Jim and Tim Houde obtained the following information in March 2005
from the Portsmouth Public Library.
It is identified as the Housing Plan for Alexander Park with this label as classification:
Developed by the Federal Public
NATIONAL HOUSING AGENCY
Project no. 44183
For 4250 White War Workers
This stamp is also found on pages throughout the document:
PORTSMOUTH PUBLIC LIBRARY
601 COURT STREET
PORTSMOUTH, VA 23704
All of the information from the library was scanned and produced on 11 X 18 inch paper with about a #5 font, which meant having two pages on each sheet. In order to transfer the content to a Word document, I re-scanned it and copied it to a Word program. There was a great deal of loss of data and picture quality in the transfer process. I have tried to restore as much of the original data as possible, but there may be some material that is not completely accurate.
The first part of the document is the Lease Agreement, which I found to be very interesting reading. The layout for Alexander Park follows the Lease Agreement. The scanned layout of the Park was also presented on the 11 X 18 inch paper. 808 Dekalb happened to be located in the middle of the page and was very feint, which made it difficult to reproduce in a readable product. I first scanned each side of the page and then joined them together on one page. You will notice the line down the middle as I tried to match up the pages. This page gives you a good idea of the overall footprint of the project. The following page resulted from scanning the middle of the page and then enhancing the image.
The third part of this document is a detailed description of how they
developed the Norfolk and Portsmouth projects.
Stamp in top right hand corner:
Alexander Park, Portsmouth, VA
Lease Agreement Page 1
THE FEDERAL PUBLIC HOUSING AUTHORITY HEARTILY
WELCOMES YOU TO YOUR NEW HOME AND TRUSTS THAT YOU WILL FIND IN IT COMFORT,
HEALTH, AND HAPPINESS.
THIS IS YOUR HOME. IT CONTAINS ALL THE NECESSITIES
FOR COMFORTABLE LIVING WITH ADEQUATE PROVISION FOR REST AND RELAXATION. YOUR
HAPPINESS IN IT DEPENDS LARGELY UPON YOU AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH YOU YOURSELF
CONTRIBUTE TOWARD MAKING IT A PLEASANT PLACE IN WHICH TO LIVE.
YOU WILL FIND HERE FAMILIES FROM EVERY STATE IN THE
UNION JOINED TOGETHER IN ONE GREAT CIVILIAN EFFORT TO HELP WIN THE WAR. NOT AS
NORTHERNERS AND SOUTHERNERS OR EASTERNERS OR WESTERNERS BUT AS REAL AMERICANS
YOU HAVE COME HERE, AND AS AMERICANS, YOU WILL LIVE HERE
YOU AND THE MANAGEMENT
THE PURPOSE OP THIS BULLETIN IS TO ADVISE YOU
RELATIVE TO THE MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR COMMUNITY AND THE PRIVILEGES
AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF YOUR RESIDENCE. IT HAS BEEN WRITTEN IN AN EFFORT TO
ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR NEW AND HELP YOU IN ADJUSTING YOURSELF IN THIS
THE GROWTH OF THIS PROJECT INTO A FRIENDLY, HEALTHY
COMMUNITY WILL DEPEND LARGELY UPON THE COOPERATIVE EFFORT OF THE RESIDENTS AND
THE MANAGEMENT. WE CAN ONLY OBTAIN THE TYPE OF COMMUNITY AND COMMUNITY SPIRIT WE
DESIRE IF EACH FAMILY WILL DO ITS PART, AND WE FEEL CONFIDENT THAT WE CAN COUNT
ON YOUR SUPPORT.
IT IS IN THIS SPIRIT THAT WE WOULD LIKE TO CALL
YOUR ATTENTION TO THE FOLLOWING:
THE MANAGEMENT OFFICES WILL BE OPEN DURING THE
FOLLOWING HOURS: WEEK DAYS — 8:30 a.m. TO 5:00 p.m.
SATURDAY — 8:30 a.m. TO 12:30 p.m.
ACCORDING TO THE TERMS OF YOUR LEASE, YOUR RENT
IS DUE AND PAYABLE IN ADVANCE ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH AT THE MANAGEMENT
OFFICE. NO MONTHLY STATEMENTS WILL BE SENT OUT COVERING RENTALS, AND YOU WILL BE
EXPECTED TO PAY YOUR ACCOUNT IN FULL ON THE DUE DATE.
IT IS PREFERABLE THAT YOU ARRANGE TO PAY YOUR RENT IN
CASH, AND IF YOU CAN HAVE THE EXACT AMOUNT OF CHANGE READY, YOU WILL BE SAVED
NEEDLESS WAITING AND DELAY. YOU MAY BE ASKED TO SHOW YOUR EMPLOYMENT BADGE AT
THE TIME YOU PAY YOUR RENT. CHECKS WILL NOT BE CASHED NOR ACCEPTED IN AN AMOUNT
IN EXCESS OF YOUR MONTHLY RENT PAYMENT. YOUR ACCOUNT NUMBER WILL BE THE SAME AS
THE NUMBER ON YOUR HOUSE KEY. PLEASE USE THIS NUMBER AND NOT YOU’RE HOUSE
NUMBER, WHEN PAYING YOUR RENT.
THE SECURITY DEPOSIT WHICH YOU GAVE AT THE TIME YOU
SIGNED YOUR LEASE WILL BE HELD TO YOUR CREDIT TO INSURE AGAINST ANY LOSS OR WILLFUL
NEGLECT OR DAMAGE TO THE PROPERTY. IF YOU SHOULD VACATE YOUR HOME AT ANY TIME,
AND IT IS FOUND UPON FINAL INSPECTION THAT YOUR RESIDENCE HAS NOT SUFFERED ANY
ABUSE OTHER THAN NORMAL WEAR AND TEAR, AND YOUR LEASE HAS BEEN LAWFULLY
TERMINATED, AND YOU HAVE LEFT NO UNPAID BALANCE ON YOUR ACCOUNT, YOUR SECURITY
DEPOSIT SHALL BE REFUNDED.
THIS SECURITY DEPOSIT WILL NOT BE USED AT THE OPTION
OF THE RESIDENT TO COVER ANY REPAIR COST WHILE IN RESIDENCE, NOR MAY IT BE USED
BY THE RESIDENT AS ANY PARTIAL RENT PAYMENT.
TRANSFER OF LEASE
NO FAMILY MAY SUB-LEASE OR ASSIGN THEIR RESIDENCE OR
ANY PART THEREOF TO ANYONE ELSE. LODGERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED TO LIVE ON THE
PROJECT WITHOUT FIRST OBTAINING WRITTEN CONSENT FROM THE RESIDENT MANAGER. OUR
RENTAL OFFICE WILL DETERMINE THE ELIGIBILITY FOR ALL RESIDENTS, WHETHER THEY ARE
FAMILY UNITS OR INDIVIDUAL LODGERS OR ROOMERS.
USE OF BUILDINGS
THESE PROJECTS WERE BUILT TO HOUSE WAR WORKERS AND
FAMILY UNITS ONLY. IN ORDER TO PRESERVE THE RESIDENTIAL CHARACTER OF THE
PROJECTS, IT WILL NOT BE PERMISSIBLE TO ENGAGE IN ANY BUSINESS OR PROFESSION OR
DISPLAY ANY KIND OF SIGNS IN OR ABOUT THE PREMISES. EACH HOME IS TO BE USED
STRICTLY AS A PRIVATE RESIDENCE. DESIGNATED COMMERCIAL CENTERS WILL BE
ESTABLISHED AND ANY AND ALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISES WILL BE OPERATED PROM THESE
CENTERS UNDER LEASE TO THE FEDERAL HOUSING AUTHORITY.
