Genetic Genealogy
". . .  it's hard to realize you're living history while it happens . . . .  


As of August 2010 a new, improved, updated Timeline is at ISOGG Wiki


I want to thank all the DNA pioneers who assisted with this Timeline through 2008 and to extend my appreciation to ISOGG Wiki for adapting this to their site and for their dedication and hard work in updating and maintaining it.    At the suggestion of a WIKI editor, I will preserve this original page so that people can refer to it to see how the Wiki has changed over time.

Georgia Kinney Bopp 9 August 2010


This Timeline began when I could not find an informal context - a simple history - to use when called upon to explain the new field of DNA and genealogy to those who knew less about it than I (a beginner in October 2002 - and not a scientist). This contains items I've found as well as contributions by others, primarily Ann P. Turner and participants of the RootsWeb GENEALOGY-DNA discussion list and members of the ISOGG community.  The emphasis here is on “traditional” genealogy - rather than “anthrogenealogy”.  The Timeline also attempts to record the contributions of pioneer genetic genealogy hobbyists who helped make this field respectable before it was accepted by the mainstream genealogy community. A few key DNA milestones not directly related to traditional genealogy are included in the Timeline. 



Before 1980


Mendel, Wilkins, Franklin, Crick, Watson, Kornberg, Sanger, Berg, McClintock, et al.
See Links to related timelines below.

In the fall of 2002, for fun, I looked up the date of first use of a few terms.

genealogy (14th century)
chromosome (1889)
mitochondrion (1901) [other variations entered all referred back to this]
genetics (1905)
nucleotide (1908)
gene (1911)
genome (1930)
ribonucleic acid (1931)
deoxyribonucleic acid (1938)
DNA (1944)
RNA (1948)
mtDNA - "The word you've entered isn't in the dictionary"
A year later it included: mtDNA [refers to] mitochondrial DNA (1964)
Merriam Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, 10th Edition Collegiate® Dictionary
Date is the date of the earliest recorded use in English, as far as could be determined.
(Year later - Collegiate 2003 Merriam-Webster, Inc.- premium service)
2004 Note: The above link still exists but the Collegiate version, including dates, is now part of their premium service


Early 1980's

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) preferred markers for genetic identification [for parentage/paternity testing]


Maternal inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (1980)77:6715-6719
Giles RE, Blanc H, Cann HM, Wallace DC


April 1981

Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome.
Nature 1981 Apr 9;290(5806):457-65
Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJ, Staden R, Young IG
(First report of mtDNA sequencing; now called the Anderson or more commonly the Cambridge Reference Sequence / CRS)


Dr. Kary Mullis conceives and helps develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technology for rapidly multiplying fragments of DNA (Nobel Prize 1993)

June 1984

"American Academy for the Advancement of Science sent a forensic scientist [to Argentina] to make recommendations regarding the identification of the disappeared. Dr. Ana Maria Di Lonardo had a lab with equipment needed for the process, so Mary-Claire King and Di Lonardo worked together to develop a formula for grandparentage determination based on blood analysis. . . . "
Source: http://www.uni.uiuc.edu/~dstone/dis_timeline.html
See also : http://www.hrcberkeley.org/dna/argentina010.html

1984 - Human genetics and human rights: Identifying the families of kidnapped children.
American Journal of Forensics and Medical Pathology 5:339-347.
DiLonardo AM, Darlu P, Baur M, Orrego C, King MC.
(Abuelas de la Plaza de Mayo - Argentina)


Alec Jeffreys of Leicester University . . . . introduction of DNA Fingerprinting . . . .
"The discovery that DNA could be used for identification purposes was made in 1984 by Alec Jeffreys and was soon used by law enforcement agencies." See 1989 below.
http://news.geneanet.org/en/article.php?sid=148 [Savin]


Individual-specific 'finger-prints' of human DNA
Nature 1985 Jul 4-10; 316(6023):76-9.
Jeffreys, AJ, Wilson V, Thein SI

