91st PA: Christian L Lawrence

Christian L Lawrence

Before the war

He was born about 1820/21, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [sources: date: 4 (40 in 1861), 5 (39 in 1860), 9 (40 at death in 1863), 11 (42 at death).+ place: 4, 5, 9]

On 31 December 1844, he married Sarah Ann Esher. She was born in 1824/25, in Pennsylvania, to John Esher and Susan [unknown family name]. They were married in Barron Hill, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, by Reverend F R Anspach. They apparently had five children, four of whom were living in 1863:

[sources: 13, 18]

In 1850, he was living in Penn District, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was living with his wife Sarah A, his children John and Elizabeth, and with John White and James Collins. He was a millerman. [source: 17]

In 1860, he was living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was living with his wife Sarah, and five children (presumably theirs). He was a butcher, and owned $200 in personal property. [source: 5]

When he enlisted, he was a butcher. [sources: 4, 18]

Description

When he enlisted, he was 5 feet 9 inches tall, and had a light complexion, blue eyes, and brown hair. [sources: 4, 18]

During the war

He enlisted and was mustered into service on 23 September 1861. He was enlisted for three years, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by Captain Smith. He was a private in company G. [sources: 1, 4, 18 (mustered in 2 Dec), 20, 21]

He was discharged at camp near Falmouth, Virginia, on 6 February 1863 on surgeon's certificate of disability, by order of Major General Sykes. He had chronic rheumatism and general debility, contracted from overexertion in marching from Sharpsburg, Maryland, to camp near Falmouth, Virginia. He had been unfit for duty thirty days in the previous two months. He was a private, in company G. [sources: 1, 2 (5 Feb), 3 (6 Feb), 4 (6 Feb), 18 (5 Feb, 6 Feb), 20, 21]

After the war

He died of debility on 15 March 1863. He was a butcher. He was buried from his residence, 4 Edmond Street (Ridge and Poplar). He was buried on 18 March 1863, at Odd Fellows Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [sources: 9, 11 ('disease contracted on the Potomac'), 18, 19]

On 8 May 1863, his widow, Sarah A Lawrence, applied successfully for a pension. Her Post Office address was 4 Edmond Street (above Ridge Avenue), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Her application was accpted on 25 August 1865, retroactive to 15 March 1863. She initially received a pension of $8 per month. [sources: 8, 10, 18]

On 11 April 1864, Sarah Lawrence married Thaddeus H Brady. He was a painter, was 24 years old, and had been born in Philadelphia. They were married by Reverend Andrew Manship, in a Methodist ceremony. She later denied ever having been married, and claimed that he was a boarder in her house. [source: 18]

Sarah Lawrence and Thaddeus Brady lived together for only a few years. By all reports, she was always known as Sarah Lawrence, and never took his name. Lawrence and Sarah's daughter Lizzie later said that he was "such a worthless character that her mother could not live with him". Sarah's mother Susan Esher claimed "that she never liked Brady". A neighbor claimed they separated because "they did not agree well together". [source: 18]

In 1870, his widow, Sarah Lawrence, was living in the 15th ward of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was living with George and Conrad Lawrence (presumably her sons). She owned $200 in personal property. [source: 6]

On 11 December 1874, she applied for an increase in pension, because of her minor children. Her application was accepted on 25 January 1875, retroactive to 25 July 1866. [source: 18]

On 26 November 1875, a "friend of justice" sent a letter to the Pension Agent, reporting that Sarah had remarried. [source: 18]

On 10 December 1875, her pension was suspended. [source: 18]

On 22 January 1876, the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, granted a divorce to Thaddeus H Brady and Sarah Ann Brady. [source: 18]

In February 1876, special agent William H Webster investigated the accusation. He apparently interviewed only Sarah Lawrence and her mother. Sarah was living at 1231 North 27th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They claimed that their original statements were true (though one was technically defective). He recommended that her pension be resumed. On 19 February 1876, the pension suspension was removed. [source: 18]