EACH FAMILY WILL RECEIVE ONE FRONT DOOR KEY AT THE
TIME THEY MOVE IN. IF ADDITIONAL KEYS ARE NEEDED, IT IS SUGGESTED THAT YOU HAVE
THESE MADE AT ONE OF THE DOWN—TOWN STORES. A CHARGE WILL BE MADE FOR KEYS
WHICH ARE LOST OR DAMAGED.
IF YOU SHOULD FIND YOURSELF LOCKED OUT, A DUPLICATE
KEY MAY BE OBTAINED AT THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE DURING OFFICE HOUR. IF THE DEMAND
FOR THIS SERVICE BECOMES EXCESSIVE, IT MAY BECOME NECESSARY TO MAKE A CHARGE
COVERING SUCH SERVICE BEQUESTS.
BUS AND TELEPHONE SERVICE
PROMPT, EFFICIENT BUS SERVICE HAS BEEN SCHEDULED TO
AND FROM THE PRINCIPAL DOWN—TOWN AREAS AND INDUSTRIES, AND SCHEDULED BUS STOPS
IN THE PROJECT ARE SPOTTED ON THE ENCLOSED MAP.
WAR PRIORITIES WILL NOT PERMIT THE NORMAL
INSTALLATION OF TELEPHONES IN PRIVATE HOMES; BUT PUBLIC TELEPHONE SERVICE WILL
BE PROVIDED FOR THE CONVENIENCE OF ALL RESIDENTS. PLEASE NOTE THE LOCATION OF
PUBLIC TELEPHONE BOOTHS ON THE MAP.
RESIDENTS LIVING IN PORTSMOUTH MAY OBTAIN COAL BY
CALLING PORTSMOUTH DEALERS, WHILE NORFOLK RESIDENTS SHOULD CALL NORFOLK 28891.
IN ORDER TO OBTAIN PROMPT COAL SERVICE AT A UNIFORM PRICE, ARRANGEMENTS HAVE
BEEN MADE WITH NORFOLK AND PORTSMOUTH COAL DEALERS TO COMBINE THEIR RESPECTIVE
AFTER CAREFUL RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION, IT HAS BEEN
FOUND THAT SOFT EGG COAL WILL GIVE THE MOST SATISFACTORY AND ECONOMICAL RESULTS
IN THE COAL-BURNING EQUIPMENT IN YOUR HOME. IN VIEW OP THIS FACT, LOCAL COAL
DEALERS WILL DELIVER ONLY EGG COAL, AND NOT LESS THAN ONE TON ON ANY ORDER.
THE NORFOLK AND PORTSMOUTH COAL DEALERS HAVE
REQUESTED THAT WE GIVE YOU THIS INFORMATION:
1. ALL COAL DELIVERIES WILL BE FOR CASH ONLY. 2. BE SURE SOMEONE IS AT
HOME WHEN THE DELIVERY IS MADE, AS THE DRIVER MUST BE PAID AT TIME OF DELIVERY.
3. COAL WILL NOT BE DELIVERED THE SAME DAY ORDERED. YOUR ORDER SHOULD BE PLACED
AT LEAST THREE DAYS BEFORE YOU ACTUALLY NEED COAL.
USE OF OTHER HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT
WHILE MANY RESIDENTS HERE WILL BRING WITH THEM
ELECTRIC REFRIGERATORS, GAS STOVES, AND OIL-CIRCULATING HEATERS, YOU WILL BE
EXPECTED TO USE THE KITCHEN AND HEATING EQUIPMENT SUPPLIED WITH YOUR HOME. YOUR
RENT IS BASED ON THE USAGE OF THE EQUIPMENT SUPPLIED, AND IT IS NOT PHYSICALLY POSSIBLE
FOR THE MANAGEMENT TO REARRANGE THE STANDARD HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT TO SUIT THE
TASTE OF EACH INDIVIDUAL FAMILY.
USE OF ELECTRICITY AND OTHER UTILITY SERVICES
ELECTRICITY AND OTHER UTILITY SERVICES AS DESIGNATED
IN YOUR LEASE ARE INCLUDED AS A PART OF YOUR RENT. HOWEVER, THE AMOUNT OF
ELECTRICITY HAS BEEN CAREFULLY BUDGETED TO EACH FAMILY UNIT, AND CARELESS,
WASTEFUL USAGE OF THIS, OR ANY OTHER UTILITY SERVICE, WILL, RESULT IN ADDITIONAL
CHARGES TO YOUR RENT. SELECT BULB SIZES, WHICH WILL ASSURE ADEQUATE LIGHT, BUT
PLEASE DO NOT PERMIT LIGHTS TO BURN DURING THE DAY. IF THE WATER FAUCET LEAKS,
REPORT IT TO THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE AND IT WILL BE ATTENDED TO. CAREFUL USAGE AND
CONSERVATION OF ALL UTILITY SERVICES WILL ELIMINATE ANY POSSIBLE NECESSITY FOR
CHARGES IN ADDITION TO THE STIPULATED RENT.
PRIVILEGES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
OF YOUR NEXT DOOR NEIGHBORS WORK AT NIGHT AND IT IS NECESSARY THAT THEY SLEEP
DURING THE DAY. OUT OF CONSIDERATION FOR THEM, PLEASE KEEP YOUR RADIO TURNED
DOWN AND ELIMINATE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE OTHER NEEDLESS NOISE. PARTIES AND OTHER
CELEBRATIONS WILL BE PERMITTED PROVIDED THEY ARE HELD WITHIN THE LIMITS OF
RESPECTABLE CONDUCT AND DO NOT CREATE A NUISANCE IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. IF YOUR
BEHAVIOR IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD SHOULD EVER BE SUCH AS TO CONSTITUTE A COMMUNITY
NUISANCE AND INVOKE THE CONTINUED COMPLAINT OF YOUR NEIGHBORS, IT MAY BECOME
NECESSARY FOR THE MANAGEMENT TO ASK YOU TO MOVE FROM THE COMMUNITY.
CHILDREN: EVERY CONSIDERATION POSSIBLE HAS BEEN GIVEN
TO THE WELFARE OF YOUR CHILDREN IN THE RUNNING OF THIS PROJECT; PLEASE TEACH
THEM TO RESPECT THE PROPERTY AND TO TAKE PRIDE IN THE CARE OF THEIR HOMES AND
COMMUNITY. FOR EXAMPLE, IT HAS OFTEN BEEN FOUND THAT WITH THE PARENT’S HELP
AND ENCOURAGEMENT, A CHILD WILL BECOME INTERESTED IN A FLOWER GARDEN AND IN THIS
WAY CAN BE TAUGHT TO RESPECT THE FLOWERS AND SHRUBS OF OTHERS.
BICYCLES MUST BE RIDDEN ON THE STREETS ONLY, BUT IT
IS PERMISSIBLE FOR TRICYCLES AND BABY CARRIAGES TO USE THE SIDEWALKS. IT IS
REQUESTED, HOWEVER, THAT TRICYCLES AND CARRIAGES NOT BE ALLOWED TO BLOCK THE
SIDEWALKS AND CREATE A PERSONAL HAZARD.