By 1987

Validation studies for RFLP-based DNA technology were initiated and, in 1989, a "DNA only" test battery was introduced (from a lab site; don't know if this belongs here and don't know if dates apply to the field in general or to the specific lab)


Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution.
Nature, 325 (1987), 31-6.
Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking & Allan C. Wilson
("Eve" the common ancestor - mtDNA indicates all humans alive today descend from a single woman 200,000 years ago)
See also:


Alec Jeffreys (who coined the term DNA fingerprinting in 1984) first to use DNA polymorphisms in paternity, immigration, and murder cases. 1989-90 - First use of DNA in a criminal case, using only nuclear DNA. These two may refer to the case described in above 1984 [Jeffreys] link

Late 1980's

An international team of scientists began the project to map the human genome.


The first crime conviction based on DNA fingerprinting (in Portland Oregon).


September 1992

Identification of the skeletal remains of Josef Mengele by DNA analysis
Forensic Science International 1992 Sep;56(1):65-76
Jeffreys A.J., Allen M., Hagelberg E. & Sonnberg, A

October 1992

October-November 1992 NEXUS, Thomas Roderick, Mary-Claire King and Robert Charles Anderson piece on the use of mtDNA and genealogy (they term "umbilical line" to 1972). They also announce a three-part study to determine mutation rates and appeal for paper-documented umbilical lines of ten generations or more. Roderick had been working on the idea for some time prior to this.
[related item] http://genealogy.about.com/library/blchattrans-roderick.htm

February 1994

Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis.
Nat Genet 1994 Feb;6(2):130-5
Gill P, Ivanov PL, Kimpton C, Piercy R, Benson N, Tully G, Evett I, Hagelberg E, Sullivan K.
(mtDNA identifies family of Nicholas II, last Czar of Russia; associated with Anastasia/Anna Anderson mystery although I don't know if that is addressed in the cited publication)
Note: Have not seen source publication; according to another source, the mtDNA testing was completed in 1995

November 1995

Trends in Genetics (Review article)
Volume 11, Issue 11 , November 1995, Pages 449-456
Fathers and sons: the Y chromosome and human evolution
Mark A. Jobling and Chris Tyler-Smith
Summarizes current status of Y chromosome research and predicts future applications (genealogical and other)


Genetic Genealogy, by Helene Cincebeaux, SYLLABUS Lecture Titles, 1996 FEEFHS Minneapolis Convention - (Title found at this site but may have since been removed: http://www.feefhs.org/)


FBI Laboratory begins using DNA in criminal cases, utilizing both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

January 1997

The Cohanim/Cohen/Kohanim study
Y chromosomes of Jewish priests
[Skorecki K, S. Selig, S. Blazer, R. Bradman, N. Bradman, P.J. Waburton, M. Ismajlowicz, and M. F. Hammer. "Y chromosomes of Jewish priests." Nature 2/385(6611)(Jan. 1997): 32.]
Nature - Volume 385 -2 January 1997
Michael F. Hammer, Karl Skorecki, Sara Selig, Shraga Blazer, Bruce Rappaport, Robert Bradman, Neil Bradman, P.J. Waburton, Monic Ismajlowicz
See also: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/israel/familycohanim.html

May 1997

Savin Project. Alan Savin launches the first DNA surname project by a genealogy hobbyist - with Dr. Mark Thomas of University College, London (6 markers). 


