Time Symbolising 1
This section goes into detail in the ancient problem of symbolising time and ritual. Firstly a look at the chaotic night sky and how the got some order in it. The rock-carvings in Evenstorp are good examples of scaling down to Scandinavian reality.
Rock-carvings, Milky Way, astrolabe, logic round, Ariadne thread, astronomy, Antares, Scorpio, Evenstorp's symbolism, Tyr, Edda, Dig Man, LuGal, Eagle, Aquila, yearly round, Orion, Moon suiteTime-law | Calendars | Time symbolising 1 | Time symbolising 2 | Time symbolising 3 |Symbols 1 | Symbols 2 |Symbolising 1 | Symbolising 2 | sitemap | home |
My analysing style I adapted from my foster-father, I believe.
He was a peasant somehow not of the ordinary kind with much of originality in his way of life. Whenever he met a problem, he carefully investigated up and down, in and out, against and with and how it worked. It is natural that I adapted something from his way of thinking.
My blood-brother kept me on earth when I was flying in the blue skies of philosophy. His simple questions "What is it good for?" ... "How much money can it make?" drew me to the world of the ordinary being.
Erik drowned me with laughter when I made comparisons of the above sort. Maybe he would have said that if I become a bald like the Sumerian king it would be easy to stay cool.
The little fiancée of mine learned me not ask for too much and understand that not everyone can fly or be brave. She once hold my hand when I by accident was a sick flying dock on the way out. My little older girl friend shoved me how she by herself had learnt the method with the Ariadne thread. That is how to fly very widely but still always return to earth ... except if too sick to remember the thread.
Those are of course only a few of them who learned me thinking in an ordinary world with ordinary people in majority. Later in my last teens I made my own array to question phenomenon. It was like programming my brain like a computer long before I knew about them. The systems are there in my unconsciousness and filter the impressions and bring them in order in my memory. I need not know how it works, as I do not need either to know how my computer works. That is shortly how I got order in chaos.
Chaotic night sky
This picture shows only a little bit of chaos out of 250000 stars in the entire sky picture.
The lines surround the Milky Way we can not avoid seeing a clear night. Overall we get a little help in orienting using the horizon. The ecliptic we have to learn but some visible stars may bring some order in chaos. This is what we could see in south 21st December 10.44 AM at Oslo.
The dating is of course nonsense in this connection, but we have our conventions. In this aspect it is the same as the night sky we can see a clear night. No order is possible and the number of stars is too big to grasp and keep in mind. It is a good picture of an unorganised brain too.
In my youth we ought to make an astrolabe ourselves. If the observation direction is known no more is needed to "catch a star".
It might have taken ten thousands of years before the thinking human got some order in it. Then they saw that there are regularities when the same constellation comes back at a certain time. That conclusion needs that they have named and used some stars together in a constellation that have been a convention among many people. A convention exists only when some people carry it or it is in use.
We have to remember that they have "painted the constellations" in the sky and they are not more than virtual reality. Some people have difficulties in keeping apart reality and virtuality and others have problems with language.
Today was on the news-bill a text: "Why is the serial killer in Sweden?" In our language we could also understand the words as "a killer of series". So I said to people that of course he is killing series and specifically those bad TV-series. Our language has many double meanings and we have to be "within flow" always to understand.
Some have difficulties by nature, others are foreigners who translate word by word. Then we have those with autism that cannot understand the underlying meanings and have a feeling they are outside the ring of understanding people. It is always a matter of staying in the round, should our ancestors have told us.
In our European languages the original Gaelic had an opposite syllable or word order than other German languages and English has preserved it. That kind of convention creates the difference between languages. We understand and do not understand at the same time.
Our problem with ancient astronomy is that nothing is in real use and most of it is forgotten or mixed up or reformed to astrology. The only common part is the ecliptic and the cyclic moon appearing. We have to reconstruct the logic round from pieces of events.
The ecliptic is the Ariadne thread and the first events on the round were the four sun positions. With the moon there are twelve more. We can set as many as we want by using stars on the round to mark events and with an underlying myth or programme. Or we can use only a few or as extreme a single and follow it the entire year.