CATS AND DOGS: CATS AND DOGS WILL BE PERMITTED IN THE
COMMUNITY, IF THEY ARE NOT
RUN LOOSE, DO NOT CREATE A NUISANCE AND COMPLY WITH THE LAWS OF THE COUNTY
GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF PETS. IF COMPLAINTS ARE RECEIVED THAT YOUR DOG HAS BITTEN
SOMEONE OR BARKS ALL NIGHT, IT SHALL BECOME NECESSARY TO MAKE OTHER ARRANGEMENTS
FOR HIS CARE. NO OTHER ANIMALS WILL RE PERMITTED.
Lease Agreement Page 2
PARKING SPACE IS LIMITED, BUT THERE SHOULD BE SPACE
FOR ALL RESIDENTS TO PARK THEIR CARS ON THE FRONT OF THEIR HOMES. NO CARS WILL
BE PERMITTED IN THE YARDS EITHER IN FRONT, OR THE SIDES, OR IN THE REAR OF THE
1. INTERIOR DECORATING:
PLEASE DO NOT DRIVE NAILS OR SCREWS INTO THE WALLS. YOU CAN SECURE VERY
INEXPENSIVELY, A PUSH PIN OR OTHER APPROVED TYPE
OF DEVICE FOR
HANGING PICTURES AND MIRRORS. IF YOU WISH TO INSTALL ANY ADDITIONAL TOWEL RACKS,
GLASS HOLDERS, ETC. IT WILL BE SATISFACTORY TO DO SO IF YOU WISH TO LEAVE SUCH
EQUIPMENT IN YOUR HOME AT THE TERMINATION OF YOUR LEASE. PLEASE DO NOT ATTEMPT
TO CLEAN THE WALLS WITHOUT FIRST OBTAINING ADVICE FROM MANAGEMENT OFFICE AS TO
THE BEST METHOD TO BE USED IN PERFORMING THIS WORK. THE WALLS OR WOODWORK SHOULD
NOT BE PAINTED WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE MANAGEMENT NOR WILL IT BE PERMITTED TO
ALTER IN ANY WAY THE GENERAL DECORATIVE SCHEME OF YOUR HOME. THE FLOORS ARE
HARDWOOD AND SHOULD NOT BE PAINTED, BUT IT WILL BE DESIRABLE TO WAX THEM. IT
WILL BE QUITE SATISFACTORY T0 COVER THE FLOORS, IF YOU SO DESIRE, WITH RUGS,
CARPETS OR OTHER APPROPRIATE COVERING.
2. CARE OF YARDS; ALL
FAMILIES ARE REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN THEIR FRONT, SIDE AND REAR YARDS. THIS WILL
INCLUDE PICKING UP PAPER AND OTHER DEBRIS,
SWEEPING WALKS AND
REMOVING SNOW. IT WILL NOT BE PERMISSIBLE TO BUILD A FENCE AROUND THE YARD
SURROUNDING YOUR HOME. IF YOU WISH TO PLACE A PROTECTIVE FENCE AROUND A FLOWER
BED, PLEASE ADVISE THE RESIDENT MANAGER OF YOUR PLAN AND OBTAIN AGREEMENT BEFORE
THE JOB IS STARTED.
SO THAT THE
GENERAL APPEARANCE OF YOUR COMMUNITY WILL BE MAINTAINED ON A HIGH LEVEL, IT WILL
NOT BE PERMISSIBLE TO CONSTRUCT IN YOUR YARD ANY OTHER BUILDING, SHED OR
3. GARBAGE AND TRASH
COLLECTION: A DEFINITE SCHEDULE COVERING THE COLLECTION OF GARBAGE AND
TRASH COLLECTION HAS BEEN WORKED OUT, AND IF YOU ARE NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE
SCHEDULE, YOU SHOULD CONTACT THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE. IF POSSIBLE, IT IS DESIRED
THAT YOU USE A GALVANIZED GARBAGE CONTAINER WITH A TIGHT FITTING LID, OR A
SATISFACTORY SUBSTITUTE FOR SAME. YOUR GARBAGE AND
TRASH SHOULD BE PLACED IN FRONT OF YOUR HOME EARLY ON MORNING OF THE DAYS
OF COLLECTION, AND THE GARBAGE CONTAINER SHOULD BE TAKEN IN AS SO AS POSSIBLE
AFTER THE COLLECTION HAS BEEN MADE. IF POSSIBLE, PLEASE USE TWO CONTAINERS, ONE
FOR GARBAGE, AND ONE FOR
IMPORTANT: KEEP GARBAGE IN A COVERED CONTAINER.
4. GENERAL: ALL RESIDENCES
WILL RECEIVE ON THE AVERAGE THE SAME AMOUNT OF MAINTENANCE. YOU WOULD RECEIVE IF
YOU WERE RENTING A PRIVATE HOME ELSEWHERE. YOU WILL BE EXPECTED TO CARE FOR THE
GROUNDS AROUND YOUR HOME, AND WILL BE EXPECTED TO PLANT FLOWERS AND SHRUBBERY.
UNIFORM RULES GOVERNING THE AMOUNT OF SPACE THAT MAY BE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE
WILL BE ISSUED AT A LATER DATE. YOU WILL BE EXPECTED TO KEEP YOUR HOME IN A
WHICH WOULD REFLECT YOUR
INTEREST AND PRIDE IN IN YOUR HOME AND WILL ADD TO THE ATTRACTIVE APPEARANCE OF
THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY. WILLFUL ABUSE OF YOUR RESIDENCE OR THE EQUIPMENT IN YOUR
HOME WILL RESULT IN AND EXPENSE ASSESSMENT TO COVER THE RESULTING DAMAGE. WHILE
OUR MAINTENANCE MEN ARE WILLING TO COOPERATE WITH YOU IN EVERY RESPECT, YOU
SHOULD RE WILLING TO PERFORM THE LITTLE JOBS AROUND THE HOME, WHICH CAN BE
SERVICED BY THE MAN OF THE HOUSE.
IT WILL NOT BE ADVISABLE FOR YOU TO MAKE ANY REPAIRS
OR ADJUSTMENTS TO THE KITCHEN EQUIPMENT WHICH REQUIRE THE ATTENTION OF A TRAINED
SERVICEMAN. A RESIDENT UNACCUSTOMED TO THE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF THIS
EQUIPMENT MAY CAUSE MORE DAMAGE BY ATTEMPTING TO CORRECT THE FAULT, AND THIS
WORK REQUIRES THE SERVICE OF WELL—TRAINED PERSONS.