Cheddar Man - mtDNA testing establishes that Britain's oldest complete skeleton buried over 9,000 years ago, still has a relative living in Cheddar (Sykes).
Need citation and/or a better link than this one:


mtDNA of Marie-Antoinette does not match Naundorff (who claimed he was her son); later (2001) test on remains of a child believed to be her son match Marie.
Jehaes, et al - European Journal of Human Genetics (EJHG):
Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette
- EJHG 6, 383-395 (30 Jul 1998) [online link not located]
Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette - EJHG 9, 185-190 (08 Mar 2001)
See summaries and other links at  Some sources . . . mtDNA of Marie-Antoinette

November 1998

Jefferson study (Y-chromosome DNA study)
Foster, E.A., Jobling, M.A., Taylor, P.G., Donnelly, P., de Knijff, P., Mieremet, R., Zerjal, T. and Tyler-Smith, C. (1998)
Jefferson fathered slave's last child.
Nature 1998 Nov 5;396(6706):27-8
Nature. 1999 Jan 7;397(6714):32
See also: http://www.monticello.org/plantation/hemingscontro/hemings_resource.html
See also: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/


An introduction to Genetic Genealogy, by Alan Savin. (9 November 1998)



Pearl Duncan, New York author, links her family to the Akuapim people in Ghana (Y chromosome with Hammer).


Sykes & Irven Y surname study (4 markers)
Sykes, Bryan & Irven, Catherine. "Surnames and the Y Chromosome," American Journal of Human Genetics 66 (2000): 1417-19.


Bennett Greenspan, entrepreneur and genealogy hobbyist, develops Family Tree DNA (FTDNA). August - discusses with Michael F. Hammer (University of Arizona); October - sends 24 samples (proof of concept); January 2000 results back; March 2000 started accepting orders (see below).


James L. Sorenson, Utah businessman, discusses genetics and genealogy with Woodward (Brigham Young University) - leading to the Molecular Genealogy Research Project (MGRP), at that time often called the "BYU" project (see 2000), and later known as the "SMGF project" (see 2003).


Sykes develops Oxford Ancestors (OA); formally incorporated 2002



DNA for Family Historians, Alan Savin


Commercial stage begins (FTDNA, OA)
See 2000-2001 Surname Projects below

February 2000

Y chromosomes traveling south: the cohen modal haplotype and the origins of the Lemba--the "Black Jews of Southern Africa"
Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Feb;66(2):674-86.
Thomas MG, Parfitt T, Weiss DA, Skorecki K, Wilson JF, le Roux M, Bradman N, Goldstein DB.
See also: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/israel/familylemba.html

March 2000

BYU begins collecting samples March 6, 2000. As of September 2002, they had about 32,000 samples, mostly from the United States and the United Kingdom. Later transferred to SMGF - see 2003 entry below with link to details.

April 2000

Mumma - first known surname project with a commercial company (FTDNA)

June 2000

Venter and Collins announce sequencing of the entire human genome.

October 2000

Ann P. Turner conducts first known private mtDNA study. Turner and 4th cousin 3 times removed go back in a straight line of females to MRCA Pamela NIMS (b. 1794, MA). As a result of this, Turner begins the GENEALOGY-DNA-L discussion list at RootsWeb.

Note  - add "early" web site pioneers - e.g., Duerinck, Pomery, Garvey (haplogroups), others?

2000-2001 ~ DNA Pioneers Who Began Surname Projects April 2000 - December 2001
Current list of large projects is at

The work that began all this was the January 1997 Cohanim/Cohen/Kohanim study conducted by scientists.  Their interest was not genealogy but it caught the attention of these pioneers (see also their entries above) who worked directly with universities:
(Akuapim) (1999)
(1999) [later founded Oxford Ancestors]
(later 1999) [founded Family Tree DNA]
Most of the below pioneers began with commercial companies between 2000-2001. Unless noted otherwise, all projects are with FTDNA. If information is provided, projects with other companies through 2001 will be included. Most surname projects include several spelling variations, e.g. Johnson, Johnston, etc.
(April 2000) http://www.mumma.org/MummaDNA.pdf
The first surname project with a commercial company

(Aug/Sept 2000) - two samples to a NC lab [5 markers]
For One Family, DNA Provides an Answer
National Genealogical Society [news magazine] January/February 2001 Lena Swann Cusce, pp 47-49