We in Europe from Carnac northwards used surely the directions between southeast and southwest mostly. Especially they preferred southwest as we see from the most significant establishments Carnac and Stonehenge.
I am not an astronomer and leave the scientific analysis of astronomy to others. My concern has been to understand what I see, when I try to explain what we find on the rock carvings. Then I had roughly to understand astronomy and reconstruct Egyptian astronomy and calendar as a guide to our own. Thre is alittle more on the Sumer - Babylonian calendar available and we need both to get the best explanations. My followers can use it for further investigations.
Our European ancestors had to construct their own version of practical astronomy because of the various night skies in south and north. Besides the fact that our climate and production means are different.
Some may say that the symbols and icon are simple, but compared to the characters in Americans series ... ? ... and now they make cartoons of the most, so that man should be in a virtual Disneyland all the time? And they tell us when to laugh too.
This is the Scandinavian night sky of our time.
The section from the toe of Gemini to the corner of Pegasus is the most interesting part. That is because the spring equinox has wandered this way in the last about 6000 years. In this time it has been a convention almost everywhere to set the spring as beginning of the seasons.
Nevertheless, our twelve zodiac signs are of no use, because they are of late origin. Some of the old cultures changed fix-star seldom while other followed the figures we know. Others had their own cultural symbols and we have got many of them to our carvings.
However we do not know whether they just told about what they experienced during travels and then let it be. Another possibility is that traders brought the news and we can never tie them to more than the places where they occur.
In many cases we can then date the carvings and other associated items from these pictures by counting back or forth in precession. The double check is then with known cultures and events. During the third millenium the best sources about the prosaic life we find in Sumer. Egypt with many pictures during second millenium is giving us visible evidence about the astronomy.
The last millenium is much influenced by the Aegean sphere and indirectly the Ionian cultures in Anatolia and of course to the Phoenicians. We have to know all these cultures to cover the period 4000 BC to AD. Still, we have that unknown period of megaliths that we only can understand by seeing analogies with the Near East.
The opposite stars of the spring equinox were also important as we see from some of our ground groves, the Senenmut calendar and the Ramadan methodology.
The equinox has wandered from Tab to Virgo in the last 6000 years. Antares in Scorpio is an important fix star since several calendars refers to this around 3100 BC. Our ground groves are made with the moon in this star. On some Egyptian palettes we also see a scorpio as symbol of spring season. I use these hobby star maps because the constellations in them are near to what we find on our carvings.
The carving at Evenstorp is the most pedagogic of all carvings we know.. The ritual calendar may be dated to the slab cist period around 2000 BC. Firstly a look at the round tied to the early zodiac. Then a look at the moon symbolism and Ramadan.
We also leave the extremes in interpreting, such as some believe that our ancestors were primitive beings. The other extreme I read about today:
"To get contact with the invisible Mights they knocked pictures in the rocks ... Through the pictures the sun god and the Mights of the rock unites in a holly meeting heaven and earth ... They carved loving pairs intending to achieve resurrection".
I think they sow corn to achieve resurrection, since we are born new every second ... For the last time about carvings I am practical and near my early world in spite of all my studies and readings in life. Even today very few think in the intellectual way or search for the supernatural. Most of us in our daily life we stay with the superficial. We can grip it and leave chaos to some day we have time for it.
I think mankind has always known the sources of life are the marriage between earth and sun. It is easy as that. Our place and work are to care for at first the little world around us. Not to forget that without the big world, we will not get peace for the future of mankind.
Neither archaeologists nor we others have interest in too imaginative interpreting. If we want to save our carvings we need that ordinary people learn about them and get a desire to protect them in every sense. Only seemingly real knowledge can be the right argument.
Those searching for intellectual substance have to careful analyse small sections and make a puzzle of them and discover the wisdom of our ancestors.
Usually I use the picture of Tyr, the one-armed former hero as example. He was once a strong young man with muscles and less brain. Since he did not always catch all, they talked him to set his arm in the gap of Fenrisulven, when they tied the beast up with words, of course. So, Tyr got wiser and knew what pain is and was then suited to be the judge. If it is not wisdom what else could it be? They gave a hint that it was a play with words and a careful analysis of man's mind and behaviour.
So let us try to understand what they say:
The first picture I saw was only this section from the centre of the rock.
