took place in Keshena,Wisconsin. Some of the minutes are bound and others are loose. They deal with all manner of issues ranging from timber sale profits to vending machine revenue to establishing criteria for tribal membership. Along with the minutes are separate copies of referendums adopted at the meetings along with small amounts of correspondence. The termination of the Menominee's relationship with the federal government was a major topic in the latter 1950s. There are some separate reports on this issue. (new entry)
Abstract of title prepared for the Resettl--- Arranged in alphabetical order by name of agency or reservation. This collection of 10-year reservations plans was compiled in response to two 1943 circulars by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The impetus was the impending end of World War II with the return of job-seeking Indian servicemen and cessation of relatively well-paying defense industry jobs. All plans, which were given the decimal classification "071" in the BIA=s Central Classified Files system, followed a similar template laid out by the Commissioner: a Part I providing basic data (i.e. resources, socio-economic conditions) and a Part II delineating the overall plan (i.e. new services, funds needed). For most reservations there is also a summary and comments, usually by Chief Engineer A. L. Wathen, and other staff specialists, such as the Director of Roads or Director of Extension. Plans vary greatly in size and detail. For some reservations, earlier studies and 1948 revisions are included. The Navajo file in particular contains an accumulation of supplemental studies. A more comprehensive collection of 10 Year Plans, along with background correspondence, is found in A-1 Entry 1014J. (new entry)
Arrangement is alphabetical by name of area, thereunder by name of tribe, thereunder chronologically. These were sent to Washington headquarters from Area Offices and include copies of minutes of tribal council and business association meetings, resolutions and discussions of resolutions, budget planning discussions and copies of finished budgets. Topics discussed at meetings include nomination and election of officers, committee reports, disbursements of funds, constitutional revisions, leasing arrangements, claims, investments, Indian responsibilities relating to Federal legislation, legal affairs, and other matters of local interest. Some reports include names and addresses of those attending. The most extensive coverage is for the Navajo Tribal Council from 1957-65. (new entry)
Arrangement is by area (not all of which are represented), thereunder alphabetical by name of tribe. Contains applications and supporting materials for funding under the Tribal Government Development Program for Fiscal Year 1975. The applications indicate the amounts sought and the projects to be funded. Some are annotated to indicate funding approval; others are signed. There are also rejections of applications signed by Commissioner Morris Thompson. The reasons for rejection were either the tribe in question was not deemed as having sufficient financial need or it was considered too small. In all, 81 out of the 156 tribes who applied were approved. There are copies of the contracts and contract modifications for approved applications. Projects included, e.g. classes in administration for tribal leaders, establishment of an office, and the production of a constitution. There is also a file on Nooksack Allottees genealogy. (new entry)
Unarranged. In 1975 the American Arbitration Association (AAA) was authorized by the BIA, upon requests from Osage organizations, to conduct a poll to determine attitudes toward changing the current form of Osage tribal government. It was determined to poll all persons over age 18 claiming membership in the Osage nation on two separate ballots. One was for those with more than ¼ blood and one for those less than ¼ blood. Person were given 30 days to dispute the classifications or the presence or absence of names on the list. There is some correspondence from the protesters. The poll was completed in March 1976 with the results included. The bulk of the series consists of voting lists prepared by the AAA. There is significant correspondence regarding the execution of the poll between the AAA, members of the Osage Tribal Council, officials of Tribal Government Services, and the Superintendent of the Osage Agency. (new entry)
Arranged into two sub-series. The first consists of a 12 volume plan dated 1969 for a "model reservation" for the Oglala Sioux funded by a demonstration grant from HUD. The plan was formulate by the firm of Marshall, Kaplan, Gans, and Kahn. All facets of improving the poor current conditions are covered from education to housing to law enforcement. The other sub-series consists of reservation development programs for specific reservations only for the states of South Dakota, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Consists primarily of formal "Reservation Development Programs" submitted by tribal councils for Fiscal Year 1972. These focus on the funding needed for proposed economic development projects and include statistics on current conditions on the reservation as well as progress on on-going projects. Cooperation with the Economic Development Administration is reflected. More extensive reports are included for Standing Rock and Spokane. (new entry)