5. SERVICE REQUESTS: ALL
SERVICE REQUESTS SHOULD BE MADE AT YOUR MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE OFFICE
BETWEEN THE OFFICE HOURS 8:30 a.m. AND 5:00 p.m. EXCEPTING SATURDAYS WHEN THE
OFFICE HOURS WILL BE FROM 8:30 a.m. TO 12:30 p.m. EMPLOYEES OF THE AUTHORITY
WHOM YOU MAY MEET ON THE STREET WILL NOT BE PERMITTED TO ACCEPT YOUR SERVICE
REQUESTS, AND ALL SUCH REQUESTS MUST BE MADE AT THE OFFICE. IN THE EVENT 0F AN EMERGENCY
SERVICE REQUEST, AFTER OFFICE HOURS, IT WILL BE POSSIBLE FOR YOU TO CONTACT ONE
OF OUR MAINTENANCE MEN WHO LIVES IN THE C0OMMUNITY. YOU WILL BE ADVISED AT A
LATER DATE BY SPECIAL BULLETIN THE NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE DESIGNATED SERVICE
PERSON. THE PERSON WILL NOT ACCEPT ANY SERVICE REQUESTS AFTER OFFICE HOURS WHICH
ARE NOT OF AN EMERGENCY NATURE OR WHICH COULD HAVE BEEN ATTENDED TO DURING THE
6. PLUMBING: IF YOU HAVE
A LEAKY FAUCET OR ANY OTHER PLUMBING TROUBLE REQUIRING SERVICING, PLEASE REPORT
SAME IN THE USUAL MANNER, TO THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE. COFFEE GROUNDS SHOULD BE
EMPTIED IN THE SINKS, AND CHILDREN SHOULD BE TAUGHT NOT TO DROP ARTICLES OF ANY
DESCRIPTION IN THE TOILETS. IF IT SHOULD BE NECESSARY TO RENDER SERVICE, AND IT
IS FOUND ON INSPECTION THAT THE FAULT IS DUE TO NEGLIGENCE. A CHARGE SHALL RE
MADE FOR THE WORK PERFORMED.
7. MAINTENANCE CHARGES:
NO CHARGE WILL NE MADE FOR MAINTENANCE REQUESTS THAT ARE A RESULT OF NORMAL WEAR
AND TEAR. HOWEVER, A CHARGE WILL BE MADE WHERE IT IS FOUND 0N INSPECTION THAT
THE NECESSARY REPAIRS ARE DUE TO CARELESSNESS OR NEGLIGENCE. A PARTIAL LIST OF
SUCH MAINTENANCE CHARGES FOLLOWS:
1. TOILET STOPPAGE (WHERE STOOL IS REMOVED) $2.50
2. TOILET STOPPAGE (WHERE OPENED BY AUGER OR PLUNGER) $1.00 3. BROKEN WINDOW $.50
8. ELECTRIC SWITCH OPERATION:
THERE IS LOCATED IN YOUR HOME, A MASTER SWITCH THAT CONTROLS ALL OF THE ELECTRIC
CIRCUITS. THIS SWITCH IS OF THE OVER-LOAD TYPE, AND REPLACES THE OLD STYLE FUSE
BOX. IN THE EVENT OF AN OVER-LOAD OR A SHORT CIRCUIT, THIS SWITCH WILL AUTOMATICALLY
OPEN. IN SUCH AN
EVENT, YOU CAN RECLOSE THIS SWITCH, BY PUSHING THE SWITCH HANDLE PAST THE
“OFF” POSITION, THEN RELEASE AND RETURN TO THE ‘ON’ P0SITION. IF THIS
SWITCH REFUSES TO STAY CLOSED, AND YOU HAVE N0 LIGHTS, YOU SHOULD REPORT SAME TO
YOUR RESIDENT MANAGEMENT OFFICE.
9. REMOVAL OF ASHES:
PLEASE DO NOT PERMIT THE COAL ASHES IN YOUR SPACE HEATER OR STOVE TO PILE UP TO
THE LEVEL OF THE GRATE. THIS CONDITION WILL CAUSE THE GRATE TO BURN OUT AND WILL
RESULT IN A CHARGE TO YOU TO COVER THE GRATE REPLACEMENT. CLEAN OUT THE ASH PAM
EVERY DAY AND YOU WILL PROTECT YOUR GRATES, AND YOUR STOVE WILL DRAW MUCH
BETTER. PUT THE ASHES WITH YOUR OTHER TRASH, SO THAT IT MAY BE COLLECTED EACH
WITH THE SCHEDULED ASH
AND GARBAGE COLLECTION. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD ASHES BE DUMPED AROUND
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES: YOUR
RESIDENT MANAGER WILL BE GLAD TO WORK WITH YOU AND ADVISE YOU IN TOUR SOCIAL
PLANNING. HE WILL BE ASSISTED BY OUR SOCIAL AND RECREATIONAL DIRECTOR, AND
MEMBERS OF THE STAFF. HOWEVER, IT IS NECESSARY THAT A LARGE NUMBER OP VOLUNTARY
WORKERS BE AVAILABLE. IF WE ARE TO HAVE IN OUR COMMUNITY THE SOCIAL AND
RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THAT ARE NEEDED AND DESIRED. IF YOU HAVE THE TIME TO
ASSIST IN SUCH A PROGRAM, WILL YOU PLEASE ADVISE YOUR RESIDENT MANAGER, AS YOUR
ASSISTANCE WILL BE GREATLY APPRECIATED. IT IS NOT NECESSARY THAT YOU HAVE ANY
SPECIAL TRAINING OR EXPERIENCE IN THIS TYPE OF ACTIVITY, AS SPECIAL TRAINING
CLASSES WILL BE CONDUCTED AT STATED INTERVALS.
IF YOU HAVE HAD ANY PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE IN, OR ARE WILLING
TO SERVE IN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING CIVIC DEFENSE ORGANIZATIONS, WILL YOU PLEASE
REGISTER AT THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE. YOUR NAME WILL BE TURNED OVER TO THE LOCAL
DEFENSE CO-COORDINATOR WHO WILL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUCH
ORGANIZATIONS IN OUR COMMUNITY. 1. AUXILIARY POLICE
3. AIR RAID WARDEN
4. DEMOL1TION SQUADS
5. BLOCK MOTHERS
IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR US TO ANSWER ALL OF THE QUESTIONS WE SHOULD LIKE TO
ANSWER RELATIVE TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF YOUR HOME HERE. WE WILL ISSUE SPECIAL
BULLETINS FROM TIME TO TIME, AS CONDITIONS DICTATE, TO ADVISE AND SUPPLEMENT THE
INFORMATION GIVEN HEREIN. HOWEVER YOU WILL BE WELCOME AT THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE
AT ALL TIMES TO DISCUSS ANY PROBLEMS AFFECTING YOUR RESIDENCE HERE.
PLEASE DO NOT BECOME UPSET OR MISLED BY ANY WILD
RUMORS WHICH MAY AFFECT YOUR RESIDENCE HERE. GO TO THE RESIDENT MANAGER’S
OFFICE FOR ACCURATE INFORMATION OR COUNSEL, AND YOU WILL FIND YOUR MANAGER READY
AND WILLING TO CONSULT WITH YOU AT ALL TIMES.
End of Lease Agreement
from PUBLIC WORKS for February, 1943
Improvements for Large War Housing
in Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia
HARRY W. ALEXANDER
Manager for Harland Bartholomew and Associates
Discussion of the engineering
problems encountered in designing and
constructing the municipal improvements for an 8400-dwelling unit project.
ONE of the most acute housing situations in the entire country developed in the Hampton Roads Area shortly after the vast naval expansion was initiated as part of the National Defense Program. Despite strenuous activities on the part of private developers and the local public housing bodies, the supply of new housing fell far behind the rapidly expanding need. The entrance of this country into war in December 1941 made it immediately apparent that a large public housing program must be initiated and carried to completion at the earliest possible moment.
As soon as a determination had been made by Washington authorities as to the number of dwelling units needed in the Hampton Roads area, a program was drawn up allocating the dwellings between Newport News, Norfolk and Portsmouth, the principal communities affected. In developing this program, two primary considerations were kept in mind: First, the urgent necessity for speed; and second, avoidance of post-war municipal headaches because of an oversupply of permanent housing no longer needed as naval activities lessened. These considerations led to the decision to erect pre-fabricated, demountable family dwelling units. The Federal Works Agency was in charge for the Government.