On 4 January 1877, the commissioner requested that special agent M E Jenks investigate Sarah Lawrence's possible remarriage. He did a more thorough job, and found reasonable evidence that she had in fact been married to Thaddeus Brady. He recommended that her pension be suspended. [source: 18]

On 3 February 1877, the Pension Office decided to submit the case to the US Attorney for prosecution. [source: 18]

In February 1887, his widow was charged with having drawn pension money illegally. She was held for trial, and bail was set at $500. I have not found any newspaper references to the trial. [sources: 14, 15, 16]

In 1880, his widow, Sarah Lawrence, was living at 925 North [?] 27th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was living with her son John and his family. [source: 7]

On 9 March 1887, Sarah Ann Lawrence died, of heart disease with dropsy. She died at, or was buried from, 1639 Thompson Street (her mother's residence), 29th ward, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 11 March 1887, she was buried, at Mount Vernon Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [source: 12, 13]

Sources

1 Bates, Samuel Penniman. History of Pennsylvania volunteers, 1861-5. Harrisburg: B. Singerly, state printer, 1869-71. 5 volumes. 'Ninety-first regiment', volume 3, pages 186-233. (In the roster) (Lawrence C L)

2 consolidated morning report, 7 February 1863

3 company G, register of men discharged, #23 (C L Lawrence)

4 company G, descriptive roll, entry 47 (Christian L Lawrence)

5 1860 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, microfilm series M653, film 1171, page 745 = 243 handwritten (Chris' Lawrence)

6 1870 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 15th ward, microfilm series M593, film 1399, page 625 = 165 handwritten (Sarah Lawrence)

7 1880 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, supervisor's district 1, enumeration district 538, microfilm series T9, film 1188, page 368 B = 26 handwritten (Sarah Lawrence)

8 pension index, by name (Christian L Lawrence)

9 death certificate, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 15 March 1863 (Christian L Lawrence)

10 pension index, by regiment, 91st PA Infantry, company G (Christian L Lawrence)

11 death notice, Public Ledger 17 March 1863 page 2 (Christian L Lawrence)

12 death certificate, Philadelphia death certificates, 9 March 1887 (Sarah Ann Lawrence)

13 death notice, Philadelphia Inquirer, 11 March 1887, page 5 (Sarah Ann Lawrence)

14 'Police news'. Philadelphia Inquirer 14 February 1877, page 2 (Sarah Brady)

15 'Deeds of evil people'. North American 14 February 1877, page 4 (Sarah Brady)

16 'Police news'. Philadelphia Inquirer 16 February 1877, page 3 (Mary Ann [sic] Brady)

17 1850 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn District, microfilm series M432, film 820, page 126 verso = 254 handwritten (Christopher [sic] Lawrence)

18 widow's pension certificate file, National Archives and Records Administration, RG 15, WC54569 (Sarah Ann Esher Lawrence widow of Christian L Lawrence)

19 Find a grave, memorial 38270301, created by anonymous, added 12 June 2009, accessed 5 September 2011 (Christian L Lawrence)

20 index to compiled service records of volunteer Union soldiers who served in organizations from the state of Pennsylvania (Christian L Lawrence)

21 index to compiled service records of volunteer Union soldiers who served in organizations from the state of Pennsylvania (Christian L Lawrance)

Sources checked unsuccessfully

1890 US census, veterans' schedules
Ancestry index (accessed May 2007)
1900 US census
HeritageQuest index (accessed 5 September 2011)
1910 US census
HeritageQuest index (accessed 5 September 2011)
1920 US census
HeritageQuest index (accessed 5 September 2011)
1930 US census
Fold3 index (accessed 5 September 2011)
RootsWeb WorldConnect
accessed June 2007; rechecked 3 September 2011

1850 census

[1850 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn District, microfilm series M432, film 820, page 126 verso = 254 handwritten]
[identification is confirmed, despite his name, by his spouse and children]
line345678
Dwellings visited650     
Families visited784     
NameChristopher [sic] LawrenceSarah A "John "John WhiteJames CollinsElizabeth Lawrence
Age2925619251
SexMFMMMF
Color      
Occupation of males over 15 yearsMillerman  Laborerdo 
Real estate owned      
BirthplacePa""Ireland"Pa
Married within year      
Attended school within year      
Over 20 & can't read/write      
Deaf, dumb, blind, etc.      