Arranged in alphabetical order by name of area office with financial records at the end. Title X was a job opportunities program created by the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and administered by the Economic Development Administration. For each area office there are: priority sheets listing projects in order of perceived importance; forms SEC-887 filled out by the BIA seeking funds for projects (sometimes annotated with notice of approval and an EDA number); and lists of Public Service Job Programs. The forms contained proposals for funds for Indian Action Programs, employment training, construction, pest control, preparation of industrial sites, grounds improvements, building renovations, etc. At the end of the series are quarterly financial reports from September 1975 to June 1977; a computer generated form SF-133 "Report on Budget Status" from September 1975 to May 1978; and a computer printout entitled "Report on Job Opportunities Program - Activity 1935 as of January 31, 1980". (new entry)
Arranged in roughly alphabetical order by subject. Essentially a correspondence file on different subjects maintained at the Division of Tribal Resources Development office. Contains information on objectives, issues, strategies, and financial plans. A gap between the "B's" and "P's" suggests much of the series is missing. Among the major topics covered are: American Indian National Bank, Program Memos, Program Strategy Papers, Revenue Sharing, Reorganization in the 1970s, Senate Hearings, Short Run Economic Proposals, Speeches, and Urban Indians. There is extensive information on Title X. This series provides narrative information and historical context on Title X to supplement the records in Entry 1014G. (new entry)
Arranged in alphabetical order. Primarily a collection focusing on administrative subjects. There are extensive files relating to delegations and redelegations of authority for area offices - generally files (101.1) and (110). There is also a collection of Secretarial Orders and Amendments from the mid-1950s through mid-1970s. Many budget requests, estimates, & budgetary data from FY's 1976-78 are included. Fund distributions from FY 1978, a management survey from 1967, and records relating to the effort by Menominee Indians to re-establish their ties to the federal government after termination in the early 1960s are among the larger subjects. By far the largest single topic is reorganization. Some files deal with reorganizing specific program areas, e.g. credit, land, extension. Others are broken down by area office. Numerous hearings on the reorganization are also included including tribal perspectives. (new entry)
The records described in this section were created by field offices of the Bureau -- mainly superintendencies, agencies, and schools. Most of the field offices for which there are records in the National Archives are those that were discontinued and transferred their records to Washington, D.C. There are few records dated later than 1900 -- except for the records of nonreservation schools, the New York Agency, and the White, Earth, Leech Lake, and Consolidated Chippewa Agencies in Minnesota. Most of the noncurrent records of field offices have been transferred to the appropriate Federal Records Centers rather than to the National Archives.
The field office records are in two parts: (1) records of superintendencies and agencies; and (2) records of nonreservation schools, with records of a few special offices at the end. The records of superintendencies and agencies are arranged alphabetically by name of supervising jurisdiction. Records of agencies subordinate to a superintendency are with the records of the superintendency. Sometimes included with agency records are those of reservation schools and other field units. The records of nonreservation schools are arranged alphabetically by name of school.
The kinds of records maintained did not vary much from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, although there are great differences in the quantities that have survived. Most of the correspondence of superintendents and independent agents was conducted with the central office of the Bureau. There was also much correspondence exchanged between superintendents and agents in the superintendency. Superintendents and agents also corresponded with other field officials and employees, Army officers, businessmen, Indians, and others. The records maintained by field offices usually relate to almost all aspects of Indian administration in the field. Therefore, unless there is something unique about a particular series of correspondence or other records, in the series description little detail is given concerning correspondents and subject matter.
The records of field offices were often not maintained systematically. Much of the arrangement work on these records has been done since their transfer to the National Archives; but, in many cases, the indicated arrangement is imperfect.
Since there are so many records relating to field offices throughout the central office records, cross-references between field office and central office records are not given except in special instances. There is much duplication of individual documents. The original of a letter sent from Washington to a field office, for example, may be with the field office records and a record copy of the same letter may be among the central office records. Field officials often kept copies of letters, reports, and accounts that were sent to Washington.
Records of special commissions have usually been incorporated into the central office records, particularly among the Indian removal records and the records of the Land and Civilization Divisions. Records of field supervisors -- such as the Chief Supervisor of Education, Chief Special Officer, and Chief Engineer (Irrigation) -- have also been incorporated into the records of the appropriate divisions.
Only brief histories of the field offices have been given in this inventory. For the pre-1881 period somewhat more detailed histories, including lists of the names of agents and superintendents and of dates of their appointments, have been prepared for use with National Archives Microfilm Publication 234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-80. (See entry 79.) Copies of these histories are available.