I thought: "This is the Storkman ... not too foolish actually. In the Edda they tell about the Auerking understood to be the stork.
(I use the name Edda as a rationalisation for the literary heritage before 1300 AD. It concerns myths and manners of the very root in the Scandinavians).
Misjudging the level of abstraction in this picture made to be understood also by the small one is easy. If we look at the big figure closely, we see they made it by glyphs and it is saying more than its appearance.
Further we can compare with the early custom to name the leader Big Man as Sumerian LU GAL "man big". Presumably we must take "big" with some salt. Was Goliath or David big? Or were both big? Some prefer muscles other prefer brains.
More concrete the "big man" was surely a special constellation as we see on the picture below. Besides the figure is a one stroked footprint and surely meaning he is the leader. The four circles say it was during four quarters. I read the symbols "Is in four rounds".
Since they counted moons the big figure in suite of seven could be seen as the New Moon, but since there is three cupmarks it is surely meant as the asterism Auriga. In practice there is no great difference when we count moons ore step forward on the round.
On this section of a star map the situation is simplified. In reality only the two last icons are excluded. They are Libra and Scorpio for harvest time.
We see the big man in several places and so also a big bird. Seemingly they introduced it on several occasions during time and are difficult to date. We know about bird idols in Near East from the very beginning. Egyptians tell about the "big cackling one". Mostly I associate to that coming out of the egg and screaming the primal scream meaning "Here I am" or "Why didn't I stay in the warmth".
Then we have the very big bird carrying the sun in Egypt and the entire Near East. The
Eagle or Aquila was an idol in the neo-Hittitian temples. Later myths tell about the sun eagle. However, the Evenstorp Birdman associates more to a Storkman or a Craneman. In Bohuslaen there are some rock images indicating that the Cock early became a symbol too. Not to forget the Spartans and Etrurians wearing helmets in shape of the cock's crest.
This little carving is one of several bird feet from the Woods Haugsbyn and the last millenium BC ... the introducing of hens and the cock must have been a fascinating event the first morning?
The archaeologists maybe disagree, but on one of my private signatures we see two newcomers on our rocks at the same timethe cat and the hen. This picture is difficult to date as a small section between many figures from different times.
For Egypt the lion was a real threat in the hot summer and we may imagine that just they set the lion on the sky. In fact they had two and the other was below Libra.
In Sumer the lack of rain was a threat and it is natural they set a symbol for it in the sky. It was the Naked goddess we cannot be sure of her name but it was surely Auriga riding on the heavenly Watergate. She was the leading in agriculture and on the picture in the centre at Evenstorp she talks with the sun ... we can only imagine who is the most angry in a hot summer.
Usually we get the rain and thunder in the end of July in the women s' week as we say. It is a natural weather caused by that summer lift water and warmth to higher layers. Now in December old folk memory say that if Anders 30th November is frozen, the Christmas will be wet.
Modern statistics prove that too and the cause is that last warmth of summer overtakes the first cold period. Sometimes the peasant's almanac has the right words and sometimes not. Part of the cause is that we in the beginning imported almanacs from Germany and they do not fit our climate. That kind of need for acclimation is surely a very old happening in cultural influence.
Nevertheless, She is the lady. For me it is enough to call her She, but she had surely many names. Sometimes I use a Nordic Gyr since we have some old place names telling that. I read her name "give out" with the logic from my studies in language. The Danish Gyrting is perhaps a memory of the thing at Candlemas in her name. The Celts use the word Imbolic for that and in late Upland it was Thing of Disa..
She is the Lady of Suite and to our days it has been custom to have a fore-rider in suites. In making new life, it is naturally the Engender Perseus in front. Then the suite in front of the leader is the coming moons with agriculture. We know from Sumerian texts that the synonym for "tool was leg". The Hittitian society subordinated the feet to lowest ranks.
Here we see her suite and the aldermen were a little more than legs ... but if we see it that abstractly the workers in our companies are just legs. They are not supposed to have too many ideas themselves. There is some pan-human behaviour in all this.
This is the asterism Aurigae or the same as Gyr. It is from the Garden at Haugsbyn.