1860 census

[1860 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, microfilm series M653, film 1171, page 745 = 243 handwritten]
[I did not transcribe the other family at this residence, headed by John Gibb]
line78910111213
Dwelling number1542      
Family number1931      
NameChris' LawrenceSarah "Jno "Eliz [?] "Geo "Conrad "Susan "
Age3935 [?]1511741/12
SexMFMFMMF
Color       
OccupationButcher Brick Layer    
Value of real estate owned       
Value of personal estate200      
Place of birthPenn""""""
Married within year       
Attended school within year   11  
Cannot read & write       
Deaf, dumb, blind, etc.       

1870 census

[1870 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 15th ward, microfilm series M593, film 1399, page 625 = 165 handwritten]
line303132
Dwelling-house number1195 [?]  
Family number1347  
NameLawrence Sarah- George W- Conrad S
Age441714
SexFMM
ColorWWW
OccupationKeeping HouseIn Brick YardIn Brick Yard
Real estate value   
Personal estate value200  
BirthplacePennaPennaPenna
Father foreign born1  
Mother foreign born1  
Birth month if born within year   
Marriage month if married within year   
Attended school past year   
Can't read  1
Can't write1 1
Deaf, dumb, blind, etc.   
Male US citizen at least 21 years old   
Male US citizen at least 21 years old who can't vote ...   

1880 census

[1880 US census, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, supervisor's district 1, enumeration district 538, microfilm series T9, film 1188, page 368 B = 26 handwritten]
line24252627282930
street nameNorth [?] 27th St
house number925      
dwelling visit #189      
family visit #228      
nameLawrence, John- Lydia- Maria- Sarah- Eliz- Mary- Sarah
colorWWWWWWW
sexMFFFFFF
age3510855454
month born if born in year       
relationship DaughDaugh DaughDaugh DaughMother
single 11111 
married       
widowed/divorced1     1
married during year       
occupationDriverAt SchoolAt School   Keep House
months unemployed       
currently ill?       
blind       
deaf/dumb       
idiotic       
insane       
disabled       
school this year 11    
can't read       
can't write       
birthplacePaPaPaPaPaPaPa
father's birthplacePaPaPaPaPaPaPa
mother's birthplacePaPaPaPaPaPaPa

index to compiled service records

[index to compiled service records of volunteer Union soldiers who served in organizations from the state of Pennsylvania]
[transcribed 24 August 2014, from Fold3]


Lawrence Christian
     Christian L
Co. G, 91 Pennsylvania Inf.
Pvt | Pvt
See also [blank]

GENERAL INDEX CARD.


[card 2, transcribed 23 November 2014]

Lawrance Christian L
CO. G, 91 Pennsylvania Inf.
Pvt | Pvt

REFERENCE CARD.
Original filed under
Lawrence Christian
           " L

GENERAL INDEX CARD.

death certificate

[death certificate, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 15 March 1863, Christian L Lawrence]
[source: www.familysearch.org]

RETURN OF A DEATH,
IN THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA.
PHYSICIAN'S CERTIFICATE.
1. Name of Deceased, Christian L Lawrence
2. Colour, White
3. Sex, Male
4. Age, Fourty years
5. Married
6. Date of Death, March 15th 1863
7. Cause of Death, Debility
L L Atkinson M.D.
Residence, 1217 Girard Avenue
UNDERTAKER'S CERTIFICATE, IN RELATION TO DECEASED.
8. Occupation, Butcher
9. Place of Birth, Phila
10. When a Minor, [blank]
11. Ward, 15
12. Street and Number, No. 4 Edmond St Ridge + Poplar
13. Date of Burial, March 18th 1863
14. Place of Burial, Odd Fellows Cem
Wm Stuard [?] UNDERTAKER.
Residence, 920 Coates St
Date of Certificate, Mar 15th 1863

death notice

[death notice, Public Ledger 17 March 1863 page 2, Christian L Lawrence]

LAWRENCE.--On the 15th inst., of disease contracted on the Potomac, CHRISTIAN L. LAWRENCE, in the 42d year of his age, a member of Co. G, 91st Regiment P.V.