Records of Superintendencies and Agencies
Records of the Arizona Superintendency
The Arizona Superintendency was established in 1863 at the same time as Arizona Territory. Arizona Territory previously had been part of New Mexico Territory; and the New Mexico Superintendency had had charge of Indian affairs. Although it was customary in the other Territories for the Governor to act as ex officio superintendent for several years after the Territory was established, in Arizona Territory there was always a separate superintendent. The headquarters of the superintendency was originally at La Paz; in 1869 it was moved to Arizona City.
Between 1863 and 1865 the superintendent established a number of temporary agencies. The following permanent agencies were gradually established:
|Agency||Year Established||Indian Tribes|
|Colorado River||1864||Yavapai, Walapai, Mohave, Yuma, scattered Apache, and other small tribes|
|Gila River (known as the Papago Agency, 1864-65, and as the Pima, Papago, and Maricopa Agency, 1865-69)||1864||Pima, Papago, Maricopa, and "Tame" Apache|
|Moqui Pueblo||1869||Moqui Pueblo (Hopi)|
|Papago (separated from Gila River)||1871||Papago|
The Camp Grant, Rio Verde, Chiricahua, Camp Apache, and San Carlos Agencies were established during the years 1871 and 1872 for several different groups of Apache Indians. By 1876 these agencies were consolidated into the San Carlos Agency.
The Navajo Agency, although most of the time located at Fort Defiance, Ariz., was assigned to the New Mexico Superintendency.
The Arizona Superintendency was abolished in 1873. Thereafter the agents in Arizona reported direct to the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington.
See also the records of the Moqui Pueblo Agency.
1868-72. 2 vols. 1 in.
Most of the entries for individual letters give date of receipt, name of writer, address, date of letter, and subject matter. Arranged chronologically by date of receipt of letter. For the letters, see entry 1016.
1863-73. 3 ft.
Letters received, copies of letters sent, vouchers, receipts, financial statements, estimates, invoices, rosters of employees, statements of letters received, and other records. Arranged by year and thereunder in several different ways. There is usually some division by type of record. Letters received may be arranged chronologically (sometimes in the same order as the entries in registers described in entry 1015) or by source (for example, Commissioner of Indian Affairs or agency) and thereunder chronologically. Except for the year 1867, copies of letters sent were usually kept in letter books (entries 1017, 1018, and 1020).
1863-64. 1 vol. 1 in.
Poston was the first superintendent of the Arizona Superintendency. The letter book consists of handwritten copies of letters sent and also of some letters received from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Arranged for the most part chronologically.
1865-66, 1871. 2 vols. 2 in.
Press copies. Arranged chronologically except that in each of the volumes there are 1871 letters for overlapping periods.
An index for the last volume described in entry 1020. Given are page numbers for letters sent to various addressees. Arranged alphabetically by initial letter of surname of addressee or by name of office or company.
1868-73. 3 vols. 5 in.
Handwritten copies of letters sent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, agents, Army officers, and others. Arranged chronologically. In the first volume there is an alphabetical index to names of addressees. There is a separate index (entry 1019) for the last volume. In the last volume (and to some extent in the second volume) there are marginal notations beside letters, which indicate the page numbers of other letters sent to the same addressee.
Records of the Central Superintendency
The Central Superintendency was established in 1851 as the successor to the St. Louis Superintendency, which had been established in 1822 as the successor to the Missouri Superintendency. The records of the Central Superintendency now in the National Archives include a few records inherited from its predecessors.
Originally the Central Superintendency was responsible mainly for the agencies and Indians (except the Osage) in the present States of Kansas and Nebraska. The regions of the upper Missouri, upper Platte, and upper Arkansas Rivers extending into the Dakotas, Wyoming, and Colorado were also within the jurisdiction of the superintendency. When Colorado and Dakota Territories were organized in 1861 and new superintendencies were established in them, these outlying areas were removed from the Central Superintendency -- except for the Fort Laramie vicinity in the present State of Wyoming. In 1865 the reorganized Northern Superintendency took charge of the Nebraska agencies (including the Upper Platte Agency, which had charge of the Fort Laramie area). In 1865 all agencies of the Central Superintendency were located in Kansas. The superintendency gradually became responsible for agencies in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). After the Southern Superintendency was discontinued in 1870, the Central Superintendency had some control over all agencies in Indian Territory as well as over the remaining agencies in Kansas.