(Sept. 2000 - OA)
(Sept. 2000 BYU, now with RG)
(Dec. 2000 BYU, now with RG)
~2001~ (alphabetical order - month listed if known)
(April 2001) http://freepages.family.rootsweb.com/~allisonellisondna/
http://www.bartondna.info/index.html (RG - later FTDNA)
No web site link (RG)
GLENNON No web site link
http://www.clanlindsay.com/dna_project.htm (Jun 2001 GT/RG)
McCABE http://www.familytreedna.com/public/McCabe/
ROPER  http://www.roperld.com/RoperGenetics.htm 
SKEEN  http://clanskene.org/DNA/intro.htm
(Jan/Feb 2001 - surname/village study) http://www.honoringourancestors.com

FTDNA - Family Tree DNA
OA - Oxford Ancestors
RG - Relative Genetics (GT/RG - GeneTree later purchased by Relative Genetics)

Facts & Genes from Family Tree DNA
June 2, 2003 Volume 2, Issue 5
"At the end of 2001, a year and a half after first offering Genetic Genealogy tests to the public, there were about 100 Surname Projects....
"The [list includes the] first Surname Projects at Family Tree DNA to have enough participants and results so that advantages of DNA testing could be seen . . . . in chronological order through December 31, 2001." See also



Sykes' SEVEN DAUGHTERS OF EVE published. (The concept of mtDNA haplogroups goes back further. See also above, January 1987 Mitochondrial DNA etc.)


Sorenson starts Relative Genetics - initially to handle samples from Molecular Genealogy Research Project (MGRP) [a.k.a "BYU" project, now "SMGF project"]

December 2001

Pioneer DNA surname projects between 2000 and end of 2001 are listed above
FTDNA reports they ended the year with about 100 surname projects [would like data from other companies to include here] *


August 2002

Dennis Garvey is the first to come up with modal haplotypes for “the three main European haplogroups”.
(This was before SNP testing was available to us, but clusters could be seen. Now Athey’s predictor is used by hobbyists.)

September 2002

DNAPrint Genomics [also known as DNAPrint and AncestrybyDNA] offers "BioGeographical Ancestry" (BGA) testing for "recreational genomics" - testing "for percentages of African, Indo-European, East Asian, and Native American ancestry" [their services later added to FTDNA product offerings and then dropped by 2004)] 

October 2002 

This Timeline begins (by Georgia Kinney Bopp with help from the RootsWeb discussion list)

October 2002 

Alastair Greenshields begins www.ybase.org while developing DNA Heritage (see below entry pre December 2003)

November 2002

Dennis Garvey is the first to estimate the ordering of mutation rates for the markers used by the genetic testing companies.

November 2002

Remains of the "unknown child" lost in the Titanic identified using mtDNA

December 2002

Clonaid claims birth of first human clone, baby "Eve." Lots of publicity but no evidence! (27 Dec 2002)

December 2002

FTDNA reports they ended the year with 309 surname projects [would like data from other companies to include here] *


February 2003

Genghis Khan: about 8% of males in Genghis Khan empire region have nearly identical Y-chromosomes.
Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72:717-721, 2003
The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols
Zerjal, et al

March 2003

Kerchner begins first ethnic group study to use BGA, Y-DNA, mtDNA, and traditional research


Molecular Genealogy Research Project (MGRP) a.k.a. the "BYU" project, transferred to Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF).
http://www.smgf.org/history.jspx (History of SMGF)

May 2003

The term "Anthrogenealogy" introduced by FTDNA.
Mentioned in Note 54 in:
Genealogy in the "Information Age:" History’s New Frontier?
Elizabeth Shown Mills
National Genealogical Society Quarterly: Centennial Issue 91 (December 2003): 260-277

June 2003

DNAPrint Genomics (see 2002) test helps investigators to suspect in string of Louisiana murders.

August 2003

"The Human Y Chromosome: An Evolutionary Marker Comes of Age" - Mark A. Jobling and Chris Tyler-Smith  - the "complete" sequencing of the Y chromosome - about 23 million bases out of 50+ million (the unmapped portion is full of repetitive DNA sequences with very few landmarks to anchor them).