The foot PA is drawn on the three stars of Auriga saying "begin here". The three stars were the symbols for the Kid or the Child which sometimes was a child and sometimes a lamb. Then we can date the picture to the same time as ground groves with beginning ca 3100 BC. It is one of the oldest carvings in Haugsbyn and in this case we have can use the precession in dating.
At Evenstorp she has five fingers on the right hand and four on the left. That may mean she grips Cancer symbolised with five fingers and in 90 degrees is Fish, so that she is in the middle. They symbolised one Fish maybe as the Fireman with four as the symbolic number, while three symbolise Auriga. We see some symbol and that might be a method to decide the astronomic position.
There might be some game with words here because in Danish the number four is fire and very near fyr which is the Danish word for fire. The old Anglo-Scandinavian languages were near each other and also near some Celtic dialects.
Whole the time I speak about our Scandinavian culture, but in the time we investigate we had our roots deep in Europe. The Danish Bronze Age was the same as Northern Germany or Saxony. Further back the megalith culture has roots to France and perhaps to the Alps too. But here I concentrate on the area I have the material from ... if we spoke in a pure space-time it would be right to use the word "farther" for the space-time back to the roots.
This picture shows the same with a few more explanations.
I can see it from my window in southwest when the constellations pass in a suite in the right time of year. At certain hours they pass one by one in a month. Just now Orion is actual in evening.
In Egypt Osiris were stars of Orion, the old man, the germ to new life all in one idol. In the Edda they say, "Vile the son of Odin avenges his father one night old". The best revenge is to create new life and it is the natural course of the corn when awakening to new life.
At Haugsbyn we find two "corpses". One is a pure corpse on rock 5 and this is more complex from rock 1.
We see a balance "grow or not grow" and behind perhaps a footprint with the heel marked under the surface. We can ask if this were the construction when they once ground the groves since we see something under the head. It can mean it is grinding the earth. The little boat in front is marked in the coming end with two bigger cupmarks for what should be at Scorpio.
If we set Perseus to begin the round at Evenstorp Orion are the three stars on each side of the bend. Here they begin with an empty boat and some separate days before the boat of the twins. That seems to be part of the symbolism as seen in the moon suite.
Asterism as rock-carving
The evidence of star constellations is easiest to see when they pictured it in cupmarks picturing the same as we use today.
A figure like Orion is easily seen, since it consists of bright stars. On rock 5 Thing place Haugsbyn we see this section picturing the drift of the spring equinox in ancient times. We see a clear Orion and Perseus is also near our convention. We see also three stars of Auriga. One of the footprints in the trio has something like a ram horn.
We see more clearly in these symbols from the Woods and that we can date from 1200 BC onwards.
Near Auriga in the Garden we find this choice of supposed star constellations. Figure A being difficult to interpret but we see the same configuration in several places. B is Auriga.
C is Lyre or the Owl. In the Garden we find on a separate rock this figure which might be mirrored. That we see about figures in few cases. Looking up at the stars might be difficult and then write them down. Some of us see things different to normal people. It could also be Dolphin a constellation with a similar configuration.
D is Perseus. Inside the Mother Star-ocean we see E Little Bear and F might be head of Dragon if not the head of Serpent actual after Scorpio in precession.
From Auriga with the footprint we can decide that the season began a spring equinox. From several sources we know they waited three moons for the real spring and descending to Underworld. Perhaps the snipe was the warner already then. From our area we have the old saying, "When we hear the snipe there is enough grass for the mare and filly"
This little bird is besides the hand and beginning of sowing at rock Ronar-spit Haugsbyn.
On this picture it is easier to see that the Cancer is behind constellation Cancer. In Far East they saw a turtle here and we have also some carvings that may be turtles.
This is how we normally picture Crab or Cancer. Observe the ecliptic was lower 5000 years ago and approximately at the head of Water-snake under Cancer.
We saw the Egyptian crown with an IN-spiral in the tuck. Perhaps the Hittitians got inspired to this figure named RAS. It might be the same as northern ANS and the Sumerian "face of Underworld".
On the Evenstorp tuck we can set the circle with a cupmark and the stroked footprint as "the young couple". Then understanding what the hand is doing when it feeds the snake is easy.