The headquarters of the Central Superintendency was originally at St. Louis, Mo. In 1859 it was moved to St. Joseph, Mo.; in 1865, to Atchison, Kans.; and, in 1869, to Lawrence, Kans.
The following agencies were originally in the Central Superintendency: Kansas (Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot, and Munsee Indians), Potawatomi (Potawatomi and Kansa, or Kaw, Indians), Sac and Fox (Sauk and Fox of the Mississippi, Chippewa, and Ottawa Indians), Great Nemaha (Iowa, Sauk and Fox of the Missouri, and Kickapoo Indians), Osage River (Miami, Peoria, Wea, Kaskaskia, and Piankeshaw Indians), Council Bluffs (Oto, Missouri, Omaha, and Pawnee Indians), Upper Platte (Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux Indians), and the Upper Missouri (Sioux and other tribes).
Four changes in agencies were made in 1855. The Kansas Agency was divided into the Delaware Agency and the Shawnee Agency. A new agency, called the Kansas Agency, was established for the Kansa Indians. A separate Kickapoo Agency was established. The Upper Arkansas Agency was established for some of the Indians previously assigned to the Upper Platte Agency.
In 1856 the Blackfeet Agency was established; and the Council Bluffs Agency was divided into the Omaha Agency and the Otoe Agency (Oto, Missouri, and Pawnee Indians). The Pawnee, Ponca, and Yankton Agencies were established in 1859. In 1861 the Blackfeet, Upper Missouri, Ponca, and Yankton Agencies were transferred to the new Dakota Superintendency; and the Upper Arkansas Agency was transferred to the Colorado Superintendency. At this time the Delaware, Shawnee, Kansas, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Kickapoo, Great Nemaha, Otoe, Omaha, Pawnee, Osage River, and Upper Platte Agencies were assigned to the Central Superintendency.
When the Ottawa Agency was established in 1863. the Sac and Fox Agency was divided. In 1865 the Otoe, Omaha, Pawnee, Great Nemaha, and Upper Platte Agencies were transferred to the Northern Superintendency. All the remaining agencies of the Central Superintendency were in Kansas.
The status of the Upper Arkansas Agency was confused for several years; but in 1866 the agency was definitely located in Kansas and was assigned to the Central Superintendency rather than to the Colorado Superintendency. In 1867 the Neosho Agency (renamed Osage Agency in 1874) for the Osage Indians in southern Kansas and the Quapaw, Seneca, and Shawnee Indians whose permanent home was in northeastern Indian Territory, was transferred from the Southern Superintendency to the Central Superintendency. It should be noted that during the Civil War the Southern Superintendency and the agencies assigned to it were moved temporarily from Indian Territory to Kansas. Except for the Neosho Agency, they were returned to Indian Territory within a few years after the war.
In 1869 the Kiowa Agency (Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Indians) in Indian Territory, which had not been assigned to any superintendency since its establishment in 1864, was attached to the Central Superintendency. The Wichita Agency (Wichita and other Indians), previously in the Southern Superintendency, was temporarily consolidated with the Kiowa Agency. When a separate Wichita Agency was reestablished in 1870, it was assigned to the Central Superintendency.
The Southern Superintendency was discontinued in 1870. The four agencies still assigned to it (Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw and Chickasaw, and Seminole) were transferred to the Central Superintendency. Later in the year it was decided that the Central Superintendency should handle only matters (such as the investigation of certain claims) for which treaty stipulations specified the services of a superintendent. In all other matters the agents were to report direct to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. In 1874 these four agencies were consolidated into the Union Agency.
The Neosho (Osage) Agency was divided in 1871 when the Quapaw Agency was established for the Indians of the Neosho Agency other than the Osage Indians.
In the meantime, as the Indians were moved to Indian Territory and attached to agencies already in operation there, the number of agencies in Kansas was being reduced. The Ottawa Agency was abolished in 1867; the Delaware Agency, in 1869; the Shawnee and Osage River Agencies, in 1871; and the Kansas Agency, in 1874. The Sac and Fox, Upper Arkansas (renamed Cheyenne and Arapahoe in 1874), and Osage Agencies were relocated in Indian Territory when the Indians moved there. In 1874 the Kickapoo Agency was consolidated with the Potawatomi Agency, which then became the only agency in Kansas. In 1876 the Pawnee Agency was moved from Nebraska to Indian Territory and was transferred from the Northern to the Central Superintendency. Thereafter the Potawatomi Agency in Kansas and the Osage, Quapaw, Sac and Fox, Wichita, Kiowa. Pawnee, and Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agencies in Indian Territory were assigned to the Central Superintendency. The superintendent also had some responsibility for the Union Agency.