August 2003

mtDNA "log" (Kerchner) http://www.mtdnalog.org/ See also October 2004 - http://www.mitosearch.org/


African Ancestry specializes in connecting Y and mtDNA profiles to specific places in Africa.


Trace Genetics specializes in the analysis of Native American ancestry.


DNA Heritage (DNAH) offers Y-Chromosome testing in October 2003 (had lab problems, resumed testing March 2004).

December 2003

Family DNA Tree announces Ysearch - http://www.ysearch.org/

December 2003

Duerinck lists 830 Y-Chromosome DNA Surname Projects Or One-Name Studies (29 December 2003).
FTDNA site reports 750 surname projects as of 2 January 2004.
Would like data from other companies to include here    *


January 2004

Note:  There may be a 2007 policy change – need more details.
National Society Daughters of the American Revolution (NSDAR) first lineage society to announce the acceptance of DNA verification as a proof document.  "Using DNA in Genealogy" . . . . "The Daughters of the American Revolution takes great pride in the authenticity of its genealogical records and, thus, requires each applicant provide documented proof of lineal descent for each generation.  The DAR does, however, allow use of DNA verification as a proof document in the chain of lineal descent."
(Source: Borges, ISOGG director, and member of NSDAR, from letter sent to the Chapters.)

Spring 2004

Bartons form World Families Network (WFN) as a resource for surname project administrators.
Duerinck "retires" his pioneer DNA surname project list; WFN introduces the Surname DNA Projects Database, http://www.dnalist.net/

March 2004

Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF) releases first subset of its database.
http://www.smgf.org/history.jspx (History of SMGF)

October 2004

Family DNA Tree announces MitoSearch - http://www.mitosearch.org/

October 30, 2004

Family Tree DNA's 1st International Conference on Genetic Genealogy [for FTDNA Group Administrators], Houston, TX. About 170 attended. See photos of some of these DNA pioneers at: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~hedgpeth/ftdna/ftdna-conference-p01.htm

Fall 2004

DNA as a research tool for genealogists becomes mainstream enough to interest three publishers (these are also available at Amazon.com and elsewhere):
Trace Your Roots with DNA: Using Genetic Tests to Explore Your Family Tree, Megan Smolenyak, Ann Turner
DNA and Family History, Chris Pomery
Unlocking Your Genetic History (includes chapters on Y and mtDNA), Thomas H. Shawker, M.D. National Genealogical Society - NGS Guide Series
See also:
Genetic Genealogy DNA Testing Dictionary
Charles F. Kerchner, Jr.

December 15, 2004

FTDNA reports over 1,400 surname projects representing over 9,000 surnames [variations].
Would like data from other companies to include here    *


· NEW TOOLS  (created by hobbyists and used by many hobbyists)

Athey’s Y-Haplogroup Predictor (August)

McGee's DNA Analysis Software Tools



January 7, 2005

YSTR Mutation Rates Study begun by Charles Kerchner

April 13, 2005

The Genographic Project announced by National Geographic, IBM, et al 

May 10, 2005

Ann Turner, founder (see October 2000) of the RootsWeb GENEALOGY-DNA discussion list, retires as list administrator. Jim Bullock becomes the new administrator.

April 2005

International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) launched. Founding Members: John A. Blair, Katherine Borges, Nancy Key Davenport, Kenny Hedgpeth, Suzanne Johnston, Charles Kerchner, Linda Magellan, Douglas J. Miller, Patrick Tagert

July 3, 2005

Journal of Genetic Genealogy (JoGG) launched. Whit Athey, Editor; Dennis Garvey, Associate Editor; Tom Roderick, Associate Editor. Board/founders include Terry Barton, Ann Turner, Stephen Perkins, Richard Barton

January 7, 2005

YSTR Mutation Rates Study begun by Charles Kerchner

November 2005

ISOGG group forms to create online Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree to keep pace with the rapid developments. Coordinator: Alice Fairhurst. Design team: Bill Bailey, Katherine Hope Borges, Michael Crocker, Richard Kenyon, Sasson Margaliot, Doug McDonald. Content experts: Whit Athey, Dennis Garvey, Phil Goff, Gareth Henson, Mike N. Humphrey, John McEwan, Bonnie Schrack, Ann Turner, David Wilson. Content experts liaison with experts from various DNA labs to determine what information is needed to amend the tree.
See April 2006.