The original program contemplated a total of 16,700 dwelling units distributed as follows: Newport News, 5200; Norfolk, 6500: and Portsmouth. 5000.
Subsequently, this program was revised, and at present there are 3400 dwelling units under construction in Norfolk and vicinity and 5000 in the vicinity of Portsmouth. This article will be confined to the work being done in Norfolk and Portsmouth.
Early in January, 1942, the Federal Works Agency, through Rufe B. Newman, Assistant Administrator, entered into an agreement with Harland Bartholomew and Associates of St. Louis to undertake the engineering and architectural work involved in the construction of these projects. R. Stuart Royer, consulting engineer of Richmond, Virginia, was associated with the St. Louis firm on this work. Sites were selected and surveys begun early in February.
Four separate projects make up the program in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area. The largest of these projects is located just outside the city limits of Portsmouth and consists of 4250 dwelling units for white occupancy. Adjacent to this site and partially within the City of Portsmouth is a Negro project consisting of 750 dwelling units. The third project lies just to the east of the City of Norfolk and comprises 2600 dwelling units for white persons while the fourth project lies entirely within the city limits of Norfolk and consists of 800 dwelling units to be occupied by Negroes.
Because no one could anticipate the housing needs of the area after the war, it was decided to plan each project in such a manner that, if the houses were later removed, the municipal improvements would be adaptable to normal subdivision development and the money spent in their construction would not be wasted. At the same time the need for speedy construction and economy was fully realized.
The planning problems include those encountered in designing complete self—contained communities ranging in size from one covering 900 acres and having a population of approximately 17,000, to the smallest of the four which embraces 128 acres and which will have a population of 3,000. In addition to the dwelling units, each of the four projects is to be provided with school facilities, commercial centers, fire stations and buildings for management and social activities.
Following consolidation, by executive order of the President, of the numerous Federal housing agencies into the National housing Agency early in 1942, all war housing contracts were executed by Region III of the Federal Public Housing Authority, Oliver C. Winston, Director, and the regional office took over the direction of the entire Hampton Roads program. A sub—regional office was subsequently established in Norfolk under the direction of George L. Reed to coordinate work with all projects.
This article is concerned primarily with the
engineering features of the municipal improvement work, and no attempt will be
made to describe the house erection, the various aspects of which have been
discussed in other publications.
Roadway and Surface Drainage
Design and Construction
Speed and economy of construction were controlling factors in the design of the roadway and drainage systems. The Norfolk sites were located principally in areas that had been farmed and cultivated to such an extent that they were comparatively well drained, and the water level in most instances was from four to six feet below the surface of the ground. Because of this fact, it was decided to use wood curbs on the minor streets and concrete curb and gutters on the main streets, and to take care of the drainage by means of large open ditches on the perimeter of the project, supplemented by auxiliary feeder ditches extending through the rears of the projects where necessary.
The Portsmouth sites were poorly drained, and the ground water level, in some cases, was within eighteen inches of the surface. Because of this, this project was designed with large drainage ditches from four to eight feet deep, located in the center of the main thoroughfares, with 20-foot roadways on each side. Thus, the drainage ditches serve as a median strip for dividing the lanes of traffic on the principal thoroughfares. These main ditches were supplemented by others around the perimeter of the project and by interior ditches running through the project wherever site conditions warranted the use of them. Curbs were omitted from ill streets except the main thoroughfares, which had concrete curb and gutters, and surface drainage was taken care of by means of open ditches between the edge of the roadway and the sidewalk line, 2 ft. deep and 2 ft. wide at the bottom.
Because of the extreme flatness of the land and the low elevations (12 to 15 feet above mean sea level) it was necessary to use extremely flat grades in all eases. Where curbs and gutters were used, grades were as low as 0.2%, and where open ditches were used it was often necessary to limit the grades to 0.1%. This practice is normal for this area; if higher rates of grade had been used, it would have necessitated an excessive amount of storm sewer or drainage ditches, which would not have been at all desirable. The drainage ditches were all installed as soon as possible, and they proved to be exceedingly valuable during the construction period. During the month of August there was fourteen inches of rainfall within a period of ten clays, and although the ditch systems were not complete at that time, they functioned enough to prevent serious damage, and they carried away the surface water so that construction could be resumed without undue delay.
The proper surfacing of the roadways presented a rather difficult problem because of the huge amount of materials involved plus the fact that other defense work in the area was taxing all available sources of supply. This made it necessary to attempt to secure independent local sources of material which could be trucked directly to the sites. After a diligent search, 4 sources of sand and clay were finally located. On the Portsmouth side, a sand-clay pit, meeting the requirements of the Virginia State Highway Department, was found within twenty miles of the sites. On the Norfolk side a suitable supply of sand-clay was located approximately four miles from the projects. This material was composed of five per cent clay, ten per cent silt, thirty-five per cent fine sand, and fifty per cent coarse sand.
The sand-clay material is mixed at the pit with a shovel as it is loaded, and placed at optimum moisture content so as to get the best possible compaction. After it has been deposited on the sub grade at the site, it is thoroughly disked and graded and compacted with a sheeps-foot roller, after which the mechanical grader is used, and final compaction is obtained with a seven- ton roller.
It was originally planned to surface all of the main thoroughfares with a one-inch plant-mixed bituminous surface and to seal the minor roads with a bituminous seal coat. Because of the scarcity of bituminous materials and the consequent restrictions placed on their use by the Bureau of Public Roads, it was found necessary to limit all surfacing to a seal coat, which consisted of a prime coat of 0.3 gallon of tar per square yard. After the prime coat has set, an additional application of 9.4 gallons of tar per square yard is applied and the surface is covered with 40 to 50 pounds of No. 9 stone chips, after which the surface is rolled with a seven-ton roller to obtain final compaction.
At the time this article is written, the roadway surface has not been in use long enough to determine definitely how it will stand up under traffic, especially in spots where sub grade conditions are poor. However, as stated previously, inability to get sufficient quantities of the suitable materials usually used in this area dictated its use. Furthermore, it was felt that after the war, this material could, if necessary, be stabilized with either cement or bituminous material.
The street systems of all projects were co-ordinated with the municipal and county highway systems to facilitate the flow of traffic to and from the projects. Purely local streets serving only the residents were given widths of 26 feet; main thoroughfares have roadway widths of 36 feet, and a few thoroughfares were planned with 100 feet right-of-way with two 20-foot roadways on either side of the center drainage ditch. The street system was planned so as to concentrate traffic on a few main thoroughfares and discourage it from using the minor residential streets. The roadway surfacing was eight inches thick on main thoroughfares and six inches in the minor streets and courts.
Where wood curbing was used, it consisted of creosoted 2” x 12” No. 2 yellow pine planks attached to creosoted 2” x 4” stakes 2 feet long and spaced five feet apart. After line and grade had been established, the stakes were driven by a hammer operated by a portable air compressor. It is realized that this type of construction is more or less temporary, but its use eliminated the serious problem of securing aggregate for concrete (a critical material in the Hampton Roads area) and to date the installations have proven satisfactory.
On those streets with side ditches, wooden bridges were designed to provide access from the roadway to the sidewalk and dwelling units.
The construction of drainage ditches was carried out in advance of the other site improvement work in order to provide material needed for fill under the houses and to lower the ground-water table. It is planned to seed or strip-sod the side slopes of the ditches to reduce erosion and maintenance costs as much as possible.