Again a good old folk memory from Dal may give us some flesh on the bones.
My mother told me what they were doing at the carvings that are like holes in the rocks. I suppose they make the cup-marks much later than the carvings. They had the cup-marks before they should sow. Then in spring girls and boys went there, when they had been together and lay together.
They had with them seed ... and when it came for the boy he let it drop in a mortar. Then they put some seed in it too and thrust the mix with the rod. Then they throw it into the bin of seed, but it should be young couples who lay together. Best of all it was if they had never done it. Then it grew very well.
Besides the sowing ritual we see some symbols we maybe can understand. It is from the Sumerian Book for Peasants. The three rules and first to open the earth = the picks ... next crush the clods = the footprint PA ... and seek the wet in soil = the negative footprints.
The figures in the left corner are not clear but they might be about the moon ritual as the leading part of the myth. Another alternative is that it is about to lit fires against the night frost ... see more below.
Water-snake continues to curl away to the diagonal-cross which is related to the year divided by eight.
Then here marking August and harvest. The one-stroked footprint symbolises the sun known to be hot in beginning of August ... I remember August mornings with 28 degrees Celsius indoors.
To the year belongs also the moon ritual.
Here they have connected with the round at the ecliptic and tied it to Dog. The boats with strokes shows they were counting days before the crooking. Like in the suite of Auriga there are small differences between the figures. We can give them sound or only set numbers on each. For understanding it is just the same. The 22 strokes we see also at Dalbergsaa and in Gaerdhem Vaestergautland and they might be some counting in periods.
As a whole we see they were only interested in the "season" or the seven or nine moons of growth. Most of the rituals are in spring and looking forward to harvesting.
Later during Bronze Age they got a more detailed calendar and that is only natural. One part is the Parkinson law about automatic growth in bureaucracy in the temples. That means priests innovate more jobs for themselves. The other part is that knowledge increases the programme for the season.
In the river cultures lack of rain and too much sun was the curse. In Scandinavia it was perhaps the night frost at least at my latitude. Before the modern ditches the local climate was much wet and that is why we find the sites mostly at hills.
I know from my studies in medieval agriculture that they set meadow-guards to make fires if needed to keep away the frost from the field. It happened that the frost took the guard. My family told always with pride about the estate high on a hill. Especially the summer of 1868 was memorable because the frost did not catch the corn as was case everywhere else.
At Laukeberget Bohuslaen we see symbolism that we can compare to the myth about the apples of Idun. Tjatse took them but it is symbol of the night frost. The story has some humorous passage and was surely popular even if no one knew the allegory.
About the Edda and many other old literatures and poems we can generally say they are not practical. Mostly they are allegories and made for the upper class. The technical skill in writing and elegant formulating is the main aim. Then it is perhaps not so odd that our New Age people search for supernatural answers in old texts and symbols.
The best practice we find in Sumer. In our Nordic sagas some fragments are allegories and structures like the word fights in Edda and Kalevala. We call it debate when two or more sit on a panel and wrangle. The Swedish word for an intensive fight is "munhuggas" = to strike by mouth. Snorre Sturlasson teaches us how to choose the most incredible words to outdo the opponent. A poem could be baffling as when some specialist or debater use French, Latin English in Swedish to cover his own lack of knowledge. This syndrome belongs to many ideological and religious prophets wanting to make them necessary and mystical ...
They wrote the carving in Evenstorp in a style typical for Dal the entire period of making carvings. The documentation by the county museum gives us the archaeological facts we need when connecting carvings and slab cist to the intensive period of trials in agriculture during Cist Age. Besides the finds in the cists we have two ritual pickaxes as natural symbols for the age. Wood or maybe elk-horn were surely used for many real pickaxes. That kind of material is gone forever.
From the facts we can speculate in a possible mission as if some specialist advised the people in making the carving. However as we saw above, they had to make their own star map and round. The rituals have surely continued after the period of agriculture the pollen curves show.
We can decide it from the fact that the folk memory has elements from the cist period. Nevertheless, as told there are very few excavating or even pollen curves from Dal to prove anything. The number of found sickles tells its own story. Nowadays we also know that they might have cultivated vegetables to some extent during the entire cultivating age.