In October 1877 the agents were instructed to report direct to the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington rather than to the superintendent. In 1878 the Central Superintendency was discontinued.
There are records of the Central Superintendency and its predecessors in the possession of the Kansas State Historical Society in Topeka, Kans.
1847-66. 2 vols. 2 in.
Each volume is divided into two sections, one for letters received and one for letters sent. Individual entries for letters received give date of receipt, date of letter, name of writer, and subject. Individual entries for letters sent give date of letter, name of addressee, subject, and -- until 1860 -- a page reference to the record copy of the letter. The first volume is for the period 1847-59; the second volume is for the period 1859-66. Entries in each section of each volume are arranged chronologically -- by date of receipt for letters received and by date of letter for letters sent. For later registers of letters received, see entry 1022; for later registers of letters sent, see entry 1024. For the letters, see entries 1023 and 1025.
1866-78. 2 vols. 3 in.
The earlier entries for individual letters give date of receipt, date of letter, name of writer, and subject. Included in the later entries are name of agency or tribe to which the letter relates; initials of the division or clerk in the Bureau, which were indicated on the letter; and action taken. From 1874 until 1876 letters addressed to agents, but routed through the superintendent's office, were also registered. Entries in the registers are arranged chronologically by. date of receipt of letter. For earlier registers, see entry 1021. For registers of letters sent to the Commissioner, see entry 1024. For the letters, see entry 1023.
1813-78. 30 ft.
Letters received and some copies of letters sent, statements of letters received, Treasury Department notices, estimates, bids, contracts, vouchers, receipts, invoices, abstracts of disbursements, statements of public money, statements of funds remitted, statements of funds received, returns of provisions, journals, printed copies of treaties, annual reports of agents, reports of employees, school reports, sanitary reports, reports of changes in employees, supply reports, and other records. There are only a few records dated before 1851. Arranged by year and thereunder by kind of record. The letters received, which comprise the larger part of the records, are arranged by source. For most years there are separate folders for letters from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and from each of the agencies in the superintendency. There is frequently a separate folder for letters from the Army Department of the Missouri; and there are other special folders, some of which contain letters relating to a particular subject rather than those from a particular person or office. Other letters are filed in a "miscellaneous" classification. The letters from each source are arranged for the most part chronologically. The arrangement of the other records in this series varies for each year, but for the most part they are arranged in rough chronological order. The record copies of letters sent were kept in letter books (see entries 1025-1028, 1030, and 1031). For registers of letters received from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1847-78, see entries 1021 and 1022. For other financial records, see entries 1032-1038.
1866-78. 3 vols. 4 in.
The earlier entries for individual letters give date, name of addressee, and subject. Included in the later entries are a page reference to record copy of the letter, name of the agency concerned, and an indication of the action taken by the superintendent on letters that were received from agents and forwarded by him. The entries are arranged chronologically by date of letter. For earlier registers, see entry 1021. For record copies of the letters, see entries 1025 and 1028.
1855-76. 7 vols. 1 ft.
Handwritten copies. Arranged chronologically. For later press copy books, see entry 1028. For registers, see entry 1024. For letters received, see entry 1023.
1858-71. 2 vols. 5 in.
Handwritten copies. Arranged chronologically. There is an alphabetical register in the first volume; and there is a chronological register in the second volume. For press copy books beginning in 1873, see entry 1030. No copies -- either handwritten or press -- appear to be extant for the period August 23, 1871-June 1873. For letters received, see entry 1023.
1853-71. 2 vols. 3 in.
Handwritten copies of letters to the Second Auditor and other Treasury Department officials, other superintendents, Army officers, Indians, merchants, bankers, and others. Arranged chronologically. There are chronological registers in the individual volumes until 1863. For later press copy books, 1876-78, see entry 1031. No copies -- either handwritten or press -- appear to be extant for the period July 12, 1871-January 1876. For letters received, see entry 1023.
1875-78. 6 vols. 7 in.
Press copies. Arranged chronologically. There is a chronological register in the first volume. For registers for the other volumes, see entry 1024. For handwritten copies of letters sent to the Commissioner, 1855-76, see entry 1025. For letters received, see entry 1023.