December 2005

Hum Mutat. 2005 Dec;26(6):520-8.
Mutation rates at Y chromosome specific microsatellites.
Gusmao L et al
[2005 Oct 11 - Epub ahead of print]

December 2005
(online early)

Am. J. Hum. Genet. (online early)
A Y-Chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland
Laoise T. Moore, Brian McEvoy, Eleanor Cape, Katharine Simms, and Daniel G. Bradley
Received September 29, 2005; accepted for publication November 18, 2005; electronically published December

December 16, 2005

FTDNA reports over 2,500 projects, representing over 27,000 surnames [variations].
Would like data from other companies to include here    *


Forensic Genealogy
,  Colleen Fitzpatrick - April 2005
DNA & Genealogy, Colleen Fitzpatrick & Andrew Yeiser - November 2005

DNA-Fingerprint (DNAF) – Month? Thomas Krahn  [merged with FTDNA in 2006]
Ethnoancestry (EA) – July.  David K. E. Faux, James F. Wilson

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ISOGG/ [project administrators; sponsored by ISOGG]
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/DNA-NEWBIE/ [newcomers; sponsored by ISOGG]
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/DNA-ANTHROGENEALOGY [anthrogenealogy; Kerchner]

· Hobbyists become consultants (e.g., Turner, Estes, Kerchner).
· Individuals began ordering full sequence mtDNA tests.
· Increased interest of hobbyists in Deep Clade SNP Tests, Regional/Geographic Projects,
and Haplogroup/Anthrogenealogy Projects.

· Family Tree DNA's 2nd International Conference on Genetic Genealogy [for FTDNA Group Administrators], Washington, D.C. - November
(Photos - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~hedgpeth/ftdna/ftdna-conference2-p01.htm )

· 2005 JOGG  - see articles by genetic genealogy hobbyists




Jan/Mar 2006

Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Mar;78(3):487-97. Epub 2006 Jan 1
The matrilineal ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: portrait of a recent founder event.
Doron M. Behar, et al
News release: http://www.ats.org/news.php?id=134
Half of the 8 million Ashkenazi Jews living today can be traced to four women.
(Complete mtDNA sequences)

March 2006

Ted Kandell [Kandell, T.E. and Greenspan,B.] is the first private individual to upload a full mtDNA sequence to GenBank and provides guidelines for others to follow.

April 2006

ISOGG announces their first version of the updated Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree
http://www.isogg.org/tree/index.html (see also November 2005)

July 2006

SMGF announces release of mtDatabase

December 2006

FTDNA reports over 3,700 projects, representing over 58,642 surnames [includes variations].
Would like data from other companies to include here    *


·NEW TOOLS  (created by hobbyists and used by many hobbyists)

Glad's mtDNAtool: An mtDNA Analysis Utility  - July

NEWSWEEK (February 6) cover story "Genes & Family - What Science Can Tell You About Your History and Your Health."
[Considered a landmark event because it was the first cover story in a “popular press” publication]

· FTDNA announces purchase/merge with DNA-Fingerprint – July
· FTDNA’s 3rd International Conference on Genetic Genealogy [for FTDNA Group Administrators], Houston, TX. - November
(Photos - http://picasaweb.google.com/ladoctora )
· FTDNA establishes Zurich office and web site in English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian - November

·2006 JOGG  - see articles by genetic genealogy hobbyists




June 2007

First full genome sequences - James D. Watson and J. Craig Venter are the first to have full genome sequenced decipheredhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/01/science/01gene.html