He has found his last battle.

The relatives and friends of the family, also members of his late regiment in the city, and Home Guards, are respectfully invited to attend his funeral, from his late residence, No 4 Edmond street, on Wednesday afternoon, at 2 o'clock. To proceed to Odd Fellows' Cemetery.

abstract of widow's pension certificate file

[widow's pension certificate file, National Archives and Records Administration, RG 15, WC54569, Sarah Ann Esher Lawrence widow of Christian L Lawrence]
[abstracted from 43 digitized pages at Fold3]
31 December 1844 [one report says 1843]
married Sarah Ann Esher, at Barron Hill, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania; married by F R Anspach [?]
had four children living on 15 Mar 63 (3 under 16)
John Lawrence (18 on 15 March 1863)
Elizabeth Lentz Lawrence, born 14 March 1849
George Washington Lawrence, born 21 August 1853
Conrad Esher Lawrence, born 4 September 1856
23 Sep 1861
Christian L Lawrence enrolled in co. G, at Philadelphia Pennsylvania, enlisted by Capt Smith USA
5 feet 9 inches tall, light complexion, blue eyes, brown hair, a butcher when enlisted
2 Dec 1861
mustered in as private, at Philadelphia PA, in co.G
5 or 6 [AGO] Febr 1863
on 5 Jan 1863 Sellers certified that Lawrence had been unfit for duty 30 days in the last two months, and contracted his disease from overexertion in marching from Sharpsburg Maryland to camp near Falmouth Virginia
DD Swift (Asst Surgeon) examined Christian L Lawrence, finding him incapable of performing his duties because of chronic rheumatism and general debility contracted since his enlistment
discharged for disability (chronic rheumatism and general debility contracted since enlistment), by order of General Sykes (Jos H Sinex commanding Regiment)
15 March 1863
died of rheumatism, at Philadelphia PA
28 Apr 1863
Sarah Ann Lawrence made declarations for pension; Rosanna Millor and Susan Stewart confirmed her identity
attorney: Laughlin & Maddox, Philadelphia PA
29 Apr 1863
marriage certified by minister (as 31 Dec 1844)
8 May 1863
Sarah Ann Lawrence applied for pension, application 20,832; post office No. 4 Edmond St (above Ridge Avenue), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
7 Dec 1863
pension office: [illegible] for oath [returned to attorney??]
26 Dec 1863
pension office: church marriage record + cause and date of death [received??]
12 May 1863
Pension Office asked Adjutant General's Office for evidence of service
4 Aug 1863
the Adjutant General's Office provided information about Lawrence's service
16 Mar 1864
marriage certified by minister (as 31 Dec 1843)
11 Apr 1864
Pension Office sent circular 9 to attorney
11 April 1864
Sarah A Lawrence (37 years old, born Philadelphia) married Thaddeus H Brady (a painter, 24 years old, born Philadelphia), in Philadelphia, by Rev Andrew Manship (Methodist ceremony) [page 25 is a certified copy of the city marriage record]
20 Oct 1864 [page 16]
Eli Sellers certified that Christian L Lawrence volunteered on 23 September 1861, served as a private in company G, developed rheumatism at camp near Falmouth Virginia, was discharged on Surgeon's Certificate of Disability at Camp near Falmouth, on 6 February 1863
16 Nov 1864
Pension Office [sent?] circulars 9 + 11
27 Dec 1864
Pension Office: [received?] response to circulars 9 + 1, sent circular 17
25 Aug 1865
admitted to pension of $8 per month, retroactive to 15 March 1863
11 Dec 1874
Sarah A Lawrence (49, resident 1700 Edwin St (near Ridge Road and Poplar St), Philadelphia) made a declaration for an increase in pension [data abstracted above]; Susan Esher (1639 Thompson) and Sallie Esher (1639 Thompson) swore to her identity
received 14 Dec 1874
attorney Francis Register
11 Dec 1874
Susan Esher, resident 1639 Thompson St, swore that she was Sarah's mother, and was present at the births, and swore to the names and birthdates of the minor children, and that Conrad was born with a midwife (Elizabeth Rifford) and no physician present
25 Jan 1875
pension increased by $2 per child per month until they become 16, retroactive to 25 July 1866 (admitted 12 Jan 1875, approved 25 Jan 1875)
26 November [1875]
"a friend of justice" sent a letter to the Pension Agent reporting her remarried
10 December 1875
pension suspended
22 Jan 1876
divorce of Thaddeus H Brady and Sarah Ann Brady granted by the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia
4 Feb 1876
Sarah A Lawrence testified to special agent Wm H Webster that she is 50, resides at 1231 N 27th St, Philadelphia, that she receives a pension under certificate 54,569, that her original application and application for increase are true in substance, that she made her application for increase before Francis Register, that she has not remarried, and that her children George and Conrad are still alive
15 Feb 1876