Concrete pipe and laminated wood culverts were used
to carry water under the roadways and to ditch outlets. The wood culverts
(supplied by the Armco Drainage Products Association) were substituted for metal
and reinforced concrete pipes in order to save on critical materials.
A Portsmouth street, showing foot bridges.
Sidewalks: The original design called for
four- foot concrete sidewalks to be built along one side of the street only.
Front walks leading to the houses were to be three feet concrete and rear walks
two feet wide. After construction began, however, the difficulty in securing
concrete in the Hampton Roads area led to a decision to substitute slate
stepping stones for the front and rear walks. This material was not only readily
available in sufficient quantities but had the added advantage of being rapidly
laid and of a high salvage value.
Planning and Surveys
As soon as the first site was selected, early in 1942, topographic surveys were begun and planning of the projects was started. The planning was done on the basis of preliminary information, which later was adjusted to fit conditions as the final topographic information was obtained. Site selection, land acquisition, property line and topographic surveys and planning were all carried on simultaneously because construction was to begin at the earliest possible time.
On the two small projects, complete plans and specifications were prepared and bids were taken on a Unit price basis. The first contract was awarded on April 6, 1942.
As a time-saving measure on the two large projects, 200-scale site plans and
200-scale sewer and water plans, together with complete details, specifications,
several typical 50-scale block plans and an estimate of the amount of work
involved, were prepared as a basis for bidding and award of contracts. When bids
were called for, no satisfactory bids were received, principally because of the
large amount of work being done in this area, and as a result, contracts for
these projects were awarded on a cost-plus- fixed-fee basis. The last one being
signed May 6, 1942.
The Sewerage Systems
Plans for the sewer systems on all projects were co-ordinated with the Hampton Roads master plan for sewage collection and treatment as developed by the Hampton Roads Sanitation Commission. This long-range plan was designed to meet the anticipated needs of the Hampton Roads area brought about by the unprecedented influx of new population and the urgent necessity of eliminating the pollution of tidal waters in and adjacent to the several communities in this area. Financed in part by Federal funds and iii part by local bond issues, the Commission’s program will be carried out over a period of several years.
Inasmuch as the master plan provides for ultimate treatment, of all sewage originating in the area, it was deemed inadvisable to provide separate treatment for the sewage from the various housing projects and their outlet points were located so as to connect to existing or proposed sewers so that final disposal would be in accordance with the Commission’s program.
Sanitary Sewer System: Two important factors influenced the design of the sanitary sewer system. First, the flat, ground necessitated the use of extremely flat grades in all cases; and second, wet ground conditions made it imperative to reduce the amount of deep cut to an absolute minimum. Poured asphalt joints were used on all sewers over four feet deep. House connections were laid with cover as low as two feet at critical points.
Sewage from the 900-unit Norfolk site is conveyed into an existing pumping station. The 3,000 unit Norfolk site has three pumping stations, and final disposal is through a 16” cast-iron force main into a 27” gravity sewer now under construction by the City of Norfolk.
The 750-unit and 4250-unit projects in Portsmouth have two pumping stations
which outlet into a 27” gravity sewer, which in turn outlets into an off-site
pumping station under construction by the Federal Works Agency, which lifts all
the sewage through a force main into an existing city sewer.
Since the ground-water level was only from two to four feet below the surface of the ground and because the soil consisted of silt and sand with occasional scams of clay silt, the sewer construction was extremely difficult and required the use of a huge amount of well points, sheeting and heavy equipment. On practically all sewers over six feet deep well- points were necessary, and on the deepest lines it was often necessary to provide two parallel lines of well- points in order properly to dewater the trenches. One of the contractors used well-point equipment consisting of a header with well-points attached to it by means of flexible rubber hose that worked exceedingly well on sewers up to ten feet deep. The trench was excavated by machine to ground water level, and the well points were then inserted along the side of the trench to the required depth. After dewatering, the balance of the cut was made by hand.
A technical discussion of the design features of the
sewer system and sewage pump stations will be given in the second part of this
Water Distribution System
The Norfolk projects tap existing water mains of adequate capacity adjacent to the sites, and no special problems were involved on these sites. The Portsmouth projects are located a considerable distance from the city pumping plant, and in order to provide an adequate water supply it was necessary either to construct additional mains from the pumping plant or to tap the city low-pressure main adjacent to the project and provide a pumping station to give the required pressure. This problem was worked out on the basis of the latter alternative in co-operation with the City of Portsmouth, and a 4 m.g.d. pumping station is to be built on the project site. The project water system and the City system have been interconnected so that in case of emergency both the City and the project systems will be available for joint use.
Progress on the water distribution systems was delayed for a considerable time because of priority difficulties and restrictions of the War Production Board. At their request the water distribution systems were redesigned and pipe sizes, hydrants, valves, corporation cocks and other critical materials were reduced to an absolute minimum. Fortunately, the decision to construct a pump station on the Portsmouth site resulted in a considerable saving of critical materials. The distribution system consists of cast-iron pipe with steel service pipe, and brass spuds were used for tapping the mains in place of corporation cocks in order to conserve critical materials. Ground conditions were such that even in laying water pipe it was necessary to dewater the trenches, and in many instances it was necessary to do a large amount of pumping in order properly to install and test the water mains and services.
A technical discussion of the design of the water
distribution system and water pump station will be given in the second part of
Gas Distribution System
Because of the inability of the local gas company in Portsmouth to increase its plant capacity sufficiently to provide service on the two projects located near that city, cooking and hot water heating will be done with coal. One of the projects located within the city limits of Norfolk will be served by the local utility company from their available supply of manufactured gas.
The fourth project, just outside Norfolk, which consists of 2600 dwelling units, will be supplied by a system of liquefied petroleum gas. Non-poisonous natural gas is supplied to each dwelling unit for cooking and automatic water heating from one central station located on a railroad siding bounding the project. Late model automatic storage water heaters and ranges are installed in each unit. Gas is metered to each tenant by individual meters.
The entire system was designed and installed by Modern Gas Company Inc., which together with the associated Rulane Gas Service, inc., are pioneers in supplying large housing projects with liquefied petroleum gases. Natural gas for this project is refined and liquefied for shipment in tank cars at West Virginia plants controlled by the company. Upon arrival at the project siding, it is transferred while still a liquid into storage tanks having a capacity of approximately one month’s consumption. Latest type of automatic steam vaporizing equipment has been installed which will permit the plant to utilize any mixture of Propane and l3utane that may be received. Compressors, boiler, master meter, and regulating equipment are housed in one fire-proof control building, which also has office space for the plant operator.
Approximately 40 miles of underground gas mains have
been installed. Only dry vaporized gaseous gas is distributed in the mains. Gas
is distributed at approximately 10 pounds pressure per square inch. But each
dwelling unit has its own regulator, which reduces the pressure to the six-ounce
pressure required by the domestic appliances.
The overhead electrical distribution systems to serve the four projects is the familiar 4160-volt, three- phase, sixty-cycle, wye-connected common neutral system originating at the 11,000-volt to 4160-volt transformer substations located on each project.