June 2007

Relative Genetics data (and future orders) to be handled at Ancestry.com  [about June 18]

June 2007

Genographic Project Public Participation Mitochondrial DNA Database
Behar, Rosset, Blue-Smith, Balanovsky, Tzur, Comas, Mitchell, Quintana-Murci, Tyler-Smith, Wells, The Genographic Consortium

October 2007

Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF) forms partnership with GeneTree

December 2007

FTDNA reports over 4,500 surname projects, representing over 71,500 surnames [includes variations] and 114,000 Y-DNA records (and over 59,000 mtDNA records).
Would like data from other companies to include here    *



· DNA accepted as Mayflower descent proof

· Hobbyists obtain staff positions: [about June 11]
   Adrian Williams becomes Manager of Web Content at FTDNA [announcement on ISOGG discussion list]
   Roberta Estes becomes Director for DNA Research for the Lost Colony Center for Science and Research (and Ana Oquendo Pabón joins advisory board).
http://www.lost-colony.com/home.html - use Newspaper [etc.] link; June 11 and 12, 2007

· Chris Pomery publishes second book: Family History in the Genes: Trace your DNA and grow your family tree

· Increased interest in (and controversy about) companies that offer “biographical” testing (e.g., identifying African or Native American tribes) and other special tests such as deCODEme and 23andMe

· FTDNA’s 4th International Conference on Genetic Genealogy [for FTDNA Group Administrators], Houston, TX – October (included advance copy of forthcoming  [2008] Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) phylogenetic tree update)

2007 JOGG  - see articles by genetic genealogy hobbyists



· 60 Minutes features Genetic Genealogy (Oct. 7, 2007)





The volunteer (scientists and hobbyists) collaborative ISOGG YSNP Tree  is cited by the scientific community:
· 13 Feb 2008- ISOGG Tree cited in genetics study "Pinghua population as an exception of Han Chinese's coherent genetic structure".
· 30 Jan 2008- Personal genome company, DeCODEme provides a link to the ISOGG Tree in the results section.
· 20 Jan 2008- ISOGG Tree cited in genetics study "A Rare Y Chromosome Missense Mutation in Exon 25 of Human USP9Y Revealed by Pyrosequencing".

12 March 2008

Published genetics study "The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies" utilizes a mitochondrial DNA sequence uploaded to Genbank by a client of Family Tree DNA.  This is the first known instance of a study using data submitted through a commercial testing company being used for science. Accession#  EF648602

March 2008

"Cluster analysis of extended Y-STR haplotypes leads to discovery of a large and widespread sub-clade of Y Haplogroup J2 pathway [abstract 994] by Bonnie Schrack, Whit Athey, and James Wilson and presented at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics, October 2006, New Orleans, Louisiana was cited in the genetics study "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic".  [Schrack and Athey are DNA pioneer hobbyists.]

April 2, 2008
(online version)

Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) phylogenetic tree revised.
Karafet, T.M., Mendez, F.L., Meilerman, M.B., Underhill, P.A., Zegura, S.L., and Hammer, M.F. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y-chromosomal haplogroup tree. Genome Res. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008.





· 2008 JOGG  - see articles by genetic genealogy hobbyists/amateurs/pioneers/specialists


* A summary of known projects; the first in 1997 are included in the Before 2000.
Until 2003, this information was from DNA pioneer Kevin Duerinck's list of Y-Chromosome DNA Surname Projects Or One-Name Studies and FTDNA (Family Tree DNA). The "one-name studies" included in Duerinck account for the discrepancies between his FTDNA count and FTDNA's reported number of surname projects.| My intention was to enter numbers annually at year end to show the growth of Y surname projects over time. However, Duerinck stopped reporting in 2004 and http://www.dnalist.net/ does not provide project count. We know there are other surname studies but until noted otherwise, FTDNA is the only company providing this information to the public.

Before 2000  - 4 projects  (or 5, if one includes the Cohanim/Cohen/Kohanim study that resulted in this great adventure).