1876-78. 3 vols. 1 in.
Entries for individual letters give date of letter, page reference to press copy of letter (entry 1030), agency to which letter relates, and subject. Arranged chronologically by date of letter.
1873, 1875-78. 7 vols. 8 in.
Press copies. Arranged chronologically. There are alphabetical registers, by name of agency, in the first two volumes. There are separate registers for the remaining volumes (entry 1029). For handwritten copies of letters sent to agents, 1858-71; see entry 1026. No copies -- either press or handwritten -- appear to be extant for the periods August 23, 1871-June 27, 1873, and December 26, 1873-September 3, 1875. For letters received, see entry 1023.
1876-78. 3 vols. 4 in.
Press copies. Arranged chronologically. In the individual volumes there are alphabetical registers by name of addressee. For handwritten copies of letters sent to various persons, 1853-71, see entry 1027. No copies -- either press or handwritten -- have been found for the period July 12, 1871-January 31, 1876. For letters received, see entry 1023.
Among the records of the Dakota Superintendency there are a few records concerning agencies in Dakota for the years 1873-76, even though the superintendency was not in operation during this period.
1868-77. 1 vol. 1. in.
From 1868 until 1875 this volume was used for statements of funds received. For 1872 there is also a chronological record of disbursements. During 1876 and 1877 the volume was used for statements concerning weekly and monthly financial reports sent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, beef and flour delivered at agencies, vouchers issued, contracts awarded, and other subjects. Arranged by type of statement and thereunder for the most part chronologically. See also the "tabular statements of funds remitted" (entry 1033), the statements of receipts and disbursements (entry 1034), the ledger described in entry 1035; and the records described in entry 1023.
1876-77. 1 vol. 2 in.
Copies of statements prepared in the Washington office of the Bureau and of statements compiled from information in Treasury Department letters. Given for funds remitted to the superintendent and agents are accounting heads, names of tribes concerned, purposes of expenditures, amounts for each purpose, totals, and other information. Arranged chronologically by date of receipt. For similar earlier records, see entry 1032. There are original statements among the records described in entry 1023. The Finance Division of the central office of the Bureau also kept copies of the statements (see entry 854).
1872-78. 2 vols. 3 in.
The volumes are also known as cashbooks. They are records of funds received by the superintendent and the disposition made of them. Receipts and disbursements, respectively, are entered in the volumes on facing pages; entries for each are arranged chronologically. For ledger, see entry 1035. For other records concerning receipts and disbursements, see entries 1023, 1032, 1033, and 1036.
1874-78. 1 vol. 2 in.
The volume consists of accounts of funds received by the superintendent and of the disposition made of them. Arranged by quarter, thereunder by appropriation item, and thereunder chronologically. There are incomplete chronological and alphabetical indexes. For statements of receipts and disbursements, arranged chronologically, see entry 1034. For other records concerning receipts and disbursements, see entries 1023, 1032, 1033; and 1036.
1849-76. 3 vols. 6 in.
Entries for individual disbursements usually give date, voucher number, name of person to whom payment was made, amounts under different accounting headings, total amount, and purpose of expenditure. Included are recapitulations, statements of account current, and other information. Arranged chronologically by quarter and thereunder by appropriation item. For other abstracts of disbursements, see entry 1023. For other records concerning disbursements, see entries 1034 and 1035.
1849-67. 1 vol. 1/2 in.
Statements of the United States in account current with the superintendent. Arranged chronologically. Included are statements of the superintendent in account current with the Assistant Treasurer at St. Louis for 1858.
1853-65. 2 vols. 2 in.
Each volume is divided into two parts: (1) for statements of account current and (2) for property returns. There are statements of account current with the superintendent for agencies, tribes, and special purposes; arranged in rough chronological order by date of first entry. The entries in individual accounts are arranged chronologically. There is an index in each volume. The property returns give information concerning the amounts of different kinds of goods received, issued, or on hand; they are arranged chronologically.
1865-76. 1 vol. 2 in.
Given, by quarter, are amounts of different kinds of goods received, issued, and on hand. Arranged chronologically.
1834-40. 3 vols. 3 in.
Handwritten copies; arranged chronologically. Included in the individual volumes are chronological registers. In 1839 the superintendent of the St. Louis Superintendency assumed the duties of the disbursing agent.