Susan Esher testified to special agent Wm H Webster that she is 70, residing at 1639 Thompson St, Philadelphia, that she is Sarah A Lawrence's mother, that her affidavit is true in substance but was sworn before Francis Register
17 Feb 1876
the special commissioner reported. he had proved her identity by her report of the soldier's service and description and her having a copy of the discharge; she claimed the original application was executed as it purported to be; the application for increase was executed before Schewily and not before Register as it purported, but the pensioner verified the statement; her mother's affidavit was executed as it purported, and she verified her statements; the children appear to be the alleged ages; the agents recommend resuming payment
19 Feb 1876
pension suspension removed on recommendation of Board of Special Agents
4 Jan 1877
investigation by M E Jenks into possible remarriage requested, by commissioner
9 Jan 1877 [page 33]
Lizzie Strayline testified to special agent M E Jenks at Philadelphia that she is 28, resides at 1202 Taney St Philadelphia, that Sarah Lawrence is her mother, that her mother married Thaddius [sic] Brady 9 or 10 years ago, but only lived with him a short time "he being such a worthless character that her mother could not live with him", that she knew of the marriage only secondhand, was not living with her mother, and never saw Brady when she visited
[the signature looks like 'Straylina'; Jenks' version of her name looks like 'Stringlione'; the best candidate I've found for her in the 1880 census is the Elizabeth Strayline (car conductor, 32, b.PA) married to Charles Strayline (46, b. PA) with child Kate (13, b.PA) (microfilm series T9, film 1188, page 353A), living at 2633 Girard Ave]
[if I've identified the right family, she married a veteran of the 71st Pennsylvania Volunteers--see Find-a-grave memorial 53511145 for some discussion]
9 Jan 1877 [page 34]
Elizabeth Henk [?] testified to special agent M E Jenks at Philadelphia that she is 44, resides at 1723 Edwin St Philadelphia, that she met Sarah A Lawrence about 1868, who lives at 1700 Edwin St, at that time with Thaddius [sic] Brady, and acknowledged him as her husband, that they separated because "they did not agree well together", that Sarah was always called 'Mrs Lawrence', and she did not know why
9 Jan 1877 [page 35]
Susan Esher testified to special agent M E Jenks at Philadelphia that she is 71, resides at 1639 Thompson St, Philadelphia, that Sarah A Lawrence is her daughter, that Sarah started living with Thaddius [sic] Brady one or two years after Christian Lawrence's death, that they said they were married, and lived together for about two or three years, after which they separated and haven't lived together, that Sarah never used the surname 'Brady', that she can't say she thought they were married, 'that she never liked Brady'
9 Jan 1877 [page 36]
Sarah A Lawrence testified to special agent M E Jenks at Philadelphia that she is [blank], resides at 120 Taney St, Philadelphia, that she received pension certificate 54,569, that she has never remarried, that about one year after Lawrence died Thaddius [sic] Brady began boarding at her house at 1700 Edmund St, that he boarded with her non-continuously for about five years, hat she never cohabited with him, never took his name, never recognized him in any way as her husband, was not married to him, that he paid $5.00 per week as board, that she never said he was her husband, that he left 6 or 7 years ago and she has not spoken to him since 26 March 1870, that she can't explain why she remembers the day so distinctly, that she never applied to a court to get rid of him, that she never applied for a divorce, and that she lived at 1700 Edmund St when her husband died and moved only two years ago
22 Jan 1877 [page 37]
Thaddius [sic] H Brady testified to special agent M E Jenks that he is 36 years old, resides at 1611 Ridge Ave, Philadelphia, that he married Sarah A Lawrence in Spring 1864, ceremony performed by Rev Andrew Manship at his residence on Broad below Poplar, that there was no other witness, that he lived continuously with Sarah until about 1871, that he has not lived with her since then, that in 1875 he applied for a divorce on the grounds of desertion, that on 22 Jan 1876 the divorce was granted, that they never had children, that he knew she was a soldier's widow but never knew she was a pensioner, and did not draw a pension while living with him to the best of his knowledge, and that they have not spoken since their separation
22 Jan 1877
date of letter of transmittal of report in case of Sarah A Lawrence, post office 120 Taney St Philadelphia, investigating remarriage
last paid 4 December 1876, Philadelphia
3 Feb 1877
Pension Office [notified of?] remarriage, and decided to submit to US Attorney for prosecution