2000 - 11 projects (or 12, if one includes the Cohanim/Cohen/Kohanim study that resulted in this great adventure).

2001 - 100 projects reported by FTDNA; no data from other companies; see Timeline 2000-2001 Surname Projects.

2002 - 425 projects reported by Duerinck in October (I recall this because that's when I started my project). FTDNA reported 309 projects at year end.

2003 - 830 projects (see Timeline entry). Earlier known 2003 numbers: March 29, Duerinck listed 581 projects most with FTDNA (about 40 OA and 20 RG listings). On 4 June Duerinck listed 605 projects (most with FTDNA).

2004 - Over 1,400 projects at FTDNA. Their web site (3 Jan 2005) reported as of 12/15/04: 1,400 surname projects, 9,000 unique surnames [includes variations], over 27,000 records in the database, over 9,000 distinct 12-marker haplotypes, over 8,000 distinct 25-marker haplotypes.
Information from other companies not available.

2005 - Over 2,500 projects at FTDNA. Their web site (16 Dec 2005) reports 2,581 projects [includes geographical/regional/etc. projects], 27,293 unique surnames [includes variations], 50,357 Y-DNA records: 14,886 distinct 12-marker haplotypes, 17,458 distinct 25-marker haplotypes; 14,981 mtDNA records.
Information from other companies not available.

2006 - Over 3,700 projects at FTDNA. Their web site (29 Dec 2006) reports 122,531 records: 3,776 projects [includes geographical/regional/etc. projects], 58,642 unique surnames [includes variations], 84,676 Y-DNA records: 21,669 distinct 12-marker haplotypes, 28,097 distinct 25-marker haplotypes, 22,726 distinct 37-marker haplotypes; 37,855 mtDNA records.
Information from other companies not available.

2007 - Over 4,500 projects at FTDNA. Their web site (3 Jan 2008) reports 113994 Y-DNA records in the database, 26394 distinct 12-marker haplotypes,  38148 distinct 25-marker haplotypes, 35577 distinct 37-marker haplotypes, 59132 mtDNA records.
Information from other companies not available.

2008 – [As of Feb 09] Family Tree DNA announcement: 500,000 Y-DNA and mtDNA tests processed since our inception in 2000


~ Links to related timelines ~

There is a timeline for development of Y chromosome markers in John Butler's slide presentation. The very first test that was developed found absolutely no differences in samples gathered around the world, and it was thought that the Y chromosome wouldn't be very useful for genealogical or evolutionary studies. (Description from Ann P. Turner.)

Timeline of the History of Genetics
Genetics course syllabus
Begins with Mendel (has genetics history links)

GNN - Genome News Network - Genetic and Genomics Timeline

Begins with the microscope and ends with cloning
The Timeline Related Links contain citations

History of Genetics Timeline
Begins with Darwin and concludes with FlavrSavr tomatoes

Mendel to genome sequence; includes sketches of Mendel, OJ, Dolly the Sheep, Monica and Bill, and more! But keep scrolling because it's less tacky than you think . . . .



When first used for parentage/paternity testing?
"progeny testing" is another term although tends to apply to (non-human) animals.

May belong on list:
Thompson, E. A. (2000) Statistical Inference from Genetic Data on Pedigrees Institute of Mathematical Statistics.

search on some of the key words, view the abstract, and click on the link to the publisher.
Other useful links are on the abstract page are Related Articles, and the word Links. If you click on that and select Books, the abstract is displayed again with many terms underlined, linked to sections of textbooks. This is a valuable technique for lots of research .

For those of us who get our "science" info from PBS (search on DNA)


Please note that contributors are not cited as the source of their items although in some cases their wording (and citation, if given) is used. Again, my thanks to those of you who have provided information.

 ". . . it's hard to realize you're living history while it happens . . . . " –  quote from private email to GKBopp from Ann P. Turner.

GKBopp DNA Project Notes