The site plan drawings, which indicate the Street and house layouts were duplicated, and upon these drawings the substation locations were determined from the local public utility’s 11,000-volt availability. The 4160-volt primary distribution system was then indicated on the drawings and correlated with the 120- 240-volt secondary distribution system of wires, which are likewise supported on the electric poles strategically located to enable the electrical contractor to install service drop wires to the dwelling Unit or group of units. In order to secure ample Street clearance for the service drop wires to the houses on the opposite side of the Street from the electric line, it was found necessary to attach them to the gable ends of the housing units. This was found to fit in very well with the interior house wiring layout, which indicated the main switch and load center on the rear wall of the kitchen of each housing unit. It would have been much more advantageous to have had rear electric distribution, with service drop wires direct from pole to service weather head, than the pole lines along the streets; however, because of the site planning layout with court arrangements and block widths unsuitable to rear distribution, it was necessary to place the pole lines along the street. Front the gable ends, service entrance cable was run along the rear of the housing unit under the caves and tapped on the outside of the house to the lead-in wires connected to the line side of the main switch. Where the housing units were coupled in a row, the service entrance cable was extended along the rear in order to connect each family unit.
The original substation and electrical layout plans were predicated on building a standard distribution system to correspond with the local utility’s standards of construction, in order that, after the emergency caused by the war effort, the installations would serve for standard residential systems in case the demountable units were removed and permanent homes constructed upon the different sites.
The original plans were compiled in the winter and spring immediately following the outbreak of war. Following the letting of contracts for construction in late spring, rigid restrictions were imposed on the use of copper, steel, and other metals necessary to the war effort, and it became necessary to redesign the construction plans and details to conserve wherever possible.
Accordingly, wire sizes were reduced to a bare minimum to supply the houses on the basis of 200 watts for each dwelling unit, and poles to support the wires serving the houses within the courts were eliminated. Service cable was extended from the rear of the houses facing the streets to the rear of the houses facing the courts, thereby reducing the pole framing hardware, guying material and wire.
On the remaining poles along the street every effort was made to permit the primary distribution hardware to remain standard except for employing a minimum of metal content; however, the multiple Street lighting circuit and the secondary distribution systems were redesigned for support by Western-Union-style wooden brackets, sometimes referred to as telephone logs, and in this manner considerable steel was eliminated. Wherever possible, anchoring and guying were eliminated, and the screw type anchor was supplanted with a minimum size anchor rod bolted into a creosoted wooden log imbedded in the earth. In some instances the push pole brace was employed to reduce further the amount of steel.
The street lighting system is the multiple cascade type. The master clock connects a section of the Street light control circuit to one of the hot secondary distribution circuit wires, and the lamps within this section are lighted and any street lighting relay within the same section is likewise caused to operate and connect other Street lighting control sections to a hot secondary distribution wire supplied from a convenient transformer and the lamps within these sections become lighted. When all of the relays have been energized, all of the lamps are burning. When the master clock contacts are opened, all of the relay contacts will open and extinguish all lamps, and in case of breakage of the control circuit at any point all of the relay contacts beyond the point of breakage will open and the lamps will not burn. In case of a blackout, a master blackout switch can be opened to instantly extinguish all lamps without disturbing the time clock mechanism. The common neutral wire is employed for the ground or return for the street lighting circuit.
During construction, delays were encountered front
shortages of material and labor and unduly inclement weather. However, every
effort was made to concentrate on strategic areas where houses were in course of
completion and other utilities were available for immediate usage. As very
commonly found, the houses first available for occupancy were at the opposite
side of the project from the source of electric power, and it was necessary to
complete the main feeder lines extending a mile or more before electricity could
be made available for the houses desired. The local public utility was very
co-operative with regard to supplying temporary electric service in limited
quantities to some houses which were completed before the electrical contracts
Aspects of the Water and Sewer Systems
Sources. Water was supplied to all of the projects from the mains of the city in or near which the site was located.
In the case of the 5000 unit project near Portsmouth, the water was taken from a low pressure transmission main at a pressure of about 15 pounds and by means of pumps on the site the pressure was raised to 50 pounds. The pump station was equipped with three direct-connected centrifugal motor-driven pumps and one pump which can be driven either by motor or gasoline engine. One 4 x 3 inch pump direct-connected to a 20-horsepower squirrel-cage induction motor was capable of delivering 450 gallons per minute, and two 5 x 4 inch pumps direct-connected to 40-horsepower motors were capable of delivering 900 gallons per minute, all against 60 pounds pressure when supplied with water at 15 pounds pressure when the pump is being driven at 1750 revolutions per minute.
The fourth and largest pump was 10 x 8 inches, connected to a 100-horsepower motor, capable of delivering 1800 gallons per minute at 80 pounds pressure when supplied with water at 15 pounds pressure and when driven at 1160 revolutions per minute. This pump was arranged for dual drive by a gasoline engine that develops 160 horsepower at 1650 revolutions per minute, at which speed the pump delivers 2550 gallons at 80 pounds pressure. All pumps were supplied by Fairbanks-Morse.
The pump capacities were chosen so that the smallest pump will carry the light load; either of the two next larger pumps will carry the average day load, and together they will carry the maximum domestic day load. The large pump when motor driven is capable of carrying the maximum day load and, with one of the middle sized pumps, the tire load; and when connected to the gasoline engine it will, when operating at maximum speed, carry the maximum domestic and fire loads combined.
The use of a gasoline engine as a stand-by rather than an elevated tank seemed to be indicated, first by the desire to conserve steel and second by its economy in first cost. An elevated t4nk would have provided more uniform pressure but it was felt that conservation of steel was more important.
Uniformity of pressure is secured through pressure operated switches which automatically start and stop the various pumps as the water demand increases or decreases.
Metering. The water to each project is measured through master meters located at the take-off from the city mains. Individual services are not metered and the cost of water to each tenant is included in the rent.
Because of the fact that high pressure water mains were available on the Norfolk side, no booster pumps were required for the two projects located there.
Distribution Mains. The water distribution systems are based on a demand of 100 gallons per capita daily, with a peak load 200% of average. This is about 30 gallons per capita greater than is usually figured on housing projects of this type, but was arrived at after considering the type of occupants and the fact that none of the services was to be metered, the cost of water being included in the rent. The fire demand was fig. ured at 1050 gallons per minute and this was superimposed on the peak domestic consumption to determine pipe sizes.
The Hardy Cross method of balancing circuits was used to compute the losses in the system. From a map of the site showing the type and location of the houses. The population of each block was determined, and the maximum water demand in gallons per day for each block was figured. These figures were placed within the appropriate block on the map. Then a fire demand was placed at an assumed location on the map. The total demand, fire and domestic, was then determined and equated to 100%. The per cent of demand for each block was determined and a take-off located at some point on the perimeter of the block, usually at the intersection of two streets or two mains.
From these take-off percentages and the total demand, a tentative pipe grid was laid out, and flows were assumed, in percentage, for each reach of pipe. Each circuit was then balanced by the Hardy Cross method and the flow in each reach adjusted accordingly. The circuits were balanced again and a second adjustment made. By this time the circuit balanced within 1% which was considered sufficiently close for this project.
The loss of head between controlling points, such as
the project supply main and the assumed location of the fire, was then
determined by the formula: Intentionally left out.
The system was designed so that the pressure in the mains would not drop below 10 pounds at times of maximum demand.
Construction: Centrifugally cast iron pipe class 150, in sizes from 4” to 14”, was used for the mains. Difficulty in obtaining valves at the start of the project resulted in a partial redesign of the system in Norfolk, with the result that valves were omitted from all hydrant leads.
Mains were laid with 30” of cover and jointed with one of the sulphur compounds.