death certificate, spouse

[Philadelphia death certificates, 9 March 1887, Sarah Ann Lawrence]
[transcribed 4 September 2011, from FamilySearch]

RETURN OF A DEATH
IN THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA.
PHYSICIAN'S CERTIFICATE.
1. Name of Deceased, Sarah Ann Lawrence
2. Color, White
3. Sex, Female
4. Age, 62 yrs.
5. Widow
6. Date of Death, March 9th 1887
7. Cause of Death, Heart Disease [?] with Dropsy
B. F. Belli M.D.
Residence 1609 Girard Ave

UNDERTAKER'S CERTIFICATE IN RELATION TO DECEASED.
8. Occupation, [blank]
9. Place of Birth, Phila
10. When a Minor, [blank]
11. Ward, 29th
12. Street and Number, 1639 Thompson St
13. Date of Burial, March 11th 1887
14. Place of Burial, Mount Vernon Cem
John A Hookey Undertaker.
Residence, 1713 Thompson St

death notice, spouse

[death notice, Philadelphia Inquirer, 11 March 1887, page 5, Sarah Ann Lawrence]

LAWRENCE.--On the 9th inst., SARAH ANN LAWRENCE, daughter of Susan and the late John Esher, aged 62 [?] years.

The relatives and friends of the family are respectfully invited to attend the funeral, this afternoon, at 2 o'clock, from her mother's residence, No. 1639 [?] Thompson street. To proceed to Mount Vernon Cemetery.

pension fraud

['Police news'. Philadelphia Inquirer 14 February 1877, page 2]
POLICE NEWS.

Mrs. Sarah Brady was before United States Commissioner Smith yesterday on the charge of illegally drawing pension money. She was arrested at her home, No. 1220 Taney street. It was alleged that since her late husband, Christian L. Lawrence, was killed in the war, she had married Thaddeus H. Brady. She was held for a further hearing to-day.



['Deeds of evil people'. North American 14 February 1877, page 4]
Deeds of Evil People.
...

Mrs. Sarah Brady was arraigned before United States Commissioner Smith yesterday charged with having illegally drawn pension money. The detectives found her at her residence, 1229 Taney street, and it is alleged that since her late husband, Christian Lawrence, was killed in the war she joined Thaddeus H. Brady in wedlock. Held for a continued hearing.



['Police news'. Philadelphia Inquirer 16 February 1877, page 3]

Before United States Commissioner Smith yesterday, Mary Ann Brady had a final hearing on the charge of illegally drawing pension money. The testimony showed that her first husband was killed during the war, and she subsequently married a man named Lawrence [sic]. The marriage certificate was offered in evidence. The defendant was held in $500 bail for trial.


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revised 23 Nov 14
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