Two methods of testing were used: Where joints were left exposed, a visual examination was made with the pipe under 150 pounds water pressure. This may seem like an excessive pressure when it is considered that the working pressure will be only about 50 pounds, but the high pressure has the advantage of showing up defects, such as split pipe, which might remain in service at the working pressure for some time, before failing. In some cases the lines were covered before tests could be made and then a leakage test was used. This test required that the leakage from a line be less than 2 gallons per inch of diameter per 1000 feet of pipe per hour when subjected to 150 pounds pressure for at least one hour. Few leaking joints were found but the inspection revealed several split pipe which had found their way into the lines and two hydrants which were leaking badly due to improper assembly.
Service Connections: In all cases the water mains were laid eight feet back of the curb and the service from the main to each unit on the side of the Street adjacent to the main was made with a ¾” galvanized pipe. To the houses on the side of the street opposite the main, the services were carried across the Street in 1” or 1 ½ ” pipe and distributed to the units in and 1” pipe.
It was intended that all connections to the main be
made with corporation cocks and lead goose necks, but due to delay in securing
this material the contractor was permitted to tap the dry main and make his
connections through a swing joint made up of three elbows. For the swing joints,
taps up to 1¼” were used. As soon as corporation cocks and goose necks were
obtained the swing joints were discontinued. For and 1” connections,
corporation cocks of the appropriate size were used. For 1¼” connections a
3-branch connection with three 1” corporation cocks was used. Courts with
sixteen units or less were serviced from a 2” pipe, which was connected to the
main with a 4- branch connection and four 1” corporation cocks. Courts or cul-de-sacs
with more than sixteen units were serviced from a 4” cast iron main through
corporation cocks and goose necks in the usual way.
Design: The sewers were designed on the basis of a water consumption of 100 gallons per capita daily with a peak sewage flow of 250% of average and the sewers flowing half full. Capacities were taken from a flow chart computed from Chezy’s formula using n = 0.015. A minimum velocity of 1.5 feet per second was established and, owing to the flat terrain of the sites, most of the sewers were laid on the minimum grade.
Flow quantities were determined by a house count from the site plan using a figure of 3.2 persons per housing unit. In figuring the flow in a reach of sewer, the sewage contribution along the reach was assumed to have entered the sewer at the upper end of the reach.
A study of the cost of building sewers in the Norfolk and Portsmouth areas revealed that the cost per foot increased very rapidly as depths increased over twelve feet. With this in mind, the topography of the sites were studied and pump stations located to serve the largest possible area and still keep sewer depths to a minimum and force mains as short as possible. This was accomplished with three pumping stations on the Norfolk site and three on the Portsmouth site. Further study reduced this figure to two and placed a City of Portsmouth station adjacent to the site.
Construction: The specifications permitted the use of cement in making joints if they could be kept free of water till the cement has set. This proved difficult because of high ground water and the difficulty in obtaining well points. After considerable trouble with unsatisfactory cement joints, the contractor on the Norfolk site switched to poured joints of the G-K type and eliminated one of his greatest sources of delay.
Difficulty in getting delivery on sheeting and well points delayed construction on the deeper sewers for some time, with the result that the upper ends of nearly all the sewers were completed before the lower sections and mains were started. This is an unsatisfactory and expensive method of construction and was resorted to only because it was felt that time would be saved.
Construction was started on June 18th and completed on November 28th. In this time more than 30.5 miles of sewer and laterals were built, or an average of about 1000 feet a day.
A large part of the trench excavation was in a sand
which would stand at a rather high angle when the water had been removed. These
were ideal conditions for open cut excavation, unwatered with well points, and
much better progress could have been made if more well points had been
At first it was the practice of the contractor to have one crew build main sewer and another build laterals and make house connections. Later this was changed and the same crew which built the main sewers built the laterals and made the house connections.
Pump Stations: The flatness of topography on the sites and the limiting of sewer depths to approximately twelve feet, determined, within rather narrow limits, the amount of sewage reaching each pump station. This made it possible to work out a standard design for all the pump station structures. Variation in length of force mains from the stations and, to less extent, variation in quantity of sewage made it necessary to vary the size of pumps and motors to fit the several stations.
The ground elevation on the site varied between eight and sixteen feet above sea level and about five feet above ground-water level. For this reason it was considered advisable to keep the pump stations as shallow as possible and provide for fluctuations in flow with additional pumps. Consequently three pumps were provided for each station, one pump to handle normal flow, two to care for peak flows, with the third as a stand-by.
To save floor space, the stations were designed with vertical pumps and extension shafts, with the motors set at ground level. This design was carried out at the stations located in Portsmouth, but the contractor for the Norfolk project stations was unable to get satisfactory delivery on this type of pump. Consequently the design was changed and close-coupled vertical pumps substituted. This called for revision of the ground floor plan of the stations to provide better air circulation to the pump floor. This was accomplished by omitting 3 ½ feet of floor from each end of the building and providing the necessary guard rail. Changes in the location of float controls and control panels was also necessary.
The Norfolk project design also called for a main pump station to handle the sewage from the two smaller stations, plus about 0.7 million gallons which reach it by gravity, a total of about 2 m.g.d. This main station is similar to the other two stations but slightly larger and is equipped with three 6-inch pumps rather than 4-inch pumps as in the other stations.
The discharge from this station is pumped through 2100 feet of 16-inch force main to the edge of the site, where it is discharged into a City of Norfolk interceptor and carried to a temporary outlet in the Elizabeth river.
There is an area to the south of the present
developed area at the Norfolk project which may be developed and would naturally
drain toward the project. For this reason the force main from the main pumping
station was made larger than it otherwise would have been. When this area is
developed and the sewage brought to the pumping station, a change in the
impellers of the pumps and possibly the speed of the motors is all that will be
necessary in order for the station to handle the greater flow.
In the aggregate, the municipal improvements described in this article have been designed to serve a community of 35,000 population. More than sixty miles of roads (on an 18 foot basis) are under construction. Forty miles of main line sewers and seventy- five miles of house connections have been laid, and more than forty miles of main water line and seventy- five miles of house connections. Originally scheduled for completion in September, 1942, numerous delays have been encountered, and the completion date is now scheduled for early in 1943. In the meantime, however, houses are being tenanted as fast as water, electricity and sewerage facilities can be provided. In order to avoid delays occasioned by lack of off-site outfall sewers (constructed under another Federal Agency), arrangements were made temporarily to pump sewage from the occupied houses to existing sewers in Portsmouth. Pending arrival of certain electrical equipment and materials, temporary connections were made available by the local utility company.
Contracts for the municipal improvements were awarded to several firms. These firms together with the amount of their contracts are as follows:
Hofheimer Construction Company, Norfolk, Virginia $443,453. (Unit Price Contract)
Virginia-Carolina Electrical Works, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia $46,976. (Unit Price Contract)
Gannett, Eastman & Fleming, Harrisburg, Pa., $1,750,000. (Fixed-fee contract)
Reiss & Weinsier, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, $2,689,952. (Fixed-fee contract)
Calnaught Contracting Corp., New York, New York $474,047. (Unit Price Contract)
Well-point equipment was furnished by the Moretrench Corp., Griffin Well Point Corp., Complete Machinery Company and John Strang, all of New York. Fairbanks-Morse furnished the pumping equipment for the sewer and water pumps. Cast iron pipe was furnished by Lynchburg Foundry Co.
Harland Bartholomew and Associates were represented in Norfolk by Harry W. Alexander, Project Manager. K. 0. Pearson was chief engineer for the firm. R. Stuart Royer, consulting civil engineer of Richmond, Virginia, was associated with the architect- engineers on the design and construction of the site improvements and utilities.